nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒04‒05
thirty-one papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Agri-food trade and climate change By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Miljkovic, Dragan; Lamonaca, Emilia
  2. Absent Landlords in Agriculture -- A Statistical Analysis By Siraj G. Bawa; Scott Callahan
  3. Farmers follow the herd : a theoretical model on social norms and payments for environmental services By Philippe Le Coent; Raphaële Preget; Sophie Thoyer
  4. Cultured meat: Promises and challenges By Treich, Nicolas
  5. The economic and environmental benefits from international co-ordination on carbon pricing: Insights from economic modelling studies By Daniel Nachtigall; Jane Ellis
  6. Regressing climate change, agricultural growth and food production on economic sustainability: gathering and analyzing data for ASEAN countries By Achmad Faqih; Mukarto Siswoyo
  7. Adaptation to Environmental Change: Agriculture and the Unexpected Incidence of the Acid Rain Program By Nicholas J. Sanders; Alan Barreca
  8. Alternative EU CAP Tools for Stabilising Farm Incomes in the Era of Climate Change By Ole Boysen; Kirsten Boysen-Urban; Alan Matthews
  9. Risk, Agricultural Production, and Weather Index Insurance in Village India By Jeffrey D. Michler; Frederi G. Viens; Gerald E. Shively
  10. Do risk preferences really matter? The case of pesticide use in agriculture By Christophe Bontemps; Douadia Bougherara; Celine Nauges
  11. Dynamics of Biofuels Prices on the European Market By Francis Declerck; Jean-Pierre Indjehagopian; Frédéric Lantz
  12. Studying the impact of food values, subjective norms and brand love on loyalty: findings obtained at fast food restaurants in Mexico By Alicia Izquierdo–Yusta; María Pilar Martínez–Ruiz; Héctor Hugo Pérez–Villarreal
  13. Formal and informal European quality assurance initiatives offering a connection between local gastronomy and small-scale farmers By Allison Loconto; Francisco Garrido-Garza
  14. Trade-off analysis of cost and nutrient efficiency of coffee farms in vietnam: A more generalised approach By Ho, Thong Quoc; Hoang, Vincent; Wilson, Clevo
  15. Urban food markets and the COVID-19 lockdown in India By Narayanan, Sudha; Saha, Shree
  16. Microplastic pollution in agricultural soils and abatement measuresa model-based assessment for Germany By Martin Henseler; Micheal Gallagher
  17. Time-varying dependence structure between oil and agricultural commodity markets: A dependence-switching CoVaR copula approach By Kumar, Satish; Tiwari, Aviral; Raheem, Ibrahim; Hille, Erik
  18. Exploring the Impact of Trading Green Products on the Environment: Introducing the Green Openness Index By Can, Muhlis; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Brusselaers, Jan
  20. Can foods produced with new plant engineering techniques succeed in the marketplace? A case study of apples By Stephan Marette; John Beghin; Anne-Célia Disdier; Eliza Mojduszka
  21. Armed Conflict and Household Source of Water By George Naufal; Michael Malcolm; Vidya Diwakar
  22. Assessing national action plans on antimicrobial resistance in animal production: What lessons can be drawn? By Michael Ryan
  23. Understanding „culture‟ of pastoralism and „modern development‟ in Thar: Muslim pastoralists of north- west Rajasthan, India By Ghai, Rahul
  24. Millennials and the Take-Off of Craft Brands: Preference Formation in the U.S. Beer Industry By Bart J. Bronnenberg; Jean-Pierre H. Dubé; Joonhwi Joo
  25. European and Member State Policy Responses and Economic Impacts on AgriFood Markets due to the COVID-19 Pandemic By Wieck, Christine; Dries, Liesbeth; Martinez-Gomez, Victor; Kareem, Olayinka Idowu; Rudloff, Bettina; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Sliwinska, Magdalena; Sliwinski, Rafal
  26. Design of equipment for agroecology: Coupled innovation processes led by farmer-designers By Chloé Salembier; Blanche Segrestin; Nicolas Sinoir; Joseph Templier; Benoit Weil; Jean-Marc Meynard
  27. A comparison of EU and US consumers’ willingness to pay for gene-edited food: Evidence from apples By Stéphan Marette; Anne-Célia Disdier; John Beghin
  28. Can Unconditional Cash Transfers Mitigate the Impact of Armed Conflict on Child Nutrition in Yemen? By Olivier Ecker; Jean-François Maystadt
  29. Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia By , Michelle
  30. Sweating the energy bill: Extreme weather, poor households, and the energy spending gap By Jacqueline Doremus; Irene Jacqz; Sarah Johnston
  31. Farmers’ livelihood strategies and perceived constraints from the poor and non-poor households: A dataset from a field survey in Nghe An, Vietnam By Khuc, Quy Van; Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Phu; Nguyen, My-Hien; Ngo, Cong-Thang; Tran, Phuong-Mai

  1. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Miljkovic, Dragan; Lamonaca, Emilia
    Abstract: Climate change, the agri-food sector and trade are closely related. This contribution aims at present issues related to the economic impacts of climate changes on international trade. The agri-food sector is one of the most hit by changes in climate, and it is also responsible of substantial environmental impacts. In a globalised world, these effects do not alter only the agri-food domestic markets but propagate across countries. While climate change may trigger changes in trade patterns by altering food availability and access as well as comparative advantages across countries, trade itself may constitute an adaptation strategy. Our note provides elements to be considered in the future debate that will likely be focused on the interrelations between, climate change, trade and global value chains of agri-food products.
    Keywords: Adaptation; development; global value chain; trade
    JEL: F17 Q17 Q54
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Siraj G. Bawa; Scott Callahan
    Abstract: The majority of rented farmland is owned by landlords who do not operate farms, and a subset of these landlords, known as absent landlords, do not reside in the local farming area. This raises important questions about their effects on the economic health of the U.S. farm sector. Absent landlords have the potential to alter observed outcomes in agricultural real estate markets, rural employment markets, and engagement in conservation practices, given that the incentives they face may differ from operating or local nonoperator landlords. This study looks at the association between landlord absenteeism and multiple measures of long-term economic and agricultural health for the 25 most important agricultural States by cash receipts. We find that a greater prevalence of absent landlords is associated with lower rental rates and land values at the State level, and there is no association with recent changes in rents or land values. Also, while we find mixed results with respect to investments in soil quality, we do find evidence that the prevalence of absent landlords is associated with declining local employment rates. This study is designed to foster a broad discussion and form a starting point for subsequent statistical analyses to uncover the causal effects that absent landlords have on long-term economic health of agricultural production.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2021–03–09
  3. By: Philippe Le Coent (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Raphaële Preget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: This article analyses the role played by social norms in farmers' decisions to enroll into an agri-environmental scheme (AES). First, it develops a simple theoretical model highlighting the interplay of descriptive and injunctive norms in farmers' utility functions. Second, an empirical valuation of the effect of social norms is provided based on the results of a stated preference survey conducted with 98 wine-growers in the South of France. Proxies are proposed to capture and measure the weight of social norms in farmers' decision to sign an agri-environmental contract. Our empirical results indicate that the injunctive norm seems to play a stronger role than the descriptive norm.
    Keywords: social norms,behaviour,agri-environmental contracts,payments for environmental services,voluntary contribution to a public good,farmers
    Date: 2020–12–11
  4. By: Treich, Nicolas
    Abstract: Cultured meat involves producing meat from animal cells, not from slaughtered animals. This innovation has the potential to revolutionize the meat industry, with wide implications for the environment, health and animal welfare. The main purpose of this paper is to stimulate some economic research on cultured meat. In particular, this paper includes a prospective discussion on the demand and supply of cultured meat. It also discusses some early results on the environmental impacts of cultured meat, emphasizing the promises (e.g., regarding the reduction in land use) but also the uncertainties. It then argues that cultured meat is a moral improvement compared to conventional meat. Finally, it discusses some regulatory issues, and the need for more public support to the innovation.
    Keywords: Meat; cultured meat; food innovation; meat consumption; meat production; climate change; pollution; land use; animal welfare; regulation
    JEL: Q16 Q18 Q52 Q11 L31 L66
    Date: 2021–02
  5. By: Daniel Nachtigall (OECD); Jane Ellis (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper assesses quantitative estimates based on economic modelling studies of the economic and environmental benefits from different forms of international co-ordination on carbon pricing. Forms of international co-ordination include: harmonising carbon prices (e.g. through linking carbon markets), extending the coverage of pricing schemes, phasing out fossil fuel subsidies, developing international sectoral agreements, and establishing co-ordination mechanisms to mitigate carbon leakage. All forms of international co-operation on carbon pricing can deliver benefits, both economic (e.g. lower mitigation costs) and/or environmental (e.g. reducing GHG emissions and carbon leakage). Benefits tend to be higher with broader participation of countries, broader coverage of emissions and sectors and more ambitious policy goals. Most, but not all, countries gain economic benefits from international co-operation, and these benefits vary significantly across countries and regions. Complementary measures outside co-operation on carbon pricing (e.g. technology transfers) could ensure that co-operation provides economic benefits for all countries.
    Keywords: Border carbon adjustment, Climate change mitigation, Climate-economy-modelling, Fossil fuel subsidy reforms, Harmonising carbon prices, International Co-operation, Sectoral agreements
    JEL: F18 H23 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2021–04–01
  6. By: Achmad Faqih (Swadaya Gunung Jati University); Mukarto Siswoyo (Swadaya Gunung Jati University)
    Abstract: The agricultural sector plays a great role in the economy of several countries and their economic sustainability is also majorly dependent on the agricultural performance of the country. There are various aspects related to agriculture sector that might have the impact on economic sustainability in one way or the other. In continuation of this issue, the researcher has conducted this study so that the impact casted by climate change, agricultural growth, and food production on the economic sustainability of the ASEAN countries can be studied effectively. For this research, the researcher has gathered relevant data from six ASEAN countries i.e. Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, and Philippines. The period for which the data has been collected comprises of 29 years. For analysis of this data, the researcher has applied tests such as panel unit root test, panel cointegration test, AMG estimation and panel casualty test and has obtained the desired results. The results make it clear that the independent variables i.e. climate change, agricultural growth and food production have significant impact on economic sustainability for most of the selected ASEAN countries. Moreover, various variables have also shown unidirectional and bidirectional casualty among them.
    Keywords: Climate Change,Agricultural Growth and Food Production,Economic Sustainability,ASEAN Countries
    Date: 2020–10–15
  7. By: Nicholas J. Sanders; Alan Barreca
    Abstract: The Acid Rain Program (ARP) cut sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants in the United States, with considerable benefits. We show this also reduced ambient sulfate levels, which lowered agriculture productivity through decreased soil sulfur. Using plant-level SO2 emissions and an atmospheric transport model, we estimate the relationship between airborne sulfate levels and yields for corn and soybean. We estimate crop revenue losses for these two crops around $1-1.5 billion per year, with accompanying decreases in land value. Back of the envelope calculations of the costs to replace lost sulfur suggest producer responses were limited and suboptimal.
    JEL: Q15 Q53
    Date: 2021–03
  8. By: Ole Boysen (School of Agriculture & Food Science and Geary Institute for Public Policy, University College Dublin); Kirsten Boysen-Urban (Department of International Agricultural Trade & Food Security, University of Hohenheim); Alan Matthews (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: No reliable supports protect EU farmers from the catastrophic risks which are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to climate change. We propose three transparent, predictable, and fair safety net policies which operate with indices on the Member State level. Simulations with a tailored global model of a series of historic yield shocks as observed over past decades serve as a test bed to quantify the costs and benefits of these policies in EU Member States using various risk metrics. The results highlight properties of and rankings among these polices useful for guiding future policy design and assessment.
    Keywords: Safety nets, risk management, income stabilisation, climate change, EU Common Agricultural Policy
    JEL: Q18 Q54
    Date: 2021–03–12
  9. By: Jeffrey D. Michler; Frederi G. Viens; Gerald E. Shively
    Abstract: We investigate the sources of variability in agricultural production and their relative importance in the context of weather index insurance for smallholder farmers in India. Using parcel-level panel data, multilevel modeling, and Bayesian methods we measure how large a role seasonal variation in weather plays in explaining yield variance. Seasonal variation in weather accounts for 19-20 percent of total variance in crop yields. Motivated by this result, we derive pricing and payout schedules for actuarially fair index insurance. These calculations shed light on the low uptake rates of index insurance and provide direction for designing more suitable index insurance.
    Date: 2021–03
  10. By: Christophe Bontemps (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Douadia Bougherara (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Celine Nauges (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Even if there exists an extensive literature on the modeling of farmers' behavior under risk, actual measurements of the quantitative impact of risk aversion on input use are rare. In this article, we use simulations to quantify the impact of risk aversion on the optimal quantity of input and farmers' welfare when production risk depends on how much of the input is used. The assumptions made on the technology and form of farmers' risk preferences were chosen such that they are fairly representative of crop farming conditions in the USA and Western Europe. In our benchmark scenario featuring a traditional expected utility model, we find that less than 4% of the optimal pesticide expenditure is driven by risk aversion and that risk induces a decrease in welfare that varies from −1.5 to −3.0% for individuals with moderate to normal risk aversion. We find a stronger impact of risk aversion on quantities of input used when farmers' risk preferences are modeled under the cumulative prospect theory framework. When the reference point is set at the median or maximum profit, and for some levels of the parameters that describe behavior toward losses, the quantity of input used that is driven by risk preferences represents up to 19% of the pesticide expenditure.
    Keywords: Pesticides,Production risk,Risk preferences
    Date: 2021–03–25
  11. By: Francis Declerck (ESSEC Business School Paris - Essec Business School); Jean-Pierre Indjehagopian (ESSEC Business School Paris - Essec Business School); Frédéric Lantz (IFP School, IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles)
    Abstract: This paper aims at explaining the major drivers of biodiesel market prices by examining agricultural resource prices and gasoil prices for automotive fuels in the context of the EU environmental policy. The EU policy has enhanced biodiesel production since 2006. Biodiesel prices are impacted by the EU policy as well as rapeseed and oil prices which have fluctuated a lot over the last decade. An econometric analysis was performed using monthly data from November 2006 to January 2016. However, tests for structural breaks show several changes in price behavior. This leads us to estimate a regime-switching model which reveals two main regimes for the biodiesel price pattern. When oil prices are high, biodiesel, rapeseed and diesel oil prices are related, mainly driven by oil prices. When oil prices are low, biodiesel prices are mostly related to rapeseed prices according to EU regulations requiring the blending of biodiesel and gasoil.
    Keywords: biofuel,oil market,structural changes,switching regime model
    Date: 2020–11
  12. By: Alicia Izquierdo–Yusta; María Pilar Martínez–Ruiz; Héctor Hugo Pérez–Villarreal
    Keywords: Theory of planned behaviour (TPB), food values, subjective norm, brand love, loyalty, fast food industry
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2021–03
  13. By: Allison Loconto (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Sociétés - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Université Gustave Eiffel); Francisco Garrido-Garza (LISIS - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Sciences, Innovations, Sociétés - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: Recent consumer research demonstrates that trust-worthiness of food chain actors and the openness of food manufacturers are strongly related to consumer confidence in food (Macready et al., 2020). Thus, the assumption of SFSC promoters is that this greater transparency translates into greater consumer confidence in producers and as a result more social, equitable and fairer trading practices between producers and consumers. Quality assurance and certification are the most common means used to communicate transparency and openness in both conventional and sustainable supply chains (UN environment, 2017). Prior research demonstrates that there are a variety of ways in which assurance and certification can be organized in order to credibly guarantee quality (Loconto, 2017a). Within this context, the Hungarian Ministry of Agriculture has commissioned AGRI KULTI to develop an information and quality assurance system, that identifies management patterns across the connection of local production and gastronomy, both in Hungary and in the European Union (Food Track project). For this reason, a comprehensive and comparative data analysis is required. Thus, this study consisted of exploring and analysing initiatives, businesses or organizations in the EU that can be classified as SFSCs and that communicate their sustainability quality attributions (e.g., organic, local, healthy, agro-ecological, traditional, etc.) through a variety of forms of certification.The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of how to reconnect cities and rural areas by establishing transparent and close links between local (and small-scale) producers with urban gastronomy. In order to achieve this aim, the following objectives were established: 1. Conduct a baseline study of quality assurance and information systems used across Europe in short circuit food chains using internet resources and an online survey when feasible 2. Elaborate 10 in-depth case studies that analyse the types of qualities and forms of quality assurance that have worked in practice.
    Keywords: Short food chain,Certification,Alternative Agrifood Networks,Social innovation and entrepreneurship,Circuit court alimentaire
    Date: 2021–01–25
  14. By: Ho, Thong Quoc; Hoang, Vincent; Wilson, Clevo
    Abstract: Analysis of economic and environmental performance of agricultural production has received increasing attention in both the theoretical and empirical literature (Aldieri et al., 2019). Several methodological approaches have been proposed to measure environmental efficiency and to analyse trade-offs between economic and environmental performance (e.g., Fang, 2020; Shuai and Fan, 2020; Azad and Ancev, 2014; Picazo-Tadeo and Prior, 2009; Reinhard et al., 2000). Within this literature strand, Coelli et al., (2007) offer a distinct approach that utilises the material balance principle to derive cost and environmental efficiency measures. Empirical applications of Coelli et al. (2007) for the purpose of environmental and economic analysis have flourished recently (Hoang and Alauddin, 2012; Nguyen et al., 2012; Hoang and Rao, 2010). However, these empirical applications focus only on the economic and environmental trade-off of technically efficient farms, not all the farms.
    Keywords: Coffee production, Cost efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Trade-off, Vietnam.
    JEL: O13
    Date: 2020–02–08
  15. By: Narayanan, Sudha; Saha, Shree
    Abstract: On March 24, 2020, the Government of India announced a 21-day national lockdown that has since been extended to May 31, 2020. The lockdown left urban food markets in disarray with severe supply bottlenecks and restrictions on doing business. At a time when food prices in India were declining consistently, supply disruptions consequent to the lockdown have reversed the trend on average. Based on an analysis of publicly available data on wholesale and retail prices for 22 commodities from 114 Centers, we find that prices have increased since the lockdown, as of August 1, 2020. There is significant diversity across commodities and geographies that mask aggregate figures. Average price increases were to the tune of over 6% for several pulses, over 3.5% for most edible oils, 15% for potato 28% for tomato in the four weeks post-lockdown compared to prices during the four weeks preceding the lockdown. Price of meat and fish too have registered large increases. Price wedge between retail and wholesale prices increased as did spatial dispersion, both signifying friction in supply chains. We find that smaller cities have seen a much higher increase in prices with some seeing a rise in retail food prices by as much as 20%. Three rounds of surveys, conducted between April and July, of food retailers in 14 Indian cities reveal serious operational challenges. These include, among others, transport and labor shortages, police harassment and social discrimination. At the same time, several innovative arrangements and adaptations have evolved as well suggesting resilience. The paper reviews these aspects and outlines some lessons for food policy in emerging economies.
    Date: 2020–09–01
  16. By: Martin Henseler (EDEHN - Equipe d'Economie Le Havre Normandie - ULH - Université Le Havre Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Micheal Gallagher
    Abstract: Microplastic pollution in soils is a recent challenge for environmental science and policy. Designing and implementing policies to mitigate microplastic emissions requires scientific data, which is rare because analytical methods to detect and quantify microplastics in soils are still under development. Using a normative emission model we simulate for the year 2020 a microplastic concentration in agricultural soil between 40 and 50 mg/kg, which we expect to find on 2% of Germany's utilized agricultural area. On around 20% of utilized agricultural area, we expect any microplastic pollution present from sludge or microplastic. At the regional scale, we expect the difference of pollution between sites to be close to urban regions and less urban regions. We find that for sludge, thermal recycling (end-of-the-pipe treatment) reduces the microplastic emissions more cost-efficiently and effectively than filtering the microplastic emissions from the waste-water. For compost, the application of detection systems and quality control for the biowaste collection (source of pollution) is a more costefficient abatement measure than thermal recycling. This approach is of comparable effectiveness to thermal recycling. The presented results must be updated with future research results. But these model results can contribute to research on reducing microplastic pollution in agricultural soils.
    Keywords: environmental assessment,normative model,abatement cost,efficiency,effectiveness
    Date: 2021–03–22
  17. By: Kumar, Satish; Tiwari, Aviral; Raheem, Ibrahim; Hille, Erik
    Abstract: We examine the energy-food nexus using the dependence-switching copula model. Specifically, we look at the dependence for four distinct market states, such as, increasing oil–increasing commodity, declining oil–declining commodity, increasing oil–declining commodity, as well as declining oil–increasing commodity markets. Our results support the argument that the crash of oil markets and agricultural commodities happen at the same time, especially during crisis period. However, the same is not true during times of normal economic conditions, implying that investors cannot make excess profits in both agricultural and oil markets at once. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the return chasing effect dominates for all commodities on maximum occasions. The CoVaR and ∆CoVaR results indicate important risk spillover from oil to agricultural markets, especially around the financial crisis.
    Keywords: Agricultural commodities; Oil; CoVaR; Dependence-switching copula; Tail dependence.
    JEL: C58 C63 G11 Q1 Q4
    Date: 2021–03–12
  18. By: Can, Muhlis; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Brusselaers, Jan
    Abstract: Environmental degradation has constantly increased over the years, and has become one of the main contributors to climate change. For this reason, researchers are increasingly on the lookout for parameters that positively impact environmental quality. Green Products are widely accepted as one of the vital tools to minimize the environmental degradation. This paper introduces a new index which is called the Green Openness Index. The index represents the importance of Green Products in a region by means of a measure of trade in Green Products. This new index revisits the trade-environment nexus in a case study of 31 Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries over the period 2007-2017. The empirical findings provide evidence that Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis is valid, by means of Fully modified and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis. As such, the new index also opens up a wide span of opportunities for future research, as the index can be used as explanatory variable in numerous different research questions and fields of research. Additionally, the results demonstrate that the presence of Green Products in trade reduces a country’s ecological footprint. This is essential information for practitioners and policy makers involved in the design of sustainable development policies.
    Keywords: Green Openness Index, Green Products, Environmental Friendly Products,Environmental degradation
    JEL: F18 O1 O44 Q5 Q56
    Date: 2021–03–20
  19. By: Virginie Baritaux (Territoires - Territoires - UMR 1273 - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Carole Chazoule (ISARA-LYON - ISARA-LYON)
    Abstract: Terminal wholesale markets (TWM) aim at supplying consumption areas, especially urban areas. They are physical places where professional agents (producers, wholesalers, retailers, restaurant owners) meet to sell and buy wholesale food products. Since the late 1970s, French TWM have been facing increasing competition. More recently, in a context of change toward food re-localization, their legitimacy as intermediaries is also questioned. This article aims to analyze the strategies that French TWM implement in order to re-legitimate themselves as stakeholders of more local and sustainable food systems. We focus on two cases in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Region, the Lyon-Corbas private market and Grenoble « Market of national interest ». The purpose is to assess their 'hybridity', between 'alternative' and 'conventional', how this may restore their legitimacy and allow them to maintain their activity.
    Keywords: Local food systems,hybridization,alternative and conventional food systems,distribution channels,France
    Date: 2019–05–15
  20. By: Stephan Marette (Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); John Beghin (Yeutter Institute of International Trade and Finance); Anne-Célia Disdier (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Eliza Mojduszka (USDA - United States Department of Agriculture)
    Abstract: New Plant Engineering Techniques (NPETs) have path-breaking potential to improve foods by strengthening their production, increasing resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and by bettering their appearance and nutritional quality. Can NPETs-based foods succeed in the marketplace? Providing answers to this question, we first develop a simple economic model for R&D investment in food innovations based on NPETs and traditional hybridization methods, to identify which technology emerges under various parameter characterizations and associated economic welfare outcomes. The framework combines the cost of food innovation with consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for the new food, highlighting the uncertain and costly nature of R&D processes as well as the role of consumer acceptance of technology, and the cost of ignorance, and regret, if consumers are not fully informed on the technology used to generate the new food. We then apply the framework to a case of NPETs-based new apples using recently elicited WTP of French and US consumers. Our simulation results suggest that NPETs may be socially beneficial under full information, and when the probability of success under NPETs is significantly higher than under traditional hybridization. Otherwise, the innovation based on traditional hybridization is socially optimal. A probable collapse of conventional apples raises the social desirability of new apples generated by NPETs and traditional hybridization.
    Keywords: New plant engineering techniques (NPETs),Gene editing (GE),Consumer information,Willingness to pay,Food innovation,Industrial organization,Apple
    Date: 2021–03
  21. By: George Naufal (Texas A&M University); Michael Malcolm (West Chester University); Vidya Diwakar (Overseas Development Institute)
    Abstract: Using pairing of household level and armed conflict data with a generalized difference-indifferences approach, we find that households located in conflict affected areas are more likely to have access to drinking water through direct access to the dwelling or through bottled water than through public access and mobile trucks
    Date: 2021–02–20
  22. By: Michael Ryan
    Abstract: Global efforts to combat the risks posed by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) depend on effective implementation of national action plans. Most countries have taken a One Health approach in developing their national action plans covering human health, animal health and the environment. Evidence on the implementation of these plans in livestock agriculture across six OECD countries, as well as in Brazil, the People’s Republic of China, and the Russian Federation, highlights the need for greater co-ordination and coherence amongst stakeholders in implementing workable solutions. This includes developing integrated surveillance and monitoring systems, improving regulations on the availability of antibiotics, and improving on-farm biosecurity practices. Additional efforts to enhance public awareness, to improve education and training, and to explore alternative interventions and innovations to antimicrobials in animal health and animal welfare could also improve outcomes in this area. The lack of long-term funding continues to hinder the implementation of national action plans on AMR.
    Keywords: Biosecurity, Critically important antibiotics, Disease prevention, One Health
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2021–03–30
  23. By: Ghai, Rahul
    Abstract: Abstract The paper attempts to understand relation between pastoral cultures and irrigation based intensive farming regimes promoted by modern development represented by the Indira Gandhi Canal (IGNP) in western Rajasthan. Participant observation and development practice engagement with pastoral communities over last three decades gives opportunity to reflect on epistemic rationality that constitutes the discourse of modern development, formal statecraft of technocracy and rule by experts. Historical markers of pastoralism in the interconnected regions of north-west Rajasthan and bordering regions of Multan and Bahawulpur in Pakistan are situated to trace the longuee duree of pastoral life systems in Thar. This oscillation between enhanced moisture regimes following inundation and increased desiccation of a moisture deficient arid region has been at the core of sustaining culture of pastoralism among semi nomadic pastoralists of Muslim communities in north- west Rajasthan. The IGNP canal produces a space for modern development that opens up irrigated farming and an intensive natural resource use regime. This political economy of the IGNP canal systematically marginalizes pastoral natural resource use that was ecologically embedded. The varied experiences of adaptation responses of pastoral communities to this state led marginalization points to the tenacious ability of pastoralism to continually adapt to the radically changing ecology. The paper argues for a complementarity of pastoral and farming use as an inclusive development vision. Begininnings can be made with a compassionate engagement with cultures of pastoralism that are endowed with resilience rooted in a historically constituted rationality to adapt, innovate with changing times. This may hold cues for a sustainable future of Thar.
    Keywords: Muslim pastoralists, Bikaner, Sustainable Thar, Sufi Mysticism, ecological impact, IGNP canal,
    JEL: Q0 Q25 Z1 Z12
    Date: 2021–02–27
  24. By: Bart J. Bronnenberg; Jean-Pierre H. Dubé; Joonhwi Joo
    Abstract: We conduct an empirical case study of the U.S. beer industry to analyze the disruptive effects of locally-manufactured, craft brands on market structure, an increasingly common phenomenon in CPG industries typically attributed to the emerging generation of adult Millennial consumers. We document a generational share gap: Millennials buy more craft beer than earlier generations. We test between two competing mechanisms: (i) persistent generational differences in tastes and (ii) differences in past experiences, or, consumption capital. Our test exploits a novel database tracking the geographic differences in the diffusion of craft breweries across the U.S.. Using a structural model of demand with endogenous consumption capital stock formation, we find that heterogeneous consumption capital accounts for 85% of the generational share gap between Millennials and Baby Boomers, with the remainder explained by intrinsic generational differences in preferences. We predict the beer market structure will continue to fragment over the next decade, over-turning a nearly century-old structure dominated by a small number of national brands. The attribution of the share gap to consumption capital shaped through availability on the supply side of the market highlights how barriers to entry, such as regulation and high traditional marketing costs, sustained a concentrated market structure.
    JEL: D12 L1 M31
    Date: 2021–03
  25. By: Wieck, Christine; Dries, Liesbeth; Martinez-Gomez, Victor; Kareem, Olayinka Idowu; Rudloff, Bettina; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Sliwinska, Magdalena; Sliwinski, Rafal
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021–03
  26. By: Chloé Salembier (Agronomie - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Blanche Segrestin (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); Nicolas Sinoir; Joseph Templier; Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres); Jean-Marc Meynard (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: More and more questions are currently being raised as to what the farm equipment of the future ought to be and how it should be designed to best meet contemporary challenges in farming. In Western countries, innovation in agricultural equipment is focused on a dominant model in which the agro-industry designs and patents standardised equipment for farmers. However, today's ambitions for agriculture, with agroecology in the lead, require us to devise farming systems that are adaptable to social and ecological uncertainties, and to recognise and embrace the diversity of situations in which farming is practiced. There has until now been little research on equipment design processes consistent with these principles, and this research helps to fill this gap. To address this issue, we studied the French "Atelier Paysan" R&D organisation, created to support on-farm design of suitable equipment for agroecology. Based on design theories, we analysed three aspects of Atelier Paysan's design activities: specific properties of the equipment designed under its aegis; specific features of the design processes; and roles that Atelier Paysan takes on to enable the design of this equipment. Our results show that all the equipment designed was appropriate for the designers' situations and requirements, and adaptable to other situations. It emerged from design processes in which the farmers had the support of R&D to design both their own equipment and the cropping systems for which it would be used. We call this the design of coupled innovations, and show that farm equipment and cropping systems are designed together during experiments. Lastly, we show that the Atelier Paysan R&D organisation supports these design processes in three ways: it enables farmers to share their experiences of on-farm design; it makes available a set of resources to stimulate farmer-driven design of new equipment; and it brings together designers scattered all over France around a shared ambition for agriculture. This work opens up avenues for research: (i) to explore an alternative to the dominant design, which would rely on coupled innovation design processes and allow for the emergence of appropriate and adaptable equipment that complies with agroecological principles; and (ii) to explore ways of organising open-innovation processes for agroecology, by supporting farmer-designers, and thus rethinking the roles of 'users' in these processes.
    Keywords: adaptability,agricultural machinery,Atelier Paysan,implement,open-innovation,tracking innovations
    Date: 2020
  27. By: Stéphan Marette (Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE AgroParisTech, UMR Economie Publique, France, ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Anne-Célia Disdier (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); John Beghin (Yeutter Institute of International Trade and Finance and Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln NE 68583, USA)
    Abstract: We compare consumers' attitude towards and willingness to pay (WTP) for gene-edited (GE) apples in Europe and the US. Using hypothetical choices in a lab and different technology messages, we estimate WTP of 162 French and 166 US consumers for new apples, which do not brown upon being sliced or cut. Messages center on (i) the social and private benefits of having the new apples, and (ii) possible technologies leading to this new benefit (conventional hybrids, GE, and genetically modified (GMO)). French consumers do not value the innovation and actually discount it when it is generated via biotechnology. US consumers do value the innovation as long as it is not generated by biotechnology. In both countries, the steepest discount is for GMO apples, followed by GE apples. Furthermore, the discounting occurs through "boycott" consumers who dislike biotechnology. However, the discounting is weaker for US consumers compared to French consumers. Favorable attitudes towards sciences and new technology totally offset the discounting of GE apples.
    Abstract: Nous comparons l'attitude des consommateurs et leur consentement à payer (CAP) pour des pommes modifiées via l'édition génétique (GE) en Europe et aux États-Unis. À partir de choix hypothétiques dans un laboratoire et de différents messages sur la technologie, nous estimons le CAP de 162 Français et 166 Américains pour les nouvelles pommes, qui ne brunissent pas après avoir été tranchées. Les messages sont centrés sur (i) les avantages sociaux et privés d'avoir de nouvelles pommes, et (ii) sur les technologies possibles menant à ces nouveaux avantages (hybrides conventionnelles, GE et génétiquement modifiés (OGM)). Les consommateurs français ne valorisent pas l'innovation, et ils la minimisent lorsqu'elle est générée par la biotechnologie. Les consommateurs américains apprécient l'innovation tant qu'elle n'est pas générée par la biotechnologie. Dans les deux pays, la diminution de CAP la plus forte concerne les pommes OGM, suivies par les pommes GE. Cependant, la diminution de CAP est plus faible pour les consommateurs américains que pour les consommateurs français. Les attitudes favorables envers les sciences et les nouvelles technologies compensent totalement la réduction des CAP pour les pommes GE.
    Keywords: willingness to pay,experimental economics,consumer information,hybrids,genetically modified organisms,Willingness to pay,Experimental economics,Consumer information,Hybrid,Genetically modified organisms,Gene editing,Information du consommateur,Hybride,OGM,Economie expériementale,Consentement a payer
    Date: 2021–04
  28. By: Olivier Ecker (International Food Policy Research Institute); Jean-François Maystadt (Lancaster University Management School)
    Abstract: The “ignored” civil war in Yemen has caused the world’s worst humanitarian crisis in recent history. Little is known about how to mitigate the detrimental consequences of such protracted violence. We use quarterly panel data to estimate the impact of armed conflict on child nutrition in Yemen and the role of unconditional cash transfers in mitigating the adverse nutritional impact. Our results show that a one-standard-deviation increase in armed conflict intensity reduces the weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) and mid-upper arm circumference z-scores (MUACZ) of children by 9.6% and 4.4%, respectively, on average. We also find that the studied cash transfer program reduces the nutritional impact by 35.8% for WHZ and 20.4% for MUACZ. Our analysis suggests that if relative stability is restored, unconditional cash transfer programs can be an effective tool to curb rising acute child malnutrition in situations of complex emergencies
    Date: 2021–02–20
  29. By: , Michelle
    Abstract: As an archipelagic and maritime country, Indonesia has attracted many fishermen from all over the world due to its abundance of marine resources. The government's policy to open lobster seed exports and legalize fishing equipment that was previously prohibited (shrimp trawl, payang, cantrang) in the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation Number 12 of 2020 has created many debates.
    Date: 2021–03–25
  30. By: Jacqueline Doremus (Department of Economics, California Polytechnic State University); Irene Jacqz (IAI, Harvard University and Department of Economics, Iowa State University); Sarah Johnston (Department of Agricultrual and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison)
    Abstract: We estimate the relationship between temperature and energy spending for both low and higher-income US households. We find both groups respond similarly (in percentage terms) to moderate temperatures, but low-income households' energy spending is half as responsive to extreme temperatures. Consistent with low-income households cutting back on necessities to afford their energy bills, we find similar disparities in the food spending response to extreme temperature. These results suggest adaptation to extreme weather, such as air conditioning use, is prohibitively costly for households experiencing poverty.
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Khuc, Quy Van; Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Phu; Nguyen, My-Hien; Ngo, Cong-Thang; Tran, Phuong-Mai
    Abstract: rural livelihood, plantation forests, primary data, sustainable rural development, Vietnam
    Date: 2021–01–22

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