nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒03‒22
forty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Efficiency and profits of emerging medium-scale farms in Africa: Evidence from Ethiopia’s commercial horticultural sector By Bachewe, Fantu Nisrane; Minten, Bart
  2. Environmental and Energy Implications of Meat Consumption Pathways in Sub-Saharan Africa By Giacomo Falchetta; Nicolò Golinucci; Michel Noussan; Matteo Vincenzo Rocco
  3. Achieving sustainable agricultural practices: From incentives to adoption and outcomes By Piñeiro, Valeria; Arias, Joaquin; Elverdin, Pablo; Ibáñez, Ana María; Morales Opazo, Cristian; Prager, Steve; Torero, Máximo
  4. Preferences, Uncertainty, and Biases in Land Division: A Bargaining Experiment in the Field By Gafaro, M; Mantilla, C
  5. Structural Transformation, Agriculture, Climate, and the Environment By Barrett, Christopher B.; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Phan, Trinh
  6. Women and adolescent girls’ experience with COVID-19 in rural Senegal By Dione, Malick; Lo, Codé; Seye, Moustapha; Fall, Abdou Salam; Hidrobo, Melissa; Le Port, Agnès; Heckert, Jessica; Peterman, Amber
  7. The importance of Russia’s agricultural sector in the MENA geopolitics By Ballatore, Benedetto Francesco
  8. Factors Influencing Bred Heifer Price By Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; Thompson, Jada M.; Rhinehart, Justin; Burdine, Kenny; Laurent, Kevin
  9. Replacing Late Calving Beef Cows to Shorten Calving Season By Martinez, Charley; Boyer, Christopher; Rhinehart, Justin; Burdine, Kenneth
  10. Development of grapes and wine-making industry of Moldova on the basis of modern achievements of science and innovations By Gaina, Boris; Fedorchukova, Svetlana; Gobirman, Galina
  11. Monitoring, evaluation and learning for climate risk management By Martin Noltze; Alexandra Köngeter; Cornelia Römling; Dirk Hoffmann
  12. Are autocracies bad for the environment? Global evidence from two centuries of data By Apra Sinha; Ashish Kumar Sedai; Abhishek Kumar; Rabindra Nepal
  13. Impact of COVID-19 on Demand for Distillers Grains from Impact of COVID-19 on Demand for Distillers Grains from Livestock Operations Livestock Operations By Gertner, Daniel; Dennis, Elliott
  14. The impact of Ethiopia’s direct seed marketing approach on smallholders’ access to seeds, productivity, and commercialization By Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Yimam, Seid; Benfica, Rui; Spielman, David J.; Place, Frank
  15. On the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Is there Multivariate Convergence? By Carlo Andrea Bollino; Marzio Galeotti; Axel Pierru
  16. Coronavirus Food Assistance Program (CFAP) payments By Giri, Anil; Peterson, E. Wesley F.; Sharma, Sankalp
  17. The Impact of Crop Insurance on Farm Credit and Investment Decisions By Berger, Elizabeth; Ifft, Jennifer; Jodlowski, Margaret; Kuethe, Todd
  18. The Covid-19 impact on agricultural market arrivals and prices in India: A Panel VAR approach By Nidhi Kaicker; Katsushi Imai; Raghav Gaiha
  19. Crop insurance’s impact on agricultural lenders By Ifft, Jennifer; Kuethe, Todd; Lyons, Greg; Schultz, Alexander
  20. A 2014 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Uzbekistan with a Focus on the Agricultural Sector By Bozorov, Abdurashid; Feuerbacher, Arndt; Wieck, Christine
  21. The Sustainability, Traceability and Succession of the Quebec Agri-Food Sector Depends on an Acceleration of Digitization By Henri-Paul Rousseau
  22. A meta-analysis of climate migration literature By Barbora Šedová; Lucia Čizmaziová; Athene Cook
  23. Farm and Ranch Enterprise Budgets: Return to What? By Van Tassell, Larry; Parsons, Jay; McClure, Glennis
  24. Financial assistance for farm operations and farm households in the face of COVID-19 By McDonald, Tia; Giri, Anil
  25. Tackling the “wicked” conservation problem of tropical deforestation in global commodity supply chains using mixes of mechanisms By Lyons-White, Joss; Jespersen, Kristjan; Gallemore, Caleb; Catalano, Allison S.; Ewers, Robert M.; Knight, Andrew T.
  26. A regional approach to the study of industrial diversity in Argentina (1996-2012) By Belmartino, Andrea; Calá, Carla Daniela
  27. Water Infrastructure and Health in U.S. Cities By Brian Beach
  28. Eating Habits: The Role of Early Life Experiences and Intergenerational Transmission By Effrosyni Adamopoulou; Elisabetta Olivieri; Eleftheria Triviza
  29. Nebraska Women in Agriculture Celebrating 35 Years By Groskopf, Jessica
  30. Output-Based Allocation and Output-Based Rebates: A survey By Philippe Quirion
  31. 2020 Nebraska Agricultural Custom Rates with Statewide Survey Summary By McClure, Glennis
  32. Philosophical Foundations of Environmental Policy Analysis: Can Critical Realism Bridge the Neopositivist/Interpretivist Divide? By Carter, Andrew Pearce
  33. Assessing the risk of COVID-19 in Feed the Future countries By Koo, Jawoo; Azzarri, Carlo; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Quabili, Wahid
  34. The Economic Impact of Weather and Climate By Richard S.J. Tol
  35. The Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on Nebraska's Ethanol Industry By Beghin, John C.; Timalsina, Sushant
  36. Mapping the Agricultural Assets of Grundy County Tennessee By Hughes, David W.; Kimbro, Creig
  37. Nebraska National Agri-Marketing Association and the COVID-19 Effect By Harthoorn, Austin; Swartz, Rosalee
  38. Consumers' assessment of labelled and packaged fresh potato: Evidence from Experimental Auctions By Rodríguez, Julieta A.; Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.; Lupín, Beatriz
  39. Wine complex of the Republic of Moldova and some aspects of the covid-19 pandemic By Fedorchukova, Svetlana; Boris, Boris; Gobirman, Galina
  40. The Value of Soil Sampling and Sampling Density: Conceptual Framework (Part 1) By Mieno, Taro; Bullock, David
  41. Why Not Insure Prices? Experimental Evidence from Peru By Leon, Chris M. Boyd; Bellemare, Marc F.
  42. The Economic Impact of Weather and Climate By Tol, Richard S. J.
  43. Experimental Evidence on Adoption and Impact of the System of rice Intensification By Barrett, Christopher B.; Islam, Asad; Pakrashi, Debayan; Ruthbah, Ummul
  44. Dynamic target capital structure and speed of adjustment: Evidence from Australian farm businesses By West, Steele C.
  45. Is Environmentalism the Right Strategy to Decarbonize the World? By Marini, Marco A.; Tarola, Ornella; Thisse, Jacques-Francois
  46. The evolution of forest cover. Wood trade and its impact on forest’s functions By Lup, Aurel; Ursu, Ana

  1. By: Bachewe, Fantu Nisrane; Minten, Bart
    Abstract: We study production practices of larger and more capital-intensive farmers (“horti-preneurs”) in horticultural commercial clusters in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Attracted by profitable vegetable markets, more educated farmers rent in land for vegetable production from a large number of smallholders to meet rapidly growing urban vegetable demand. We find that these hortipreneurs obtain more than double the profit per unit of land compared to smallholders. Compared to smallholders, horti-preneurs grow different vegetables – particularly those that require more upfront investments – and in the case that they grow the same crops as smallholders, we find that they use significantly more inputs, such as fertilizer, agro-chemicals, and labor; have higher production costs; and obtain better yields. Moreover, they are also more efficient and able to produce better quality vegetables and obtain better prices. This increasing emergence of more efficient medium-scale farmers in supplying local urban markets challenges the traditional smallholder model in Africa, at least for horticulture.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; medium size farms; farms; horticulture; vegetables; vegetable crops; food production; profit; farmers; food prices; smallholders; irrigation; horticultural sector; vegetable production; vegetable farmers; vegetable prices
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:esspwp:156&r=all
  2. By: Giacomo Falchetta (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Free University of Bozen-Bolzano); Nicolò Golinucci (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Politecnico di Milano); Michel Noussan (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)); Matteo Vincenzo Rocco (Politecnico di Milano)
    Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) diets are largely based on cereal or root staple crops. Together with socio-cultural change, economic and demographic growth could boost the demand for meat, with significant environmental repercussions. We model meat consumption pathways to 2050 for SSA based on several scenarios calibrated on historical demand drivers. To assess the consequent environmental impact, we adopt an environmentally-extended input-output (EEIO) framework and apply it on the EXIOBASE 3.3 hybrid tables. We find that, depending on the interplay of resources efficiency and demand growth, by 2050 global greenhouse gases emissions could grow by 1.4 [0.9-1.9] Gt CO2e/yr (~175% of current regional agriculture-related emissions), cropping and grazing-related land may cover additional 15 [12.5-21] · 106 km2 (one quarter of today’s global agricultural land), blue water consumption could rise by 36 [29-47] Gm3 /yr (nearly doubling the current regional agricultural consumption), the eutrophication potential could grow by 7.6 [4.9-9.5] t PO4e/yr and additional 0.9 [0.5-1.4] EJ/yr of fossil fuels and 49 [32-73] TWh/yr of electricity may be consumed. These results suggest that – in the absence of drastic resource efficiency or technological improvements – meat demand in SSA is bound to become a major sustainability challenge. We show that a partial substitution of the protein intake with plant-based alternatives carries significant potential for mitigating these impacts. The policies affecting farming practices and dietary choices will thus have a significant impact on regional and global environmental flows.
    Keywords: Meat Consumption, Economic Development, Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmentally Extended Input-output Analysis, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: O13 Q01 Q21 Q56
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2021.05&r=all
  3. By: Piñeiro, Valeria; Arias, Joaquin; Elverdin, Pablo; Ibáñez, Ana María; Morales Opazo, Cristian; Prager, Steve; Torero, Máximo
    Abstract: Sustainable agricultural practices enable more efficient use of natural resources, mitigate the impact of agriculture on the environment, and strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change and climate variability. Because these practices usually require substantial effort or resource allocation from farmers, incentives are necessary to support farmer adoption. Despite growing interest, there has been little systematic evaluation of the incentives–adoption–outcome chain—that is, which incentives best promote adoption and which lead to desired sustainability outcomes. This brief presents the results of a literature review that examined (1) uptake agricultural practices under three kinds of incentives, market and nonmarket, regulations, and cross-compliance, and (2) the impact on productivity, profitability, and environmental sustainability. Based on this review, it offers a set of seven tested principles to follow in designing and implementing incentives for sustainable agriculture.
    Keywords: WORLD; literature; agriculture; sustainable agriculture; good agricultural practices; agricultural practices; agricultural production; scoping review
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:polbrf:9780896294042&r=all
  4. By: Gafaro, M; Mantilla, C
    Abstract: Divisions of rural land in developing countries reduce the possibilities of farmers to profit from agricultural returns to scale. We design and conduct a framed bargaining experiment to study whether land overvaluation (due to affective reasons) and uncertainty in land values are drivers for land division. In our bargaining game, two players with different agricultural productivity jointly inherit a land plot and individually inherit some tokens they can use to agree on a land allocation. The possible set of land allocations and the spread of land returns vary across treatment arms in the game. We conduct this experiment with 256 participants in eight rural municipalities of the Northeast of Colombia. We find that when players are allowed to divide the land plot, 75% of the bargaining interactions yield the most egalitarian, but less efficient, land allocations. Based on the predictions of a Nash bargaining model and the observations from a sample of 120 college students, we rule out land overvaluation as a driver for land divisions in the context of our game. We also find that uncertainty in land yields reduces the efficiency of land allocations when we do not allow land divisions, by increasing the likelihood of the least productive player keeping the entire land plot. Our results are consistent with a bounded rationality rule in which subjects incorporate a behavioral response to uncertainty by first bargaining over land, which is a certain outcome, and then bargaining over a token transfer.
    Keywords: land division; Nash bargaining; affective value of land; nonuse value
    JEL: C78 C90 O13 Q15
    Date: 2019–09–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:col:000561:018983&r=all
  5. By: Barrett, Christopher B.; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Phan, Trinh
    Abstract: This paper reviews the feedbacks between structural transformation and agriculture, on the one hand, and climate and the natural environment, on the other. The longstanding, dominant economic development narrative largely ignores nature’s influence on factor productivity and stocks, even as it increasingly illustrates how agricultural technological change and economic growth affect nature. We articulate some of the missing linkages and pose a range of policy research questions worth exploration concerning structural transformation and the complex feedback among agriculture, nature, and economic growth processes, especially in the low-income agrarian nations of the Global South.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management
    Date: 2021–01–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cudawp:309951&r=all
  6. By: Dione, Malick; Lo, Codé; Seye, Moustapha; Fall, Abdou Salam; Hidrobo, Melissa; Le Port, Agnès; Heckert, Jessica; Peterman, Amber
    Abstract: Senegal reported its first case of COVID-19 on March 2, 2020. The government responded within two weeks, introducing preventive measures to slow the spread of the virus, including the declaration of a public health emergency, border closures, and the prohibition of intercity travel and gatherings. These measures also slowed economic activity throughout the country and disrupted food supply chains and markets, contributing to loss of livelihoods, income, and households’ purchasing power. Evidence suggests that globally, women have been hit harder by the COVID-19 crisis, in particular with respect to impacts on economic security, health, education, and increased caretaking responsibilities in the household.
    Keywords: SENEGAL; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; gender; women; adolescents; girls; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; households; surveys; policies; food security; labour; rural areas; wellbeing; paid work
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:134274&r=all
  7. By: Ballatore, Benedetto Francesco
    Abstract: Abstract. After 1990, at the close of the communist era, Russia’s agriculture embraced an ample process of transformation. The transition from centralized agriculture to a modern, competitive and sustainable agriculture was marked by several reform failures. Nonetheless, the Eurasian country's agro-food sector and in particular the grain industry thrived remarkably after 2014 in the wake of the Western countries-imposed sanctions on Russia in response to Moscow’s annexation of Crimea. In fact, Russia's policymakers recognized Kremlin's decision to impose complete food imports ban on the EU, US and some other Western countries as an opportunity to re-launch the agro-food sector. At present, the government seizes the sector's economic potential also as a strategy for economic diversification of the country, which is too much tied up to the oil and gas industry performances. In fact, in the Putin era the establishment of integrated agricultural holdings was supported by well-balanced agricultural reforms that had an important role for the modernization of Russia’s grain industry. In this regard, the main purpose of this paper is to analyse the agro-food policies developed by the Russian government, the reasons behind the success of Russia’s grain industry in the Middle East and North Africa regions (the so-called MENA countries) and the weaknesses it still confronts, both internal and external.
    Keywords: KEYWORDS: MENA countries; Russia
    JEL: F5 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2021–03–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:106440&r=all
  8. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; Thompson, Jada M.; Rhinehart, Justin; Burdine, Kenny; Laurent, Kevin
    Abstract: Replacing breeding females or growing the beef cattle herd with heifers is a frequent decision for beef cattle producers, and it has long-term profitability implications. Producers understand replacement heifers require a substantial financial investment and the return on an animal is uncertain. Previous studies report a heifer’s lifetime profitability primarily depends on cattle prices and development costs (Mathews & Short, 2001; Ibendahl et al., 2004; Mackay et al., 2004; Clark et al., 2005). Cattle producers commonly raise their own replacement heifers. The alternative of purchasing heifers may come with the advantages of: • Introducing improved genetics to increase productivity; • Reducing labor and feed costs from managing heifers separately from the cow herd; and • Confirmed pregnancy at the time of purchase. These potential advantages along with heifer physical characteristics, reproductive management characteristics and cattle market prices influence the value of these animals. What has not been evaluated is how reproductive management characteristics and feeder cattle prices impact bred heifer value. It is important to understand if other factors influence bred heifer value and what total impact those factors may have. The objective of this project is to determine how reproductive characteristics and feeder cattle prices influence bred heifer prices. By reporting the results from the following study this publication should provide information to assist buyers and sellers of bred beef heifers in determining the value of the animal.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing
    Date: 2021–03–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:309834&r=all
  9. By: Martinez, Charley; Boyer, Christopher; Rhinehart, Justin; Burdine, Kenneth
    Abstract: There are many factors that impact profitability in cow-calf beef production. For example, retaining a female that suffers a failed pregnancy decreases the likelihood of a beef cow or heifer being profitable over her life. Several factors can cause a failed pregnancy, but retaining females that calve late within a defined calving season (days between birth of the first and last calf of an individual herd and/or multiple herds) can increase the likelihood of future failed pregnancy (Mousel et al., 2012). Late calving females get less time for uterine repair (involution) and overcoming postpartum anestrous before the next breeding season (postpartum interval), reducing the likelihood of the female becoming pregnant during the next breeding season. For example, a study found heifers that calved within the first 22 days of the defined calving season were more likely to remain in the herd longer (or increased longevity) than heifers that calved on day 23 or later (Mousel et al., 2012). A long calving season generally results in a lighter average weaning weight with a wider range of calf weights. Most cow-calf producers in the United States sell calves at weaning, and weaning typically happens when time allows regardless of calf age or weight. Therefore, calves born late in the calving season will be younger and lighter weight than early born calves. Lighter weight calves and less uniformity in calf weights can impact profitability of the herd. Calves are typically sold in lots grouped on weight ranges, and buyers commonly pay higher prices for cattle sold in larger lots (i.e., more uniform) to fill and ship truckloads more efficiently. Shortening the calving season provides an opportunity to capture price premiums from weaning weight uniformity when marketing calves (Boyer, Griffith and Pohler, 2020). However, identifying a strategy to shift to a shorter calving season can be difficult. This publication analyzes not just what happens to net returns when shortening the calving season but also what is the most profitable strategy for shortening the calving season length.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2021–03–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:309987&r=all
  10. By: Gaina, Boris; Fedorchukova, Svetlana; Gobirman, Galina
    Abstract: The wine-growing and wine-making complex of Moldova has come a long way: from metal-intensive technical equipment from unalloyed steels to modern European equipment from stainless, food-grade material. All new vineyard plantings are created from planting of certified material of our own production or acquired in Italy, France and Germany. At the present stage, vineyard plantations in Moldova are 80% occupied by classic European varieties. The rest - are local indigenous varieties. All technological processes in primary winemaking are based on modern biotechnology achievements and innovations: enzymes for clarifying wort, yeast for fermentation and bacteria to reduce acidity in red wines. The well-known preservative - sulfur dioxide is replaced with inert gases (nitrogen, carbon dioxide) and the use of low temperatures. Table wines are exported mainly to Romania, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, China, the United States and Canada. All the achievements of viticulture and winemaking in Moldova are based on the latest scientific and technological progress, developed and implemented in the Republic of Moldova by scientists from the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, universities, as well as specialists from the National Office of Grapes and Wine.
    Keywords: grape-wine-making complex, grape-based secondary products, European grape varieties, local indigenous varieties, wine market.
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2020–11–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:106350&r=all
  11. By: Martin Noltze; Alexandra Köngeter; Cornelia Römling; Dirk Hoffmann
    Abstract: This working paper focuses on the role of monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) for promoting effective climate risk management. It aims to introduce a conceptual framework that governments and development co-operation providers can draw on when developing MEL frameworks for their interventions on climate risk management. The paper also presents existing methods and tools to address the technical challenges to developing such MEL frameworks. Further, it provides examples of good practice for adjusting or updating existing MEL frameworks in support of climate risk management. It contributes to the project Strengthening Climate Resilience: Guidance for Governments and Development Co-operation of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
    Keywords: climate change, climate resilience, climate risk management, development co-operation, Monitoring and evaluation, monitoring, evaluation and learning
    JEL: O19 O44 O13 Q56 Q54
    Date: 2021–03–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:dcdaaa:92-en&r=all
  12. By: Apra Sinha; Ashish Kumar Sedai; Abhishek Kumar; Rabindra Nepal
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of the rule of law on carbon-dioxide emissions using a large sample of countries for over a century. In principle, the turning point of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is compared for a range of countries lying between autocracy and democracy. Using decadal data for 220 years (1790-2010) and 150 countries, we use country fixed effects estimation technique to quantify the absolute and interactive effects of autocracy-democracy index on carbon-dioxide emissions. Results show that democracies emit less carbon-dioxide for one unit increase in per-capita income, leading to lower turning point and thus lower emission. The turning point in case of autocracies are more than twice of the turning point for democracies. Electoral autocracies have lower turning point in comparison to closed autocracies. Point estimates are robust to alternative estimation techniques and are not likely to be influenced by omitted variable biases. Strengthening rule enforcement and improving access to justice can be critical in decreasing carbon-dioxide emissions.
    Keywords: EKC, Turning Point, Rule of law, Democracy, Autocracy
    JEL: Q50 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2021–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:een:camaaa:2021-24&r=all
  13. By: Gertner, Daniel; Dennis, Elliott
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–05–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309740&r=all
  14. By: Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Yimam, Seid; Benfica, Rui; Spielman, David J.; Place, Frank
    Abstract: Several factors contribute to the low level of improved variety use in Ethiopia. Among those, on the supply side, is the limited availability of seed in the volumes, quality, and timeliness required by farmers, which is partly a result of limited public and private investment in the sector. Beginning in 2011, the Government of Ethiopia introduced a novel experiment-the Direct Seed Marketing (DSM) approach-to reduce some of the centralized, state-run attributes of the country’s seed market and rationalize the use of public resources. DSM was designed to incentivize private and public seed producers to sell seed directly to farmers rather than through the state apparatus. This study is the first quantitative evaluation of DSM’s impact on indicators of a healthy seed system: access to quality seeds, on-farm productivity, and market participation of smallholders. Using a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences approach, the study finds that DSM led to a 26 percent increase in maize yields and a 5 percent increase in the share of maize harvest sold. DSM also led to improvements in seed availability for all three of Ethiopia’s major cereals: maize, wheat, and teff. However, DSM’s effects on yields and share of harvest sold are not statistically significant for wheat and teff. These crop-specific differences in performance are likely explainable by biological differences between hybrid maize and openly pollinated varieties of wheat and teff that incentivize private sector participation in maize seed markets over wheat and teff seed markets. These differences demand different policies and perhaps even institutional approaches to accelerating adoption between hybrids and OPVs.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; seeds; productivity; commercialization; smallholders; maize; marketing; crops; seed production; seed quality; direct seed marketing; seed systems; crop productivity
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1998&r=all
  15. By: Carlo Andrea Bollino (University of Perugia, King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research (KAPSARC)); Marzio Galeotti (University of Milan, King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research (KAPSARC)); Axel Pierru (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research (KAPSARC))
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on the convergence process of energy, water and food per capita consumption levels for 108 countries from 1971 to 2018, using a common data set, with VAR and panel data approach. We establish a new notion of multivariate sigma and beta-convergence. The results reveal that there is evidence of sigma- absolute beta- and conditional beta-convergence process for the countries. Moreover, the multivariate approach reveals that there are spillover effects with complex positive impact of each variable on the others in the analyzed countries. The speed of convergence is simulated to assess when the desired levels according to the prescription of the SDG of per water, energy and food capita consumption is reached by each country. Results have important policy implications for interventions on macro variables. Investment has a positive accelerating effect on water convergence. In addition, investment, openness to foreign trade and inflow of foreign direct investment have a positive accelerating effect on food convergence as well as on energy convergence.
    Keywords: Water, Energy, Food Nexus, Multivariate Convergence, Sustainable Development Goals, Worldwide Countries Data Set
    JEL: C33 Q43 O11 O13 R11
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2021.06&r=all
  16. By: Giri, Anil; Peterson, E. Wesley F.; Sharma, Sankalp
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–06–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309741&r=all
  17. By: Berger, Elizabeth; Ifft, Jennifer; Jodlowski, Margaret; Kuethe, Todd
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:309148&r=all
  18. By: Nidhi Kaicker; Katsushi Imai; Raghav Gaiha
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:man:sespap:2010&r=all
  19. By: Ifft, Jennifer; Kuethe, Todd; Lyons, Greg; Schultz, Alexander
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:309144&r=all
  20. By: Bozorov, Abdurashid; Feuerbacher, Arndt; Wieck, Christine
    Abstract: Social accounting matrices (SAMs) are the core underlying data for economy-wide simulation models such as computable general equilibrium models. This paper reports the development of a SAM for Uzbekistan for the year 2014. The last SAM developed for Uzbekistan is based on the year 2001 (Müller, 2006) and Uzbekistan is listed among the top ten countries by GDP and population by the Global Trade and Analysis Project for which a recent input-output is missing. The SAM documented in this technical paper is characterized by a detailed representation of the agricultural sector. Generally, data availability in Uzbekistan is a challenge and the development process had to rely on myriad data sources. The final SAM values are estimated using an information-theoretic, cross-entropy approach. Using a Bayesian perspective, the degree of uncertainty of cell entries’ prior values reflected the availability and quality of data sources. In total, this SAM consists of 88 accounts. There are 31 commodity accounts and 31 accounts describe economic activities of which 17 activities are part of the agricultural sector. The factor accounts comprise five types of labor, capital, and main natural resources: land and water. There are three household accounts, one government, and five tax accounts. The authors hope that this SAM will allow researchers to investigate research questions that are of high priority for Uzbekistan’s future economic development, particularly those related to the future role of agriculture and water.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2021–03–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uhgewp:309974&r=all
  21. By: Henri-Paul Rousseau
    Abstract: in collaboration with Christophe Mondin To promote local purchasing and production and to strengthen supply chains while accelerating the green shift in Quebec’s agri-food sector, digitization is imperative. Because only the digitization of food production, processing and distribution will generate the data needed to achieve these objectives. Digitization will also make it possible to “trace” the food we produce and thus validate its quality and origin, requirements that have become essential for both domestic and international markets. Thanks to this data on Quebec’s agri-food ecosystem, we will be able to make our supply chains more resilient as well as measure and ultimately reduce the ecological footprint of agri-food chains. To make the digitization of these sectors a real priority, certain conditions must be met beforehand: equip all agricultural regions with high-speed Internet connections, establish an inventory for each sector, quickly create a monitoring center to benefit from foreign experiences and mobilize, for several years, a team dedicated fulfill this project. These are certainly demanding conditions, but they are also very structuring for the Quebec economy.
    Keywords: Traceability,Digitization,Agri-food,,Data,Sustainability,Blockchain,
    Date: 2021–03–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cir:cirpro:2021rp-04&r=all
  22. By: Barbora Šedová (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC), University of Potsdam); Lucia Čizmaziová (Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC)); Athene Cook (Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC))
    Abstract: The large literature that aims to find evidence of climate migration delivers mixed findings. This meta-regression analysis i) summarizes direct links between adverse climatic events and migration, ii) maps patterns of climate migration, and iii) explains the variation in outcomes. Using a set of limited dependent variable models, we meta-analyze thus-far the most comprehensive sample of 3,625 estimates from 116 original studies and produce novel insights on climate migration. We find that extremely high temperatures and drying conditions increase migration. We do not find a significant effect of sudden-onset events. Climate migration is most likely to emerge due to contemporaneous events, to originate in rural areas and to take place in middle-income countries, internally, to cities. The likelihood to become trapped in affected areas is higher for women and in low-income countries, particularly in Africa. We uniquely quantify how pitfalls typical for the broader empirical climate impact literature affect climate migration findings. We also find evidence of different publication biases.
    Keywords: migration, climate change, meta-analysis
    JEL: F22 O15 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pot:cepadp:29&r=all
  23. By: Van Tassell, Larry; Parsons, Jay; McClure, Glennis
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–06–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309742&r=all
  24. By: McDonald, Tia; Giri, Anil
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2020–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:309151&r=all
  25. By: Lyons-White, Joss; Jespersen, Kristjan; Gallemore, Caleb; Catalano, Allison S.; Ewers, Robert M.; Knight, Andrew T.
    Abstract: Tropical deforestation in global agricultural commodity supply chains is a “wicked” problem. Attempted solutions to wicked conservation problems like tropical deforestation often involve idealised, technical mechanisms. For example, company commitments to “zero deforestation” have become a mainstay of global forest conservation efforts. To be resolved, however, wicked conservation problems require strategically-developed, context-specific mixes of mechanisms. Drawing on interdisciplinary literature from the policy sciences, energy and land-use policy, and conservation, we examine why the contextual complexity of wicked conservation problems demands mixes of mechanisms. We present an operational model of conservation that incorporates the mechanism mix concept. We then explore how the dynamism and uncertainty of wicked problems means mixes of mechanisms must be continually reconfigured. Drawing the concepts of contextual complexity, dynamism and uncertainty together, we propose a conceptual model – the “M3 Model” – which aids understanding of how mechanism mixes can be reconfigured to sustain progress towards a desired outcome. The M3 model has four practical implications, which we discuss with reference to supply chain initiatives to reduce deforestation. First, it makes the need to address multiple interacting variables explicit, countering the tendency to seek panaceas. Second, it emphasises the importance of analysing mechanisms’ contributions to problem amelioration, instead of their shortcomings as idealised solutions. Third, it highlights the possibility of failure, reorienting conservation practice towards learning. Fourth, it emphasises polycentric governance, reinforcing the need for distributed mechanism deployment across stakeholder groups. Our synthesis provides tools to support a holistic, systemic approach to tackling wicked conservation problems.
    Date: 2021–02–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:gan7w&r=all
  26. By: Belmartino, Andrea; Calá, Carla Daniela
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to quantify the productive diversity of the manufacturing industry in the provinces of Argentina, to analyse trends in productive diversity between 1996 and 2012, and to identify the main related economic factors. A diversity index is calculated based on official data on total registered wage employment from the Dynamic Employment Analysis Database (BADE). An analysis is then performed of trends in diversity in the different provinces over the period. Lastly, an econometric panel data model is estimated to identify the main related economic factors. The industrial diversity of the provinces is negatively associated with withdrawal of firms and positively associated with level of development, region size, higher levels of urbanization and greater territorial capabilities. The results of this study can be used to design policies to promote regional diversity.
    Keywords: Industria; Empresas Industriales; Empresas Manufactureras; Productos Manufacturados; Modelos Econométricos; Análisis Provincial;
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nmp:nuland:3428&r=all
  27. By: Brian Beach
    Abstract: Between 1900 and 1930 typhoid fever and other waterborne diseases were largely eradicated from U.S. cities. This achievement required a mix of technological, scientific, economic, and bureaucratic innovations. This article examines how the interaction of those forces influenced water and sanitary infrastructure provision during the 19th and early 20th centuries. I show the sharp link between infrastructure investments and declines in waterborne disease and discuss how that relationship informs the methodological approaches one should use to assess the impact of sanitary investments on urban development. Finally, I review the literature on the social returns to eliminating the threat of waterborne disease. The evidence suggests the benefits of infrastructure investment far exceeded the costs.
    JEL: I0 N0
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:28563&r=all
  28. By: Effrosyni Adamopoulou; Elisabetta Olivieri; Eleftheria Triviza
    Abstract: This study explores the long-run effects of a temporary scarcity of a consump- tion good on individuals' preferences towards that good when the shock is over. We focus on people that passed their childhood during World War II and exploit the temporary fall in meat availability that they experienced early in life. We combine hand collected historical data on the number of livestock at the regional level with microdata on eating habits and meat consumption. By exploiting cohort and re- gional variation in a difference-in-differences estimation, we show that individuals that as children were more exposed to meat scarcity tend to consume more meat during late adulthood. Consistently with medical studies on the side effects of meat overconsumption, we find that these individuals have also a higher probability of being overweight and suffering from cardiovascular disease. The effects are larger for women and persist intergenerationally as the adult children of mothers who have experienced meat scarcity also tend to over-consume meat. Our results point towards a behavioral channel from early-life shocks into adult health and eating habits that we illustrate through a theoretical model of reference dependence and taste formation.
    Keywords: eating habits, preferences, early life experiences, intergenerational transmission, reference dependence, gender differences
    JEL: D12 I10 N44
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bon:boncrc:crctr224_2021_276&r=all
  29. By: Groskopf, Jessica
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–03–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309716&r=all
  30. By: Philippe Quirion (CNRS, CIRED)
    Abstract: Output-based refunding consists in distributing the value of taxes on pollution, or that of tradable emission allowances, to operators of emitting facilities, in proportion of their current production level. It is called output-based rebating in the case of taxes and output-based allocation in the case of tradable emission allowances. This practice is widespread, especially in climate policies, and has important economic consequences. We analyse these consequences, first in a deterministic setting and then accounting for uncertainty. While output-based refunding is detrimental to welfare in a deterministic, closed economy without prior distortions, it also provides some benefits. In particular, it is an efficient way to limit carbon leakage. Then, we present the implementation of output-based allocation in the European Union, California, China, New-Zealand and Alberta, and discuss whether it should be maintained or phased out in the coming decades.
    Keywords: output-based allocation, leakage, output-based rebate, output-based refunding, Emission trading
    JEL: Q58 Q52
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fae:wpaper:2021.03&r=all
  31. By: McClure, Glennis
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–07–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309744&r=all
  32. By: Carter, Andrew Pearce (Defenders of Wildlife)
    Abstract: Traditional environmental policy analysis has followed a neopositivist epistemological frame, using the natural sciences as a template as to how social-ecological problems can be analyzed. Such approaches to policy analysis have been caught up in the same crisis as the social sciences have in general: an overarching failure to create a predictive science of society or to consistently provide solutions to social problems. This has led some policy researchers to align with the interpretivist turn, which has had its own drawbacks. In this review I summarize the historical development and main tenets of both approaches, examining their advantages and disadvantages. I then review an alternative epistemological approach to social science, critical realism, which combines an ontological realism with an epistemological relativism, a focus on elucidating causal mechanisms in the social-ecological systems studied, an approach that may be particularly suited for analyzing the complex social-ecological systems studied in environmental policy analysis.
    Date: 2021–01–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:u8hgk&r=all
  33. By: Koo, Jawoo; Azzarri, Carlo; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Quabili, Wahid
    Abstract: In anticipation of the development of a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine—the distribution of which will be a complex and sensitive issue—governments will need to assess the number and location of the most vulnerable people within their populations. Problematically, however, tracking data for most low- and middle-income countries are only available at the national level. The most widely used dataset by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (Dong, Du, and Gardner 2020), for example, does not include subnational data for Feed the Future’s 12 target countries in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) and South Asia: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and Uganda. For this reason, the Gender, Climate Change, and Nutrition Integration Initiative (GCAN) was commissioned to correlate Demographic and Health Survey data from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with geospatial data in order to develop a subnational dataset of key COVID-19 risk indicators based on which potential risk hotspots were identified. This policy note summarizes the study’s analysis in the 12 Feed the Future countries and across subnational administrative units within each country.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, ETHIOPIA, GHANA, GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, KENYA, NEPAL, NIGER, NIGERIA, MALI, SENEGAL, UGANDA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, WEST AFRICA, CENTRAL AMERICA, LATIN AMERICA, NORTH AMERICA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, risk, vulnerability, urban areas, rural areas, hotspot
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:gcanpn:13&r=all
  34. By: Richard S.J. Tol (University of Sussex, Vrije Universiteit, Tinbergen Institute, CESifo, Colorado School of Mines)
    Abstract: I propose a new conceptual framework to disentangle the impacts of weather and climate on economic activity and growth: A stochastic frontier model with climate in the production frontier and weather shocks as a source of inefficiency. I test it on a sample of 160 countries over the period 1950-2014. Temperature and rainfall determine production possibilities in both rich and poor countries; positively in cold countries and negatively in hot ones. Weather anomalies reduce inefficiency in rich countries but increase ineciency in poor and hot countries; and more so in countries with low weather variability. The climate effect is larger that the weather effect.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Weather Shocks, Economic Growth, Stochastic Frontier Analysis
    JEL: D24 O44 O47 Q54
    Date: 2021–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2021.04&r=all
  35. By: Beghin, John C.; Timalsina, Sushant
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–05–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309739&r=all
  36. By: Hughes, David W.; Kimbro, Creig
    Abstract: Presented here is an agricultural asset mapping report for Grundy County, Tennessee. The report is based on a combination of focus group meetings with local agricultural leaders and secondary data. The primary goal is to help local leaders identify agricultural assets that could be used to support economic growth and development of the county. A secondary goal is to increase the understanding of local agriculture. Several other counties [Hancock (Hughes et al., 2019b and Hardeman, Hughes et al., 2019c)] have undergone the same effort. We believe that this replicating approach could be beneficial for other interested counties. Initially provided here is a discussion regarding general information about Grundy County, followed by information regarding the asset mapping exercise with local agribusiness leaders. The follow-up data-based analysis is then discussed, including recommendations based on that analysis. We then discuss the agribusiness targets that were identified by local leaders followed by summary and conclusions including a call for further action.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2021–03–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaeer:309840&r=all
  37. By: Harthoorn, Austin; Swartz, Rosalee
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–05–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309720&r=all
  38. By: Rodríguez, Julieta A.; Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.; Lupín, Beatriz
    Abstract: Worldwide, the potato is the third more important crop, coming after wheat and rice. In Argentina, it is the horticultural product with the highest consumption in fresh state, but Argentine consumers know little to nothing about potatoes attributes. The objective of this research is to identify the attributes that influence the assessment that consumers make of a potato with differentiated quality. Due to this, a Vickrey Second Price Experimental Auction took place in April 2017. The experiment involved 155 participants, who were students and employees of the School of Economic and Social Sciences of the National University of Mar del Plata. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis was applied based on the data of the bids and the survey carried out at the Auction. The main results showed that the participants, after receiving information about the culinary aptitude of the differentiated potato and its production method - its lower content of agrochemicals -, were willing to pay a higher price for the product. Additionally, participants opted for a higher price of potato when it was presented in a labelled package. Likewise, an identify group of participants were shown to be willing to pay more for this differentiated food.
    Keywords: Experimentos de Elección; Preferencias del Consumidor; Atributos de Calidad; Papa; Disposición a Pagar;
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nmp:nuland:3456&r=all
  39. By: Fedorchukova, Svetlana; Boris, Boris; Gobirman, Galina
    Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic has made its own adjustments in all sectors of the national economy and in the social sphere. This year's drought has also negatively impacted the agricultural sector. Viticulture and winemaking, being strategic sectors of the national economy, suffered heavy losses. The aim of this work is to study the changes in the wine-making complex of the Republic of Moldova under the influence of the pandemic and other related factors. As information sources we used the information obtained from the National Office of Vine and Wine, Ministry of Agriculture, Regional Development and Environment, National Statistics Center of the Republic of Moldova, Academy of Sciences of Moldova , the daily “Logos press”. As working methods were used: systemic data analysis; their mathematical-statistical processing; determining the multiple socio-economic indices that characterize the actuality of the wine complex of RM. The main results of the researches: The COVID-19 pandemic has closed practically all social entities, which sell tangible quantities of domestic wines and spirits on the domestic market; The reserves-stocks of 18 million dal of quality wines from the 2019 harvest, currently existing in the country, will satisfy the export demand in the amount of 100%; Among the existing reserves in the increase of sales of high quality wines, remarkable is the online trade, both on the domestic market, but especially on the international one.
    Keywords: wine, vine, harvest, consumption, winery, local market, profit.
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2020–11–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:106349&r=all
  40. By: Mieno, Taro; Bullock, David
    Keywords: Farm Management, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–07–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaece:309743&r=all
  41. By: Leon, Chris M. Boyd; Bellemare, Marc F.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2020–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:309153&r=all
  42. By: Tol, Richard S. J.
    Abstract: I propose a new conceptual framework to disentangle the impacts of weather and climate on economic activity and growth: A stochastic frontier model with climate in the production frontier and weather shocks as a source of inefficiency. I test it on a sample of 160 countries over the period 1950-2014. Temperature and rainfall determine production possibilities in both rich and poor countries; positively in cold countries and negatively in hot ones. Weather anomalies reduce inefficiency in rich countries but increase inefficiency in poor and hot countries; and more so in countries with low weather variability. The climate effect is larger that the weather effect.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–03–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:feemwp:309917&r=all
  43. By: Barrett, Christopher B.; Islam, Asad; Pakrashi, Debayan; Ruthbah, Ummul
    Abstract: We report the results of a large-scale, multi-year experimental evaluation of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), an innovation that first emerged in Madagascar in the 1980s and has now diffused to more than 50 countries. Using a randomized training saturation design, we find that greater cross-sectional or intertemporal intensity of direct or indirect training exposure to SRI has a sizable, positive effect on Bangladeshi farmers’ propensity to adopt (and not to disadopt) SRI. We find large, positive and significant impacts of SRI training on rice yields and profits, as well as multiple household well-being indicators, for both trained and untrained farmers in training villages. Despite the significant farm-level impacts on rice productivity and labor costs, we find no evidence of significant general equilibrium effects on rice prices or wage rates. We also find high rates of disadoption, and clear indications of non-random selection into technology adoption conditional on randomized exposure to training, such that adopters and non-adopters within the same treatment arm experience similar outcomes. Rice yields, profits and household well-being outcomes do not, however, vary at the intensive margin with intensity of training exposure, a finding consistent with multi-object learning models.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–01–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cudawp:309950&r=all
  44. By: West, Steele C.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2020–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1117:309146&r=all
  45. By: Marini, Marco A.; Tarola, Ornella; Thisse, Jacques-Francois
    Abstract: We study how the supply of environmentalism, which is defined by psychic benefits (costs) associated with the purchase of high-environmental (low-environmental) qualities, affects the way firms choose their prices and products and the ensuing consequences for the global level of pollution. Contrary to general belief, a high supply of environmentalism does not necessarily give rise to a better environmental outcome because it endows the green firms with more market power which they use to charge higher prices. Nonetheless, environmentalism can be used to effectively complement more traditional policy instruments such as a minimum environmental standard.
    Keywords: environmentalism, psychic costs and benefits, vertical product differentiation, environmental policy
    JEL: D0 L2 L22 L23 Q5 Q52 Q56
    Date: 2021–02–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:106340&r=all
  46. By: Lup, Aurel; Ursu, Ana
    Abstract: The material presents the problem of forests, deforestation becoming nowadays a real global problem of mankind. Many millennia ago, population growth required the sacrifice of the forest to make way for crops, today forests are cut primarily for profit, wood being one of the most precious commodities. It is true that in some parts of the world the forest is also sacrificed to increase the arable area. In countries like Romania, for example, both legal and especially illegal logging is done only for money, wood being over 10 times more expensive than any other agricultural product. The consequences of deforestation on many functions performed by the forest are evaluated, such as: carbon dioxide absorption and oxygen release, recreation function, preventing soil erosion with serious consequences on its quality, but also floods, floods, inhabited areas, roads transport and other objectives. The material also tries an evolution in time of the phenomenon both in Romania and globally.
    Keywords: forest, wood, deforestation, profit, erosion.
    JEL: Q13 Q27
    Date: 2020–11–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:106459&r=all

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