nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒02‒08
twenty-two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE AND MICROFINANCE: A WAKE-UP CALL FOR POLICY MAKERS By Alberto Lanzavecchia; Maria Palumbo; Bharat Singh Thapa
  2. Cumulative economic impact of trade agreements on EU agriculture: 2021 update By Emanuele Ferrari; Thomas Chatzopoulos; Ignacio Perez Dominguez; Pierre Boulanger; Kirsten Boysen-Urban; Mihaly Himics; Robert M’barek
  3. Selected legumes, roots & tubers and other cereals, November 2020 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  4. Livestock and livestock products, December 2020 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  5. Quarterly market report for selected legumes, roots, tubers, and other cereals, October to December 2020 By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  6. Investigation of Institutional and Legislative Barriers and Drivers for Sustainable Transition Development of SMEs in Sri Lanka: A Literature Review By Rajapakshe, PSK; Jayasundara, JMSB; Prasanna, RPIR; Ekanayake, EMS; Naradda Gamage, Sisira Kumara; Abeyrathne, GAKNJ; Aravinda, MAKN; Bandara, KBTUK; Senarath, BTDN
  7. Can Small French Farms Provide an Opportunity for Employment in the Agricultural Sector? By Pauline Lécole
  8. Nomadic Pastoralism, Climate Change, and Conflict in Africa By Eoin F. McGuirk; Nathan Nunn
  9. Health crises, resilience and refoundation of food systems [Editorial] By Jean-Louis Rastoin
  10. Viewpoint: Regulating meat consumption to improve health, the environment and animal welfare By Bonnet, Céline; Bouamra-Mechemache, Zohra; Réquillart, Vincent; Treich, Nicolas
  11. Wanted! Free Trade Agreements in the Service of Environmental and Climate Protection By Julia Grübler; Roman Stöllinger; Gabriele Tondl
  12. Strategic default in the international coffee market By Blouin, Arthur; Macchiavello, Rocco
  13. The More the Poorer? Resource Sharing and Scale Economies in Large Families By Rossella Calvi; Jacob Penglase; Denni Tommasi; Alexander Wolf
  14. Agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund (ACGSF) and agricultural performance in Nigeria: A threshold regression analysis By Sulaimon, Mubaraq
  15. Technological Change and Political Turnover: The Democratizing Effects of the Green Revolution in India By Dasgupta, Aditya
  16. The Impact Assessment of the EU Pre-Accession Funds on Agriculture and Food Companies: The Croatian Case By Marin Kukoc; Bruno Skrinjaric; Josip Juracak
  17. Land consolidation cases relating to grazing arrangements By Sky, Per Kåre; Elvestad, Helén Elisabeth
  18. Evaluating the regional impacts of climate change on women's well-being, domestic burdens and food security in Bolivia By Enrique Luis; Helene Maisonnave
  19. Value efficiency and its decomposition into direct price and quantity effects By Jean-Philippe Boussemart; Hervé Leleu; Raluca Parvulescu
  20. Fiscal tools to reduce transition costs of climate change mitigation By Michele Catalano; Lorenzo Forni; Emilia Pezzolla
  21. Crop Selection and International Differences in Aggregate Agricultural Productivity By Jorge Alvarez; Claudia Berg
  22. Green certificates- a better version of green bonds By Dion Bongaerts; Dirk Schoenmaker

  1. By: Alberto Lanzavecchia (University of Padova, Padova, Italy); Maria Palumbo (University of Padova, Padova, Italy); Bharat Singh Thapa (Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)
    Abstract: People in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity related to climate change because of poor infrastructure, limited access to global markets, physical isolation, low productivity, and hazard exposure (IPCC, 2019). Farmers in this region are facing more frequent floods as well as prolonged droughts with ensuing negative impacts on agricultural yields and increases in food insecurity (Hussain et al. 2016; Manzoor et al. 2013). Drought, forest fires, floods and landslides are nowadays magnified by climate change. In Nepal, changes in monsoon patterns, increasing hydropower projects and poorly planned rural road projects will greatly exacerbate the situation of unacceptable presence of poverty and inequality of opportunities in the country. Climate change adaptation and mitigation measures at household level and micro business are urgent for policy makers. Microfinance can play a crucial role in fostering such good practice if capital is constrained by policy rules. Through the provision of credit and other financial services, microfinance helps rural people develop alternate livelihood opportunities, build assets and spread risks. There is a significant potential for taking benefit from financial innovations such as risk insurance, microfinance, conditional cash transfer programs, and targeted subsidies by scaling up these initiatives through policy and community level initiatives. However, mitigation and adaptation measures are not enough to prevent climate change adverse impacts: loss and damage (L&D) measures is becoming increasingly urgent and unavoidable. As a consequence, a full multi-level governance is needed. The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts (2013) needs concrete implementation that requires the support of national policies and mechanisms. Following the case of Bangladesh, we call for both a top-down and bottom-up approach for addressing in a more comprehensive way L&D within the territory of Nepal. This policy paper is targeted at policy makers to urgently take action to design and implement effective strategies to tackle climate change impact to achieve economic and social progress.
    Keywords: climate change, adaptation, loss and damage, microfinance, Nepal
    JEL: Q54 R51 Q58
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: Emanuele Ferrari (European Commission – JRC); Thomas Chatzopoulos (European Commission – JRC); Ignacio Perez Dominguez (European Commission – JRC); Pierre Boulanger (European Commission – JRC); Kirsten Boysen-Urban (European Commission – JRC); Mihaly Himics (European Commission – JRC); Robert M’barek (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: This report investigates the potential effects of 12 free trade agreements (FTAs) under the current EU trade agenda. For this, it quantifies the cumulated sectoral impacts in terms of bilateral trade, production, demand, and price developments. Moreover, it provides insights on the evolution of supply, demand, and farm-gate prices for the most relevant EU agricultural commodity markets. In contrast to a forecast exercise, this analysis compares two variants of a trade liberalisation scenario (conservative and ambitious) to a business-as-usual (baseline) situation in 2030. The study confirms that the analysed free trade agreements have the potential to benefit the EU agri-food sector when considered simultaneously. It also highlights the vulnerability of the beef, sheep meat, poultry, sugar, and rice sectors.
    Keywords: CGE; PE; modelling; trade; agriculture; EU
    JEL: C68 F11 F17 Q17
    Date: 2021–01
  3. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2020
  4. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This price bulletin was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, livestock, prices, food prices, chickens, eggs, retail prices, goat meat, livestock products
    Date: 2020
  5. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This quarterly market report was developed by researchers at IFPRI Malawi with the goal of providing clear and accurate information on the variation of weekly and monthly retail prices of selected agricultural commodities that are important for food security and nutrition in Malawi. The reports are intended as a resource for those interested in agricultural markets in Malawi.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food prices, legumes, roots, tubers, cereals, prices, agricultural products, markets, food security, nutrition
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Rajapakshe, PSK; Jayasundara, JMSB; Prasanna, RPIR; Ekanayake, EMS; Naradda Gamage, Sisira Kumara; Abeyrathne, GAKNJ; Aravinda, MAKN; Bandara, KBTUK; Senarath, BTDN
    Abstract: It is well documented that Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are recognized as the key to economic growth, innovations and market competition in both developed and developing countries. In Sri Lankan context SMEs play a noteworthy role in environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper attempted to investigate institutional and legislative barriers and to explore the drivers affecting towards the sustainable transition development of Sri Lankan SMEs, through a systemic literature review. In this study researchers developed model framework for sustainable transition development of SMEs and filled the gap of literature interms of institutional and legislative barriers and drivers on SMEs sustainability. Findings of this study will provide directions for further invetigations on barriers and drivers for sustainable transition development of SMEs in an empirical context which certainly helpful to find out the case specific and unique divers and barriers for sustainability of SMEs.
    Keywords: Institutonal Barriers, Economic Growth, Sustainable Transition Development, Economic Sustainability, SMEs, Sri Lanka
    JEL: L10
    Date: 2020–12–30
  7. By: Pauline Lécole (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The contributions of small farms to the environment or employment are increasingly recognised. Yet small farm employment receives little support from public policies. Can small farms provide employment opportunities in the agricultural sector? The objective of this work is to contribute to reflections on a better adaptation of public support to the heterogeneity of the contributions of small farms to employment. This article focuses on the example of France, using the 2010 agricultural census data. It proposes a typology of workforce patterns in French small farms. In 2010, labour‐intensive small farms with paid worker(s) accounted for just over 2 per cent of small farms in France. They were managed by trained farmers, sometimes newcomers to agriculture, and had high value‐added activities like agrotourism, short distribution channels and/or organic farming production. We conclude with recommendations for European and national public policies aimed at encouraging the maintenance and/or creation of employment on small farms. They include, for example, specific support for small farms, adapted to their lower investment needs and a lighter administrative burden to enable them to develop labour‐intensive projects; or a better integration of small farms into employers' alliances.
    Abstract: Les contributions des petites exploitations à l'environnement ou à l'emploi sont de plus en plus reconnues. Pourtant, l'emploi dans les petites exploitations est peu soutenu par les politiques publiques. Les petites exploitations agricoles peuvent-elles offrir des opportunités d'emploi dans le secteur agricole ? L'objectif de ce travail est de contribuer à des réflexions sur une meilleure adaptation des aides publiques à l'hétérogénéité des contributions des petites exploitations à l'emploi. Cet article se concentre sur l'exemple de la France, à partir des données du recensement agricole de 2010. Il propose une typologie des profils de main-d'œuvre dans les petites exploitations françaises.En 2010, les petites exploitations à forte intensité de main-d'œuvre avec un ou des travailleurs rémunérés représen-taient un peu plus de 2 pour cent des petites exploitations en France. Elles étaient gérées par des agriculteurs formés, parfois nouveaux venus dans l'agriculture, et avaient des activités à forte valeur ajoutée comme l'agrotourisme, les circuits courts de distribution et / ou la production agricole biologique. Nous concluons par des recommandations pour des politiques publiques européennes et nationales visant à encourager le maintien et / ou la création d'emplois dans les petites exploitations. Elles comprennent, par exemple, un soutien spécifique aux petites exploitations, adapté à leurs faibles besoins d'investissement et une charge adminis-trative plus légère pour leur permettre de développer des projets à forte intensité de main-d'œuvre ; ou une meilleure intégration des petites exploitations dans les alliances patronales.
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Eoin F. McGuirk; Nathan Nunn
    Abstract: Arid regions of Africa are expanding by thousands of square kilometers a year, potentially disturbing pastoral routes that have been forged over a long period of time. This disturbance is often said to explain why “herder-farmer” conflicts have erupted in recent years, as pastoralists and agriculturalists compete for increasingly scarce resources. We examine this hypothesis by combining ecological and ethnographic data on the location of pastoral ethnic groups with grid-cell level data on violent conflict in Africa from 1989 to 2018. First, using ecological data, (i) we confirm that areas suited to both agriculture and pastoralism are particularly prone to conflict relative to either agricultural or pastoral areas alone; and (ii) we find that the effect of precipitation shocks on conflict in these agro-pastoral zones is negative at the country-level, but not at the cell-level. To explain this pattern, we compile data on the historical location of borders between both types of ethnic groups. We find that droughts in pastoral areas lead to conflict in neighboring agricultural areas. This spillover mechanism appears to explain much of the negative overall relationship between precipitation and conflict in the sample. It implies that agro-pastoral conflict is caused by the displacement of pastoral groups due to low precipitation in their homelands. This finding establishes one mechanism through which climate change can lead to more conflict in agro-pastoral zones.
    JEL: N10 Q54 Z1
    Date: 2020–12
  9. By: Jean-Louis Rastoin (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The agro-industrial food system after major advances is now facing heavy negative externalities, with health, social and environmental crises. An alternative prospective scenario (territorialized food systems) is driven by the objectives of sustainable development. It is based on product quality, autonomy, proximity, and local, national and international solidarity. It requires new food policies.
    Abstract: Le système alimentaire agroindustriel après d'importantes avancées se heurte désormais à de lourdes externalités négatives, marquées par de multiples crises sanitaires, sociales et environnementales. Un scénario de prospective alternatif (systèmes alimentaires territorialisés) est piloté par les objectifs du développement durable. Il est fondé sur la qualité des produits, l'autonomie, la proximité, et la solidarité locale, nationale et internationale. Il suppose de nouvelles politiques alimentaires.
    Keywords: food system,transition,territory,history,prospective,système alimentaire,territoire,histoire
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Bonnet, Céline; Bouamra-Mechemache, Zohra; Réquillart, Vincent; Treich, Nicolas
    Abstract: Meat consumption has increased significantly in the last 50 years. This trend raises various health and environmental issues, as well as moral concerns regarding farm animal welfare. In this paper, we discuss the regulation of meat consumption in developed countries. Specifically, we discuss possible justifications for this regulation in terms of environmental, health and animal welfare considerations, as well as the effect of fiscal, informational and behavioral regulatory instruments. Finally, we present a list of challenges that policy makers and food scholars may need to confront in the future.
    Keywords: Meat consumption; Regulation; Health; Environment; Climate change; Animal welfare
    JEL: Q11 Q52 H31
    Date: 2021–01–23
  11. By: Julia Grübler (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Roman Stöllinger (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Gabriele Tondl
    Abstract: The effects of international trade on the planet’s climate and environment are manifold and complex. This makes assessment of the impact of free trade agreements (FTAs) a delicate matter. This study provides an overview of the development of sustainability chapters in FTAs and discusses their potential and limitations. It highlights particular industry-specific environmental issues related to EU trade, especially with developing countries, and presents complementary policy options. In this vein, it zooms in on the EU-Mercosur FTA, for which a political agreement was reached in June 2019. It contrasts the estimated cost of increased CO2 emissions attributable to intensified trade relations, as one element of the ‘pains from trade’, with the estimated ‘gains from trade’ arising from lower prices for consumers. The analysis suggests that the benefits outweigh the costs; yet, the result is sensitive to assumed prices for pollutants. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the incorporated sustainability chapter is limited by its enforceability. The latter provokes a discussion on the modernisation of the framework of the World Trade Organization, which currently does not allow environmental challenges to be tackled effectively.
    Keywords: free trade agreements, trade policy, environment, sustainability, WTO, Mercosur
    JEL: F13 F14 F18 F64 O13 Q56
    Date: 2021–01
  12. By: Blouin, Arthur; Macchiavello, Rocco
    Abstract: This article studies strategic default on forward sale contracts in the international coffee market. To test for strategic default, we construct contract-specific measures of unanticipated changes in market conditions by comparing spot prices at maturity with the relevant futures prices at the contracting date. Unanticipated rises in market prices increase defaults on fixed-price contracts but not on price-indexed ones. We isolate strategic default by focusing on unanticipated rises at the time of delivery after production decisions are sunk and suppliers have been paid. Estimates suggest that roughly half of the observed defaults are strategic. We model how strategic default introduces a trade-off between insurance and counterparty risk: relative to indexed contracts, fixed-price contracts insure against price swings but create incentives to default when market conditions change. A model calibration suggests that the possibility of strategic default causes 15.8% average losses in output, significant dispersion in the marginal product of capital, and sizable negative externalities on supplying farmers.
    JEL: L14 G32 O16
    Date: 2019–05–01
  13. By: Rossella Calvi; Jacob Penglase; Denni Tommasi; Alexander Wolf
    Abstract: The structure of a family may have important consequences for the material well-being of its members. For example, in large families, an individual must share resources with many others, but she may benefit from economies of scale in consumption. In this paper, we study individual consumption in different types of households, with a focus on family structures that are common in developing countries. Based on a collective household model, we develop a new methodology to identify the intra-household allocation of resources and the extent of consumption sharing. We apply our methodology using data from Bangladesh and Mexico, and use the model estimates to compute poverty rates for men, women, and children. Contrary to existing poverty calculations that ignore either intra-household inequality or economies of scale in consumption, ours take into account both dimensions.
    Keywords: collective model, household bargaining, resource shares, scale economies, Barten scales, indifference scales, poverty
    JEL: D13 D11 D12 C31 I32
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Sulaimon, Mubaraq
    Abstract: Credit financing deficit is one of the problems militating against the performance of agriculture in Nigeria. Against this background, the government of Nigeria introduced the agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund (ACGSF) in 1977 to encourage banks to increase and sustain lending to agriculture. Unfortunately, the scheme has not achieved the desired results. Hence, this study seeks to evaluate the thresholds of ACGSF on agricultural performance in Nigeria between 1981 and 2019. The performance of agriculture was captured using real agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Annual time series data were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and the World Development Indicators (WDI) and analysed using threshold regression. Although insignificant, the results show U-shaped relationship between real agricultural GDP and ACGSF. In addition, ACGSF has significant positive effects on real agricultural GDP at 1060389 (₦’ thousand) and 5951809 (₦’ thousand) thresholds. The study concludes that sustain increase in the value of agricultural loans guaranteed and the inclusiveness of more smallholder farmers who dominate the Nigerian agricultural space will translate into robust contribution of the scheme to agricultural performance in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Credit; Guarantee; Threshold; Nigeria
    JEL: Q1
    Date: 2021–01–06
  15. By: Dasgupta, Aditya
    Abstract: Can technological change contribute to political turnover? Influential theories suggest that technological change represents a form of creative destruction that can weaken incumbents and strengthen outsiders, leading to political turnover. This paper investigates a large-scale historical natural experiment: the impact of the green revolution on single-party dominance in India. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on models of contests, this paper argues that high-yielding variety (HYV) crops strengthened the incentives and capacity of a politically excluded group, in this case agricultural producers, to seek greater political representation. Exploiting the timing of the introduction of HYV crops, together with district-level variation in suitability for the new crop technology, instrumental variables analyses show that the green revolution played a pivotal role in the rise of agrarian opposition parties and decline of single-party dominance. The findings support theories linking technological change to political turnover, with important implications for the political economy of democratization.
    Date: 2021–01–12
  16. By: Marin Kukoc (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture); Bruno Skrinjaric (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb); Josip Juracak (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture)
    Abstract: The EU pre-accession funds available to EU candidate countries play an important role in their adjustment for membership. Croatia, as a candidate country, used the Special Pre-Accession Program for Agriculture and Rural Development and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance - Rural Development, one of the goals of which was to strengthen the competitiveness of businesses in the agriculture and food production sectors. The usage period covered two EU programming periods, as well as a recession period in Croatia that lasted from 2009 to 2014. An insight into the available literature reveals a lack of rigorous research and evaluation of the results of using these funds in Croatia as well as in other beneficiary countries. This paper evaluates the effect of pre-accession EU grants on beneficiaries in the agri-food sector using a quasi-experimental approach on the case of Croatia. The grants were shown to have a positive effect on firm survival, as well as positive effects on obtaining bank loans and increasing turnover, value added, employment, and total factor productivity. Heterogeneous treatment effects show that the grants resulted in the greatest additionality for micro-sized firms located in Central Croatia. Cost-benefit analysis estimates an increase in the value added, which outweighs scheme-induced costs by 120 percent in the short run and 90 percent in the mid run.
    Keywords: public grants, policy evaluation, SAPARD, IPARD
    JEL: B54 J16 H81 L26 L38 H43
    Date: 2020–02
  17. By: Sky, Per Kåre (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Elvestad, Helén Elisabeth (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: Land consolidation courts deal with cases where the relationship between holders of grazing rights needs be regulated, but also where the rights holders are competing with other potential land uses, such as building holiday cabins, forestry, hunting, etc. These cases are governed by the provisions of sections 3-8 and 3-10 of the Land Consolidation Act. We have analysed 20 grazing arrangements, based on the following criteria: duration of the case; substantive and geographic limits to the case, and how the parties’ claims influenced the final shared use arrangement; need for expert advice; the parties’ counsels; clarification of the legal basis and the need for dispute resolution; use of tools provided by the Land Consolidation Act; interconnection with other rights; in cases dealing with several types of land use – did the land consolidation court establish several associations or a single association; and issues arising in established grazing arrangements and associations. We provide examples of the material considerations, both general and detailed, that were given weight when drawing up the rules on grazing.
    Keywords: Land consolidation; Grazing arrangements; Rural areas; Norway
    JEL: K11 Q15
    Date: 2021–01–27
  18. By: Enrique Luis (EDEHN - Equipe d'Economie Le Havre Normandie - ULH - Université Le Havre Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Helene Maisonnave (EDEHN - Equipe d'Economie Le Havre Normandie - ULH - Université Le Havre Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: Throughout Bolivia, the degree of vulnerability amongst women and men to the impact of climate change is not equal. Indeed, vulnerability can vary due to regional and gender related differences, as well as varying levels of exposition to climatic events. Furthermore, this vulnerability may be exacerbated by increasing food insecurity due to climate change. This study uses a macro-micro model with a gender focus to assess the impact of climate change on food security and women poverty for Bolivia. We analyse a scenario in which specific regional damage occurs in the agricultural and livestock sector, as well as in the non-agricultural ones, due to adverse climatic events. The simulation reveals negative impacts on the Bolivian economy, with the agricultural sector being the most affected. Food availability is reduced, which ultimately leads to greater food insecurity and food poverty with female-headed households suffering the most. The results also reveal negative effects on employment and increased domestic burdens, especially among women, which increases their vulnerability with women in the highlands being the most affected.
    Keywords: Climate risk,General Equilibrium Model,Gender,Domestic work,Food security
    Date: 2021–01–15
  19. By: Jean-Philippe Boussemart (Univ. Lille, CNRS, IESEG School of Management, UMR 9221 –LEM, F-59000, France. 3, rue de la Digue, 59000 Lille, France); Hervé Leleu (IESEG School of Management, CNRS, Univ. Lille, UMR 9221 –LEM, F-59000, France. 3, rue de la Digue, 59000 Lille, France); Raluca Parvulescu (IESEG School of Management, UMR CNRS 9221 –LEM, F-59000, France. 3, rue de la Digue, 59000 Lille, France)
    Abstract: Based on the idea that in real markets firms have some freedomto set their output prices and negotiate input unit costs, this paper introduces a new approach for value efficiency decomposition as the product of direct price and quantity effects. Our framework relies on the axiomatization of a value transformation set on which quantity, price and value distance functions can be defined. The methodology developed allows for variousdegrees of dependency between quantity and price as well as for different degrees of freedom in price setting. The value efficiency decomposition can encompass all traditional measures such as cost, revenue, profit and profitability efficiencies. An application on French cattle farms illustrates the appeal of our approach for practitioners.
    Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, value transformation set, value efficiency, direct price efficiency.
    JEL: D24 C43
    Date: 2021–01
  20. By: Michele Catalano (Prometeia); Lorenzo Forni (Prometeia and University of Padova); Emilia Pezzolla (Prometeia)
    Abstract: How much the transition out of greenhouse gas emissions will cost to the economy? Current available estimates differ widely. This reflects different methodologies and assumptions adopted by different studies, combined with the inherent uncertainty related to forecasting future greenhouse gas emissions and temperature increases. This paper takes a different approach. In addition to replicating business as usual scenarios, we assume as given widely-used mitigation scenarios for future carbon emissions (as the Paris agreement path for example), and then back out the combinations of fiscal tools (especially carbon price measures and tax incentives for green investments) that can minimize the transition costs. To this end the paper extends the work done in Catalano et al. [2019] by using a global overlapping generations model in the spirit of Kotlikoff et al. [2019] combined with a climate module. The results show that the estimated economic costs of the carbon transition vary significantly depending on the fiscal tools used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Due to adjustment costs in the production structure, the world economy would minimize the potential transition costs if sustained by debt financed investment policies.
    Keywords: Climate, Global Warming, Government Policy, International Economics, Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents
    JEL: Q54 Q58 F0 H2 H3
    Date: 2020–11
  21. By: Jorge Alvarez; Claudia Berg
    Abstract: A large share of cross-country differences in productivity is explained by differences in agricultural productivity. Using a combination of sub-national agricultural statistics and geospatial datasets on crop-specific potential yields, we study the main drivers of this variation from a macroeconomic perspective. We find that differences in geographically-induced crop-specific comparative advantages can explain a substantial share of the variation in yields across the world. Data reveal substantial gaps between potential and observed yields in most countries. When decomposing these within country gaps, we find that crop selection gaps are on average larger than those induced by input usage alone. The results highlight the importance of understanding the interaction of geography and crop selection drivers in assessing aggregate agricultural productivity differences.
    Keywords: Agricultural sector;Agroindustries;Personal income;Agricultural commodities;Labor;WP,potential yield,crop selection
    Date: 2019–08–16
  22. By: Dion Bongaerts; Dirk Schoenmaker
    Abstract: The market for green bonds is growing rapidly and has been boosted by the European Commission’s plan to raise through green bonds 30 percent of the up to €750 billion that will be borrowed under the Next Generation EU coronavirus economic recovery programme. But while green bonds can reduce the financing costs of green projects and technologies, their current design means they fall short of fulfilling their full potential. Issuing green...
    Date: 2020–11

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