nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒01‒25
forty-five papers chosen by

  1. Adoption of environment-friendly agricultural practices with background risk: experimental evidence By Marianne Lefebvre; Estelle Midler; Philippe Bontems
  2. Farm eco-efficiency: Can sustainable intensification make the difference? By Weltin, Meike; Hüttel, Silke
  3. Volatility-reducing biodiversity conservation under strategic interactions By Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron; Giorgio Fabbri; Katheline Schubert
  4. An experimental analysis of German farmers' decisions to buy or rent farmland By Buchholz, Matthias; Danne, Michael; Mußhoff, Oliver
  5. Price dispersion in farmland markets: What is the role of asymmetric information? By Kahle, Christoph; Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
  6. Measuring liquidity in agricultural land markets By Kionka, Marlene; Odening, Martin; Plogmann, Jana; Ritter, Matthias
  7. Understanding the Relationships between Extensive Livestock Systems, Land-Cover Changes, and CAP Support in Less-Favored Mediterranean Areas By Laurence Delattre; Marta Debolini; Jean Paoli; Claude Napoleone; Michel Moulery; Lara Leonelli; Pierre Santucci
  8. Local Sourcing in the Cabo Verde Tourism Food Supply Chain By World Bank Group
  9. Identifying agricultural landscape types for Brandenburg, Germany using IACS data By Wolff, Saskia; Hüttel, Silke; Nendel, Claas; Lakes, Tobia
  10. The Impact of Weather on Commodity Prices: A Warning for the Future By Marini, Annalisa
  11. How green is greening? A fine-scale analysis of spatio-temporal dynamics in Germany By Lakes, Tobia; Garcia-Marquez, Jaime; Müller, Daniel; Lakner, Sebastian; Pe’er, Guy
  12. Can land market regulations fulfill their promises? By Heinrich, Florian; Appel, Franziska; Balmann, Alfons
  13. Climate change and inequality in a global context. Exploring climate induced disparities and the reaction of economic systems By Elena Paglialunga; Andrea Coveri; Antonello Zanfei
  14. The plurality of farmers' views on soil management calls for a policy mix By Braito, Michael; Leonhardt, Heidi; Penker, Marianne; Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, Elisabeth; Thaler, Georg; Flint, Courtney G.
  15. Common values and unobserved heterogeneity in farmland auctions in Germany By Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
  16. Critical success and risk factors for circular business models valorising agricultural waste and by-products By Mechthild Donner; Anne Verniquet; Jan Broeze; Katrin Kayser; Hugo de Vries
  17. IFAD RESERACH SERIES 64 - How the adoption of drought-tolerant rice varieties impacts households in a non-drought year: Evidence from Nepal By Vaiknoras, Kate; Larochelle, Catherine; Alwang, Jeffrey
  18. An Investigation on Factors Affecting Land Use Pattern in Bihar with special reference to changes in Current Fallow Land By Sinha, D K; Ahmad, Nasim; Singh, K M
  19. Drought-Proofing through Groundwater Recharge By Shilp Verma; Manisha Shah
  20. Farm growth and land concentration By Plogmann, Jana; Mußhoff, Oliver; Odening, Martin; Ritter, Matthias
  21. Investing responsibly in agriculture through smallholder cooperatives: insights from Uganda By Sara Vicari; Cécile Berranger; Federica Rinaldi
  22. How do countries specialize in food production? A complex-network analysis of the global agricultural product space By Mercedes Campi; Marco Dueñas; Giorgio Fagiolo
  23. Computable general equilibrium simulations of the effects on the U.S. economy of reductions in beef consumption By Peter B. Dixon; Maureen T. Rimmer; Daniel Mason-D'Croz
  24. Is The Agricultural Sector Cursed Too? Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa By Elizavetta Dorinet; Pierre-André Jouvet; Julien Wolfersberger
  25. Improving Crop Yields in Sub-Saharan Africa - What Does the East African Data Say By Alun H. Thomas
  26. Strengthening Regional Agriculture Exports from APEI+ Countries to Mauritius and Seychelles By World Bank Group
  27. The value of the Committee on Agriculture: Mapping Q&As to trade flows By Jackson, Lee Ann; Maggi, Federica; Piermartini, Roberta; Rubínová, Stela
  28. Improving healthy eating in children: Experimental evidence By Gary Charness; Ramón Cobo-Reyes; Erik Eyster; Gabriel Katz; Ángela Sánchez; Matthias Sutter
  29. Revisiting the relationship between land price and parcel size By Ritter, Matthias; Hüttel, Silke; Odening, Martin; Seifert, Stefan
  30. How to align formal land rights with farmers' perceptions in Central Asia? By Akhmadiyeva, Zarema; Herzfeld, Thomas
  31. A geoadditive distributional regression analysis of the local relationship of land prices and land rents in Germany By Schaak, Henning; Mußhoff, Oliver
  32. Objective risk and subjective risk: The role of information in food supply chains By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Lamonaca, Emilia
  33. Intellectual property rights and agricultural development: evidence from a worldwide index of IPRS in agriculture (1961-2018) By Mercedes Campi; Alessandro Nuvolari
  34. Maizification of the landscape for biogas production? Identifying the likelihood of silage maize for biogas in Brandenburg from 2008-2018 By Vergara, Felipe; Lakes, Tobia Maike
  35. Understanding the heterogeneity among agricultural cooperatives By Jos BIJMAN; Markus HANISCH
  37. From rural to urban land consolidation– An analysis of recent changes in Norwegian land consolidation By Elvestad, Helén Elisabeth; Sky, Per Kåre
  38. A 2020 Vision of India’s Farm Market Reforms By Deodhar, Satish Y.
  39. Corn Production Indicators Report: Trend and Risk Analysis By Shaik, Saleem; Addey, Kwame Asiam
  40. Prevention and Mitigation of Epidemics: Biodiversity Conservation and Confinement Policies By Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron; Giorgio Fabbri; Katheline Schubert
  41. Does connectivity reduce gender gaps in off-farm employment?: Evidence from 12 low- and middle-income countries By Eva-Maria Egger; Aslihan Arslan; Emanuele Zucchini
  42. Soybean Production Indicators Report: Trend and Risk Analysis By Shaik, Saleem; Addey, Kwame Asiam
  43. The Subnational Effect of Temperature on Economic Production: A Disaggregated Analysis in European Regions By Holtermann, Linus; Rische, Marie-Christin
  44. Agricultural Market Integration in India By Michal Andrle; Patrick Blagrave
  45. A sustainability compass for policy navigation to sustainable food systems By Hebinck, Aniek; Zurek, Monika; Achterbosch, Thom; Forkman, Björn; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Kuiper, Marijke; Nørrung, Birgit; van ’t Veer, Pieter; Leip, Adrian

  1. By: Marianne Lefebvre (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - Institut National de l'Horticulture et du Paysage); Estelle Midler (Osnabrück University); Philippe Bontems (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Agriculture is one of the economic sectors most exposed to exogenous risks such as climate hazards and price volatility on agricultural markets. Agricultural policies targeting the adoption of environment-friendly but potentially risk-increasing practices cannot ignore this challenge. Farmers have indeed to decide if they take the foreground risk associated with the adoption of environment-friendly practices, while simultaneously facing exogenous background risk beyond their control. Using a theoretical model and a public good experiment, we analyse the adoption of agri-environmental practices and the effect of agri-environmental subsidies in a context where risks are both foreground and background. While most of the literature on background risk focuses on its impact on individual decisions, we analyse the influence of background risk in a context of strategic uncertainty (contribution to a public good). The results highlight the potential synergies between greening the CAP and supporting risk management. We find that background risk discourages the adoption of green practices, although it affects all farmland independently from the farmer's choice of practices (environment friendly or conventional). An incentive payment per hectare of land farmed with green practices increases the adoption of risk-increasing practices but is significantly less effective in the presence of background risk.
    Date: 2020–05
  2. By: Weltin, Meike; Hüttel, Silke
    Abstract: Sustainable intensification measures promise ecological improvements of farming while maintaining profitability. That is, farms should be able to produce at a higher ecological efficiency without losses in economic efficiency. Based on a theoretical framework, we investigate this promise empirically by analysing the environmental improvement potential of sustainable intensification. We thereby focus on quantifying biodiversity gains using a directional meta-frontier approach and farm survey data from the northern German Plain. We compare eco-efficiency scores in an ecological direction between adopters and matched non-adopters to identify the causal relationship between these gains and sustainable intensification. We find that adopters determine the system frontier. Despite higher mean eco-efficiency scores, most adopters do not yet fully exploit the potential of ecological improvements through sustainable intensification.
    Keywords: environmental sustainability,eco-efficiency,directional data envelopment analysis,matching
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q57
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Katheline Schubert (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: We study a model of strategic competition among farmers for land use in an agricultural economy. Each agent can take possession of a part of the collective forest land and convert it to farming. Unconverted forest land helps preserving biodiversity, which contributes to reducing the volatility of agricultural production. Agents' utility is given in terms of a Kreps Porteus stochastic dierential utility capable of disentangling risk aversion and aversion to uctuations. We characterize the land used by each farmer and her welfare at the Nash equilibrium, we evaluate the over-exploitation of the land and the agents' welfare loss compared to the socially optimal solution and we study the drivers of the ineciencies of the decentralized equilibrium. After characterizing the value of biodiversity in the model, we use an appropriate decomposition to study the policy implications of the model by identifying in which cases the allocation of property rights is preferable to the introduction of a land conversion tax.
    Keywords: Biodiversity,insurance value,land conversion,recursive preferences,stochastic dierential games Q56,Q58,Q10,Q15,O13,O20,C73,D62
    Date: 2020–12–03
  4. By: Buchholz, Matthias; Danne, Michael; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Abstract: Farmland is an essential agricultural production factor that farmers can choose to either buy or rent. In this paper, we apply a discrete choice experiment to analyse German farmers' individual buying and rental decisions for farmland. Our results reveal that farmers have a higher willingness to buy than to rent farmland. Covariates such as farmers' risk attitude affect the decisions in the discrete choice experiment while no effect was observable for individual expectations about future farmland prices. Direct payments considerably raise farmers' willingness to buy and rent farmland. Farmers' decisions deviate substantially from normative predictions from the present value model.
    Keywords: Agricultural Land Market,Farmland,Rent-or-Buy Decision,Discrete Choice Experiment,Present Value Model
    JEL: C93 D90 Q10
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Kahle, Christoph; Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
    Abstract: This article investigates the role played by informational cost in agricultural land markets to explain price dispersion. Based on a hedonic model under incomplete information, we build a two-tier stochastic frontier. By linking costs of being information deficient to agent characteristics such as degree of professionalism, we identify relative price effects of buyers and sellers related to search. We compile a comprehensive data set of more than 10,000 transactions in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, between 2014 and 2017. We find institutional sellers to achieve the lowest losses resulting from information deficiency while tenant buyers can benefit from informational advantages. We conclude that Germany's policy-makers can do more to support market transparency.
    Keywords: farmland markets,hedonic pricing,information deficiency,two-tier frontier
    JEL: D82 D83 Q15 Q24
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Kionka, Marlene; Odening, Martin; Plogmann, Jana; Ritter, Matthias
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the sparse empirical literature on measuring liquidity in agricultural land markets. Using data from Lower Saxony (Germany), we inspect the spatial and temporal variability of various liquidity indicators. We apply a panel vector autoregression (VAR) and Granger causality tests to examine the relationship between liquidity and prices and to identify further determinants of land market liquidity, such as supply shocks and clientele effects. Unlike in housing markets, no positive relationship between prices and market liquidity exists. We conclude that in agricultural land markets, a high demand from expanding farms absorbs supply shocks regardless of prevailing prices.
    Keywords: Agricultural land markets,liquidity indicators,panel vector autoregressive model,Granger causality
    JEL: Q13 Q24 C32 C33
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Laurence Delattre (LEM - Lille économie management - UMR 9221 - UA - Université d'Artois - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marta Debolini (EMMAH - Environnement Méditerranéen et Modélisation des Agro-Hydrosystèmes - AU - Avignon Université - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jean Paoli; Claude Napoleone (INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Michel Moulery; Lara Leonelli (SPE - Sciences pour l'environnement - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pierre Santucci
    Abstract: Farm abandonment and over-extensification trends in less-favored livestock breeding areas in the Mediterranean have led to socio-environmental issues that are difficult to assess and address, due to the characteristics of these areas (e.g., poor data availability and reliability). In a study case that presents many of the characteristics common to these areas, we combine qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess (i) the relationship between livestock production and land-cover change and (ii) the drivers of farmer decisions, concerning the types of livestock they breed. We show that the Common Agricultural Policy's objective of open-landscape preservation cannot be achieved through the observed livestock management practices, with the most heavily CAP subsidy-dependent activities (e.g., suckler-cow breeding) having one of the weakest contributions to this objective. We also econometrically show that suckler-cow breeding is more likely to be adopted as a complementary or main activity in farms facing a labor scarcity and land abundance context. These results complement the literature and contribute to the discussion regarding the design of CAP support for less-favored Mediterranean areas.
    Keywords: Mediterranean mountainous landscape,farmer choice drivers,extensive livestock systems,Common Agricultural Policy,land-use change,less favored areas (LFA)
    Date: 2020–12–14
  8. By: World Bank Group
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Environment - Tourism and Ecotourism Industry - Accommodation & Tourism Industry Industry - Agricultural Industry Industry - Fishing Industry Industry - Food & Beverage Industry
    Date: 2019–10
  9. By: Wolff, Saskia; Hüttel, Silke; Nendel, Claas; Lakes, Tobia
    Abstract: The increasing demand for agricultural commodities for food and energy purposes has led to intensified agricultural production. This trend may manifest in agricultural compositions and landscape configurations that can have mixed and adverse impacts on the provision of ecosystem services. We rely on the EU's plot-based data from the Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS) to identify different types of agricultural landscapes and their spatial distribution in Brandenburg, Germany, a study region strongly characterised by intensification trends. Based on a set of landscape metrics, we are able to characterise agricultural land use and identify six types of agricultural landscapes. We rely on a two-step cluster analysis for a hexagonal grid and find that agricultural land is dominated by cropland with different degrees of fragmentation. By providing a framework using landscape metrics derived from IACS data, our approach involves clustering to identify typologies that are transferable to other regions within the EU based on existing data. This framework can offer more tailored environmental and agricultural planning based on sophisticated measures that take into account local and regional characteristics.
    Keywords: agricultural land use,landscape metrics,cluster analysis,sustainable land use,land use
    JEL: R14 Q15
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Marini, Annalisa
    Abstract: Drawing on the most recent advances of the panel VAR literature, we apply a framework to investigate the impact of weather on banana export prices towards the United Kingdom. This methodology can address some of the limitations of alternative approaches and it can also be generalized to assess the impact of weather on a variety of commodity markets characterized by a network structure. The results show that (i) while shocks to temperatures affect commodity prices, precipitations are less relevant; (ii) an increase in temperatures is likely to increase prices; (iii) the impact on prices is not only direct but it spills over to other exporting countries; (iv) simulating a scenario compatible with global warming we fi�nd that it is likely to lead to a substantial increase in commodity prices and spillover effects; (v) these effects are ampli�ed if we account for a contemporaneous shock to the economy. We discuss implications for global food security, which can be useful for policy implementation.
    Keywords: PVAR, Commodity Price Transmission, Spillovers, Cli- mate Change
    JEL: C3 F1 Q17
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Lakes, Tobia; Garcia-Marquez, Jaime; Müller, Daniel; Lakner, Sebastian; Pe’er, Guy
    Abstract: The “Greening” measures of the EU’s CAP, implemented in 2015, have been intensively debated in terms of their effectiveness and efficiency for agricultural, environmental, and climate outcomes. This study explores the fine-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) (with a particular emphasis on fallow land). We use annual land-use data at the plot level from IACS for Brandenburg in Germany from 2005 to 2018 and apply quantitative spatial metrics. In result, we find EFA measures to represent a small percentage of the total area of agriculture, with catch crops dominating, followed by fallow land and nitrogen-fixing crops. Fallow land decreased until 2015 and slightly increased with the introduction of Greening. Half of the fallow land in 2015 was fallow land in the previous year, while the other half had been used for cereals, fodder and oil seed plants. A large share of fallow land shows a low permanency of 1 up to 4 years. EFAs and particularly fallow land hence may contribute to environmental performance in agricultural land use, yet currently they do so to a limited degree. We suggest a change in types of EFA measures, spatial optimisation to reduce fragmented patterns, and a higher permanency of fallow land by a better alignment of agricultural and landscape policies and planning.
    Keywords: sustainable land use,Common Agricultural Policy,ecological focus areas,fallow land,Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS)
    JEL: Q57 Q1 Q58
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Heinrich, Florian; Appel, Franziska; Balmann, Alfons
    Abstract: After land prices in Germany increased continuously since 2006, policy makers, representatives of farmers' unions, NGOs, and farmers started and continued to discuss or propose new land market regulations to stop price increases and to protect particularly smaller farmers. In this paper we analyze different types of regulations for the land rental market with the agent-based model AgriPoliS. Our simulation results show that price and farm size limitations may inhibit rental price increases and reduce structural change. The regulations do however not lead to a conservation in the number of small farms; neither do they have a substantial positive impact on their profitability and competitiveness. Many small farms still exit agricultural production and only few are able to grow into a larger size class. Beyond redistributional costs, e.g. beared by landowners, economic and social costs result from reduced average economic land rents, less regional value-added and less employment caused by a reduced functionality of the land market and biased incentives.
    Keywords: structural change,land market,land market regulation,agent-based modeling
    JEL: Q15 Q18 C63
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Elena Paglialunga (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo); Andrea Coveri (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo); Antonello Zanfei (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of climate change on within-country income inequality with reference to over 150 nations in 2003-2017. Specifically, we control for a large number of determinants of income disparities detected by extant literature, and focus on agriculture as one of the most crucial channels in the climate change-inequality nexus. We find that temperature increases and precipitation anomalies have significant adverse effects on within-country inequality, especially in the presence of larger shares of population in rural areas and of workers in agriculture. Furthermore, our results show that the diversification of inward FDIs across value chain activities constitutes a resilience-enhancing factor which allows to alleviate the adverse consequences of climate change on income distribution.
    Keywords: Inequality; Climate change; Agriculture; FDI; Global value chains.
    JEL: D63 Q54 F21
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Braito, Michael; Leonhardt, Heidi; Penker, Marianne; Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, Elisabeth; Thaler, Georg; Flint, Courtney G.
    Abstract: While soil degradation is continuing to threaten the global agricultural production system, a common understanding of how to encourage sustainable soil management is missing. With this study, we aim to provide new insights on targeted policies that address the heterogeneity of farmers. We scrutinize the plurality of farmers' views on soil management among arable farmers in the Austrian (and European) policy context. To do so, we apply Q methodology, a method that identifies different perspectives on a topic present in a population and quantifies this subjectivity statistically. We interviewed 34 arable land farmers, who varied in their farming backgrounds. The results yielded four different viewpoints on soil management held by the interviewed farmers: two more ecocentric perspectives (Innovative Nature Participants, Pleasure Seekers) and two more anthropocentric perspectives (Traditional Producers, Profit Maximisers). Our study shows that farmers' soil management is influenced by more than economic considerations and that a mix of policy approaches is needed to reach all farmers and avoid adverse effects or ineffective strategies. We provide several suggestions for policymakers on how to complement agri-environmental schemes: appealing to human-nature relationships, offering training and experimentation services, fostering social networks, and raising the social reputation of farmers.
    Keywords: farmers' viewpoints,soil management,Q methodology,farmer behavior,soil policies
    JEL: Q15 Q18
    Date: 2019
  15. By: Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
    Abstract: In this paper, we test for the existence of a common component in agricultural land auctions in eastern Germany during the price boom 2007-2018 and discuss respective policy implications. Using a large, detailed dataset of auctions, we can rely on professional appraisals of the auctioned good that are privy to the seller to control for unobserved heterogeneity. We derive a new approach to disentangle valuations from observed and unobserved heterogeneity across auctions. For validation purposes we provide several model specifications; based on all models, we strongly reject purely private valuations. Based on the rich identification strategy, we conclude the existence of a common component in these auctions to be very likely. Our results first underline the importance of an adequate model specification to analyze farmland auctions. Second, from a policy perspective, the implied potential for a winner's curse can be seen as a warning sign for the sector.
    Keywords: Farmland auctions,common values,unobserved heterogeneity
    JEL: C57 D44 Q12
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Mechthild Donner (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Anne Verniquet (Sofies SA); Jan Broeze (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - WUR - Wageningen University and Research [Wageningen]); Katrin Kayser (International Biogas and Bioenergy Competence Center - Partenaires INRAE, IBBK Fachgruppe Biogas GmbH); Hugo de Vries (UMR IATE - Ingénierie des Agro-polymères et Technologies Émergentes - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques)
    Abstract: For a transition from a linear, ‘take-make-dispose' economy to a sustainable usage of all constituents of renewable resources in cascading and circular pathways, new business models valorising streams that are currently considered as waste are needed. The aim of this article is to understand critical success and risk factors of eco-innovative business models that contribute to a circular economy via agricultural unavoidable waste or by-products valorisation. 39 cases were studied focusing on agricultural side stream conversion into valuable products. Semi-structured interviews were performed and secondary data collected. Cases were analysed according to types of initiatives, main objectives, resources and valorisation pathways, as well as external and internal factors that have influenced the businesses over time. Following success and risk factor categories are identified: (1) technical and logistic, (2) economic, financial and marketing, (3) organisational and spatial, (4) institutional and legal, (5) environmental, social and cultural. Herein, specific factors for the agricultural sector are innovative conversion technologies, flexible in and out logistics, joint investments in R&D, price competitiveness for bio-based products, partnerships with research organisations, space availability, subsidies, agricultural waste management regulations, local stakeholder involvement and acceptance of bio-based production processes. Insights from this study can help farmers and agribusiness managers by defining and adapting their strategies within their local contexts. They also show that for shifting from linear agro-food chains to a circular system, individual businesses need to evolve towards more dynamic and integrated business models, in which the macro-environment sets the boundary conditions for successful operations.
    Keywords: Circular economy,Bioeconomy,Business models,Success factors,Agricultural waste valorisation
    Date: 2021–02
  17. By: Vaiknoras, Kate; Larochelle, Catherine; Alwang, Jeffrey
    Abstract: Stress-tolerant rice varieties (STRVs) are bred to be high yielding and tolerant to climate shocks such as drought. In Nepal, several drought-tolerant STRVs have been released and widely adopted. This paper estimates the impacts of the adoption of STRVs on first- and higher-order household outcomes in a non-drought year. It controls for selection bias using correlated random effects models to eliminate unobserved plot and household-level heterogeneity. STRVs have a higher yield, a lower yield variance and a shorter growing duration than traditional landrace varieties. In addition, households apply more early-season chemical fertilizer and land preparation labour to plots planted to STRVs compared to landraces. This indicates that the first-order impacts of the adoption of STRVs induce behavioural changes that help to modernize agricultural practices. Finally, this study conducts a randomized experiment in which half of the sampled households provided additional detail on their agricultural inputs.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2020–12–30
  18. By: Sinha, D K; Ahmad, Nasim; Singh, K M
    Abstract: Endowment of fertile Gangetic alluvial soil and abundant water resources, particularly groundwater resources altogether constitute core components for development of agriculture in Bihar. An effort has been made in this paper to analyze factors responsible for changes in land use pattern especially increase in current fallows, shrinking net sown area and shifting of land for non-agricultural purposes in the state. The categories of land such as barren, culturable waste and permanent pastures and grazing lands have shown declining trend and these land may probably have shifted towards other categories of area under non-agricultural uses, land under tree crops and groves as well as fallow lands. A larger concentration of current fallow lands was accounted for in Gaya, Patna, Purnea, Munger, Jehanabad & Kishanganj districts. The rainfall and road length did have significant impact on the level of current fallows. Erratic monsoon and labour scarcity during the study period of present century resulted in accumulation of current fallow lands. It was further observed that the non-agricultural use of land was identified as the dominant factor for changes in common lands as it affected the current fallows negatively. It is a challenging task for policy makers to maximize the income of farmers from a continuously declining in net sown area, deteriorating climatic conditions as well as labour scarce conditions, therby resulting in aggregation of current fallows. In order to discourage the rising tendency in current fallows or to bring current fallows under cultivation, cheap sources of irrigation are needed. Revival of canal irrigation, large scale expansion of electric/solar operated irrigation devices may be the suitable way, who in turn lower the production cost and enhance the margin of profit to the farmers.
    Keywords: Endowment, fallow lands, current fallows, climatic condition
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q15 Q16
    Date: 2019–09–05
  19. By: Shilp Verma; Manisha Shah
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Flood Control Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2019–06
  20. By: Plogmann, Jana; Mußhoff, Oliver; Odening, Martin; Ritter, Matthias
    Abstract: Structural change in agriculture is characterized by the interdependency of farms' growth decisions due to the limited availability of the production factor land. This paper adds to the sparse empirical literature on the relation between land market concentration and farm size changes, considering different definitions of the relevant market. Using data from the Integrated Administrative Control System (IACS) from 2005 until 2017 for Brandenburg, Germany, we find that about half of the land transactions occur beyond municipality borders. This emphasizes the importance of carefully defining the relevant market. The descriptive analysis shows that although concentration rates, on average, did not increase over time, spatial differences are present. In the econometric analysis, we apply a two-stage model to analyze how competition for agricultural land impacts the probability and level of expansion. It shows that for farms that remained active between 2005 and 2017, farms that defragment are less likely to expand. Moreover, we find that the expansion behavior between groups of small and large farms differs with increasing inequality. One potential reason for this might be the existence of market power in land markets.
    Keywords: farm growth,concentration measures,agricultural land markets,structural change,IACS
    JEL: Q13 Q24
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Sara Vicari; Cécile Berranger (Manchester Metropolitan University); Federica Rinaldi (University Roma Tre, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: What could be the role of cooperatives in implementing responsible investment in agriculture (RAI) in developing countries? As a result of a fieldwork research carried out on two cooperative unions and one area cooperative enterprise (ACE) in Uganda, this paper investigates the role of cooperatives in promoting RAI and the related effect on members’ well-being at the level of their holdings, households and communities. This has been explored both using qualitative methods and analyzing quantitative indicators related to unions’ economic and financial trends. The main contribution of this research is to identify main challenges and possible related strategies for cooperatives as implementers and generators of RAI and to provide policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Cooperatives; Responsible Investment in Agriculture; Focus groups; Uganda; Well-being.
    JEL: P13 Q13
  22. By: Mercedes Campi (Instituto Interdisciplinario de Economía Política de Buenos Aires - UBA - CONICET); Marco Dueñas (Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano); Giorgio Fagiolo (Istituto di Economia, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna)
    Abstract: In the last years, there has been a growing interest in studying the global food system as a complex evolving network. Much of the literature has been focusing on the way countries are interconnected in the food system through international-trade linkages, and what consequences this may have in terms of food security and sustainability. Little attention has been instead devoted to understanding how countries, given their capabilities, specialize in agricultural production and to the determinants of country specialization patterns. In this paper, we start addressing this issue using FAO production data for the period 1993-2013. We characterize the food production space as a time-sequence of bipartite networks, connecting countries to the agricultural products they produce, and we identify properties and determinants underlying their evolution. We find that the agricultural product space is a very dense network, which however displays well-defined and stable communities of countries and products, despite the unprecedented pressure that food systems have been undergoing in recent years. We also find that the observed community structures are not only shaped by agro-ecological conditions but also by economic, socio-political, and technological factors. Finally, we discuss the implications that such findings may have on our understanding of the complex relationships involving country production capabilities, their specialization patterns, food security, and the nutrition content of the domestic part of their food supply.
    Keywords: Food systems, Food production, Specialization, Bipartite networks, Community structure detection, Hypergeometric filtering
    JEL: Q10 Q18 F63
  23. By: Peter B. Dixon; Maureen T. Rimmer; Daniel Mason-D'Croz
    Abstract: We use USAGE-Food, a modified version of the USAGE model, to simulate the effects on the U.S. economy of reductions in meat consumption brought about by health-related preference changes or induced by taxes. Modifications include: (a) separate identification of Beef processing; (b) estimates of price elasticities of demand for beef and other food products derived from a survey of econometric studies; (c) nesting in the household utility function and in the production functions of food-serving industries to represent substitution between flesh and non-flesh food; and (d) allowance for flows of agricultural land between agricultural activities. At the macro level, the main influences on our results are health-related effects on medical expenditures and labour supply. The pure food-chain effects have negligible macroeconomic consequences. Other conclusions are: 1: using beef-tax revenue to subsidize healthy foods strongly accentuates substitution away from beef towards healthy foods. However, the subsidy leads to an overall increase in the consumption of food. 2: using beef-tax revenue to expand public consumption has a negative effect on private consumption. In terms of aggregate demand, the two effects are broadly offsetting.
    Keywords: Reducing U S beef consumption CGE simulations effects via health expenditures effects via labour supply
    JEL: C68 I19 Q18
    Date: 2020–12
  24. By: Elizavetta Dorinet (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pierre-André Jouvet (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julien Wolfersberger (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Chaire économie du climat - Chaire économie du climat)
    Abstract: Extractive and agricultural resources do not have the same impact on poverty reduction and can compete with each other. We examine how extractive resource windfalls affect agricultural productivity, measured as the amount of output per worker in the agricultural sector. This is important since agricultural productivity is a key element of structural transformation and poverty reduction. To do this, we exploit a panel dataset of 38 countries over 1991-2016 and construct a country-specific commodity price index that captures resource-related gains and losses in aggregate disposable income. We find that an increase in the commodity price index leads to a drop in agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan economies. Among the possible mechanisms to explain this result, our findings highlight the lack of spillovers across sectors and the low level of agricultural investment in autocratic regimes, both related to the exploitation of extractive resources. We also find that higher agricultural productivity is positively associated with the release of workers towards manufacturing and services, confirming its importance for structural transformation.
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity,Structural transformation,Natural resource curse
    Date: 2020–12–02
  25. By: Alun H. Thomas
    Abstract: Recent micro level data from East Africa is used to benchmark aggregate data and assess the role of agricultural inputs in explaining variation in crop yields on smallholding plots. Fertilizer, improved seeds, protection against erosion and pesticides improve crop yields in Rwanda and Ethiopia, but not Uganda, possibly associated with lack of use there. With all positive yield determinants in place, wheat and maize yields could increase fourfold. The data hints at the negative effect of climate change on yields and the benefits of accompanying measures to mitigate its adverse impact (access to finance and protection against erosion). The adverse effect of crop damage on yields varies between 12/13 percent (Rwanda, Uganda) to 36 percent (Ethiopia). Protection against erosion and investment financing mitigate these effects considerably.
    Keywords: Education;Agroindustries;Consumption;Agricultural sector;Climate change;WP,yield,crop,crop yield,Rwanda,Ethiopia
    Date: 2020–06–12
  26. By: World Bank Group
    Keywords: Transport - Transport and Trade Logistics Agriculture - Agricultural Trade Agriculture - Food Markets International Economics and Trade - Customs and Trade International Economics and Trade - Export Competitiveness International Economics and Trade - Trade and Regional Integration International Economics and Trade - Trade and Standards
    Date: 2019–06
  27. By: Jackson, Lee Ann; Maggi, Federica; Piermartini, Roberta; Rubínová, Stela
    Abstract: What is the value of the WTO Committee on Agriculture? How much trade do countries talk about at the WTO? Do low-income countries participate less than they should in the work of the Committee? How important are issues not covered by notifications? What are the most important issues on which to focus negotiations? In this paper, we attempt to answer these questions building and analysing a new database. WTO regular bodies and the Secretariat collect information on measures notified and concerns raised by members on these measures in text format. We transform the qualitative database maintained through the AG-IMS into a quantitative one. We first introduce a new methodology to associate each question to a product and to its HS 4-digit code. Then, we attempt to match each of the 5'526 questions asked between 1996 and 2016 to the bilateral flows of the corresponding questioner and respondent at the HS 4-digit level. Our working dataset relies on the 3'295 questions that we are able to match. Using this new database, we show that (i) questions covered at least $778 billion of agricultural trade over the period 1996-2016 (or 3% of total trade in agriculture); (ii) on average, when a Member receives a question the questioners account for 48 per cent of its trade in the main product concerned; (iii) for each Member/product the share of trade discussed in the Committee is correlated with its share of global trade in agriculture; (iv) questions related to subsidies and to non-notified measures cover an increasing amount of trade.
    Keywords: Agricultural trade policies,Trade policy monitoring,WTO Transparency,WTOReforms,value of WTO,WTO as discussion forum
    JEL: F13 F53 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2020
  28. By: Gary Charness (University of California, Santa Barbara); Ramón Cobo-Reyes (Amercian University of Sharjah); Erik Eyster (University of California, Santa Barbara); Gabriel Katz (University of Exeter and Universidad Catolica del Uruguay); Ángela Sánchez (NYU Abu Dhabi); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute Bonn, University of Cologne, University of Innsbruck, IZA Bonn)
    Abstract: We present a field experiment to study the effects of non-monetary incentives on healthy food choices of 282 children in elementary schools. Previous interventions have typically paid participants for healthy eating, but this often may not be feasible. We introduce a system where food items are graded based on their nutritional value, involving parents or classmates as change agents by providing them with information regarding the food choices of their children or friends. We find parents’ involvement in the decision process to be particularly beneficial in boosting healthy food choices, with very strong results that persist months after the intervention.
    Keywords: Healthy eating, children, parents, non-monetary incentives, field experiment
    JEL: C93 I12
    Date: 2020–12
  29. By: Ritter, Matthias; Hüttel, Silke; Odening, Martin; Seifert, Stefan
    Abstract: Hedonic land price models often use parcel size as an explanatory variable. Empirical analyses, however, are rather ambiguous regarding the direction and the size of the effect of this variable on farmland values. The objective of this paper is to investigate this size-price relation in detail and to derive recommendations for an appropriate specification of hedonic land price models. Our analysis consists of three steps. First, we conduct a meta-analysis based on a comprehensive literature review. Second, we analyze a dataset of more than 80,000 land transactions in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, using the non-parametric locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) estimator. This unconditional smoothing algorithm identifies negative size-price relations for very small and large plots, whereas it finds a positive relation for medium plot. We use this finding in our third step, a hedonic land price model, in which the size-price relation is modelled conditional on land and buyer characteristics. From these steps, we conclude that the complex relationship between land price and plot size cannot be captured by a simple functional form since it is affected by several economic factors, such as economies of size, transaction cost, and financial constraints.
    Keywords: Land Prices,Parcel Size,Hedonic Model,LOWESS
    JEL: C12 C14 Q11 Q24
    Date: 2019
  30. By: Akhmadiyeva, Zarema; Herzfeld, Thomas
    Abstract: Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan still undergo the process of establishing a land legislative system, implementing agricultural reforms that aim at increasing land productivity. The effectiveness of these reforms is often dependent on the level of law enforcement that varies in accordance with whether political elites in these countries have an interest in enacting certain reforms. As a result, legal land rights and farmers' perceptions of land rights may contradict each other and may create an uncertain and insecure environment for the farmers. Based on the findings of a farm-level survey conducted in 2019 in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, this policy brief claims that legal rights and farmers' actual farming practices do not coincide in many cases. Deviations appear in both directions: 1) farmers engage in activities which they are not allowed to be, and 2) farmers do not use all the opportunities provided by the national land legislation. These deviations indicate the ineffectiveness not only of land policies but of administrative monitoring and law enforcement mechanisms, too. Policy makers are recommended reconsidering the legal restrictions of land use in how far they are necessary to reach policy objectives. Furthermore, governments should reform the judicial system in particular enabling farmers and land users to appeal to courts for dispute resolutions in an effective, transparent, and fair manner. Finally, international donors should support future research on land rights and tenure security to improve policy design.
    Date: 2020
  31. By: Schaak, Henning; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Abstract: The analysis of sales prices and rents for agricultural land are a classical research topic in agricultural economics. Due to increased dynamic on agricultural land markets, their relationship has gained increased interest recently. The present study contributes to the literature by studying the district level heterogeneity of the rent-price-ratio (RPR) of agricultural land. This was achieved by modelling the full conditional distribution of the RPR, using a generalised additive model for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS). In order to choose an adequate model specification; a variable selection procedure is applied. The analysis utilised data from the German federal state Lower Saxony, containing all observable sales and rent price data. Shares of different field crops, livestock densities, shares of different farm types, and the concentration of land were found to influence the distribution of the RPR. Furthermore, differences in the distribution between arable land and grassland were found. By explicitly modelling and visually presenting spatial effects, additional insights into the spatial variation of the profitability of investments in farmland in Germany are provided. Thereby, conclusions regarding efficiency of land markets are possible.
    Keywords: Agricultural land markets,price diffusion,spatial dependence,border effect
    JEL: C21 C46 Q15
    Date: 2020
  32. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Lamonaca, Emilia
    Abstract: Food-borne infections cause a considerable amount of illnesses, heavily affecting healthcare systems. Given the spread of food-borne infections, assessing food risks is a relevant issue for the food industry and policymakers. Following a systematic and meta-analytical approach, we evaluate how different sources and types of risks (i.e. objective and subjective) are valued by consumers, in order to emphasise to what extent information on food risks may be efficiently transferred to consumers. The results show that information on food safety, conveyed through labels, exerts a positive influence on the premium prices for food safety. Consumers would be willing to pay a price premium up to 168.7% for food products that are treated against a specific food-borne risk factor, certified to be safe, tested or even inspected by public or third parties. However, we also find that labels are inefficient instruments of information on food safety, particularly when products are likely to be affected by hazardous and risky events and consumers correctly perceive risks. The results suggest that consumers exposed to relevant risk information about food safety tend to increase their risk perception and to decrease their premium prices for information on food safety. Including labels on food safety may fill the information gap and thus lower the mismatch between (objective) scientific-based risks and (subjective) perceived risks.
    Keywords: Ambiguity; Consumer; Food safety; Information; Label; Risk
    JEL: D81 M31 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2020
  33. By: Mercedes Campi (Instituto Interdisciplinario de Economía Política de Buenos Aires - UBA - CONICET); Alessandro Nuvolari (Istituto di Economia, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna)
    Abstract: This paper revises and updates the Campi-Nuvolari index of intellectual property protection for plant varieties (Campi and Nuvolari, 2015). The new index has been updated and provides yearly scores for the period 1961-2018 for a total number of 104 countries, which have legislation on plant variety protection in force. The new evidence highlights the tendency towards more similar and stronger systems of intellectual property rights (IPRs) worldwide, regardless of individual characteristics of countries. The signing of the TRIPS and of trade agreements with TRIPS-Plus provisions are major drivers of this process. In addition, certain features of countries such as the regulatory environment, the level of human capital, the importance of agricultural production, and openness to trade, are also signicant determinants of the evolution of IPRs systems. We conclude discussing other possible applications of the data.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Plant Breeders’ Rights, Patents, Agricultural Development, International Comparison
    JEL: Q01 O31 O34 O50
  34. By: Vergara, Felipe; Lakes, Tobia Maike
    Abstract: The development of biogas production in Germany has reshaped agricultural land use and production schemes since the implementation of the Renewable Energy Sources Act in 2000. It is associated with a widespread introduction of silage maize as a major substrate. While it contributes significantly to the renewable energy production, intensive maize-for-biogas production comes at the expense of loss of area for food production, is associated with negative ecological effects due to intensive and large-area monoculture, and is also associated with an increase in land prices. However, due to missing data, little is known about the plot-based distribution and development of silage maize for biogas production and, therefore, the local effects remain largely unstudied. This paper aims to identify the plot-level based likelihood of silage maize cultivated for biogas production in the Brandenburg region of Germany from 2008 through 2018. For this ongoing study, we developed and applied a spatially explicit multicriteria approach using plot-level land use information from Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS) data and additional datasets on biogas plants. Our initial results show that within the 10 years of this study, the area which was most likely used for biogas silage maize production has tripled. We also find biogas silage maize production has been concentrated in the northwest and central-east of the region, and we identified distinct silage maize hotspots within the area. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first attempt at biogas production. From our study, we can derive some of the spatially explicit effects of the Renewable Energy Sources Act on local land use dynamics over time. This may be an important asset for comparative and future studies on the effects of policy-driven land use changes on ecological and land price outcomes which will be subject of further analyses.
    Keywords: Biogas,biogas silage maize,maizification,multicriteria approach,AHP,IACS,land use
    JEL: Q24 Q28
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Jos BIJMAN (Wageningen University (The Netherlands)); Markus HANISCH (Humboldt University of Berlin (Germany))
    Abstract: This paper discusses the importance of acknowledging and understanding the heterogeneity among cooperatives. Many studies on agricultural cooperatives, particularly on the impact of membership, do not account for the large differences in organisational and functional characteristics across cooperatives. We identify and discuss five core differences that have implications for theoretical and empirical research. We propose a classification that can be used by scholars in their research on understanding the evolution, performance and impact of producer cooperatives, and that can be used by policy makers in better targeting their support policies.
    Keywords: Cooperatives, agriculture, typology, transactions, governance, evolution, performance, impact
    JEL: L2 D23 Q13
    Date: 2020
  36. By: Tahir Andrabi (Pomona College, California, USA); Sheetal Bharat (BASE University); Michael Kuehlwein (Pomona College, California, USA)
    Abstract: In contrast to the literature on railways, there have been few empirical studies of the impact of telegraphs, another revolutionary technology, on price convergence. The few that exist measure the impact of telegraphs on commodity price differences between countries in the presence of a well-established efficient transportation system: ocean shipping. This paper estimates the impact of telegraphs within a developing economy, British India, with sparse, inefficient transportation. We use a rich dataset of rice and wheat prices for 192 districts between 1862 and 1920. Over 14,000 district pairs are linked by telegraph in the sample. We obtain strong evidence that, even in this context, telegraphs significantly reduced grain price dispersion before railways appeared. There were also spillover effects on neighboring districts. The combined impact of railways and telegraphs still cannot explain most of the convergence in our sample. However, the results highlight the potential importance that communication advances had on late 19th century market integration in less developed economies.
    Keywords: Price convergence; information; telegraph; British India; grain prices
    JEL: L96 N75 O13 O18 O38
    Date: 2021–01
  37. By: Elvestad, Helén Elisabeth (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Sky, Per Kåre (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: In most countries, land consolidation was first introduced in rural areas, with legislation suitable for urban areas being drafted at a later date. This is also true of Norway. The first evidence of urban competency in the legislation is found in the Land Consolidation Act from 1950. It is important to note that in Norway land consolidation remains the exclusive province of the court system. This, as far as we know, is unique for Norway. In the article we investigate how the original measures in the Land Consolidation Act for rural areas has been adapted to accommodate application in urban areas. We also investigate three urban cases brought before the Land Consolidation Court for settlement. Unfortunately, there are no national statistics that distinguish between land consolidation cases in rural and in urban areas. We can conclude that only small changes were needed to be made to the Act to suit it to land consolidation in urban areas. Properties are often difficult to use gainfully at the current time and under the current circumstances. The layout of the property is not adapted to developments that will take place. Land consolidation is therefore of great importance to urban development.
    Keywords: Land consolidation; Land readjustment; Urban areas; Rural areas; Norway
    JEL: K11 Q15
    Date: 2021–01–18
  38. By: Deodhar, Satish Y.
    Abstract: Concern for farmers and market facilitation by the state is as old as Indian civilization. In the post-Independence era, this concern was addressed by provision of market-yards for the farmers through APMC Acts of the state governments; and, by announcements of minimum support prices (MSP) for quite a few crops by the central government. Over time, however, these initiatives had their unintended consequences. APMC markets turned into monopsonies and central government has never committed itself to buying all produce at MSP from Indian farmers, except perhaps from a few states such as Punjab and Haryana. Contract farming was successful in a few states and for a few products; however, it never reached any threshold in most states. In this context, I discuss the institutional structure of the Indian farm markets and a few policy initiatives from the past. Thereafter, I present the main features of the new farm acts introduced in 2020 and emphasize the importance of their implementation.
    Date: 2021–01–21
  39. By: Shaik, Saleem; Addey, Kwame Asiam
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–12–18
  40. By: Emmanuelle Augeraud-Véron; Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Katheline Schubert
    Date: 2020–12–03
  41. By: Eva-Maria Egger; Aslihan Arslan; Emanuele Zucchini
    Abstract: Gender gaps in labour force participation in developing countries persist despite income growth or structural change. We assess this persistence across economic geographies within countries, focusing on youth employment in off-farm wage jobs. We combine household survey data from 12 low- and middle-income countries in Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa with geospatial data on population density, and estimate simultaneous probit models of different activity choices across the rural-urban gradient.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Youth, Employment, Asia, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2021
  42. By: Shaik, Saleem; Addey, Kwame Asiam
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–12–18
  43. By: Holtermann, Linus; Rische, Marie-Christin
    Abstract: In order to develop efficient strategies to counter the adverse economic consequences of climate change, accurate and spatially detailed assessments of economic damage are required. Estimates to assess the impact of temperature variations on macroeconomic output are usually based on country-level weather aggregates, neglecting that weather realizations tend to vary significantly within countries. Using data from multiple decades for spatially small-scaled European regions, we conduct a disaggregated analysis to mitigate the potential bias arising from spatial aggregation. We examine the economic impacts of temperature by analysing annual variations in two different weather indicators, namely yearly averages representing rise in temperature levels and standardized deviations from the region-specific climate norm representing unusual warm and cold periods. Our spatially explicit approach considers spatial dynamics and the spatial distribution of temperature effects as it captures spatial dependence via spillovers and allows for potential heterogeneous effects sizes for distinct spatial regimes. We find that regional-level growth reacts non-linearly to a rise in temperature levels, with a concave response curve similar to those estimated in earlier country-level studies. Interestingly, baseline temperature levels also moderate the effects of temperature deviations as unusually hot years adversely affect warm regions, whereas overly cold years foster growth. In contrast to most of the literature, we disclose that the relationship between economic growth and temperature variations is not generalizable. The uniform temperature-growth relationship found in the literature for countries at a global scale does not hold at the subnational level. The “world city” regions at the top of the urban hierarchy are not prone to any form of tested temperature variation. The resilience of these city regions can be explained, inter alia, by the prevalence of invulnerable sectors. The uneven effect sizes suggest that spatially differentiated policy measures are needed that should be coordinated between regional and national levels of government to counter the adverse consequences of temperature variations and climate change more efficiently.
    Keywords: temperature, climate change, regional economic growth, heterogenous vulnerability, Europe, spatial spillovers
    JEL: C31 C33 O44 Q51 Q54 R1
    Date: 2020
  44. By: Michal Andrle; Patrick Blagrave
    Abstract: We assess the degree of cross-market price discrepancy (a proxy for market integration), its evolution over time, and proximate determinants, using monthly price data for 21 agricultural goods and 60 markets in India. Econometric analysis shows that cross-market price integration is positively associated with the level of transportation infrastructure, and distance between market pairs. There is no robust evidence that price integration has increased in recent years, suggesting that any positive effects of recent policy initiatives are either small, outweighed by the identified determinants of integration, or yet to come.
    Keywords: Agricultural commodities;Commodities;Infrastructure;Agricultural sector;Transportation;WP,market integration,market,markup
    Date: 2020–07–03
  45. By: Hebinck, Aniek; Zurek, Monika; Achterbosch, Thom; Forkman, Björn; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Kuiper, Marijke; Nørrung, Birgit; van ’t Veer, Pieter; Leip, Adrian
    Abstract: The growing acknowledgement that food systems require transformation has led to a call for comprehensive sustainability assessments to support decision-making. For frameworks to serve sustainability governance, they must show the trade-offs and unintended consequences that might result from policy decisions across key goals relevant to food system actors. This paper reviews existing literature and frameworks and builds on stakeholder input to present a sustainability compass with associated metrics for food system assessments. The compass defines sustainability scores for four societal goals, underpinned by areas of concern. The operationalisation approach for assessment balances policy-usability, system complexity and comprehensiveness, while providing actionable insights. It concludes by outlining additional challenges for research to continue development of food system frameworks that support sustainability governance.
    Date: 2020–11–30

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.