nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒01‒18
thirty-two papers chosen by

  1. Investment planning to minimize climate risk in agricultural production: An optimization model for a semi-arid region in India By Deb Pal, Barun; Kumar, Shalander; Patan, Elias Khan
  2. Symposium policy note 1: Enabling farmers to lead food system transformation and resilience in Egypt By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  3. The effects of COVID-19 policies on livelihoods and food security of smallholder farm households in Nigeria: Descriptive results from a phone survey By Balana, Bedru B.; Oyeyemi, Motunrayo A.; Ogunniyi, Adebayo I.; Fasoranti, Adetunji; Edeh, Hyacinth; Aiki, Joel; Andam, Kwaw S.
  4. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Agricultural production and rural livelihoods in two irrigation schemes – October 2020 survey round By Lambrecht, Isabel; Ragasa, Catherine; Mahrt, Kristi; Aung, Zin Wai; Ei Win, Hnin; Zu, A Myint; Wang, Michael
  5. Determinants of farm-level adoption of system of rice and wheat intensification in Gaya, Bihar By Shikha Pandey; Parmod Kumar
  6. Global Land Inequality By Luis Bauluz; Yajna Govind; Filip Novokmet
  7. Technology intensification and farmers’ welfare: A case study from Karnataka, a semi-arid state of India By Kapoor, Shreya; Deb Pal, Barun; Singhal, Aditi; Anantha, K. H.
  8. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Agricultural equipment retailers - November 2020 survey round By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Zone, Phoo Pye; Masias, Ian
  9. Use of Evidence to Inform Agricultural Policy Decisions By Christopher Delgado; Karen Brooks; Christian Derlagen; Steven Haggblade; Kate Lawyer
  10. Does Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) Contribute to Youth Development in Informal Farm Entrepreneurship? Evidence from Rural Communities in Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi; Simplice A. Asongu
  11. Digital opportunities for demand-side policies to improve consumer health and the sustainability of food systems By Tom Baragwanath
  12. Structure and strategy of supermarkets of fruits and vegetables retailing in Karnataka: Gains for whom? By Kedar Vishnu; Parmod Kumar
  13. Rural outmigration and the gendered patterns of agricultural labor in Nepal By Slavchevska, Vanya; Doss, Cheryl; Mane, Erdgin; Kaaria, Susan; Kar, Anuja; Villa, Victor
  14. Groundwater and Surface Water in the Mega-Irrigation Systems of Pakistan By Frank van Steenbergen
  15. Mitigating Floods for Managing Droughts through Aquifer Storage By Paul Pavelic
  16. Optimizing agricultural demand response for reducing costs of renewable energy integration in India By Khanna, Tarun
  17. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Rice millers - September 2020 survey round By Goeb, Joseph; Zone, Phoo Pye; Synt, Nang Lun Kham; Cho, Ame; Tang, Yulu
  18. Climate Change and Marine Fisheries in Africa By World Bank
  19. Heat and Hate, Climate Security and Farmer-Herder Conflicts in Africa By Ulrich J. Eberle; Dominic Rohner; Mathias Thoenig
  20. Do junk food bans in school really reduce childhood overweight? Evidence from Brazil By Pierre Levasseur
  21. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Yangon peri-urban poultry farmers - November 2020 survey round By Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Zhang, Xiaobo
  22. Agricultural Market Access Under Tariff-Rate Quotas By Beckman, Jayson; Gale, Fred; Lee, Tani
  23. Maximizing the effectiveness of national commitments to protected area expansion for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem carbon under climate change. By Carroll, Carlos; Ray, Justina
  24. Symposium policy note 2: Digitalization of agricultural services and policy analysis in Egypt By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  25. Environmental efficiency measurement when producers control pollutants under heterogeneous conditions: a generalization of the materials balance approach By Andreas Eder
  26. Imported Food Price Shocks and Socio-Political Instability: Do Fiscal Policy and Remittances Matter? By Carine Meyimdjui
  27. Beyond Individualistic Behaviour: Social Norms and Innovation Adoption in Rural Mozambique By Luca Crudeli; Susanna Mancinelli; Massimiliano Mazzanti; Raul Pitoro
  28. Does livestock ownership affect food security? Evidence from rural Mauritania By Mamoudou Ba
  29. Should they avoid the middleman? An analysis of fish processing firms in India By Meenakshi Rajeev; Pranav Nagendran
  30. Differences in Diet Quality between School Lunch Participants and Nonparticipants in the United States by Income and Race By Elizabeth C. Gearan; Kelley Monzella; Leah Jennings; Mary Kay Fox
  31. Monitoring the impacts of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Food vendors - November 2020 survey round By Oo, Than Zaw; Minten, Bart; Headey, Derek D.; Lambrecht, Isabel; Goudet, Sophie
  32. Risk sources and management strategies of farmers: Evidence from mahanadi river basin of Odisha in India By Jayanti Mala Nayak; A V Manjunatha

  1. By: Deb Pal, Barun; Kumar, Shalander; Patan, Elias Khan
    Abstract: The primary aim of this study is to prioritize investment required for scaling up climate-smart agriculture (CSA) technologies across different districts of Telangana state, which is in the semi-arid region of India. First, we analysed the trade-offs between expected agricultural income and its deviation across districts under drought and normal weather scenarios. The conventional MOTAD model was extended with various climate-smart technologies to assess their role in minimizing the trade-offs under various weather scenarios. A district-level panel dataset on cost of cultivation and crop production for 11 major crops under six different climate-smart technologies and farmers’ practices for five years (2010-11 to 2014-15) has been used. The dataset comprised a collation of official statistics on cost of cultivation, focus group interviews with farmers over the years, and data from experimental plots of Regional Agricultural Research Stations. The analysis reveals that the adoption of CSA technologies is likely to reduce production risk by 16% compared to farmers’ traditional practices (FTPs) while achieving optimum levels of crop income. Under a scenario of higher probability of drought, production risk is likely to increase by 12% in the state under FTPs; the adoption of CSA technologies could reduce the risk by 25%. The study suggests increasing investments in farm ponds and un-puddled machine transplanting in rice to minimize the risk-return trade-offs under a higher drought frequency scenario. Finally, the study generates evidence for policymakers to make informed investment decisions on CSA in order to enhance farming system resilience across districts in the semi-arid state of Telangana, India.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; climate-smart agriculture; agriculture; technology; investment planning; risk reduction; risk; agricultural production; models; agricultural technology; risk minimization; climat risk; MOTAD model; Minimization of Total Absolute Deviation model
    Date: 2020
  2. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Agricultural and food policies will play an important role in making Egypt’s food system fit for future challenges, including resilience to shocks, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This brief highlights the importance of enabling farmers so that they can contribute significantly to a broader transformation and to resilience of Egypt’s food system and rural economy. Five areas of action are highlighted: Invest in a renewed system of agricultural extension services, with an emphasis on new technologies and production systems and on nontraditional crops. Ease rigidities for farmers and increase the market orientation of the agriculture sector, including markets for fertilizer and staple crops. Revisit the current irrigation management system to allow for the adoption of new irrigation technologies and increased efficiency of water usage. Support the development of agro-processing value chains where there are missing markets or market frictions in order to achieve a sustainable and nutrition-sensitive food system. Coordinate agricultural policy with policies of other government ministries to support rural transformation and employment opportunities off the farm.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, farmers, food systems, resilience, agriculture, food policies, rural economics, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Balana, Bedru B.; Oyeyemi, Motunrayo A.; Ogunniyi, Adebayo I.; Fasoranti, Adetunji; Edeh, Hyacinth; Aiki, Joel; Andam, Kwaw S.
    Abstract: The Government’s policy measures such as travel restrictions, lockdowns, and restrictions on economic and social activities, aimed at curbing the spread of COVID-19, had affected the livelihoods and food security of smallholders in Nigeria. Using data collected from sample households from four Nigerian states, this study investigated the effects of COVID-19 pandemic policies on the incomes, employment, and food security situation of smallholder farming households. Results show that 88 percent of the households reported that they lost about 50 percent of their income due to the pandemic. As a result, about 66 percent of respondents reported they reduced food consumption. Travel and movement restrictions caused disruptions in agricultural activities and supply chains, as 29 percent of respondents reported planting fewer crops, 24 percent reduced cropping area, and 24 percent reduced fertilizer application. In terms of household’s food security, results show that COVID-19 significantly worsened the food security situation of many households in Nigeria, especially poorer households. More than 80 percent of respondents worried about not having enough food and 77 percent ate less food than they thought they should. Survey households also reported a significant reduction of consumption of proteins (eggs, meat, and dairy products) and fruits since the pandemic struck. Increases in food prices are felt by most households (85 percent). We suggest three key policy priorities: support vulnerable households to mitigate the impacts of income loss through cash transfer or improved credit access; interventions to improve agricultural inputs supply chains to ease the pandemic’s impact on agricultural production; and support food insecure households through direct food distribution.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; livelihoods; food security; smallholders; households; income; household income; income loss
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Lambrecht, Isabel; Ragasa, Catherine; Mahrt, Kristi; Aung, Zin Wai; Ei Win, Hnin; Zu, A Myint; Wang, Michael
    Abstract: The persistent and worsening effects of the COVID-19 crisis on rural household incomes are alarming. The onset of the second wave of infections and mitigation measures in Myanmar is continuing to depress household incomes. Key findings: Almost three-quarters of the households surveyed reported lower household income than usual in August and September. In addition to a drought and lack of irrigation water limiting crop production in August and September, 22 percent of farmers experienced difficulties accessing inputs and 28 percent invested less than usual in their farm due to financial constraints. A quarter of farmers experienced difficulties selling their produce, which is lower than the share that reported having such difficulties in previous months. However, farmers anticipate further difficulties hampering sales in coming months, mainly due to expected restrictions on mobility. Landless households have been the most adversely affected by the crisis, largely due to lost nonfarm employment, lower remittances, and further negative impacts on rural enterprises. To cope with reduced incomes, 61 percent of households reported having reduced food expenditures, 36 percent sold assets, and 37 percent took loans. Households maintained the diversity of their diets but reduced the amount of meat and fish consumed. More households reported meat and fish to be less available than in previous rounds. Government transfer programs reached 99 percent of households in the study area, mostly in the form of income assistance. Recommended actions: Assistance to rural households should be continued to soften the impact of reduced income during the COVID-19 crisis and prevent households from jeopardizing future food security and health by depleting savings and assets, acquiring debt, and reducing food expenditures. Supporting rural non-farm businesses and employment will be key to building resilience in household livelihoods and to achieving a faster overall economic recovery.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, agricultural production, rural population, livelihoods, irrigation, household income
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Shikha Pandey; Parmod Kumar (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: Around 90 percent of the people in Bihar still live in rural areas and agriculture is one of the main sources of their livelihood, either directly or indirectly. With the size of land holdings declining and decrease in area under agriculture, it has become important to bring in modern technology to help increasing yield per hectare of land by sustaining the natural resources. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) [System of Wheat Intensification (SWI)], is one such technology which is said to increase yield and conserve resources. This paper looks at determinants of farm-level adoption of SRI (SWI) in Gaya district of Bihar using the logistic regression method. The results of the study depict that variables, viz., age, physical productivity and hours of irrigation, were found significant in the adoption of SRI method whereas, hours of irrigation, physical productivity and number of family labour per acre, were found significant for adoption of SWI method of cultivation.
    Keywords: Agriculture; Livelihood; System of Rice Intensification; System of Wheat Intensification
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Luis Bauluz (University of Bonn, WIL - World Inequality Lab); Yajna Govind (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, WIL - World Inequality Lab); Filip Novokmet (WIL - World Inequality Lab , University of Bonn)
    Abstract: Agricultural land is vital for three out of four of the poorest billion individuals in the world yet little is known about the distribution of agricultural land. Existing crosscountry estimates of land inequality, based on agriculture census data, measure the size distribution of agricultural holdings. These neither reflect land ownership inequality nor value inequality and often do not account for the landless population. In this paper, we tackle these issues and provide novel and consistent estimates of land inequality across countries, based on household surveys. We show that i) land-value inequality can differ significantly from land-area inequality, ii) differences in the proportion of landless across countries vary substantially, affecting markedly inequality estimates and, iii) regional patterns in inequality according to our benchmark metric (landvalue inequality including the landless) contradict existing estimates from agricultural censuses. Overall, South Asia and Latin America exhibit the highest inequality with top 10% landowners capturing up to 75% of agricultural land, followed by Africa and 'Communist' Asia (China and Vietnam) at levels around 55-60%. .
    Keywords: Land Ownership,Inequality,Distribution
    Date: 2020–06
  7. By: Kapoor, Shreya; Deb Pal, Barun; Singhal, Aditi; Anantha, K. H.
    Abstract: Technology adoption has been advocated as an important way to improve agricultural productivity and welfare of farmers in the semi-arid regions across the globe. The Government of Karnataka implemented the Bhoosamrudhi program in four districts of the state (Bidar, Chikballapur, Dharwad, and Udupi) as a pilot project to increase the crop yield and income of smallholder farmers. This program was launched on the theme of technology adoption along with convergence among different departments of agriculture. Farmers have been classified into five categories based on their levels of technology intensification to assess the impact of different levels of technology intensification on their welfare. The research is built on a primary survey conducted in pilot districts of the state in 2018 over a sample of 1,465 farmer households. The results generated using econometric methods of propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability weighted with regression adjustment (IPWRA) highlight that the higher the intensification, the higher the net returns to the farmers. The results state that non-adopters would receive a benefit of an additional Rs.3200 per month if they adopt at least one level of technology intensification. Hence, this program turned out to be a successful model for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of India. Steps should be taken to maintain and expand the momentum of adoption to ensure food and livelihood security in the economy.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; technology; intensification; farmers; welfare; impact assessment; econometric models; smallholders; crop intensification; technology intensification; technology adoption; Propensity score matching (PSM)
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Zone, Phoo Pye; Masias, Ian
    Abstract: Agricultural equipment retailers (ER) play an essential role in meeting the demand from farmers for the provision of a diverse set of machines and equipment at affordable prices which are needed for the heterogeneous agricultural production environments in Myanmar. The business operations of ERs can be particularly sensitive to bottlenecks in trade flows and to internal logistical disruptions that affect their inventory management. Given their close linkages with mechanization service providers, the financial and supply challenges that ERs face can have repercussions on the provision of mechanization services as well.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, arid zones, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, equipment, farm equipment, supply chains, policies, sales, Covid-19, retailers, agricultural equipment retailers (ERs), agricultural equipment sales, equipment availability, equipment price
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Christopher Delgado; Karen Brooks; Christian Derlagen; Steven Haggblade; Kate Lawyer
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Extension Agriculture - Agricultural Research Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Food Security
    Date: 2019–12
  10. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of a growth enhancement support scheme (GESS) on youth development in informal farm entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the GESS on rural youths’ adoption of new technologies needed to sustainably increase food security in Nigeria. Design/ methodology/ approach – This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 800 rural youths were sampled across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Findings – The result from the use of a bivariate probit model indicate that the GESS has a significant impact on rural youths’ innovations in farming. Practical implication – This suggests that information and communication technology (ICT) could provide new opportunities for making farming more interesting and enterprising for rural young people. Social implication – It implies that while old male and female farmers are less likely to adopt the new farming technologies needed to achieve Nigeria’s agricultural transformation agenda (ATA), a younger generation can help introduce new technologies, whilst also learning from traditional methods. Originality/ value – This research adds to the literature on informal farm entrepreneurship and rural communities’ debate in developing countries. It concludes that engaging youths in GESS should form the foundation of the ATA in Nigeria, which, in turn, would offer adequate combination of new and traditional solutions to address the challenges of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Youth Development Initiative, Informal Farm Entrepreneurship, Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS), Rural Communities in Nigeria
    Date: 2020–01
  11. By: Tom Baragwanath
    Abstract: Digital tools and technologies can assist governments to improve consumer health and the sustainability of food systems. These tools can be used to encourage consumers to buy healthy and nutritious foods and foods produced through sustainable farming practices, as well as to reduce asymmetries of food labelling schemes. They also contribute to more effective food data collection systems that can inform policy decisions, including by combining commercial sales information with national dietary intake survey data. Given the diverse approaches to adopting these digital tools, there is scope for cross-country learning. Current use of digital technologies by some governments ‒ from national dietary guideline websites to dedicated mobile apps ‒ can serve as references for other countries that seek to develop their own digital programmes. While these tools offer useful mechanisms for advancing policy objectives, they will need to be carefully designed to maximisetheir effectiveness and regularly evaluated to avoid excess cost and duplication.
    Keywords: behavioural insights, dietary intake surveys, food waste labelling, obesity
    JEL: I18 M38 O38 Q18
    Date: 2021–01–14
  12. By: Kedar Vishnu; Parmod Kumar (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: Indian Modern Food Retail Chains (MFRC) have been growing the fastest in developing countries for the last two decades. What impact will it have on existing fruit and vegetable (F&Vs) supply chains, procurement price offered to farmers and consumers’ purchase prices? How do the MFRC expand their business and what strategy do they adopt? This paper analyses the evolution of MFRC, particularly during the last two decades. Further, the paper traces the current structure and expansion of retailing through supermarkets in India and discerns the strategy of the retail chains and price spread in F&Vs. The paper is based on primary survey and data were collected in 2016-17 in Bangalore, Karnataka. Field findings show that domestic modern retailers resort to joint ventures with other international companies mainly for utilising their international experience, expertise in brand development and retail led technological development. The authors noted that the MFRC have shifted away from the use of spot markets towards purchasing directly from the farmers for differentiating their product from traditional retailers, maintaining higher product quality, consistency and cutting costs in order to compete with the traditional players and wet markets. The paper concludes that most of the F&Vs and MFRC offer higher prices to the farmers as compared with traditional and spot market prices.
    Keywords: Food retail chain; Supermarkets; Fruits and vegetables; Spot markets
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Slavchevska, Vanya; Doss, Cheryl; Mane, Erdgin; Kaaria, Susan; Kar, Anuja; Villa, Victor
    Abstract: In Nepal, as in many developing countries, male outmigration from rural areas is significant and is rapidly transforming the sending communities. Using primary data collected from households in rural Nepali communities, this study analyzes the effects of male out-migration from rural agricultural areas on women’s and men’s work on and off the farm. Using an instrumental variable approach to correct for endogeneity related to outmigration, the study finds differential impacts on agricultural labor for the men and women who remain. Men reduce labor in non-farm work without significantly increasing their labor allocation to other activities. Women, on the other hand, increase their work on the farm taking on new responsibilities and moving from contributing family workers to primary farmers. Despite their growing roles as primary farmers, women in households with a migrant do not increase their work in higher value activities, and remain predominantly concentrated in producing staple grains. The analysis highlights the importance of recognizing the changing roles of rural women, especially with respect to the management of the family farm, but it also raises questions about the sustainability and resilience of rural livelihoods to shocks in remittance incomes.
    Keywords: NEPAL; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; migration; rural areas; gender; labour; agriculture; women; men; households; remittances; rural outmigration; labour supply
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Frank van Steenbergen
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Drought Management Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
  15. By: Paul Pavelic
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Drought Management Water Resources - Flood Control Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
  16. By: Khanna, Tarun
    Abstract: While demand side response is recognized as a useful tool in reducing the costs of integration of variable renewables, literature on demand side measures in the developing countries has been limited due to lack of publicly available data on system level end use load profiles. This article fills the gap by evaluating agricultural pumping demand as demand side resource in India. Enabled by the system of segregated power supply for irrigation, pumping load has long been used to flatten the load curve but its value to the system resource has largely been ignored. We collected data on hourly supply to 123 agriculture groups in two distribution utilities in the Indian state of Gujarat for one year and used the derived agriculture supply curves in a production cost optimization power model. We estimate that agriculture demand responds reduces the cost of grid operations by up to 6% in the current system. By suitably modifying the agriculture pumping load the cost of integrating up to 50% of renewable energy is reduced and curtailment is reduced by 3-6%. Decentralized agricultural pumps can reduce the cost of integrating and curtailment by enabling absorption of peak solar energy. We conclude that in power systems with moderate to high shares of agricultural demand, agricultural demand response can provide a cost-effective way of integrating high shares of renewable electricity. Further, even though decentralized systems may require higher feed-in-tariffs, replacing agricultural pumps dependent on centralised supply with decentralized agricultural pumps is more effective in integrating solar electricity as compared to centralized solar power plants besides having benefits for ground water conservation.
    Keywords: energy,demand response
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Goeb, Joseph; Zone, Phoo Pye; Synt, Nang Lun Kham; Cho, Ame; Tang, Yulu
    Abstract: This is the third policy note in a series presenting the results from rounds of telephone surveys with rice millers in three important rice-growing regions of Myanmar: Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Yangon. Mills are the most important link between farms and consumers in the rice value chain. Thus, any shocks to rice mills will impact both rural rice-producing households as well as urban consumers.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, rice, value chains, paddy, policies, surveys, food prices, COVID-19 Economic Relief Plan, Covid-19, rice mills, phone survey, rice byproduct prices
    Date: 2020
  18. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Adaptation to Climate Change Environment - Climate Change Impacts Environment - Coastal and Marine Environment Environment - Environmental Protection Water Resources - Coastal and Marine Resources Water Resources - Oceans
    Date: 2019–12
  19. By: Ulrich J. Eberle (Future of Conflict Fellow at International Crisis Group and Princeton University); Dominic Rohner (University of Lausanne and CEPR); Mathias Thoenig (University of Lausanne and CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of climate shocks on violence between herders and farmers by using geolocalized data on conflict events for all African countries over the 1997-2014 period. We find that a +1℃ increase in temperature leads to a +54% increase in conflict probability in mixed areas populated by both farmers and herders, compared to +17% increase in non-mixed areas. This result is robust to controlling for the interaction between temperature and ethnic polarization, alternative estimation techniques, disaggregation levels, and coding options of the climatic/conflict/ethnic variables. When quantifying at the continental level the impact on conflict of projected climate change in 2040, we find that, in absence of mixed population areas, global warming is predicted to increase total annual conflicts by about a quarter in whole Africa; when factoring in the magnifying effect of mixed settlements, total annual conflicts are predicted to rise by as much as a third. We also provide two pieces of evidence that resource competition is a major driver of farmer-herder violence. Firstly, conflicts are much more prevalent at the fringe between rangeland and farmland - a geographic buffer of mixed usage that is suitable for both cattle herding and farming but is particularly vulnerable to climate shocks. Secondly, information on groups' mobility reveals that temperature spikes in the ethnic homeland of a nomadic group tend to diffuse its fighting operations outside its homeland, with a magnified spatial spread in the case of conflicts over resources. Finally, we show that violence is substantially reduced in the presence of policies that empower local communities, foster participatory democracy, enforce property rights and regulate land dispute resolution.
    Keywords: Conflict, civil war, violence, climate change, weather, heat, temperature, nomadic, ethnicity, resource competition, farmer-herder conflict, Sahel
    JEL: D74 N47 O13 Q34 Z13
    Date: 2020–12
  20. By: Pierre Levasseur (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Childhood overweight and obesity have increased alarmingly in recent decades all over the world, particularly in middle-income countries like Brazil, Mexico and China. In response to the obesity epidemic, several states and governments have introduced restrictions on sales of high-calorie low-nutrient-dense foods and beverages in schools. However, most school canteens around the world continue to offer such unhealthy products. The lack of clear evidence about the impacts of junk food/beverage availability on childhood overweight potentially contributes to delaying the application of regulatory policies. In fact, sales of junk food represent an important source of revenues for schools, especially in contexts of budgetary pressure. Based on a representative sample of Brazilian middle school students, this article takes advantage of local initiatives that began in 2001 aimed at banning sales of junk food and beverages in schools. Among other effects, instrumental variables estimates show that in-school soft drink availability increases male BMI and overweight risk. As expected, the impacts tend to be stronger on non-poor students. No effect was found for girls, probably because of voluntary substitutions with healthier foods to control total calorie intakes and limit weight gain. Alarmingly, in-school junk food/beverage availability is positively correlated with overall junk food/beverage consumption and negatively correlated with overall healthy food intakes. In conclusion, this article provides clear evidence that banning sales of unhealthy products in schools is a useful tool to fight against the worldwide increase in childhood overweight, even in middle-income countries.
    Keywords: Brazil Childhood overweight,Body mass index,Junk food,School bans
    Date: 2020–10–17
  21. By: Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Zhang, Xiaobo
    Abstract: Poultry farmers in Myanmar were interviewed by telephone in early June, late June, early July, late July, and August 2020 to determine how their businesses were being affected by COVID-19 related restrictions. The results of those surveys were published in Myanmar Strategy Support Program Policy Notes 11, 13, 19, 21, and 28, respectively. To trace the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their economic activities, a sixth round of the phone survey of poultry farmers was done in November 2020. The sixth round sample included 226 poultry farmers (162 broiler and 64 layer farms) in the Yangon peri-urban area (Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Yangon regions) who had been interviewed in the first five rounds of the survey. The same survey questionnaire was used. This survey round is three months after the August survey round, so most broiler farms should have finished a full production cycle between the two last survey rounds. This Policy Note reports on the results of this sixth survey round.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, poultry, farmers, broiler chickens, prices, cash flow, peri-urban agriculture, COVID-19
    Date: 2020
  22. By: Beckman, Jayson; Gale, Fred; Lee, Tani
    Abstract: Forty World Trade Organization (WTO) members have established 1,125 agricultural tariff-rate quotas (TRQs). TRQs are a two-tiered tariff scheme (a lower rate under a quota amount, and a higher rate once that is reached), developed during multilateral trade negotiations in the 1990s to facilitate market access for agricultural trade. This report provides data and analysis on the prevalence of these trade measures. TRQs are classified according to indicators of whether market access is constrained by administrative procedures or nontariff measures that prevent the quota from filling or by the quota itself. This analysis found that 13 percent of TRQs were “underutilized” when imports were less than 65 percent of the quota (a low “fill rate”), even though the cost of imports was less than the domestic price. Another 22 percent of TRQs were classified as “binding” when the fill rate was high and the import cost was less than the domestic commodity rice. Issues have been raised in the WTO regarding some of these TRQs, with the largest number of questions about transparency and administration of quotas.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2021–01
  23. By: Carroll, Carlos; Ray, Justina
    Abstract: Global commitments to protected area expansion should prioritize opportunities to protect climate refugia and ecosystems which store high levels of irrecoverable carbon, as key components of effective response to biodiversity loss and climate change. The United States and Canada are responsible for one-sixth of global greenhouse gas emissions but hold extensive natural ecosystems which store globally-significant above- and below-ground carbon. Canada has initiated a process of protected area network expansion in concert with efforts at reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples, and acknowledged nature-based solutions as a key aspect of climate change mitigation. The US, although not a signatory to global biodiversity conventions, has recently committed to protecting 30% of its extent by 2030 and achieving the UNFCCC Paris Agreement’s mitigation targets. The opportunities afforded by these dual biodiversity conservation and climate commitments require coordinated national and regional policies to ensure that new protected areas maximize ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation opportunities. We address how global commitments can best inform national policy initiatives which build on existing agency mandates for regional planning and species conservation. Previous analyses of global conservation priorities under climate change have been tenuously linked to policy contexts of individual nations and have lacked information on refugia due to limitations of globally available datasets. Comparison and synthesis of predictions from a range of recently-developed refugia metrics allow such data to inform planning despite substantial uncertainty arising from contrasting model assumptions and inputs. A case study for endangered species planning for old-forest-associated species in the US Pacific Northwest demonstrates how regional planning can be nested hierarchically within national ecosystem-based adaptation and mitigation strategies which integrate refugia, connectivity, and ecosystem carbon metrics to holistically evaluate the role of different land designations and where carbon mitigation and protection of biodiversity’s resilience to climate change can be aligned.
    Date: 2020–12–24
  24. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: This policy note is one in a series of four notes that summarize key findings and recommendations from 32 seminars organized by IFPRI between 2016 and 2020 under the Evaluating Impact and Building Capacity Project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and from related research done in collaboration with national and international partners in Egypt. The briefs have been prepared on the basis of a joint symposium and are intended to give policymakers and program designers in the areas of social protection, nutrition, agricultural policy, and the digitalization of agriculture a quick overview of research-based recommendations on key policy issues that will better enable Egypt to achieve several of the goals outlined in the Sustainable Development Strategy 2030. This policy note highlights how digital tools can help improve monitoring, evaluation, and extension services in Egypt’s agriculture sector and how policy analysis can be institutionalized to guide transformation of the food system and rural economies. Four recommendations are discussed: Building on ongoing efforts, continue to digitize agricultural information systems, build and link agricultural databases, and exploit new sources of data. Build on ongoing projects that develop mobile telephone applications for farmers and learn from international experiences to revitalize and digitalize agricultural extension in Egypt. Build the capacity of agricultural policy analysts within the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation and universities, using both conventional and new digital tools to provide high-quality, research-based policy advice. Promote further digitalization to improve the resilience of food systems in view of shocks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, digital technology, agricultural extension, policies, agricultural sector, information systems, farmers, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19
    Date: 2020
  25. By: Andreas Eder (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Institute of Sustainable Economic Development)
    Abstract: This article provides a generalization of the materials balance-based production model introduced by Coelli et al. (2007). Based on this, some new environmental efficiency (EE) measures are presented. The Coelli et al. (2007) EE measure and its extension by Rødseth (2016) produce biased efficiency estimates if the material flow coefficients (MFCs) are heterogeneous across decision-making units and non-discretionary. Furthermore, the Coelli et al. (2007) measure fails to reward emission reductions by emission control. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes production models which allow for heterogeneous MFCs reflecting differences of external environmental factors or non-controllable heterogeneities in inputs and outputs, and which properly take into account emission abatement activities. Based on this, we provide new EE measures and decompose them into i) a part reflecting emission control efficiency (ECE), ii) a part measuring material input efficiency (MIE), and iii) a part reflecting the efficient allocation between material and non-material inputs (environmental allocative efficiency, EAE). The approach is illustrated by an empirical application to arable farming in Austria utilizing data from 90 farms for the year 2011. Soil erosion is considered an undesirable output and land a material input. The average EE, ECE, MIE, and EAE are 0.53, 0.96, 0.69, and 0.79, respectively. The results indicate that actual output can be potentially achieved with 47% less soil loss. Most of the potential to improve EE is due to differences in MIE and EAE. Removing inefficiencies in the implementation of existing, subsidized erosion controls allows soil loss to be reduced by 4%.
    Keywords: Emission-generating technologies, Materials balance condition, Weak-G disposability, Data envelopment analysis, Non-discretionary factors, Soil erosion, Crop farms
    JEL: C61 D24 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2021–01
  26. By: Carine Meyimdjui
    Abstract: Using a panel of 101 low- and middle-income countries with data covering the period 1980-2012, this paper applies various econometric approaches that deal with endogeneity issues to assess the impact of food price shocks on socio-political instability once fiscal policy and remittances have been accounted for. It focuses on import prices to reflect the vulnerability of importer countries / net-buyer households to food price shocks. The paper finds that import food price shocks strongly increase the likelihood of socio-political instability. This effect is greater in countries with lower levels of private credit and income per capita. On the other hand, while remittances seem to dampen the adverse effect of import food price shocks on socio-political instability in almost all countries, the mitigating role of fiscal policy is significant only in countries with low-levels of private credit.
    Keywords: Commodity price shocks;Remittances;Fiscal policy;Expenditure;Government consumption;import food price shocks,political instability,fiscal policy.,WP,food price shock,government crisis,consumption expenditure,expenditure growth,government reaction
    Date: 2020–11–13
  27. By: Luca Crudeli (Marine Market Systems); Susanna Mancinelli (University of Ferrara; SEEDS, Italy); Massimiliano Mazzanti (University of Ferrara; SEEDS, Italy); Raul Pitoro (Feed the Future Inova, Mozambique)
    Abstract: Development efforts to lift smallholder farmers out of poverty are often focused on promoting the adoption of new technologies that can improve yields, such as improved seeds, fertilizer, and chemicals. Two sets of drivers / obstacles must be considered when addressing innovation adoptions: economic and cultural and behavioural drivers. This paper focuses on both sets of drivers with special consideration of the second set, which is often overlooked during intervention design and execution. Using a dataset of observations from 300 smallholder farmers from rural Mozambique, this paper investigates the cultural and behavioural aspects that may facilitate or hinder the adoption of new farming technologies. The prevailing social norms that shape the behaviour of an ideal "good farmer" as defined by each of the investigated communities are explored, examining how these characteristics hinder or accelerate the diffusion of technological innovation. What emerges from the analysis is a social norm of good farmer extremely concerned about others. Moreover, this collectivistic image does not prevent a positive social perception of achieving above average farming results. The empirical analysis investigates the main drivers of Mozambican farmers’ innovation adoption, especially in the case of the most radical innovations, with particular attention given to analysing whether the collectivistic good farmer identity constitutes an obstacle to innovation. The results of various econometric analyse on intensity and adoption of innovations show that education, information, training and income level are structural drivers of radical innovation adoption and its intensity. Moreover, not only does the prosocial idea of good farmer not prevent farmers from undertaking innovative solutions but also has a significant impact on the adoption of the most radical solutions.
    Keywords: social norms, stigma, networking, good farmer, radical innovations, innovation intensity, rural Africa
    Date: 2021–01
  28. By: Mamoudou Ba (CATT - Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement des données économiques - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour)
    Abstract: Livestock farming sector significantly contributes to sustainable food security in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. It provides income and employment to a large segment of rural population in the countries of the Sahel such as Mauritania which face frequent climatic shocks. Keeping livestock also improves the availability of animal-source food for household consumption. In this study, we assess the role of livestock ownership and stock size in reducing severe food insecurity in rural Mauritania using data from a recent nationally representative household survey. We construct a food security index based on responses to the twelve questions asked in the survey, and use instrumental variables to correct for endogeneity problems. Our results suggest that livestock can have a positive role in improving food security in rural Mauritania. Compared to an agricultural household, the probability of being food insecure is 23.6% lower in a livestock-farming household for all types of livestock. Ownership of large (cows and camels) and small (goat and sheep) ruminants is associated with 16.3% and 21.6% greater probability of escaping from severe food insecurity. There is also some evidence for the size effect. A 1% increase in stock size (measured in tropical units) is associated with about 10% lower level of severe food insecurity among rural farm households. The beneficial contribution of livestock in insuring household food security is particularly visible among poor households. The results also show that livestock diversification has an important effect on the food security of households which practice this adaptation strategy to improve their food security. Helping farm households improve and expand their animal stock can therefore provide an answer to the challenges arising from multiple climatic and economic shocks and thus reduce severe food insecurity in the rural areas.
    Abstract: L'élevage contribue de manière significative à la sécurité alimentaire durable dans de nombreux pays. Il fournit des revenus et des emplois aux producteurs à la majorité des populations rurales dans les pays en développement, notamment au Sahel où elles sont confrontées à des problèmes climatiques et environnementaux fréquents. Ce document évalue la contribution de la détention ainsi que le stock des bétails à la réduction de la grave insécurité alimentaire en utilisant les données d'une récente enquête auprès des ménages représentatifs au niveau national. Nous construisons un indice de sécurité alimentaire en basant sur les réponses aux douze questions posées dans l'enquête, et utilisons des variables instrumentales pour corriger les problèmes d'endogénéité. Nos résultats suggèrent que l'élevage peut avoir un rôle positif dans l'amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire en Mauritanie rurale. Le niveau de l'insécurité alimentaire grave d'un ménage qui détient des bétails (mesuré par le stock mesuré en unités tropicales) est 10% inférieur à celui d'un ménage qui ne possède pas les bétails. La probabilité d'être en situation d'insécurité alimentaire est 23.6% inferieur pour un ménage éleveur tous types d'animaux confondus par rapport à un ménage agricole. De plus, un ménage rural mauritanien détenteur de gros et petit ruminant, a la probabilité de sortir de l'insécurité alimentaire grave de 16.3% et 21,6% respectivement. La détention du bétail améliore la disponibilité des aliments de source animale destinés à la consommation des ménages. Nous trouvons que les petits ruminants sont importants pour fournir des nutriments et une diversité alimentaire, soit par la consommation directe ou soit par la vente. Ces résultats soulignent l'importance des petits ruminants comme les chèvres et les moutons dans l'adaptation des ménages face aux chocs climatiques pour maintenir un niveau de sécurité alimentaire acceptable. Les résultats montrent également que la diversification de l'élevage a un effet important sur l'amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire des ménages qui pratiquent cette stratégie d'adaptation pour améliorer leur sécurité alimentaire. Nous suggérons que le fait de donner aux ménages ruraux les moyens de développer l'élevage pourrait apporter une réponse aux multiples chocs auxquels les populations rurales sont confrontées et ainsi réduire l'insécurité alimentaire grave dans ces zones.
    Keywords: Livestock breeders,Mauritania,Food security,Mauritanie,Elevage de ruminants,Securité alimentaire,Elevage pastoral,Elevage extensif,Changement climatiques,Coping Strategies
    Date: 2020–12–27
  29. By: Meenakshi Rajeev; Pranav Nagendran (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: The supply chain of fish and seafood products in India involves a vast network of intermediaries (primarily distributors) who retain a large share of the price spread between what is paid to fishermen and what is paid by consumers. This results in high fish prices and losses due to spoilage (MOFPI Report 2017). It is deemed beneficial both for producer and consumer to have fish processing firms internalise some of the intermediaries’ activities. These firms will undertake such activities only if they get adequate incentive. By considering Indian fish processing firms over three consecutive years, we examine the viability of internalising distribution and other activities using a 2SLS regression. We show that firms, which undertake the responsibility of distribution themselves, raise better returns to the factors of production (within the firm), and enjoy higher profit. These results indicate that policy support aimed at reducing the length of supply chain, for example, by forming fishermen cooperatives and linking them to the processing firms that undertake the responsibility for distribution activity, can be beneficial for both firms as well as consumers.
    Keywords: Seafood products; Fisheries; Fish processing firms
    Date: 2019
  30. By: Elizabeth C. Gearan; Kelley Monzella; Leah Jennings; Mary Kay Fox
    Abstract: Prior research has shown that participation in the United States’ National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is associated with consuming higher-quality lunches and diets overall, but little is known about differences by income and race/ethnicity.
    Keywords: National School Lunch Program, dietary intake, nutritional quality, Healthy Eating Index-2010, School Nutrition and Meal Cost Study, race, income
  31. By: Oo, Than Zaw; Minten, Bart; Headey, Derek D.; Lambrecht, Isabel; Goudet, Sophie
    Abstract: This policy note presents results from five rounds of a telephone survey with food vendors conducted in different rural and urban zones of the country, focusing on results from the last round completed. The purpose of the survey is to provide data and insights to the government, development partners, and interested stakeholders to understand the COVID-19 related shocks on Myanmar’s food markets. In particular, the note explores prevention measures, changes in shopping behavior, difficulties in food vendor operations due to the COVID-19 crisis, changes in availability and prices of foods, perceived changes in consumption, and suggested policy actions by these food vendors.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, food supply, food prices, prevention, COVID-19, consumer behaviour, policies, food security, food vendors, COVID-19 prevention measures, wet markets
    Date: 2020
  32. By: Jayanti Mala Nayak; A V Manjunatha (Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: This study utilises primary data of sample farmers from flood prone areas of Mahanadi river basin of Odisha to examine their perceptions on sources of risk and management strategies. Data was collected from 311 farmers located in three regions of river Mahanadi namely upper region (Sonepur district), middle region (Boudh district) and lower region (Kendrapada district). Factor analysis has been used to reduce 26 sources of risk and 24 risk management strategies into 8 to 10 factors. Results show that drought is the main source of risk in the upper region, problem of inadequate financial support from government in the middle region, farmers and flood in the lower region. In order to cope with the risk, the major risk management strategy followed by the farmers from upper region was varietal diversification with respect to rice, mixed cropping in the middle region and crop diversification in the lower region. The results of the study provide useful insights for improving the efficacy of management of risks in agriculture in the flood prone areas of Odisha.
    Keywords: Risk and management strategies; Farmers and flood; Mahanadi river; Odisha
    Date: 2019

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.