nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
thirty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Are smallholder farmers credit constrained? Evidence on demand and supply constraints of credit in Ethiopia and Tanzania By Balana, Bedru; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Haile, Beliyou; Hagos, Fitsum; Yiman, Seid; Ringler, Claudia
  2. The Role of Common-Pool Resources’ Institutional Robustness in a Collective Action Dilemma under Environmental Variations By Ana Alicia Dipierri; Dimitrios Zikos
  3. Il tesoro agricolo del Mezzogiorno By Marco Fortis; Andrea Sartori; Stefano Corradini
  4. Feasibility of Autonomous Equipment for Biopesticide Application By Lowenberg-DeBoer, James; Pope, Tom William; Roberts, Joe Mark
  5. a. Longer term impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on European agriculture By Lowenberg-DeBoer, James; Behrendt, Karl; Boot, Alastair; Byrne, Richard; de Silva, Carrie; Eastham, Jane; Huang, Iona; Keeble, Simon; May, Daniel; Munley, Mary; Paparas, Dimitrios; Schroer-Merker, Eva; Thelwell, Simon
  6. Farm Mechanization and Potential role of Robotics in Malawi By Kumwenda, Ian; Nyekanyeka, Aubrey; Gausi, Uriah; Phiri, Benson; Kamwendo, Phinehas; Msokera, Tiyamike; Kadazi, Florence
  7. Smallholder irrigation technology diffusion in Ghana: Insights from stakeholder mapping By Atuobi-Yeboah, Afua; Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Ringler, Claudia
  8. The effects of contract farming on diets and nutrition in Ghana By Ruml, Anette; Debela, Bethelhem Legesse; Qaim, Matin
  9. Adoption of Blockchain Technology in the Agricultural Sector and Food Supply Chain By Toptancı, Ali İskan
  10. Overhauling Management of Agriculture to Improve Sector Performance By World Bank
  11. Exploring attitudes to technology adoption for cross compliance in Greek and Lithuanian farmers By Payne-Gifford, Sophie; Johnson, Kate; Mauchline, Alice; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Girling, Laura; Mortimer, Simon
  12. Groundwater Management in Balochistan, Pakistan By Muhammad Ashraf; Faizan ul Hasan
  13. Small French Farms and Employment: are they creating wage labour By Pauline Lécole
  14. Groundwater Governance and Adoption of Solar-Powered Irrigation Pumps By Ram Bastakoti; Manita Raut; Bhesh Raj Thapa
  15. Can Participatory Groundwater Management Enhance Drought Resilience? The Case of the Andhra Pradesh Farmer-Managed Groundwater Systems Project By V. Ratna Reddy; M. Srinivasa Reddy
  16. Pro-Poor Groundwater Development By Partha Sarathi Banerjee; Sanjiv De Silva
  17. Eco-inclusive entrepreneurship: Addressing climate change through technological innovation. The case of cleantech industry By Alina Petronela Alexoaei; Raluca Georgiana Robu
  18. Gender dynamics in seed systems development By Kramer, Berber; Galiè, Alessandra
  19. Yielding profits? Low adoption of an improved mung bean seed variety in Southern Bangladesh By de Brauw, Alan; Kramer, Berber; Murphy, Mike
  20. Designing an effective small farmers scheme in France with environmental and employment conditions By Pauline Lécole; Raphaële Préget; Sophie Thoyer
  21. Slavery and development in nineteenth century Brazil By Palma, Nuno; Papadia, Andrea; Pereira, Thales; Weller, Leonardo
  22. International climate policy By Richard S.J. Tol
  23. UK agricultural students’ perceptions of future technology use on-farm By Schroer-Merker, Eva; Westbrooke, Victoria
  24. Analysis of Tomato production in some selected local government areas of Kano State, Nigeria By Amurtiya, Michael; Adewuyi, Kolawole
  25. Reducing the Agricultural Gender Gap in Cote d'Ivoire By Aletheia Donald; Gabriel Lawin; Lea Rouanet
  26. Cartel formation for international environmental agreements By Richard S.J. Tol
  27. Patterns of Red and Processed Meat Consumption across Generations: A Shift from the Traditional Mediterranean Diet By Cinzia Di Novi; Anna Marenzi; Francesca Zantomio
  28. Ozone hole and acid rain By Richard S.J. Tol
  29. International environmental agreements By Richard S.J. Tol
  30. Moral hazard under discrete information disclosure: Evidence from food-safety inspections By Bovay, John
  31. Iowa Farmers' Business and Farm Transfer Plans: A Comparison between 2019 and 2006 By Beatrice Maule; Wendong Zhang; David Baker
  32. Intersectionality and addressing equity in agriculture, nutrition, and health By Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Hodur, Janet
  33. Agricultural transition in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe: Ten lessons for Venezuela By Brooks, Karen
  34. Gender and start-up capital for agrifood MSMEs in Indonesia and Viet Nam By Ambler, Kate; de Brauw, Alan; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Murphy, Mike
  35. The greenhouse effect By Richard S.J. Tol
  36. Functional Distribution of Income as a Determinant of Importing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis By Vinicius Curti Cicero; Gilberto Tadeu Lima

  1. By: Balana, Bedru; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Haile, Beliyou; Hagos, Fitsum; Yiman, Seid; Ringler, Claudia
    Abstract: Credit constraint is considered by many as one of the key barriers to adoption of modern agricultural technologies, such as chemical fertilizer, improved seeds, and irrigation technologies, among smallholders. Past research and much policy discourse associates agricultural credit constraints with supply-side factors, such as limited access to credit sources or high costs of borrowing. However, demand-side factors, such as risk-aversion and financial illiteracy among borrowers, as well as high transaction costs, can also play important roles in credit-rationing for smallholders. Using primary survey data from Ethiopia and Tanzania, this study examines the nature of credit constraints facing smallholders and the factors that affect credit constraints. In addition, we assess whether credit constraints are gender-differentiated. Results show that demand-side credit constraints are at least as important as supply-side factors in both countries. Women are more likely to be credit constrained (from both the supply and demand sides) than men. Based on these findings, we suggest that policies should focus on addressing both supply- and demand-side credit constraints, including through targeted interventions to reduce risk, such as crop insurance and gender-sensitive policies to improve women’s access to credit.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; TANZANIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; adoption; agriculture; technology; gender; smallholders; supply balance; credit; farmers; irrigation; agricultural techonologies; credit constraints; small-scale irrigation
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1974&r=all
  2. By: Ana Alicia Dipierri; Dimitrios Zikos
    Abstract: Extreme environmental variations, as a phenomenon deriving from climate change, led to an exacerbated uncertainty on water availability and increased the likelihood of conflicts regarding water-dependent activities such as agriculture. In this paper, we investigate the role of conflict resolution mechanisms—one of Ostrom’s acclaimed Design Principles—when social-ecological systems are exposed to physical external disturbances. The theoretical propositions predict that social-ecological systems with conflict-resolution mechanisms will perform better than those without them. We tested this proposition through a framed field experiment that mimicked an irrigation system. This asymmetric setting exposed farmers to two (2) dilemmas: (i) how much to invest in the communal irrigation system’s maintenance and (ii) how much water to extract. The setting added a layer of complexity: water availability depended not only on the investment but also on the environmental variability. Our findings confirmed the theoretical proposition: groups with stronger ‘institutional robustness’ can cope with environmental variations better than those with weaker robustness. However, we also found that some groups, despite lacking conflict-resolution mechanisms, were also able to address environmental variations. We explored potential explanatory variables to these unexpected results. We found that subjects’ and groups’ attributes might address uncertainty and avert conflict. Thus, social-ecological systems’ capacity to respond to external disturbances, such as environmental variations, might not only be a question of Design Principles. Instead, it might also be strongly related to group members’ attributes and group dynamics. Our results pave the way for further research, hinting that some groups might be better equipped for mitigation measures, while others might be better equipped for adaptation measures.
    Keywords: irrigation systems; common-pool resources governance; environmental variability; collective action; institutional robustness; climate change
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/317130&r=all
  3. By: Marco Fortis; Andrea Sartori; Stefano Corradini
    Abstract: This paper deals with the importance of the Italian agricultural sector and, in particular, focuses on the production of fresh vegetables and the primary food processing related to the “Mediterranean diet”, highlighting the fundamental contribution of the Southern Italy (also known as “Mezzogiorno”). European and international comparisons highlight the prominent role of Italy in Europe, especially thanks to the Southern Italy: this role should be valued much more on a strategic and programmatic level and also to enhance its image internationally. In the first section, it is noted that Italy is the best performing country in Europe, considering this perimeter of commodities and first processing products: durum wheat, rice, vegetables, fruit, oil and wine; the South contributes greatly to these productions from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. In the second section, production value data from agricultural crops in Southern Italy are examined in detail, with reference to: totalcrop output, durum wheat, fresh vegetables, citrus fruits, wines, olive oil. In the third section, analyzing the production in quantity data, the productive specializations and agricultural clusters (i.e. the leading regions and provinces) of the Southern Italy are identified for products of particular value or relevance, namely: artichokes, fennel, eggplants, tomatoes, endives, apricots, table grapes, wine grapes, durum wheat, other vegetable productions.
    Keywords: agriculture, crop output, Mediterranean diet, vegetables, Italy, Southern Italy, Europe
    JEL: O13 Q18
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:crn:wpaper:crn2008&r=all
  4. By: Lowenberg-DeBoer, James; Pope, Tom William; Roberts, Joe Mark
    Abstract: Since the European Union (EU) ban on neonicotinoid seed treatments in 2013, Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle (CSFB) is a pest with no effective control in the UK and the area sown to OSR has been cut in half. Biopesticides offer one promising approach, but most biopesticides have little residual effect, and consequently must be applied frequently. For a bulk commodity crop like OSR, the margins are tight and the cost of frequent application may make the crop unprofitable. Autonomous equipment could reduce application costs. If farmers own the equipment, the main cost of autonomous application is the original purchase of the machines, the marginal cost of additional applications is small. The objective of this study is to determine under what circumstances use of autonomous equipment for application of biopesticides would be profitable for farmers. The main hypothesis is that biopesticide application with autonomous equipment would be more profitable on farms that already use autonomous equipment for other field operations than on farms with conventional mechanisation. The study adapts the Hands Free Hectare (HFH) farm linear programming model by updating OSR yields and production practices for current CSFB challenges, adding alternative break crops like field beans and linseed, and includes biopesticide application with conventional or autonomous equipment. Initial results suggest that a low cost biopesticide might be profitable for farmers with either conventional or autonomous equipment, the cost of the biopesticide product is a key constraint, and HFH type retrofitted autonomous equipment still requires too much human labour. This study will be of interest to pest management researchers, agri-tech economists, OSR producers, and entrepreneurs developing autonomous farm equipment businesses.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–09–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaewp:308162&r=all
  5. By: Lowenberg-DeBoer, James; Behrendt, Karl; Boot, Alastair; Byrne, Richard; de Silva, Carrie; Eastham, Jane; Huang, Iona; Keeble, Simon; May, Daniel; Munley, Mary; Paparas, Dimitrios; Schroer-Merker, Eva; Thelwell, Simon
    Abstract: The longer-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the European food supply chain may be substantially different than the short-term adaptation of farmers, food processors and retailers. The main consumer preference changes are likely to be linked to greater on-line ordering, home delivery and in-home consumption. The food industry changes will probably be more persistent and of greater magnitude than those on the consumer side, including a preference for production and processing closer to consumption, and greater flexibility in processing. The COVID-19 pandemic will promote greater automation throughout the food chain with automation of combinable crops leading the way because the engineering is more tractable than for fruits and vegetables. The COVID-19 pandemic will lead to a re-emphasis on food production and food security in agricultural policy throughout Europe. That re-emphasis of food security will be strongest in those countries which saw the largest and longest disruption in consumer level food availability. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the European food system, but in the longer run it could also create opportunities for those ready to adapt to the changing realities.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2020–09–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaewp:308131&r=all
  6. By: Kumwenda, Ian; Nyekanyeka, Aubrey; Gausi, Uriah; Phiri, Benson; Kamwendo, Phinehas; Msokera, Tiyamike; Kadazi, Florence
    Abstract: Malawi’s agricultural economy comprises of the smallholder subsector on communal land, and the leasehold and freehold estate subsectors. Large farms and estates use modern inputs more frequently, than the smallholder farmers. Jayne (2016) reported the ratio of cultivated land area to total land holding size declines as farm size increases. This paper highlights farm mechanization and the potential for role of robots in Malawi. We provide a global overview of the situation in Africa and in Malawi. We also highlight the potential role of robotics. Farm mechanization often follows various stages, starting from the use of mechanical power for power-intensive operations that require little control to increased use of mechanically powered technologies, and finally to automation of production. Past state-led mechanization in Africa often failed due to insufficient understanding of the nature of demand for mechanization technologies among farmers and insufficient knowledge of private-sector functions. There are dedicated mechanization committees and departments as well as a decentralized approach to mechanization and a clear commitment to mechanization along the value chain in Malawi. While the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development (MoAIWD) is responsible for maintaining Government-owned facilities with tractor and draught animals for hire, the private sector is expected to lead this intervention area. Malawi is not on track for meeting the Malabo Commitment area number 3.1. This relates to access to agriculture inputs and technologies. However, according to the selection methodology the country is part of a cluster of countries indicating rapid mechanization rates. Malawi has had an average annual machinery growth rate of 2.7% and a high agricultural output growth of over 6%. Malawi has made strides to introduce automated farming such as use of central pivot system of irrigation. However, information on how this is performing is rather limited.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–09–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaewp:308161&r=all
  7. By: Atuobi-Yeboah, Afua; Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Ringler, Claudia
    Abstract: Irrigated agriculture can support food and nutrition security, increase rural employment and incomes and can act as a buffer against growing climate variability and change. However, irrigation development has been slow in Africa south of the Sahara and Ghana is no exception. Out of a total potential irrigated area of close to 2 million ha, less than 20,000 ha large-scale irrigation and less than 200,000 ha of small-scale irrigation have been developed; but the latter is only an estimate. To identify entry points for accelerating small-scale irrigation development in Ghana, a national and a regional stakeholder Net-Map workshop were held in Accra and Tamale, respectively. The workshops suggest that a wide variety of actors from government, the private sector, international organizations and funders, research organizations and NGOs are involved in the diffusion of small-scale irrigation technologies. However, there are important differences between actors perceived to be key at the national and at the regional levels in northern Ghana. At the national level, diffusion of small-scale irrigation technologies is considered to be largely influenced by the Ghana Irrigation Development Authority together with a series of private sector actors focused on importation, distribution and financing of technologies. Farmers are considered to have no influence over the diffusion of small-scale irrigation, suggesting that small-scale irrigation is largely considered a supply-driven process. In northern Ghana, on the other hand, farmers are considered to be key influencers, although participants noted that much of this was potential influence, together with a larger and more diversified set of government stakeholders that are seen as regulators and possibly gatekeepers. For irrigation diffusion to successfully move from importation to distribution to benefiting smallholder farmers, all of these actors have to come together to better understand farmers’ needs and challenges. A multi-stakeholder platform could help to increase communication between farmers as the ultimate beneficiaries of small-scale irrigation technologies and the many other actors interested in supporting this process.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; irrigation; technology; farmers; stakeholders; networks; small-scale irrigation; Net-Map process; information network; technology diffusion
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1973&r=all
  8. By: Ruml, Anette; Debela, Bethelhem Legesse; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Contract farming is becoming increasingly important in developing countries, to coordinate transactions along agricultural supply chains. In this paper, we examine the diet and nutrition implication of engaging in contract farming among smallholder farmers in Ghana. Previous studies have analyzed the effects of contract farming on farm production and household income. However, little is known about the effects of contract farming on household and individual nutrition. We know of no study that has analyzed the effects of contract farming on household and individual dietary diversity, as well as on anthropometric measures. Our study further contributes to the existing literature by investigating differences in effects across different types of contracts, which has largely been neglected. Results show that producing oil palm under contract has implications for household and individual nutrition. However, the effect depends on the type of contract. Resource-providing contracts lead to higher dietary diversity at the household level, as well as for female household members. Our findings also reveal that children in households with resource providing contracts have a higher height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), suggesting positive long-term nutritional benefits for small children aged 2-6 years. The effects of marketing contracts are less clear. The results indicate positive effects on women’s dietary diversity and on the child’s weight-for-age z-score. Additionally, we find positive nutrition effects if the contracted farmer is female.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:assa21:307959&r=all
  9. By: Toptancı, Ali İskan
    Abstract: Blockchain technology is a digital technology that allows distributed, ubiquitous financial transactions between untrusted parties without the need for intermediaries such as banks. This study examines the impact of blockchain technology on the agriculture and food supply chain; It presents current projects and initiatives and discusses the challenges and potential of this technology with a critical perspective on the maturity of these projects. Findings show that blockchain technology is a promising technology in the food supply chain, but there are many obstacles among farmers and systems that prevent this system from working. These challenges include technical aspects, training, policies, and regulatory frameworks.
    Keywords: Blockchain Technology,Digital Agriculture,Food Supply Chain,Barriers,Benefits,Challenge
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:esrepo:228470&r=all
  10. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Extension Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Forestry Management Environment - Environmental Protection Environment - Natural Resources Management Environment - Water Resources Management
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33312&r=all
  11. By: Payne-Gifford, Sophie; Johnson, Kate; Mauchline, Alice; Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Girling, Laura; Mortimer, Simon
    Abstract: The fourth agricultural revolution has started with an explosion of online, smart, digital technologies that are now available to support farmers to improve their operations is enabling opportunities for direct integration between agricultural and computer-based systems. However, the wide range of devices and applications available can be overwhelming and the farming community is showing reluctance to adoption of these new technologies. As part of an EU-funded, multi-partner research project we developed, in collaboration with farmers and other stakeholders, a novel on-line system that supports EU farmers and paying agencies to reduce the administrative burden of CAP’s cross compliance record-keeping and inspections. During the co-development phase we interviewed Greek and Lithuanian farmers about their user needs in relation to the novel system and their potential adoption of this new technology. We analysed their qualitative responses and could identify two groups; ‘Optimistic’ and ‘Reluctant’ in relation to their use of novel technologies. In order to achieve up-take of new technologies within the European farming community, we considered these findings using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and concluded that focussing on the ease of adoption and peer usage would encourage the highest adoption rates as opposed to focusing on changing farmer attitudes.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–09–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaewp:308133&r=all
  12. By: Muhammad Ashraf; Faizan ul Hasan
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Hydrology Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33241&r=all
  13. By: Pauline Lécole (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In this article, we highlight the structure of employment in the small French farms sector and we identify the characteristics of those that are conducive to the use of wage labour. For this purpose, we code labour regimes according to different types of workforce and propose a classification of small farms from the 2010 French agricultural census. It is shown that small farms with permanent waged workforce are mostly involved in high valueadded creation activities and are managed by trained farmers. However, we observe two main models: on the one hand, small farms with low recourse to family workforce (including that of the farmer). The proximity of job market and consumer market constitute an opportunity for these farms and the income earned off the farm have a positive impact on wage labour on the farm. On the other hand, small farms with significant recourse to family workforce complete their working time with permanent waged labour. It can reflect farmers' preferences for agricultural activity (chosen following a career change).
    Keywords: small farm,farm work,waged workforce,agricultural census
    Date: 2020–11–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03027189&r=all
  14. By: Ram Bastakoti; Manita Raut; Bhesh Raj Thapa
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Energy - Solar Energy Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33245&r=all
  15. By: V. Ratna Reddy; M. Srinivasa Reddy
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Water Resources - Drought Management Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33243&r=all
  16. By: Partha Sarathi Banerjee; Sanjiv De Silva
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Poverty Reduction - Poverty Reduction Strategies Water Resources - Groundwater Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33246&r=all
  17. By: Alina Petronela Alexoaei (The Bucharest University of Economic Studies); Raluca Georgiana Robu (The Bucharest University of Economic Studies)
    Abstract: The article covers the role of entrepreneurs in developing climate-resilient solutions and business models for sustainable development with a special focus on technological innovation. Building on the concept of social entrepreneurship, the research attempts to investigate the role and the reasons that explain entrepreneurs? engagement in climate change mitigation and in developing new eco-inclusive technologies. The focus will lay on the case of the cleantech industry by attempting to provide a definition of the industry, an analysis of the typology of the financing involved the sectors with the largest impact, and the most innovative types of projects. The results are meant to anticipate key directions and serve as a possible guide to future entrepreneurs and investors interested in cleantech businesses.
    Keywords: Eco-inclusive entrepreneurship, cleantech, social entrepreneurs, sustainable entrepreneurship, climate change
    JEL: L26 O44 O13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iefpro:11413254&r=all
  18. By: Kramer, Berber; Galiè, Alessandra
    Abstract: All agricultural production—whether of crops, trees, forages, livestock, or fish—starts with seeds,* mak-ing seed security vital to food security. Seed secu-rity means that producers—smallholder farmers es-pecially—have permanent and unrestricted access to adequate quantities of quality seed that is suita-ble to their agroecological conditions and socio-economic needs. Efforts to enhance seed security should be inclusive, without disparities related to in-come, social class, age, or gender. Yet, gender gaps reveal themselves across the seed system, in-cluding in the breeding, production, selection, and distribution stages, as well as in how the seeds are used and who reaps the benefits from this use.
    Keywords: gender; seeds; women; seed quality; smallholders; distribution systems; seed systems
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:othbrf:134158&r=all
  19. By: de Brauw, Alan; Kramer, Berber; Murphy, Mike
    Abstract: Agricultural technology adoption is an important driver of rural poverty reduction. We study take-up of a specific technology: BARI-Mung 6 (BM6), an improved mung bean seed variety, among smallholder farmers in the southern region of Bangladesh. In contrast to agronomic studies on BM6 performance under highly controlled conditions, we focus on performance of this variety for farmers who are growing outside of the context of an agronomic field trial. We find no evidence of higher performance in this uncontrolled environment: we do not observe statistically significant differences in output or yields between farmers planting BM6 and those planting local varieties. We do, however, observe a significant positive association between BM6 use and yields among farmers who report applying seeds within recommended guidelines. Using a simple model, we illustrate that modest uncertainty around the required quantity of seed per unit area of land can substantively impact the profitability of BM6 seeds for smallholders in our study context. Our findings highlight the importance of providing adequate extension information along with improved technologies to encourage adoption and ultimately improve farmer welfare.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; profit; mung beans; varieties; agricultural extension; technology; markets; market systems; technology adoption; uncertainty
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1975&r=all
  20. By: Pauline Lécole (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Raphaële Préget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The small farm sector has long been neglected by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Since CAP support is mainly allocated through the first pillar budget on a per-hectare basis, small farms receive little or no direct income support. This situation is compounded by cumbersone administrative procedures which discourage small farmers from claiming the financial support they are entitled to, and by eligibility criteria which exclude part of the small farm sector from the CAP system. The 2014 CAP introduced the Small Farmers Scheme (SFS) offering small farms the option of an unconditional annual lump-sum payment per farm replacing the standard direct payments of the first pillar. This paper assesses the acceptability in France of a more sophisticated version of the 2014 SFS for the post-2020 CAP. We propose that this extended SFS include easily controllable conditions on environmental efforts and on salaried employment. The results of a discrete choice experiment conducted in France show that the principle of such extended SFS would be attractive to small farmers, especially market gardeners, and that the vast majority of respondents have a preference for an extended SFS incorporating an environmental condition.
    Date: 2020–11–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-03027230&r=all
  21. By: Palma, Nuno (University of Manchester; ICS, Universidade de Lisboa; CEPR); Papadia, Andrea (University of Bonn); Pereira, Thales (São Paulo School of Economics/FGV); Weller, Leonardo (São Paulo School of Economics/FGV)
    Abstract: This paper brings new evidence on the legacy of slavery to economic development through the case study of Brazil during the nineteenth century. The conclusions contribute to the debate brought by the New History of Capitalism (NHC) about the role of slavery and industrialization in the United States. We argue that the NHC lacks a comparative perspective. Brazil imported more slaves than any other country in the world and slavery lasted longer and was more widespread than in the U.S. south. Rather than promoting economic growth and development, the evidence shows that slavery held back industrialization in Brazil. We also discuss the role of slavery on agricultural productivity and show that, as in the U.S. the use of violence does not explain increases in the productivity of cotton plantations.
    Keywords: Slavery, Comparative History, New History of Capitalism JEL Classification:
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cge:wacage:523&r=all
  22. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: Video discussion of international climate policy and negotiations
    Keywords: environmental economics, climate change, game theory, undergraduate, postgraduate, video
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sus:susvid:2097&r=all
  23. By: Schroer-Merker, Eva; Westbrooke, Victoria
    Abstract: Agricultural systems are currently experiencing a wave of new technological developments, which could lead to large and possibly disruptive changes in agricultural systems. So far, the adoption rates of new technologies have been highly variable, and attempts have been made to estimate adoption rates based on specific attributes of the technology and how it will be used, which can be difficult with new and emerging technology. An alternative approach is the Theory of Reasoned Action, published by Fishbein and Ajzen in 1975, which aims to explain how individuals will behave based on their existing attitudes and behavioural intentions and could be useful for examining the factors influencing adoption of future technologies. Current agricultural students are the farmers, researchers and rural professionals of the future. Their attitudes and beliefs towards technology will influence its integration into farming systems and how ethical concerns will have to be addressed. 300 current UK agricultural students participated in in an online survey; their perceptions around current and future agricultural technology developments were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results showed efficiency gains and improved management as the major perceived benefits of technology, while potential malfunction of and overreliance on technology were the main perceived risks.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2020–09–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaepa:308134&r=all
  24. By: Amurtiya, Michael; Adewuyi, Kolawole
    Abstract: This study analysed tomato production in some selected Local Government Areas of Kano State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of tomato farmers; assess tomato value addition by farmers and marketing channels; determine the profitability of tomato production; and identify the constraints associated with tomato production in the study area. The study adopted multistage sampling technique to collect primary data from 101 respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis. The findings of the study reveal that tomato production is a male-dominated activity, who are mostly married (85.5%), having an average household size of 9 persons. Similarly, the study revealed that all the respondents were small-scale farmers cultivating below 5 ha of land with a mean farming experience of about 15 years. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of produce are sold at the farmgate and local markets, mostly in fresh forms. The gross margin of the venture was ₦302832, while the Net farm income and return on investment were ₦245916 and 114.5% respectively. This implies that tomato production is a profitable venture in the study area. Based on the result, pest and diseases, lack of modern production and processing facilities, inadequate capital, inadequate information on production and marketing, price fluctuation, and lack of government support were ranked topmost among the respondents’ challenges. The study recommends among others the need for farmers to be encouraged to form strong cooperative societies through which they can access resources necessary for their activities.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Marketing
    Date: 2020–09–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:haaepa:308160&r=all
  25. By: Aletheia Donald; Gabriel Lawin; Lea Rouanet
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Crops & Crop Management Systems Gender - Gender and Development Gender - Gender and Poverty Poverty Reduction - Inequality
    Date: 2020–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33325&r=all
  26. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: Video discussion of cartel formation for international cooperation on climate policy
    Keywords: environmental economics, climate change, game theory, undergraduate, postgraduate, video
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sus:susvid:2096&r=all
  27. By: Cinzia Di Novi (Department of Economics, University Of Pavia); Anna Marenzi (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Francesca Zantomio (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: Social changes, widespread dissemination of Western-type culture, and the globalization of food production and consumption have reduced adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) in the Southern European countries where the MD originated. This study explores whether changes in the technology, culture and social welfare that have characterized Italy for decades may have influenced red and processed meat consumption across generations. Such consumption has been associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer and with negative environmental impacts. To obtain a broad picture of red and processed meat consumption and adherence to the MD across generations, we constructed a Mediterranean composite score that summarizes the frequency of these foods’ consumption. For the purpose of our study, we constructed a pseudo-panel derived from repeated cross-sections of the annual household survey, “Aspects of Daily Life,” that was part of the Multipurpose Survey carried out by the Italian National Statistical Office (ISTAT) from 1997 to 2012. We adopted an APC (Age, Period, Cohort) approach that involves age, period, and cohort effects. Our findings reveal that the oldest generations undertook a major shift from the traditional MD.
    Keywords: red meat, processed meat, health, environmental impact, generations, Mediterranean Diet
    JEL: I12 I15 Q18 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ven:wpaper:2021:01&r=all
  28. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: Video discussion of international ozone and acidification policies as models for climate policy
    Keywords: environmental economics, climate change, game theory, undergraduate, postgraduate, video
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sus:susvid:2098&r=all
  29. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: Video discussion of international cooperation for climate policy
    Keywords: environmental economics, climate change, game theory, undergraduate, postgraduate, video
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sus:susvid:2095&r=all
  30. By: Bovay, John
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:assa21:307948&r=all
  31. By: Beatrice Maule; Wendong Zhang (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); David Baker
    Abstract: In 2019, we conducted a survey of family farms in Iowa with the support of the Beginning Farmer Center and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Our goal is to compare the attitudes and motives behind farm succession, with a focus on intangible assets rather than physical assets, revealed in our 2019 survey with those revealed in the 2006 Iowa Farm Transfer Project. Our hope is that the data obtained in 2019 and 2006 in the state of Iowa will provide insights into the mechanics of farm business transfers over time. From July to October 2019, we received a high return rate-almost 30%-from 886 farmer respondents, which shows the strong feelings farmers have about their future. Among the respondents, 739 said that they are still operating a farm in 2019; and thus, they formulate our estimation sample for the remainder of the policy brief. Our survey respondents were 95.18% male and 4.8% female. Of the respondents, 90% intend to grow crops, forage, or livestock for commercial purposes, and 86% consider the current economic position of their farm business to be from fair to excellent. In 2019, the greatest majority of respondents, 82%, considered farming their principal occupation, which is a huge change since 2006, when only a little over half of the respondents declared the same. Most respondents consider their farms a sole proprietorship, with partnerships of husbands and wives being the second most common. In 2006, farm labor came mostly from family members employed part time; however, 2019 saw a significant increase of family members employed full time on the farm. In 2019, there was an increase in both respondents claiming that the farmer made most farm decisions and a significant decrease in those claiming that the farmer alone, with some successor input, made most farm decisions. As the greatest majority of successors do not have total responsibility for the farm, no decisions stood out as being controlled by the successor alone; in fact, the numbers have decreased. In 2006, the majority of respondents indicated that they will semi-retire; furthermore, respondents who will never retire outnumbered those who will. In 2019, over half of respondents indicated that they would semi-retire; and, while those who claimed they will retire has remained unchanged, the number of farmers responding they will never retire decreased significantly. In 2006, the average age farmers planned to retire or semi-retire was 67; however, 2019 saw that number increase to 70. The majority of respondents indicated that advancing age is the main reason for retirement. Furthermore, the majority of farmers declared that, upon retirement, they will continue to work the same as they are now, just less intensely. The second most common response was that they will help out at busy times only-very few respondents indicated that they will have no involvement on the farm. Among those who said they would retire in 2006, a little above half of respondents answered that they wouldn't move from their current home, while in 2019 that same number increased to 61%. Farmers in 2019 still most commonly identify income from Social Security as the main source of income once retired; in fact, the number doing so has increased since 2006. The other top responses were income from this farm and income from other investments. There has been a decrease in the number of people who will rely on private pension, and the sale of farmland, livestock, or other farm assets and sale of other property are still less-common sources of income. Among those that will receive income from the farm upon retirement, the majority declared that they plan on depending heavily on this form of income. A little under 80% of the respondents stated that someone in their household receives income from an off-farm source. The greatest majority of respondents do not have a formal succession plan. While the majority of farmers had discussed their succession plan with their spouse or children, a little more than 20% of farmers had not discussed their plan with anyone. Since 2006, there has been a significant increase in the number of respondents who had identified a successor; however, among those who had not, most are still confident that a family member will inherit and keep the farm, and only a very small number think it will be sold or rented out. There has been an enormous increase in respondents that declared that they have a will; however, most farmers do not have a trust. Respondents still identify sons as the main successor. Since 2006, there has been a significant decrease in those identifying daughters as the main successor; in fact, daughters are not claimed as main successors until they are identified as the third successor. While the average age of successor has decreased, the average age of respondent's sons increased from 28 in 2006 to 32 in 2019, while the average age of respondent's daughters increased from 29 to 31 in that same time. In 2019, most farmers responded that they would miss the way of life the most after retirement, while less common responses indicated respondents would miss crop management, contact with other farmers, and working with livestock. Farmers said that they would be pleased to give up the long hours, the manual work on the farm, and the paperwork. When asked about future plans for the farm, most respondents indicated that they would share the farm equally among heirs, to keep it in the family no matter what: "I plan for the farm to stay in the family and be passed down to my children and grandchildren." Another responded "Whatever it takes to keep operation together: land and livestock, we are third generation." A very common response was also to give most of the shares to the farming heir, or let him/her buy from the non-farming heir. "Understand that fair is not equal. Family heirs will get land operation, plus additional land. Now farming heirs will get some land and cash. This plan makes it fair, not equal." Another stated: "Talk - talk - talk to your children. Treat them fairly but not necessarily equally." Many respondents indicated that, instead of splitting the farm, they rather the land be rented out to strangers or neighbors: "Keep the farm as a whole, split income between heirs, or sell and split between heirs." In 2019, as little as 1% of respondents declared that their farm is certified organic.
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ias:cpaper:20-pb30&r=all
  32. By: Malapit, Hazel J.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Hodur, Janet
    Abstract: The UN Sustainable Development Goals were established to build a better and more sustainable future for all. Progress toward development objectives has been uneven over time, and the disadvantaged tend to suffer disproportionately, particularly in times of severe shocks or crises like the COVID-19 global pandemic. The inclusion of the phrase “for all†is a good reminder that meeting our global goals will require paying particular attention to equity and ensuring no one is left behind. To consider equity, one must acknowledge that not everyone starts from the same set of circumstances, and assess how unfair, unjust, and exclusionary social and political processes have created that situation. Addressing inequity involves being mindful of those processes and removing barriers that prevent people from participating fully in decisions that determine how goods, opportunities, or resources are distributed. It is subtly, yet importantly, different from equality, which involves ensuring those goods, opportunities, or resources are divided equally among a group. In order to work toward equality, one must ensure equity has been achieved.
    Keywords: nutrition; agriculture; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; knowledge; equity; WEAI
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:othbrf:1224277458&r=all
  33. By: Brooks, Karen
    Abstract: Thirty years have elapsed since the fall of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The collapse of political structures took with it regimes of highly administered management of agri-food systems. The shift from state management to markets has been generally known as the agricultural transition. The term is most frequently used in reference to the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, but key features of a move from dominant state intervention to greater reliance on markets characterized reforms in China after 1978, Vietnam in 1986 and thereafter, and many countries in Africa south of the Sahara during the years of structural adjustment in the 1990s. The policy reforms that constitute an agricultural transition are intrinsically difficult and made even more so when undertaken under conditions of crisis-induced chaos. Lessons from countries that have undergone the process might be of use, either as guidance or cautionary notes, to leaders and civil society groups in countries such as Venezuela that may be embarking on a transition or swept into one by circumstance. The paragraphs below attempt to summarize lessons from the early transition in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe in the 1990s.
    Keywords: RUSSIAN FEDERATION, EASTERN EUROPE, EUROPE, CENTRAL ASIA, ASIA, VENEZUELA, SOUTH AMERICA, AMERICAS, agriculture, political systems, prices, agrifood systems, consumers, food security, privatization, public investment, agricultural transition, political change, consumer expectations
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:lacwps:14&r=all
  34. By: Ambler, Kate; de Brauw, Alan; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Murphy, Mike
    Abstract: Micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in developing countries frequently face financial con-straints undermining their ability to reach their full production potential. These constraints include expo-sure to uninsured risk, lack of suitable savings technologies, and expensive or inaccessible credit. Such challenges may be particularly acute for MSMEs operating in the agrifood system, in value chains be-tween farmers and retailers, where the seasonality and structure of these value chains creates unique financing needs relative to other sectors. Moreover, constraints affecting MSME performance in one part of the value chain may impact other value chain actors both up and downstream, including smallholder farmers, consumers, and exporters. As has been observed more broadly about MSMEs, marginalized groups such as women, low-income households, and ethnic minorities often face additional barriers to finance and adoption suitable financial services.1 If so, then the most vulnerable populations may be unintentionally excluded from emerging economic opportunities in the agriculture sector.
    Keywords: VIET NAM, VIETNAM, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, INDONESIA, gender, small and medium enterprises, agrifood systems, value chains, capital, start-up
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:prnote:december2020&r=all
  35. By: Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: Video discussion of the natural and enhanced greenhouse effect and its relation of observations
    Keywords: climate change, undergraduate, video
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2021–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sus:susvid:2101&r=all
  36. By: Vinicius Curti Cicero; Gilberto Tadeu Lima
    Abstract: We examine the impact of the functional distribution of income on the demand for imports in developed and developing countries. Drawing upon a motivating accounting structure suggesting a potentially causal effect of the functional distribution of income in an extended version of a standard import function, we find evidence that a fall in the wage share has a statistically significant positive (negative) impact on the volume of imports in developing (developed) countries and the entire sample of countries. Therefore, the neglect of such income distribution effects in import demand functions represents the omission of both an empirically relevant variable and a further theoretically significant channel through which the functional distribution of income affects output growth. A key implication is that the impact of the functional distribution of the social product on the demand for imports has to be considered in growth empirics based on either a binding balanceof-payments constraint in the Kaldor-Thirlwall tradition or a demand-led regime approach or a competitive real exchange rate.
    Keywords: Functional distribution of income; import demand; aggregate demand regimes; balance-of-payments-constrained growth
    JEL: E25 F14 F43
    Date: 2020–12–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:spa:wpaper:2020wpecon25&r=all

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