nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒12‒14
forty-four papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Increasing the benefits and sustainability of irrigation through the integration of fisheries: a guide for water planners, managers and engineers By Nguyen-Khoa, S.; McCartney, Matthew; Funge-Smith, S.; Smith, L.; Senaratna Sellamuttu, Sonali; Dubois, M.
  2. Land market distortions and aggregate agricultural productivity: Evidence from Guatemala By Britos, Braulio; Hernandez, Manuel A.; Robles, Miguel; Trupkin, Danilo R.
  3. Spatial food and nutrition security typologies for agriculture and food value chain interventions in Eastern DRC By Marivoet, Wim; Ulimwengu, John M.; Bugeme, David M.; Sanginga, Blandine; Thontwa, Sarah
  4. Improving Agriculture and Food Security Risk Financing in Southern Africa By World Bank
  5. Indonesia Agro-Value Chain Assessment By World Bank
  6. COVID-19 and food security in Ethiopia: Do social protection programs protect? By Abay, Kibrom A.; Berhane, Guush; Hoddinott, John F.; Tafere, Kibrom
  7. A Growing Problem: Exploring Livestock Farm Resilience to Droughts in Unit Record Data. By Levente Timar; Eyal Apatov
  8. Agriculture Risk Financing in Southern Africa By Felix Lung; Cristina Stefan
  9. Transforming Philippine Agriculture By World Bank
  10. Supporting Ghana's agricultural mechanization program to better meet the needs of smallholder farmers By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  11. Trade-induced urbanization and the making of modern agriculture By Yuan Tian; Junjie Xia; Rudai Yang
  12. An Economic Analysis of Crop Diversification and Its Determinants in Bihar Agriculture By Ahmad, Nasim; Singh, K M; Sinha, D K
  13. Can Farmers' Wives Adopt New Technology? Case: Milk Processing during the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Tahunan Village, Pacitan Regency, Indonesia By Sugiyanto, Catur; Indarjulianto, Sudarminto; Pertiwiningrum, Ambar; Prabowo, Teguh Ari; Wuri, Margaretha Arnita; Trisilia, Mustika Septiyas; Fauzi, Ahmad Syahrul
  14. Sudan Agriculture Value Chain Analysis By World Bank
  15. A digital agricultural advisory services platform to boost adoption of improved technologies and practices in Ethiopia By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  16. Brazil Rural Finance Policy Note By World Bank
  17. Climate-Smart Agriculture Implementation Brief By World Bank
  18. China ‒ Domestic Support for Agricultural Producers: One Policy, Multiple Parameters Imply Modest Discipline By Dukgeun Ahn; David Orden
  19. An Exploratory Overview of Agriculture Finance in Indonesia By World Bank
  20. Improving tenure security for pastoralists in East Africa By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  21. Towards Sustainable Management of Natural and Built Capital for a Greener, Diversified, and Resilient Economy By World Bank
  22. Factors affecting crop diversification on tribal farming: A case study from Eastern ghats of India By Tripathy, Sadasiba; Das, Sandhyarani
  23. Somalia Country Environmental Analysis By World Bank
  24. Valuing Lao Landscapes By World Bank
  25. Research-policy linkages: Empirical evidence from agroeconomic research in India By Balaji, S. J.; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Pal, Suresh
  26. Incentivizing Sustainable Private Sector Investment in Timber Plantations in Myanmar By World Bank
  27. Towards Climate Resilient Environmental and Natural Resources Management in the Lake Victoria Basin By Michael J. Hammond; Jian Xie
  28. Improving Agricultural Interventions Under the New National Target Programs in Vietnam By World Bank
  29. Invention and Global Diffusion of Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation By Antoine Dechezlepretre; Sam Fankhauser; Matthieu Glachant; Jan Stoever; Simon Touboul
  30. On the benefits of index insurance in US agriculture: a large-scale analysis using satellite data By Matthieu Stigler; David Lobell
  31. Mobilizing Financing for Climate Smart Investments in the Mekong Delta By World Bank
  32. Learning from Experience By World Bank
  33. Using socioeconomic system analysis to define scientific needs: a reverse engineering method applied to the conversion of a coal-fired to a wood biomass power plant By Hendrik Davi; Laetitia Tuffery; Emanuel Garbolino; Bernard Prévosto; Bruno Fady
  34. Violent Conflict Exposure in Nigeria and Labor Supply of Farm Households By Chiwuzulum Odozi, John; Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo
  35. Estimated Economic Contributions From the Nursery/Greenhouse Industry in Tennessee By Jensen, Kimberly L.; English, Burton C.; Menard, Jamey; Schexnayder, Susan; Bruhin, Jared; Fulcher, Amy
  36. Challenges and opportunities with native forestry on M?ori land. By Pia Pohatu; Sophie O’Brien; Leo Mercer
  37. A Role for Regional Science in Analyzing Water Issues By Christa D. Court; Elham Erfanian
  38. Local Sectoral Specialization in a Warming World By Bruno Conte; Klaus Desmet; Dávid Krisztián Nagy; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
  39. Consumer taste in trade By Bee Yan Aw; Yi Lee; Hylke Vandenbussche
  40. Technology Policy and Environmental Quality at crossroads: Designing SDG policies for select Asia Pacific countries By Sinha, Avik; Sengupta, Tuhin; Saha, Tanaya
  41. Asset pricing and impact investing with pro-environmental preferences By Zerbib, Olivier David
  42. Countering Common Arguments Against Taxes on Sugary Drinks By Libby Hattersley; Alessia Thiebaud; Lynn Silver; Kate Mandeville
  43. Food shortages, stockpiling and panic buying ahead of Brexit as reported by the British media: a mixed methods content analysis By Coleman, Paul; Dhaif, Fatema; Oyebode, Oyinlola
  44. The Spanish Tuna Industry in Tropical Waters: From the African Atlantic to the Indian and the Pacific Oceans (1984-2015) By Rafael Uriarte Ayo

  1. By: Nguyen-Khoa, S.; McCartney, Matthew; Funge-Smith, S.; Smith, L.; Senaratna Sellamuttu, Sonali; Dubois, M.
    Abstract: There is increasing recognition of the need to bring about changes across the full spectrum of agricultural practices to ensure that, in future, food production systems are more diverse, sustainable and resilient. In this context, the objectives of irrigation need to be much more ambitious, shifting away from simply maximizing crop yields to maximizing net benefits across a range of uses of irrigation water, including ecosystems and nature-based solutions. One important way to achieve this is by better integrating fisheries into the planning, design, construction, operation and management of irrigation systems. Irrigation – a major contributor to the Green Revolution – has significantly improved agricultural production worldwide, with consequent benefits for food security, livelihoods and poverty alleviation. Today, irrigated agriculture represents about 21 percent of cultivated land, but contributes approximately 40% of the total global crop production. Many governments continue to invest in irrigation as a cornerstone of food security and rural development. Investments in irrigation often represent a pragmatic form of adaptation to changing climatic conditions. This guide focuses on how to sustainably optimize and broaden the range of benefits from irrigation development - not only economic but also social and environmental benefits. It emphasizes the opportunities that fisheries could provide to increase food production and economic returns, enhance livelihoods and public health outcomes, and maintain key ecosystem services. The guide considers possible trade-offs between irrigation and fisheries, and provides recommendations on how these could be minimized.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Industrial Organization
    Date: 2020–11–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmirp:307599&r=all
  2. By: Britos, Braulio; Hernandez, Manuel A.; Robles, Miguel; Trupkin, Danilo R.
    Abstract: Farm size and land allocation are important factors in explaining lagging agricultural productivity in developing countries. This paper examines the effect of land market imperfections on land allocation across farmers and aggregate agricultural productivity. We develop a theoretical framework to model the optimal size distribution of farms and assess to what extent market imperfections can explain non-optimal land allocation and output in-efficiency. We measure these distortions for the case of Guatemala using agricultural census microdata. We find that due to land market imperfections aggregate output is 19% below its efficient level for both maize and beans and 31% below for coffee, which are three major crops produced nationwide. The regions with higher distortions show a higher dispersion in land prices and less active rental markets. We also find that the degree of land market distortions across locations co-variate with road accessibility and ethnicity and, in a lower extent, with education.
    Keywords: GUATEMALA; LATIN AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA; land markets; agricultural productivity; maize; beans; Coffea; coffee; crop production; land market distortions; output inefficiency
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1969&r=all
  3. By: Marivoet, Wim; Ulimwengu, John M.; Bugeme, David M.; Sanginga, Blandine; Thontwa, Sarah
    Abstract: To guide the design of future agriculture and food value chain interventions, this paper combines two existing spatial food and nutrition security typologies and applies them to the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Apart from estimating absolute and relative inefficiencies along the food system from agricultural potential to nutrition, the integration of both typologies resulted in nine unique low efficiency profiles across the territories and major cities of the Greater Kivu region and Tanganyika. In addition to low utilization efficiency observed in some areas, most PICAGL intervention zones, especially Uvira and Kalemie, suffer from significant market constraints and therefore could substantially benefit from food value chain development. Although this paper relies on the most recent and spatially disaggregated data (which is a major improvement with respect to agricultural statistics of the country), the proposed typologies cannot uncover all bottlenecks hindering the development of agricultural value chains in the region.
    Keywords: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO; CENTRAL AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; food security; nutrition security; agriculture; value chains; food systems; spatial typologies
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1971&r=all
  4. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Knowledge & Information Systems Agriculture - Commodity Risk Management Agriculture - Food Security Finance and Financial Sector Development - Insurance & Risk Mitigation
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34085&r=all
  5. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Extension Agriculture - Agricultural Knowledge & Information Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Crops & Crop Management Systems
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34069&r=all
  6. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Berhane, Guush; Hoddinott, John F.; Tafere, Kibrom
    Abstract: We assess the impact of Ethiopia’s flagship social protection program, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food and nutrition security of households, mothers, and children. We use both pre-pandemic in-person household survey data and a post-pandemic phone survey. Two thirds of our respondents reported that their incomes had fallen after the pandemic began and almost half reported that their ability to satisfy their food needs had worsened. Employing a household fixed effects difference-in-difference approach, we find that the household food insecurity increased by 11.7 percentage points and the size of the food gap by 0.47 months in the aftermath of the onset of the pandemic. Participation in the PSNP offsets virtually all of this adverse change; the likelihood of becoming food insecure increased by only 2.4 percentage points for PSNP households and the duration of the food gap increased by only 0.13 months. The protective role of PSNP is greater for poorer households and those living in remote areas. Results are robust to definitions of PSNP participation, different estimators and how we account for the non-randomness of mobile phone ownership. PSNP households were less likely to reduce expenditures on health and education by 7.7 percentage points and were less likely to reduce expenditures on agricultural inputs by 13 percentage points. By contrast, mothers’ and children’s diets changed little, despite some changes in the composition of diets with consumption of animal source foods declining significantly.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; Coronavirus; coronavirus disease; Coronavirinae; COVID-19; food security; social protection; programmes; income; nutrition security; households; diet diversity; Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP)
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1972&r=all
  7. By: Levente Timar (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Eyal Apatov (Oranga Tamariki, Ministry for Children)
    Abstract: Climate models indicate that New Zealand’s farms will be increasingly exposed to adverse climate events in the future. In this study, we empirically investigate drought impacts on farm enterprises by linking financial, agricultural and productivity data from Statistics New Zealand’s Longitudinal Business Database (LBD) with historical weather data from NIWA. Our sample consists of an unbalanced panel of over 67,000 observations of livestock farm enterprises between 2002 and 2012. We run a set of panel regressions with time and farm fixed effects to estimate the effect of changes in drought intensity on gross output, profit per hectare, current loans and intermediate expenditure of dairy and sheep-beef farms. To explore factors of resilience to droughts, we also examine how the estimates change with different farm characteristics. Most (but not all) of the estimated drought effects are significant, consistent across various specifications and of the expected sign. However, we have limited success in conclusively identifying farm characteristics that affect drought outcomes in our data.
    Keywords: Drought, farm enterprise, resilience, panel data, fixed effects
    JEL: Q12 C23
    Date: 2020–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mtu:wpaper:20_14&r=all
  8. By: Felix Lung; Cristina Stefan
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Commodity Risk Management Environment - Natural Disasters Finance and Financial Sector Development - Insurance & Risk Mitigation Science and Technology Development - Climate and Meteorology
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34314&r=all
  9. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agribusiness Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Crops & Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Food Security Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies Poverty Reduction - Inequality
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34012&r=all
  10. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: With support from PIM and USAID, researchers from IFPRI and CIMMYT together with Ghana government officials conducted a qualitative assessment of the Ghana Agricultural Mechanization Service Enterprise Centers (AMSECs) program. The recommendations from the study were used to improve the program’s inclusiveness and efficiency.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural mechanization, mechanization, smallholders, farmers
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:pimons:134134&r=all
  11. By: Yuan Tian; Junjie Xia; Rudai Yang
    Abstract: Manufacturing growth can benefit the agricultural sector if the outflow of labor from agriculture improves land allocation efficiency and facilitates capital adoption. Using destination prefectures’ trade shocks in the manufacturing sector driven by China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the origin village’s initial internal migration network, we construct the exposure to manufacturing trade shocks for a panel of 295 villages from 2001 to 2010. We find that villages with larger increases in trade exposure had larger increases in the share of non-agricultural laborers, more fluid local land markets, and faster modernization of production through the adoption of agricultural machinery. Village-level agricultural productivity improved through the allocation of land towards more productive farmers within a village. During the era we study, transaction costs declined in the agricultural land market. We use a quantitative model to show that the growth in non-agricultural productivity had a larger impact on urbanization and agricultural modernization than reductions in transaction costs.
    Keywords: Land Misallocation, Capital Adoption, Urbanization, Trade Liberalization, Agriculture Modernization
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:not:notgep:2020-16&r=all
  12. By: Ahmad, Nasim; Singh, K M; Sinha, D K
    Abstract: The nature and extent of crop diversification in the state of Bihar has been analyzed using secondary data obtained from different publish sources of Govt. of Bihar from 2000-01 to 2014-15 i.e. a period of 15 years. Composite Entropy Index (CEI) and double log step-wise linear regression model was applied to assess the determinants of crop diversification in the state. The results have revealed that in almost all crops group very low diversification indices were observed. The study has suggested that despite plenty of natural resources available in the state, the economic improvement of farmers is in infancy. Pre-requisite infrastructural facilities like cheap sources of irrigation water (assured irrigation as the monsoon in the present decade had been erratic and scanty rainfall) and extension of technological know-how (quality seeds and fertilizers), may acts as catalyst in diversification of agriculture towards high-valued crops. These developmental efforts may be helpful in fetching good incomes by the cultivators.
    Keywords: Diversification, Composite Entropy Index (CEI)
    JEL: O11 O13 Q1 Q12 Q15 Q16
    Date: 2020–01–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:104328&r=all
  13. By: Sugiyanto, Catur; Indarjulianto, Sudarminto; Pertiwiningrum, Ambar; Prabowo, Teguh Ari; Wuri, Margaretha Arnita; Trisilia, Mustika Septiyas; Fauzi, Ahmad Syahrul
    Abstract: This paper draws from our experience in assisting the midwives of milk farmers in learning how to process milk to raise their family income. We focus on 136 housewives of dairy farmers (all members of dairy farmer groups) in Tahunan village, Tegalombo sub-regency, Pacitan regency in Indonesia. There is only one collector in the area, PT DAS, sub-contracting from Nestle Indonesia. The problem happened when there is an over-supply, and the milk collector refuses to process the farmer's milk. For this reason, we have been assisting the dairy farm wives to process the milk and sell it to the local market since 2018. We start with the introduction of the plan to all dairy farm members (both the husband and the wives), then survey the availability of time the wives have. We focus on the wives because the husband is responsible for taking care of the cows. Also, we investigate the potential of local products (empon-empon, traditional roots such as ginger, turmeric) that can be processed together with the milk. The local product is chosen because of the familiarity of the potential customer with the flavor of the product. Introduction of the new technology to process milk at the beginning and the accompaniment are the keys to the acceptance of the activities.
    Keywords: empowerment, accompaniment, milk processing technology, house-wives
    JEL: D1 J16 Q12
    Date: 2020–11–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:104348&r=all
  14. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agribusiness Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Agricultural Trade Agriculture - Dairies & Dairying Agriculture - Livestock & Animal Husbandry Private Sector Development - Global Value Chains and Business Clustering
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34103&r=all
  15. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: Despite a rapidly growing enthusiasm for the use of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in developing country agriculture, many questions remain on the effectiveness of ICT-based approaches. In the case of Ethiopia, an IFPRI-led and PIM-supported study highlighted the benefits of a large-scale video-mediated approach for agricultural advisory services. The Government of Ethiopia used these results to make a significant investment in digitizing agricultural advisory services.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural extension, advisory services, digital technology, Information and Communication Technologies
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:pimons:134135&r=all
  16. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agribusiness Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Commodity Risk Management Finance and Financial Sector Development - Insurance & Risk Mitigation Rural Development - Agribusiness & Markets Rural Development - Rural Microfinance and SMEs
    Date: 2020–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34195&r=all
  17. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Knowledge & Information Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Environment - Adaptation to Climate Change Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33973&r=all
  18. By: Dukgeun Ahn; David Orden
    Abstract: This paper assesses key issues in the dispute over the United States’ claim that for certain grains China exceeded its limits on domestic support under the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) during 2012-2015. The panel first determined that the base years for the reference price in calculating China’s market price support were 1996-1998, rather than 1986-1988 as stipulated in the AoA, and that production in the geographic regions where the support programs operated, not the smaller quantities purchased at administered prices, constituted eligible production. The panel then found China exceeded its limits in each of the four years for wheat, Indica rice and Japonica rice. The possibility was left open that a government can determine eligible production by setting maximum purchases at support prices in its regulatory framework. China used this option to claim that its programs for 2020 implemented the recommendations and rulings of the DSB. We argue that use of outdated fixed external reference prices to measure the price gap, and defining eligible production by limits on purchases, distance calculation under the AoA from economic support measurement. The measurement issues compound the discord among Members over levels of agricultural support.
    Keywords: Agreement on Agriculture, WTO US-China dispute, market price support, fixed external reference price, eligible production, wheat, rice, India.
    JEL: F53 K33 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2020–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rsc:rsceui:2020/79&r=all
  19. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Commodity Risk Management Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Finance and Financial Sector Development - Insurance & Risk Mitigation Finance and Financial Sector Development - Microfinance Rural Development - Rural Microfinance and SMEs
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34100&r=all
  20. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: PIM support to work from ILRI and partners contributed to adoption of a woreda (district) participatory land use planning approach in Ethiopia and to expansion of the joint village land use planning approach in Tanzania, resulting in more secure tenure rights for pastoralists in rangeland areas.
    Keywords: EAST AFRICA, AFRICA, tenure, tenure security, pastoralists, land tenure, governance
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:pimons:134136&r=all
  21. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Environment - Air Quality & Clean Air Environment - Natural Resources Management Environment - Sustainable Land Management Environment - Water Resources Management Information and Communication Technologies - Digital Divide Urban Development - National Urban Development Policies & Strategies Urban Development - Urban Economic Development
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34272&r=all
  22. By: Tripathy, Sadasiba; Das, Sandhyarani
    Abstract: In this article we investigated various factors affecting crop diversification in tribal areas of Eastern ghats of India. We adopted multiple regression analysis and tried to visualize contribution from different factors to crop diversification. We observe most prominent factor affecting to tribal farming in study area is fertilizers, while least one is irrigation facility. Few policy suggestions are made for their betterment based on this study.
    Date: 2020–11–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:s9hab&r=all
  23. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Conflict and Development - Conflict and Fragile States Environment - Climate Change and Environment Environment - Environmental Economics & Policies Environment - Natural Disasters Environment - Natural Resources Management Environment - Sustainable Land Management Environment - Water Resources Management
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34058&r=all
  24. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Ecosystems and Natural Habitats Environment - Environmental Protection Environment - Natural Resources Management Environment - Sustainable Land Management Environment - Tourism and Ecotourism Environment - Water Resources Management
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34070&r=all
  25. By: Balaji, S. J.; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Pal, Suresh
    Abstract: Policy-making processes in developing countries often continue to operate devoid of evidence. In this study, we explore the research-policy linkages between the agroeconomic research system (AERS) and the agricultural policy system (APS) in India. Specifically, we examine questions directed to the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare in the two houses of the national parliament—the House of the People (Lok Sabha) and the Council of States (Rajya Sabha)—and filter them for key issues that confront the APS. In addition, using the list of research articles published in two major national agricultural economics journals, we examine the alignment of the AERS toward addressing pressing policy issues. We use 6,465 questions raised by elected representatives in the parliamentary houses and 377 research articles, both during the period 2014–2018. We use machine learning techniques for information retrieval because the required information is hidden as non-numerical text. Using tag clouds (lists of words by frequency), we identify key divergences between the concerns of the APS and the research focus of the AERS, and explore their linkages. To broaden our understanding, we employ latent Dirichlet allocation, a natural language processing technique that identifies crucial issues and automates their classification under appropriate clusters, to examine synergies between the research and policy systems. Results show remarkable alignment between the AERS and the APS, invalidating the two-communities hypothesis. We identify persistent issues in the policy domain that require the support of the research system, as well as potential areas for research system realignment.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTH ASIA; ASIA; agricultural economics; machine learning; agricultural research; agricultural policies; policies; farmers; research-policy linkages; latent Dirichlet allocation; policy systems; agroeconomic research
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1970&r=all
  26. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Forestry Management Environment - Environmental Protection Environment - Forests and Forestry Environment - Natural Resources Management Environment - Sustainable Land Management
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34149&r=all
  27. By: Michael J. Hammond; Jian Xie
    Keywords: Environment - Adaptation to Climate Change Environment - Climate Change and Environment Environment - Environmental Disasters & Degradation Environment - Natural Resources Management Environment - Water Resources Management
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33912&r=all
  28. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Poverty Reduction - Inequality Rural Development - Agricultural Growth and Rural Development Rural Development - Rural Labor Markets
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33914&r=all
  29. By: Antoine Dechezlepretre; Sam Fankhauser; Matthieu Glachant; Jan Stoever; Simon Touboul
    Keywords: Environment - Adaptation to Climate Change Environment - Environmental Engineering Science and Technology Development - Science of Climate Change Science and Technology Development - Technology Innovation
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:33883&r=all
  30. By: Matthieu Stigler; David Lobell
    Abstract: Index insurance has been promoted as a promising solution for reducing agricultural risk compared to traditional farm-based insurance. By linking payouts to a regional factor instead of individual loss, index insurance reduces monitoring costs, and alleviates the problems of moral hazard and adverse selection. Despite its theoretical appeal, demand for index insurance has remained low in many developing countries, triggering a debate on the causes of the low uptake. Surprisingly, there has been little discussion in this debate about the experience in the United States. The US is an unique case as both farm-based and index-based products have been available for more than two decades. Furthermore, the number of insurance zones is very large, allowing interesting comparisons over space. As in developing countries, the adoption of index insurance is rather low -- less than than 5\% of insured acreage. Does this mean that we should give up on index insurance? In this paper, we investigate the low take-up of index insurance in the US leveraging a field-level dataset for corn and soybean obtained from satellite predictions. While previous studies were based either on county aggregates or on relatively small farm-level dataset, our satellite-derived data gives us a very large number of fields (close to 1.8 million) comprised within a large number of index zones (600) observed over 20 years. To evaluate the suitability of index insurance, we run a large-scale simulation comparing the benefits of both insurance schemes using a new measure of farm-equivalent risk coverage of index insurance. We make two main contributions. First, we show that in our simulations, demand for index insurance is unexpectedly high, at about 30\% to 40\% of total demand. This result is robust to relaxing several assumptions of the model and to using prospect theory instead of expected utility.
    Date: 2020–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2011.12544&r=all
  31. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Adaptation to Climate Change Environment - Carbon Policy and Trading Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Environment - Environmental Economics & Policies
    Date: 2020–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34202&r=all
  32. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Commodity Risk Management Environment - Environmental Disasters & Degradation Environment - Natural Disasters Finance and Financial Sector Development - Insurance & Risk Mitigation Science and Technology Development - Earth Sciences & GIS Urban Development - Hazard Risk Management
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34090&r=all
  33. By: Hendrik Davi (URFM 629 - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes [Avignon] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Laetitia Tuffery (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Emanuel Garbolino (Climpact Data Science); Bernard Prévosto (RECOVER - Risques, Ecosystèmes, Vulnérabilité, Environnement, Résilience - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Bruno Fady (URFM 629 - Ecologie des Forêts Méditerranéennes [Avignon] - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: One of the greatest challenges when addressing issues in complex social-ecological systems (SES), is the need for an efficient interdisciplinary framework when large-magnitude social and ecological disturbances occur. Teams comprising of scientists from different backgrounds and disciplines are frequently called upon to propose research methods and results that can be useful for policy and decision makers. However, most of the outcomes from these pluri-disciplinary teams appear extremely difficult to implement within a bigger picture because concepts, hypotheses, methods, and results are specific to each discipline. Here, we propose a reverse-engineering (RE) method to define the scientific needs that could help policy makers and citizens to assess the impacts of socioeconomic "disruptors" on social-ecological systems. We present this method using the example of an ongoing wood biomass energy plant (Gardanne) in the French Mediterranean region. In the Mediterranean region, species diversity is high, the forest cover is ample, but difficult access and low forest productivity make any biomass policy an ecological and social disruption. Our method is based on three complementary approaches to (1) describe the social-ecosystems, (2) draw up a map of interactions between actors and the impacts on the ecosystem, and (3) identify relevant questions needed for a global analysis of the impacts and potentialities of adaptation of actors and the ecosystems to the perturbation and the connections needed between the different disciplines. Our analysis showed that knowledge gaps have to be filled to assess forest resource vulnerability and better estimate how the different resource used (solid wood, biomass, landscape) competed together. Finally, we discuss how this method could be integrated into a broader transdisciplinary work allowing a coproduction of knowledge and solutions on a SES.
    Keywords: forest,interdisciplinary,model,reverse-engineering,wood energy
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-03010363&r=all
  34. By: Chiwuzulum Odozi, John; Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo
    Abstract: Nigeria has experienced bouts of violent conflict in different regions over the last few decades leading to significant loss of life. In this paper, we explore the potential short and accumulated long term effects of such conflict on labor supply of agricultural households. Using a nationally representative panel dataset for Nigeria in combination with armed conflict data, we estimate the effect of violent conflict on a farm household members labor supply. Our findings suggest that exposure to violent conflict significantly reduces the total number of hours the farm household head works and also deceases total family labor supply for agricultural households.
    Keywords: Violence,Nigeria,Conflict,Boko Haram,Farm Households,Labor Supply
    JEL: Q10 Q12 O1 D74
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:glodps:712&r=all
  35. By: Jensen, Kimberly L.; English, Burton C.; Menard, Jamey; Schexnayder, Susan; Bruhin, Jared; Fulcher, Amy
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to project the economic contributions of Tennessee’s nursery/greenhouse production industry to the state’s economy. By projecting the economic contributions, not only can the direct effects from the state’s industry be measured but also the multiplier effects of the industry. For example, economic impacts occur when nursery/greenhouse industry producers purchase inputs and supplies from in-state businesses. Also, economic impacts occur when workers who are employed by nursery/greenhouse firms spend their income on goods and services produced in Tennessee.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–11–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:utaerr:307650&r=all
  36. By: Pia Pohatu (Hikurangi Enterprises Limited); Sophie O’Brien (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Leo Mercer (Victoria University of Wellington)
    Abstract: Domestically and abroad, government policies aim to increase afforestation and provide the many environmental and social benefits that afforestation can deliver. For multiply-owned M?ori land in Aotearoa New Zealand, decision-makers often face extra challenges that may hinder their ability to meet aspirations for afforesting their land, despite the availability of various support programmes. We explore the decision-making processes of a sample of M?ori landowners in Te Tair?whiti to understand the extent to which funding programmes and afforestation incentives from the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme enable them to meet their own aspirations for their land. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 M?ori land-use decision-makers that represent a range of M?ori landowner entity types, including M?ori incorporations, ahuwhenua trusts, ahuwhenua trusts administered by Te Tumu Paeroa and family trusts. Several key challenges emerged that are faced by our sample of M?ori land decision-makers. These relate to: the historical context of M?ori land use and development; governance; accessing expertise and resourcing; communication; the logistics of native forestry establishment; and challenges specific to the NZ ETS. We also identified key areas where additional support could yield substantial gains for M?ori land decision-makers. These include increasing access to understandable and context-specific expert advice; investing in lasting working relationships; providing support to develop robust business cases and planting plans for native forestry; tailoring policy to be flexible to individual land blocks’ starting lines; and tailoring policy to acknowledge the ways in which M?ori traditionally engaged with native forestry.
    Keywords: M?ori land, land-use decision-making, native forestry, New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme
    JEL: D71 D81 Q15 Q23 Q54 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mtu:wpaper:20_13&r=all
  37. By: Christa D. Court (Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida); Elham Erfanian (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University)
    Abstract: The World Economic Forum has consistently ranked water crises as one of the top five most impactful issues facing humanity, alongside but not completely separate from issues such as climate change and natural disasters (World Economic Forum, 2019). A growing population and changing climate will only further stress the constrained water system. Acute and ongoing societal disruptions, caused by significant declines in the available quality and quantity of fresh water around the globe, underscore the importance of water to human life and a functional society. The papers in this special issue highlight the role that regional scientists can and should play in informed decision-making related to water at the local, regional, and national scale.
    Keywords: Water, Regional Science, Integrated Analysis, Open Science
    JEL: Y2 Q25 R1
    Date: 2019–08–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rri:wpaper:2019rp04&r=all
  38. By: Bruno Conte; Klaus Desmet; Dávid Krisztián Nagy; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
    Abstract: This paper quantitatively assesses the world's changing economic geography and sectoral specialization due to global warming. It proposes a two-sector dynamic spatial growth model that incorporates the relation between economic activity, carbon emissions, and temperature. The model is taken to the data at the 1º by 1º resolution for the entire world. Over a 200-year horizon, rising temperatures consistent with emissions under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 push people and economic activity northwards to Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia. Compared to a world without climate change, clusters of agricultural specialization shift from Central Africa, Brazil, and India's Ganges Valley, to Central Asia, parts of China and northern Canada. Equatorial latitudes that lose agriculture specialize more in nonagriculture but, due to their persistently low productivity, lose population. By the year 2200, predicted losses in real GDP and utility are 6% and 15%, respectively. Higher trade costs make adaptation through changes in sectoral specialization more costly, leading to less geographic concentration in agriculture and larger climate-induced migration.
    Keywords: climate change; quantitative economic geography; spatial growth
    JEL: O4 Q54 R13
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bge:wpaper:1221&r=all
  39. By: Bee Yan Aw; Yi Lee; Hylke Vandenbussche
    Abstract: This paper documents the importance of consumer taste for the food industry using firm product level customs data by destination country. We identify consumer taste through the use of a control function approach and estimate it jointly with other demand parameters using a flexible demand specification. We fid that, on average, consumer taste explains about as much of the variation in export revenue as marginal costs. The contribution of consumer tastes to export revenue variation ranges from 2% to 30% depending on product category in the food industry. Our results also show that consumer taste decreases in distance but this relationship is non-monotonic.
    Keywords: consumer taste, quality, productivity, exports, firm-product, food
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:not:notgep:2020-15&r=all
  40. By: Sinha, Avik; Sengupta, Tuhin; Saha, Tanaya
    Abstract: Since the inception of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Asia Pacific countries are facing difficulties in attaining the SDG objectives, as maintaining the environmental quality has been a challenge for them. In this study, we have revisited the technology policies of these countries, and in doing so, we have tried to address the problem of environmental degradation, while addressing the issues of sustainable economic growth, clean and affordable energy, and quality education. In this pursuit, we have designed two indices for environmental degradation and technological advancement, and then analyzed the association between them following the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Following IPAT framework, and by using quantile approach, over a period of 1990-2017, we have found that the turnaround points of EKCs rise with the rise in quantiles, i.e. quantiles with low pollutions are having turnaround points within sample range, whereas quantiles with high pollutions are having turnaround points outside sample range. Using Rolling Window Heterogeneous Panel Causality test, unidirectional causality has been found running from technological advancement to environmental degradation. Following the results obtained from the analysis, we have tried to address the objectives of SDG 13, SDG 4, SDG 8, SDG 9, SDG 7, and SDG 10.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Technology policy; Research and Development, Asia Pacific; Environmental quality
    JEL: Q5 Q53 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:104249&r=all
  41. By: Zerbib, Olivier David (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tiu:tiutis:f0eaf05f-2a04-4ca0-84e3-39529fa29c61&r=all
  42. By: Libby Hattersley; Alessia Thiebaud; Lynn Silver; Kate Mandeville
    Keywords: Health, Nutrition and Population - Food & Nutrition Policy Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Taxation & Subsidies
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wboper:34361&r=all
  43. By: Coleman, Paul; Dhaif, Fatema; Oyebode, Oyinlola
    Abstract: Background: Government documents warn that if the UK and EU have not negotiated a trade deal by 31 December 2020 the UK could experience increased food prices and possible food shortages. The media have an important role in influencing recipients’ behaviour by promoting reassurance or anxiety on this issue. This study examines how food supply and demand, in the context of Brexit, has been portrayed by the British media. Methods: A mixed methods content analysis of articles reporting on food supply and demand in the context of Brexit, in three daily newspapers, between 01 January 2015 and 31 January 2020. Results: Five themes emerged: food shortages and panic buying (appearing in 96% of articles); food supply chain disruption (86%); economic impacts of Brexit (80%); preparation and stockpiling by the government and food sector (63%) and preparation and stockpiling by individuals (22%). Conclusion: Government messaging reported by the media sought to reassure the public that there will be no food shortages under a no-deal Brexit. These reassurances contradicted warnings from the food sector and leaked government reports of reduced availability of food items. These contradictory messages may have undermined trust in the government, potentially influencing stockpiling behaviour at the individual level.
    Date: 2020–11–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:vfqhn&r=all
  44. By: Rafael Uriarte Ayo (Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao, Spain)
    Abstract: The 1980s marked a turning point in the trajectory of the Spanish purse seine tuna freezer industry. Probably the most outstanding aspect was the extension of the fishery to the Western Indian Ocean from 1984. In the Pacific, where it had a presence since the 1970s, the activity was not really significant until the late 1990s. The expansion of the fishery to increasingly distant places, less well known and without connection to the home base ports, required new technological developments and changes in the size of the vessels and the shipping companies. On the other hand, Spain's entry into the EU (1986), the widespread extension of the EEZs to 200 miles (1982), the opening of new markets and the relocation of the canning industry to Asian and Latin American countries, forced to rethink the conditions of entry of the fleet in the different fishing grounds, the negotiating strategies with the coastal countries and the commercial structures of the companies.
    Keywords: oceanic tuna vessels, purse seiners, fishing industry, globalization
    JEL: Q22 N50 Q13
    Date: 2020–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ahe:dtaehe:2012&r=all

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