nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒10‒19
23 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Strategic outsourcing and precision agriculture: towards a silent reorganization of agricultural production in France ? By Geneviève Nguyen; Julien Brailly; François Purseigle
  2. Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Michigan Agricultural Production Sectors By Miller, Steven R.; Malone, Trey; Schaefer, Aleks K.
  3. Targeting Small-Scale Irrigation Investments using Agent-Based Modeling: Case Studies in Mali and Niger By Olayide, Olawale E.; Sangare, Saadatou A.; Koo, Jawoo; Xie, Hua
  4. European Union non-tariff barriers to imports of African biofuels By Schuenemann, Franziska; Kerr, William A.
  5. Forecasting impacts of Agricultural Production on Global Maize Price By Rotem Zelingher; David Makowski; Thierry Brunelle
  6. Investigating Treatment Effects of Participating Jointly in SNAP and WIC when the Treatment Is Validated Only for SNAP By Jensen, Helen H.; Kreider, Brent; Zhylyevskyy, Oleksandr
  7. Changing environmental conservation attitudes: Evidence from a framed field experiment among small-scale coffee farmers in Colombia By Reitmann, Ann-Kristin
  8. South Asian Free Trade Area and food trade: Implications for regional food security By Ward, Megan; Herr, Hansjörg; Pédussel Wu, Jennifer
  9. Coffee in crisis offers a lesson in resilience: evidence from Guatemala By Serfilippi, Elena; De Los Rios, Carlos; d’Errico, Marco
  10. Deliverable 10.1 of the Strength2Food H2020 project By Konstadinos Mattas; Efthimia Tsakiridou; Christos Karelakis; Charoula Chousou; Dimitra Lazaridou; Virginie Amilien; Filippo Arfini; Valentin Bellassen; Ruzica Brecic; Liesbeth Dries; Georges Giraud; Matthew Gorton; Monika Hartmann; Edward Majewski; Agatha Malak-Rawlikowska; Steve Quarrie; Burkhard Schaer; Angela Tregear; Mario Veneziani; Gunnar Vitterso
  11. Trade Credit Use in Agricultural Cooperatives: Pricing and Firm Performance By McKee, Gregory; Jacobs, Keri L.; Kagan, Albert
  12. Setting up a bioeconomy monitoring: Resource base and sustainability By Iost, Susanne; Geng, Natalia; Schweinle, Jörg; Banse, Martin; Brüning, Simone; Jochem, Dominik; Machmüller, Andrea; Weimar, Holger
  13. Disruption in Circularity? Impact analysis of COVID-19 on ship recycling using Weibull tonnage estimation and scenario analysis method By S. M. Mizanur Rahman; Junbeum Kim; Bertrand Laratte
  14. Assessing Sugar Reduction Scenarios for Breakfast Cereals in Germany Based on Brand-Level Demand Estimates By Staudigel, Matthias
  15. Small Farm Upgrading in GVC: a Strategic Perspective By Alexandre Berthe; Pascal Grouiez
  16. Structural adjustment of Swiss dairy farms - farm exit and farm type change By Zorn, Alexander; Zimmert, Franziska
  17. Multifunctional agriculture : Issues and development paths By Archimède Mbogning Genang
  18. Property rights and the efficient extraction of common pool resources: evidence from West Coast groundfish By Evans, Keith S.; Lian, Carl; Weninger, Quinn
  19. Best Management Practices and Nutrient Reduction: An Integrated Economic-Hydrological Model of the Western Lake Erie Basin By Liu, Hongxing; Zhang, Wendong; Irwin, Elena; Kast, Jeffrey; Aloysius, Noel; Martin, Jay; Kalcic, Margaret
  20. Revising the Impact of Global Commodity Prices and Global Stock Market Volatility Shocks: Effects across Countries By Kang, Wensheng; Ratti, Ronald A.; Vespignani, Joaquin L.
  21. Agricultural Land Use, Local Political Power, and Groundwater Nitrate Contamination in Germany By Castro Campos, Bente; Petrick, Martin
  22. Quantification and benefits of reducing post-harvest losses: Evidence for vegetables in Senegal By Beye, Assane; Komarek, Adam M.
  23. The impact of climate change on the profit-maximising timing of grassland use and conservation costs By Gerling, Charlotte; Strum, Astrid; Wätzold, Frank

  1. By: Geneviève Nguyen (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Julien Brailly (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); François Purseigle (AGIR - AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In France as in other European countries, farm outsourcing has been developing for the past twenty years. Today, this phenomenon concerns both small and large farms. What is surprising is the growing number of farmers who outsource precision farming operations that involve sophisticated technologies and specialized expertise. This stylized fact is rather counter-intuitive to the known result of transaction cost theory, according to which in the presence of specific assets, ownership prevails over outsourcing. The objective of our study is to analyze the determinants of these new agricultural outsourcing practices associated with precision agriculture. We start with the transaction costs and property rights frameworks, then discuss recent theoretical contributions of relational contracts to explain the possibility of outsourcing in the presence of high asset specificity. Empirical evidences are provided for France using a mixed research methodology. Based on original data from surveys of 1200 farmers and of 20 of medium and large custom operators, our methodology combines an estimation of discrete choice models of outsourcing for different levels of asset specificity and case studies of major farm outsourcing organizational schemes. Our results show that in the presence of high specific assets, outsourcing can be preferred to ownership for strategic reasons. This phenomenon is counter-intuitive from the point of view of transaction cost theory, but is possible when one considers possible ex-ante incentive mechanisms (expectation of specialization gains, inclusion of a bonus based on the value of the output in the formal contract, participation of a third party), and informal incentive mechanisms built through repeated interactions.
    Keywords: Strategic outsourcing,Custom farming,Specific assets,transaction costs theory,Relational contracts,Mixed research method,France
    Date: 2020–01–03
  2. By: Miller, Steven R.; Malone, Trey; Schaefer, Aleks K.
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic caused dramatic shifts in the agricultural economy. This article estimates the economic impact of the pandemic on Michigan agricultural production. Our conceptual model focuses on differences in five aggregated agri-food supply chains: row crops, livestock, tree fruits, vegetables, and dairy. Assuming the COVID-19 economic impact is driven by commodity price changes and changes in the relative prices and volumes of food away from home and food at home, we estimate a model of costs to the Michigan economy. Our findings indicate that the pandemic decreased the overall economic output attributable to Michigan agriculture by 18.6%, with dairy and vegetable production being the hardest hit, experiencing 25.2% and 27.2% reductions in economic output, respectively. Results from our input-output analysis suggest that the Michigan economy experienced a decline of $2,186,268,000 of primary and secondary sales due to pandemic effects on agricultural producers.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020–09–24
  3. By: Olayide, Olawale E.; Sangare, Saadatou A.; Koo, Jawoo; Xie, Hua
    Abstract: Small-scale irrigation has been identified as a potential adaptation strategy for climate change and boosting food security and livelihoods in dry regions. This study presents the analysis of the potential adoption of small-scale irrigation in two West African countries (Mali and Niger) by using a spatially explicit analytical framework. It underscores the need for strategically investing in the management of ground and surface water resources for the development of small-scale irrigation systems in the two countries. The study implemented an agent-based modeling technique to simulate small-scale irrigation decisions at the district and national level. The results revealed that, while small-scale irrigation can increase crop productivity in both countries, its adoption may be constrained by water scarcity and tensions in water allocation. Strategic water resource development plans should be established to ensure efficient and sustainable irrigation schemes, especially for areas with high potential profitability.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2020–10–06
  4. By: Schuenemann, Franziska; Kerr, William A.
    Abstract: The introduction of EU mandates for biofuel use in the transport sector initially led to high expectations that African countries would benefit from biofuel exports to the EU. This market opportunity has not been realised, however, due to regulatory requirements for the production of biofuels that act as non-tariff barriers to the acceptance of African biofuels in the EU. This benefits producers of biofuel crops and processors in the EU by providing economic protection. In particular, the EU import regime fails to acknowledge the challenges faced by African (or other) developing countries in satisfying the requirements. Using a computable general equilibrium model for Malawi, we quantify the foregone potential benefits from biofuel production for exports to the EU arising from non-tariff barriers (NTBs) embedded in the sustainability criteria. Our results show that sugarcane-ethanol production under smallholder outgrower regimes would lead to both economic growth outcomes and rural development, whereas jatropha-biodiesel fails to increase rural incomes due to low profitability. While there is widespread agreement on the latter today, our study is the first to explore the failure of jatropha in Malawi in an economy-wide framework. The ethanol results, however, also hold if land clearing is forbidden, thereby preserving biodiversity as stipulated under the sustainability criteria in the EU Renewable Energy Directive. The EU NTBs embedded in the Renewable Energy Directive thus play a much larger role for countries in Sub-Sahara Africa than simply inhibiting investment opportunities and should be refashioned to lower the entry costs for developing countries.
    Keywords: Non-tariff barriers,biofuels,Malawi,CGE model
    JEL: F13 D58 O13 Q17
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Rotem Zelingher (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); David Makowski; Thierry Brunelle (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Agricultural price shocks strongly affect farmers' income and food security. It is therefore important to understand the origin of these shocks and anticipate their occurrence. In this study, we explore the possibility of predicting global prices of one of the world main agricultural commodity-maize-based on variations in regional production. We examine the performances of several machine-learning (ML) methods and compare them with a powerful time series model (TBATS) trained with 56 years of price data. Our results show that, out of nineteen regions, global maize prices are mostly influenced by Northern America. More specifically, small positive production changes relative to the previous year in Northern America negatively impact the world price while production of other regions have weak or no influence. We find that TBATS is the most accurate method for a forecast horizon of three months or less. For longer forecasting horizons, ML techniques based on bagging and gradient boosting perform better but require yearly input data on regional maize productions. Our results highlight the interest of ML for predicting global prices of major commodities and reveal the strong sensitivity of global maize price to small variations of maize production in Northern America.
    Keywords: Food-security,Maize,Agricultural commodity prices,Regional production,Machine learning
    Date: 2020–09–22
  6. By: Jensen, Helen H.; Kreider, Brent; Zhylyevskyy, Oleksandr
    Abstract: USDA operates several food assistance programs aimed at alleviating food insecurity. Little is known about how they interact. We focus on SNAP and WIC, two of the largest means-tested programs that provide resources to low-income households to purchase food and differ in several respects. Our question is the extent to which participation in both programs alleviates food insecurity compared with participation in SNAP alone. We bound underlying causal effects by applying nonparametric treatment effect methods that allow for endogenous selection and underreported program participation to data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS). FoodAPS contains administrative data to validate SNAP participation and data on the local food environment, including the cost of food, allowing us to tighten bounds on the causal effects. Under relatively weak assumptions about the selection process, combined with a food expenditure-based monotone instrumental variable, we identify that the marginal impact of participating in both programs is strictly positive. This finding provides evidence that the programs are nonredundant, which can aid policymakers in improving the design and targeting of food assistance programs. The methods showcase what can be learned about treatment effects when validation data are available for one program but not the other.
    Date: 2019–07–01
  7. By: Reitmann, Ann-Kristin
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effect of training and extension services on environmental conservation attitudes among small-scale coffee farmers in Colombia. Post-harvest coffee processing is traditionally very water-intensive and poses a threat to the environment, which is why it is of particular importance to improve the coffee farmers' environmental attitudes. Theory predicts that improved attitudes towards a certain behavior will under certain circumstances also translate into behavioral changes - hence, in this context, an increase in environmental conservation. Two different measures of attitudes on environmental conservation are assessed: stated attitudes (self-reported survey questions) and revealed attitude (elicited via a framed field experiment). For the latter, farmers were offered to donate an endowment to a local reforestation project, where the farmers' willingness to donate is assumed to correlate with the valuation of environmental conservation. Based on the lower bound estimates, I do not find significant impacts of training participation on stated or revealed attitudes towards environmental conservation. Yet, at the upper bound, a positive and statistically significant effect on stated attitudes can be detected. This paper also makes a methodological contribution by critically reflecting on the suitability of both attitude measures to proxy for environmental conservation attitudes.
    Keywords: stated attitudes,revealed attitudes,environmental conservation,framed field experiment,Colombia
    JEL: D91 O13 O22 Q12 Q20
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Ward, Megan; Herr, Hansjörg; Pédussel Wu, Jennifer
    Abstract: This paper explores the impact of the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) agreement on food security by using a gravity model to examine the regional changes in trade in agricultural products. This is followed by a discussion of how this might affect the four dimensions of food security, availability, access, stability and utility. While coordination between SAFTA members has provided some positive food security attainment, institutional uncertainty and conflicts have prevented the full potential benefits from being reached.
    Keywords: International Trade,Food Security,South Asia Free Trade Area,Development,Agriculture
    JEL: F02 F1 F15 O13 Q18
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Serfilippi, Elena; De Los Rios, Carlos; d’Errico, Marco
    Abstract: The idea that resilience plays a role in mitigating the effects of disaster and climate change is becoming widespread across the development community. As a result, efforts have been made to translate the concept of resilience into actionable metrics to better understand it. In this paper, we use panel micro-data from coffee farmers in Guatemala severely affected by a widespread attack of Hemileia Vastatrix (leaf rust). This covariate shock provides a unique opportunity to a) check if greater resilience capacity is associated with better reaction to exogenous shock; and b) explore the key drivers of response mechanisms. Ultimately, this paper looks at how resilience enhancing and agroecological interventions must be combined to reduce the negative effects of leaf rust. Findings show a negative impact of the shock on households' well-being; the strategic role of resilience in mitigating those negative effects; and provide evidence on how an approach that enhances both absorptive and adaptive capacity, can be beneficial for coffee producers.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–10–09
  10. By: Konstadinos Mattas (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki); Efthimia Tsakiridou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki); Christos Karelakis (DUTH - Democritus University of Thrace); Charoula Chousou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki); Dimitra Lazaridou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki); Virginie Amilien (Akershus University College); Filippo Arfini (University of Parma); Valentin Bellassen (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement); Ruzica Brecic (University of Zagreb); Liesbeth Dries (WUR - Wageningen University and Research Centre [Wageningen]); Georges Giraud (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement); Matthew Gorton (Newcastle University [Newcastle]); Monika Hartmann (University of Bonn); Edward Majewski (SGGW - Warsaw University of Life Sciences); Agatha Malak-Rawlikowska (Warsaw Agricultural University); Steve Quarrie (University of Belgrade [Belgrade]); Burkhard Schaer (Ecozept - Partenaires INRAE); Angela Tregear (University of Edinburgh); Mario Veneziani (University of Parma); Gunnar Vitterso (Akershus University College)
    Keywords: Organic farming,Geographical indications,Short food supply chains,Public sector food procurement
    Date: 2019
  11. By: McKee, Gregory; Jacobs, Keri L.; Kagan, Albert
    Abstract: Retail prices of products sold by agricultural input cooperatives are set according to a variety of factors, which may include the cost of offering products on trade credit. A sample of over 300 total pricing decisions for six inputs sold by input cooperatives to their members is used to analyze whether that trade credit volumes and the cooperative’s own financial needs tend to affect retail input price changes. We find that increased trade credit, at levels observed in this sample, tended to increase price inflation. The net combined effect on price inflation reflects upward pressure due to increasing risk associated with trade credit and downward pressure from an increase in through-put quantity. We find no effect on price inflation related to a firm’s internal need for funds as measured by liquidity or solvency measures. Finally, our results suggest that co-ops may not be pricing products using a “cost plus†approach, but rather based on their local market conditions and the need to drive sales. We discuss these results in the context of the role of the cooperative.
    Date: 2020–01–01
  12. By: Iost, Susanne; Geng, Natalia; Schweinle, Jörg; Banse, Martin; Brüning, Simone; Jochem, Dominik; Machmüller, Andrea; Weimar, Holger
    Abstract: The transition of the current economic system from non-renewable and fossil-based towards a more sustainable system using renewable resources is a dedicated objective of the German Na-tional Bioeconomy Strategy. In order to provide sound information on the status of the bioecon-omy, a monitoring concept that assesses the bio-based resources and sustainability effects associ-ated with German bioeconomy was developed. The general monitoring approach includes a definition of the bioeconomy and its implementation in terms of material flows and economic sectors at a given point in time. Based on this, available data is collected and bio-based material flows and economic sectors are quantified. These quanti-fications are used in the following sustainability assessment of material flows and economic sec-tors. This procedure can be repeated, starting again with a definition of bioeconomy that may change over time according to changing policies, market development and public perceptions of bioeconomy. Thus, bioeconomy monitoring considers the dynamics of the bioeconomy transition concerning processes, products, available data and connected sustainability goals. Understanding and quantifying material flows provides the foundation for comprehending the pro-cessing of biomass along value chains and final biomass uses. They also provide information for sustainability assessment. For biomass from agriculture, forests and fisheries including aquacul-ture, relevant material flows are compiled. Material flow data is not available consistently but must be collected from a broad variety of sources. Consequently, inconsistencies regarding reference units and conversion factors arise that need to be addressed further in a future monitoring. Bio-based shares of economic sectors can be quantified using mostly official statistics, but also empirical data. Bio-based shares vary considerably between economic activities. The manufacture of food products, beverages and wooden products has the highest bio-based shares. Bioeconomy target sectors like chemicals, plastics and construction still have rather small bio-based shares. The suggested assessment of sustainability effects foresees two complimentary levels of evalua-tion: material flows and economic sectors. The latter quantifies total effects of bioeconomy in a country and relates them to the whole economy or parts of it. The presented indicators were se-lected based on the Sustainability Development Goal Framework, the German Sustainable Devel-opment Strategy and the availability of data. The selection of effects and indicators to be measured in a future monitoring is a crucial point of any quantification. With sustainability being a normative concept, societal perceptions of sustainability should be taken into consideration here. In that con-text, we suggest to follow the approach of LOFASA for indicator selection. Sustainability assess-ment of material flows is demonstrated on the example of softwood lumber material flow and its core product EPAL 1 pallet using a combination of material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. Major challenges for a future monitoring of the bioeconomy’s resource base and sustainability are availability of detailed and aggregated data, identification of bio-based processes and products within the economic classifications, identification and quantification of interfaces between bio-mass types, selection of indicators for sustainability assessment and the inclusion of bio-based ser-vices.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020–10–08
  13. By: S. M. Mizanur Rahman (CREIDD - Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes Interdisciplinaires sur le Développement Durable - ICD - Institut Charles Delaunay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UTT - Université de Technologie de Troyes); Junbeum Kim (UPT - Tomsk Polytechnic University [Russie], CREIDD - Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes Interdisciplinaires sur le Développement Durable - ICD - Institut Charles Delaunay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UTT - Université de Technologie de Troyes); Bertrand Laratte (I2M - Institut de Mécanique et d'Ingénierie - UB - Université de Bordeaux - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Arts et Métiers Sciences et Technologies - HESAM - HESAM Université)
    Abstract: The sustainability of the ship recycling industry strongly linked with the global shipping market and interna-tional commodity flows. More than 80% of the End of Life (EoL) ships are dismantled in South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Due to measures taken to minimize the propagation of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an international supply chain is broken to a historic low, except for certain medical-related urgencies. Due to the disruption of global supply chains, the industry may submerge into uncertainty due to, perhaps, lack of adequate labor force to dismantle increased EoL ships and due to disturbances of vessel transportation to the recycling nations amid strong precautionary measures. Our estimate suggests that about 300 million Gross Tonnage (GT) available for demolition in the next five years and the inability to get them recycled would cost about 20 billion dollars. More importantly, South Asian recycling nations would suffer from economic losses and employment opportunities. In this study, we also apply a scenario analysis technique to understand the impact range of COVID-19 in the short term and in the long term. The disruption is viewed through a circular economy framework, identifying a critical lack of ‘global scale' acknowledgment in the cir-cular economy framework. This article suggests that a formalized global scale, paralleled with favorable policies, may reduce supply chain disruption and improve sustainable development in the receiving nations.
    Keywords: ship recycling,scenario analysis,global circular economy,disruption response,circular economy,COVID-19
    Date: 2021
  14. By: Staudigel, Matthias
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization
    Date: 2020–09–18
  15. By: Alexandre Berthe (UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes, LIRIS - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en innovations sociétales - UR2 - Université de Rennes 2 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes); Pascal Grouiez (UP - Université de Paris, LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris)
    Abstract: This article considers the analysis of upgrading strategies, focusing at the level of subordinate firms themselves. This approach develops the concept of "strategic upgrading". We study the institutional environment of subordinate firms, and we analyze subordinate firms' strategies through concepts from industrial economics, such as differentiation, diversification, and specialization. We thus reexamine the category of inter-chain upgrading, i.e., the improvement of the position of actors of a GVC by integrating a new GVC. We confront this proposal with a territorialized case study on the development of biogas production by farmers in the Ardennes. We observe that these farmers are part of the emerging GVC of biomass energy based on their experience as "captive" actors in the agro-industrial GVC. In particular, they have sized their biogas production units to be autonomous regarding agro-industry. This new activity also has feedback effects on their positioning in the agro-industrial GVC.
    Keywords: joint products,Global value chain (GVC),interchain upgrading,subordinate firms' strategies,agro-industrial firms,biomass energy,biogas,agriculture
    Date: 2020–09–29
  16. By: Zorn, Alexander; Zimmert, Franziska
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–09–18
  17. By: Archimède Mbogning Genang (LAREFA, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Dschang, Cameroon, GREEA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie, Environnement et Agro-alimentaire - Université Yaoundé 2)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify the issues and the avenues for action to develop local multifunctional agriculture. Following an appropriate literature review, it emerges that the competitiveness and sustainability of agricultural systems are the two major issues at stake in the adoption of a multifunctional agricultural model. Moreover, financial assistance in the form of flexible contracts granted to farmers by the local public authority and the development of specific markets seem to be the two credible economic instruments for financing such agriculture. The deployment of such instruments is constrained by the characteristics of externalities or goods of public interest recognised to the other functions of agriculture.
    Abstract: L'objectif de ce papier est d'identifier les enjeux et les pistes d'actions au développement d'une agriculture multifonctionnelle locale. A l'issue d'une revue documentaire appropriée, il ressort que la compétitivité et la durabilité des systèmes agricoles, sont les deux enjeux majeurs à l'adoption d'un modèle agricole multifonctionnel. Par ailleurs, une assistance financière sous forme de contrat flexible accordée aux agriculteurs par l'autorité publique locale et le développement des marchés spécifiques, semble être les deux instruments économiques crédibles du financement d'une telle agriculture. Le déploiement de tels instruments est contraint par les caractéristiques d'externalités ou de biens d'intérêt public reconnues aux autres fonctions de l'agriculture.
    Keywords: Agriculture,multifunctionality,competitiveness,sustainability,multifonctionnalité,compétitivité,durabilité
    Date: 2020–09–20
  18. By: Evans, Keith S.; Lian, Carl; Weninger, Quinn
    Abstract: This paper evaluates harvesting efficiency for the universe of vessels that participated in the West Coast groundfish trawl fishery two years prior to and six years following the intro- duction of an individual fishing quota (IFQ) regulation. Our economic efficiency measures control for delayed fleet restructuring and potentially confounding effects of unobserved stock abundance and/or other time-varying factors. We find that under IFQs, redundant vessel capital exited the groundfish fishery at a rate of 5.77% per year, and resource rent increased at a rate of 6.02% per year. Annual resource rent is estimated at $31.26 million in the sixth year of the IFQ regulation, with additional gains of $5.059 million per year pend- ing due to incomplete fleet rationalization. Our findings suggest that efficiency gains from reversing the economic tragedy of the commons in fisheries derive in large part from costs savings that may take years to materialize. Efficiency gains under IFQ regulations may be substantially larger than acknowledged in earlier literature.
    Date: 2020–07–28
  19. By: Liu, Hongxing; Zhang, Wendong; Irwin, Elena; Kast, Jeffrey; Aloysius, Noel; Martin, Jay; Kalcic, Margaret
    Abstract: We develop the first spatially integrated economic-hydrological model of the western Lake Erie basin that explicitly links economic models of farmers' field-level Best Management Practice (BMP) adoption choices with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutrient management policies. We quantify the tradeoffs between phosphorus reduction and policy costs and find that a hybrid policy that couples a fertilizer tax with cost-share payments for subsurface placement is the most cost-effective. We also find that economic adoption models can overstate the potential for nutrient reduction by ignoring biophysical complexities and thus demonstrate the importance of coupling economic and biophysical models for efficient policy design.
    Date: 2019–08–01
  20. By: Kang, Wensheng; Ratti, Ronald A.; Vespignani, Joaquin L.
    Abstract: We investigate the time-varying dynamics of global stock market volatility, commodity prices, domestic output and consumer prices. We find (i) stock market volatility and commodity price shocks impact each other and the economy in a gradual and endogenous adjustment process, (ii) impact of commodity price shock on global stock market volatility is significant during global financial crises, (iii) effects of global stock market volatility on the US output are amplified by endogenous commodity price responses, (iv) effects of global stock market volatility shocks on the economy are heterogeneous across nations and relatively larger in twelve developed countries, (v) four developing/small economies are more vulnerable to commodity price shocks.
    Keywords: Global commodity prices, Global stock market volatility, Output, Heterogeneity
    JEL: E00 E3 E40 E66
    Date: 2019–12–03
  21. By: Castro Campos, Bente; Petrick, Martin
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2020–09–18
  22. By: Beye, Assane; Komarek, Adam M.
    Abstract: This study examines on-farm post-harvest losses (PHL) for three vegetable crops (onion, tomato, and pimento) in Senegal and the potential economic benefits associated with reducing PHL for these three vegetables. Household survey data was used to quantify the on-farm PHL for these vegetables at different stages between the crop’s harvest and the sale or consumption. A multi-market model was used to simulate the effect of eliminating vegetable PHL on the total value of vegetable supply and international trade of vegetables at the national level. Results suggest that on average 30% of vegetable production is lost on-farm and is therefore unavailable for sale or consumption. Eliminating these losses could increase the total value of vegetable supply by 45% (US $72 million) per year and reduce vegetable imports by 22% (127,000 tons) per year. Moreover, our results indicate that both private costs to farmers and public costs to the government related to such PHL reductions would need due consideration when prioritizing between investments in the agricultural sector and beyond.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–10–08
  23. By: Gerling, Charlotte; Strum, Astrid; Wätzold, Frank
    Abstract: Grasslands make up a large part of cultural landscapes, for example in Europe, and provide an important habitat for many species. Climate change impacts grasslands directly by influencing the climatic conditions that determine grass growth. This may lead to changes in the profit-maximising timing of grassland use by farmers. Additionally, by influencing the yield of the grassland, climate change may have an impact on the opportunity costs of conservation. We have developed a model to investigate these two factors: 1) How does climate change impact the profit-maximising timing of grassland use and 2) How does it impact selected opportunity costs of conservation? The model includes a climate model and a vegetation model to assess the changes in a case study region in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. We consider two RCP scenarios. Results show that the timing of the first cut is expected to occur increasingly early under climate change and costs of conservation measures are larger under more profound climate change.
    Keywords: climate change impact, grassland, conservation, timing of land use
    JEL: Q54 Q57
    Date: 2020–09–15

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