nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒08‒10
43 papers chosen by

  1. Identifying priority agricultural value chains in Senegal By Randriamamonjy, Josée; Thurlow, James; Wiebelt, Manfred
  2. COVID-19 and Idiosyncratic Food Dearth Risk Resilience in Nigeria. By Ojo, Idowu Oladeji
  3. Inclusive business models for access to quality fish seed and technical assistance: Insights from Ghana By Kruijssen, Froukje; Rappoldt, Anne; Ragasa, Catherine; Newton, Julie
  4. Governing Common-Property Assets: Theory and Evidence from Agriculture By Simon Cornée; Madeg Le Guernic; Damien Rousselière
  5. Agriculture and youth in Nigeria: Aspirations, challenges, constraints, and resilience By ElDidi, Hagar; Bidoli, Thomas; Ringler, Claudia
  6. An Experiment on the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution. Causes and Impact on Equality By Antonio J. Morales; Ismael Rodriguez-Lara
  7. Projected Crop Market and Tennessee Farm Income Impacts From the COVID-19 Pandemic By Smith, S. Aaron; English, Burton C.; Menard, R. Jamey; Hughes, David W.; Jensen, Kimberly L.
  8. The Albedo Loss from the Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Social Cost of Carbon By Sandra Gschnaller
  9. Climate warming vs ecological competition for marine tropical biodiversity and fisheries By Helene Gomes; Coralie Kersulec; Luc Doyen; Fabian Blanchard; Abdoul Cisse; Nicolas Sanz
  10. Rural and agricultural development by land consolidation: a spatial production analysis of Asturias´ parishes By Álvarez, Inmaculada C.; Orea, Luis; Perez-Mendez, Jose A.
  11. Factors influencing the adoption of innovation in agriculture in Algeria. Case of two strategic crops: durum wheat and potato By Amel Bouzid; Karima Boudedja; Foued Cheriet; Mehdi Bouchetara; Ahmed Mellal
  12. Parametric insurance and technology adoption in developing countries By Enrico Biffis; Erik Chavez; Alexis Louaas; Pierre Picard
  13. Trade Effects of SPS Measures in Regional Trade Agreements By Santeramo, Fabio
  14. Uncertain monsoon,irrigation and crop yields: Implications for pricing of insurance products By Hardeep Singh; Digvijay S Negi; Pratap S. Birthal
  15. Intrahousehold Bargaining and Agricultural Technology Adoption : Experimental Evidence from Zambia By Ken Miura; Yoko Kijima; Takeshi Sakurai
  16. Rural Transformation, Inequality, and the Origins of Microfinance By Suesse, Marvin; Wolf, Nikolaus
  17. Organisation, financing and productivity of agricultural research in Bulgaria By Bachev, Hrabrin
  18. Consolidation in U.S. Dairy Farming By McDonald, James M.; Law, Jonathan; Mosheim, Roberto
  19. Anomalies of Rice Production and Procurement in Telangana By Motkuri, Venkatanarayana
  20. Ex ante assessment of the cost-effectiveness of Agri-Environmental Schemes promoting compost use to sequester carbon in soils in Guadeloupe By Jean-Marc Blazy; Subervie Julie; Jacky Paul; François Causeret; Loic Guinde; Sarah Moulla; Alban Thomas; Jorge Sierra
  21. Housing Market Value Impairment from Future Sea-level Rise Inundation By Christopher J. Amante; Jacob Dice; David Rodziewicz; Eugene Wahl
  22. A Fat Subsidy and its Impact on Edible Oil Consumption: Evidence from India By Jaya Jumrani; J.V. Meenakshi
  23. Gender, crop diversification, and nutrition in irrigation catchment areas in the central dry zones in Myanmar: Implications for agricultural development support By Ragasa, Catherine; Mahrt, Kristi; Aung, Zin Wai; Lambrecht, Isabel; Scott, Jessica
  24. The Effects of Access to Credit on Productivity: Separating Technological Changes from Changes in Technical Efficiency By Mohammad Abdul Malek; Nusrat Abedin Jimi; Subal Kumbhakar; Plamen Nikolov
  25. How Might Climate Change Influence farmers' Demand for Index-Based Insurance? By Antoine Leblois; Tristan Le Cotty; Elodie Maître d'Hôtel
  26. Nature-based solutions for adapting to water-related climate risks By OECD
  27. Effect of migration on the food security of households left behind: Evidence from Ethiopia By Hamed Sambo
  28. Linking human destruction of nature to COVID-19 increases support for wildlife conservation policies By Shreedhar, Ganga; Mourato, Susana
  29. Revisiting the Role of Tourism and Globalization in Environmental Degradation in China: Fresh Insights from the Quantile ARDL Approach By Sharif, Arshian; Iqbal Godil, Danish; Xu, Bingjie; Sinha, Avik; Abdul Rehman Khan, Syed; Jermsittiparsert, Kittisak
  30. Crop residues are a key feedstock to bioeconomy but available methods for their estimation are highly uncertain By Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Hamelin, Lorie
  31. Development of environmental practices, innovations and initiatives in households and communities of rural Russia By Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр)
  32. Conditions for an inclusive development of dairy value chains: a comparative Business Model approach to the dairy industry of Andhra Pradesh, India. By Léa Jenin; Marie Dervillé; Claire Aubron
  33. The Impacts of Farmland Expropriation on Vietnam's Rural Households By Le, Kien; Nguyen, My
  34. Humanitarian vs. Development Aid for Refugees: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design By Claire MacPherson; Olivier Sterck
  35. Markups, Quality, and Trade Costs By Chen, Natalie; Juvenal, Luciana
  36. Farm types and precision agriculture adoption: crops, regions, soil variability, and farm size By Schimmelpfennig, David; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James
  37. Predicting which farms are most likely to breach nitrate pollution regulations By Lunn, Pete; Lyons, Seán; Murphy, Martin
  38. Trade, Transportation and the Environment By Forslid, Rikard
  39. Energy Intensity and the Environmental Kuznets Curve By Grytten, Ola Honningdal; Lindmark, Magnus; Minde, Kjell Bjørn
  40. Possible carbon adjustment policies: An overview By Cecilia Bellora; Lionel Fontagné
  41. Demand Factors Key To Measuring Trade Impacts of Country of Origin Labeling By Hahn, William; Sydow, Sharon
  42. Productivity Is the Major Driver of U.S. Farm Sector’s Economic Growth By Wang, Sun Ling; Mosheim, Roberto; Nehring, Richard; Njuki, Eric
  43. Coordination problems and the control of epidemics affecting fruit trees By César Martínez; Pierre Courtois; Mabel Tidball; Gael Thébaud

  1. By: Randriamamonjy, Josée; Thurlow, James; Wiebelt, Manfred
    Abstract: In developing countries, where agriculture is a major economic sector, value-chain development is expected to contribute to high-level outcomes. In this paper, we aim at quantitatively assessing the value-chains which will be the most effective at fostering national and regional economic development along four dimensions: generating economic growth in the agricultural-food sector; reducing national and rural poverty; creating employment; and improving nutrition by diversifying diets. We propose an economywide systems-approach using a spatially-disaggregated dynamic computable general equilibrium model that we apply to Senegal. Simulation results indicate that fishery is the most effective value chain at generating growth in the regions with potential for fishery expansion (Thies-Diourbel, the Northern, and the Southern regions). Rice is the first value chain to reduce poverty in the Northern and Southern regions where irrigated and rainfed rice cultivation respectively dominate. Growth led by the fruits sector is the most effective at improving nutrition in all four regions where fruits are grown (Thies-Diourbel, the Northern, Central, and Southern regions).
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Ojo, Idowu Oladeji
    Abstract: This study examined the interplay of COVID-19 and Idiosyncratic Food Dearth Risk Resilience in Nigeria; focusing on Oyo State as case study. A multistage sampling technique was used to elicit primary data from 210 rural crop farmers in the study area using a semi-structured questionnaire. CARE and WFP Household Coping Strategy Index (CSI) and Factor analysis were used to determine level of household resilience for food security in the study area. Likert scale was used to examine the idiosyncratic coping strategies adopted by the respondents against food dearth related risks during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria. Findings showed that 8 out of every 10 respondents do not have access to palliative stimulus packages from the Federal or Oyo state Government to impair the effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Out of the sampled households, only 35.71%, 32.38% and 31.90% had mild, moderate and severe resilience for food security respectively during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the study area. Results revealed that the households differ in socio-economic characteristics by their resilience level to food insecurity and that the idiosyncratic coping strategies of households against food dearth related shocks include relying on less preferred food, borrowing food, buying food on credit, allowing household members to eat elsewhere, begging for food, limiting portion of food, and restricting adult at meal. The study concluded that policies that underpin expansion of near-real time food security monitoring systems to provide timely, improved and geospatially indicative data to measure the pandemic’s unfolding effects and understand better farmers that are suffering from hunger and malnutrition and where they are. It suggested that food and nutrition assistance needs to be at the heart of Government social protection programs and laying the foundation for a more inclusive, green, and resilient recovery by ensuring COVID-19 dedicated resources are used in a “build to transform” approach and are evidence-based with emphasis on women and children.
    Keywords: Food Security,Idiosyncratic,COVID-19,Resilience,Nigeria
    JEL: Q12 Q18
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Kruijssen, Froukje; Rappoldt, Anne; Ragasa, Catherine; Newton, Julie
    Abstract: Over the past decade, Ghana’s tilapia farming has experienced tremendous growth in production; however, much of the growth has been driven by large-scale cage farmers around Lake Volta. It remains unclear how this growth is and can be made more inclusive of poor and young women and men. This study was conducted to analyze different inclusive business models along the fish seed value chain that can potentially be implemented in Ghana. Based on literature review, field interviews, analysis of survey data, and stakeholder workshops, this study develops four business model prototypes for seed multiplication and distribution to increase farmers’ access to and use of quality tilapia seed: (1) Nursery , which buy fish fry from a reliable hatchery, transport them to locations near other farmers, and grow it to a larger size; (2) Local feed mill, with pelleting machine and technical knowledge to advise on feed formulation; (3) Agents, technical experts who supply fingerlings, handle transport and marketing, and provide technical advice; and (4) Local hatchery, which obtains brood stock from a reliable source, produces local fingerlings to sell to nearby farmers, and provides technical support. Initial ex ante financial and profitability analyses were undertaken and will be refined according to the actual context in the particular district where the sensitization and pilot-testing will take place. These business models have the potential not only to increase farmers’ access to and use of quality tilapia seed but also to provide livelihood and income generation along the fish seed value chain.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; tilapia; fishing; value chains; models; farmers; nurseries; fishery production; inclusive business models; seed systems; tilapia farming
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Simon Cornée (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, and CERMi, F-35000 Rennes, France); Madeg Le Guernic (Univ Rennes, CNRS, CREM - UMR 6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Damien Rousselière (Agrocampus Ouest, UMR Smart-Lereco, CRISES, Université du Québec à Montréal)
    Abstract: This paper introduces a refined approach to conceptualising the commons in order to shed new light on cooperative practices. Specifically, it proposes the novel concept of Common-Property Assets (CPAs). CPAs are exclusively human-made resources owned under common-property ownership regimes. Our CPA model combines quantity (the flow of resource units available to members) and quality (the impact produced on the community by the members’ appropriation of the resource flow). While these two dimensions are largely pre-existing in the conventional case of natural common-pool resources, they directly depend on members’ collective action in CPAs. We apply this theoretical framework to farm machinery sharing agreements—a widespread grassroots cooperative phenomenon in agriculture—using a systematic literature review to generalise the findings from a sample of 54 studies published from 1950 to 2018. Our findings show that in successful CPAs, members endorse and do not deviate from a quantity-quality equilibrium that is collectively agreed upon. Despite the existence of thresholds for both quantity and quality due to (axiological) membership heterogeneity, qualitative changes in respect of the common good are possible in CPAs that promote democratic practices. Our study has potentially strong implications for developing ethics in cooperatives and the sustainable development of communities worldwide.
    Keywords: Governance of the Commons; Farm Machinery Sharing Cooperative Arrangements; Ethical Aspects
    JEL: G3 M00 O17 P32 Q13
    Date: 2020–07
  5. By: ElDidi, Hagar; Bidoli, Thomas; Ringler, Claudia
    Abstract: Nigeria’s rural youth are facing various challenges in agriculture, with limited job opportunities outside the sector. Using qualitative focus group discussions and individual interviews with youth in four communities in two Nigerian states, the paper reflects on nuanced differences in perceptions of opportunities, coping mechanisms and overall resilience of youth in rural Nigeria, as well as differential access to information, inputs and irrigation based on age, gender and community. We apply the GCAN framework, to illustrate the factors that shape resilience pathways in the context of climate change and other shocks and stressors. Many of the constraints rural youth face are faced by other groups, including lack of finance, farm inputs and modern equipment for production and processing. Yet, youth face higher and specific hurdles related to lack of capital, experience and a strong social capital and networks that would facilitate coping with climatic and other shocks and improving their livelihoods. Young women in particular have less access to information and irrigation, and are less likely to benefit from cooperative memberships. Nevertheless, young men and women have higher resilience compared to older groups in terms of health, mobility and ability to migrate, as well as easier access to the internet as a source of information. Youth can better build resilience and a network and receive government assistance when part of a cooperative. Nevertheless, a larger enabling environment in the sector is needed, to improve roads, access to markets, information, inputs and equipment to support young farmers who cannot leave the agriculture sector. A promising factor is that many young men and women realize the importance of agriculture and aspire to become successful in the sector.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; youth; resilience; climate change; gender; farmers; irrigation; water; agricultural extension; access to information; cooperatives; decision making; rural areas; youth employment; migration; climate shocks
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Antonio J. Morales (Universidad de Málaga); Ismael Rodriguez-Lara (Universidad de Granada; Economic Science Institute, Chapman University)
    Abstract: Testing causal relationships expressed by mathematical models on facts about human behaviour across history is challenging. A prominent example is the Neolithic agricultural revolution [1]. Many theoretical models of the adoption of agriculture has been put forward [2] but none has been tested. The only exception is [3], that uses a computational approach with agent-based simulations of evolutionary games. Here, we propose two games that resemble the conditions of human societies before and after the agricultural revolution. The agricultural revolution is modelled as an exogenous shock in the lab (n=180, 60 independent groups), and the transition from foraging to farming results from an equilibrium selection process decided by experimental subjects. The experimental data replicate the known facts that foragers organized themselves around division of labour [4] and were more egalitarian than farmers [5]. There is also evidence of bi-modal distribution along the foraging-farming axis with many in-between groups [6, 7, 8]. These results provide direct evidence that the modes of production determine the system of values of societies (inequality) and lend support for the idea that human moved in a widespread manner from foraging to farming societies. We also find that cultural and institutional preconditions were crucial for farming [9], as more egalitarian foraging groups adopted earlier agricultural techniques, but inequality raises in farming societies as agriculture settles [10], with the long run success of agriculture being determined by the land-owner’s legitimacy. These results enrich our understanding of the Neolithic agricultural revolution and highlight the relevance of experimental methodology to generate a rich dataset that complements the fragmented evidence from archaeological sites.
    Keywords: Inequality; Agricultural Revolution; Foragers Societies; Farming Societies; Property Rights; Land-owner; Human Values; Experimental Economics
    JEL: C72 C92 D02 D31 D70 N00 N50 O33 P14 Z13
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Smith, S. Aaron; English, Burton C.; Menard, R. Jamey; Hughes, David W.; Jensen, Kimberly L.
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of agricultural commodity production and distribution. Substantial price declines have been experienced for Tennessee row crops, specialty crops, livestock and dairy producers. The 2019 crop’s price declines in Tennessee for corn, soybean, cotton and wheat from January 2 to the end of each crop’s 2019/20 marketing year are analyzed in this paper. Additionally, estimates of the federal aid issued to producers through Coronavirus Food Assistance Program (CFAP) direct payments are provided.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2020–07–28
  8. By: Sandra Gschnaller
    Abstract: I extend the reduced Greenland ice sheet (GIS) model-module of DICE-GIS (Nordhaus, 2019) by integrating snow-albedo feedback (SAF) and potential tipping of the ice sheet into the resuming DICE-GIS SAF model. This novel model extension allows to quantify the social cost of carbon (SCC) more precisely because the economic damages are not only related to intensified sea level rise, but also an accelerated increase in global temperature. Accounting for the SAF raises the SCC from 274.92 to 319.67 $/tCO2 in 2100, an increase of 16.3%. The temperature increase is the key channel through which the SAF impacts the SCC.
    Keywords: Social cost of carbon, climate change, Greenland ice sheet, snow albedo feedback, tipping
    JEL: O13 Q15 Q58
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Helene Gomes; Coralie Kersulec; Luc Doyen; Fabian Blanchard; Abdoul Cisse; Nicolas Sanz
    Abstract: Marine ecosystems, biodiversity and fisheries are under pressure worldwide because of global changes including climate warming and demographic pressure. In that regard, many scientists and stakeholders advocate the use of an ecosystem approach for fisheries integrating the numerous ecological and economic complexities at play, instead of focusing on the management of isolated target species. However, the way to operationalize such an ecosystem approach remains challenging, especially from the bioeconomic viewpoint. To achieve this, here we propose a model of intermediate complexity (MICE) relying on multi-species and multi-fleets dynamics. The model also takes into account climate change through a model of envelope for the biological growth of the fish species depending on the sea surface temperature. The model is calibrated for the small-scale fishery in French Guiana using time series of fishing landings and efforts from 2006 to 2018. From the calibrated model, we consider the business as usual (BAU) fishing intensity projection along with RCP climate scenarios derived from IPCC at the horizon 2100 in order to explore the impact of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and on the fishery production. The results point out the detrimental impact in the long run of both climate change and ecological competition on fish biodiversity. The situation is particularly catastrophic in the pessimistic climate scenario as the results suggest the collapse of both biodiversity and fishing activities by 2100.
    Keywords: Marine biodiversity; Multi-species; Multi-fleet fishery; Models of Intermediate Complexity (MICE); Climate change; Exclusion principle
    JEL: Q22
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Álvarez, Inmaculada C.; Orea, Luis; Perez-Mendez, Jose A.
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to evaluate the impact of the land consolidation (LC) processes that have taken place in Asturias during the period 2001-2017. We base our estimation in a production approach using parishes’ dairy and beef herd as proxies for livestock production and several LC-based variables that aim to capture the quantity and intensity of the LC processes implemented in each parish. In addition, we analyse the effect of LC on the number of farms using auxiliary regressions. We find an annual effect of about 2.1% on parishes’ livestock production attributed to LC processes in Asturias, which has mainly benefited parishes with dairy and mix-oriented farms. This positive effect increases over time, and it is larger in coastal parishes and in parishes with more traditional farms. We also find that the (indirect) effect from LC processes implemented in neighbouring parishes is positive and even more relevant than the (direct) effect on the local LC processes. Overall these results advocate using coordinated LC measures by the regional governments in order to take full advantage of this important policy.
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Amel Bouzid (CREAD - Centre de recherches en économie appliquée au développement); Karima Boudedja (CREAD - Centre de recherches en économie appliquée au développement); Foued Cheriet (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Mehdi Bouchetara (CREAD - Centre de recherches en économie appliquée au développement); Ahmed Mellal (CREAD - Centre de recherches en économie appliquée au développement)
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the influencing factors of different types of innovation in Algerian strategic crops. In the framework of the Algerian policy for agriculture modernization, targeting production increase, import substitution, increased export volumes and a new socio-economic configuration of investors in agricultural activity, this research focuses on innovation by durum wheat and potato producers. To this end, we conducted a survey of a hundred farmers in high production areas and a qualitative survey of local stakeholders in development and agricultural support. The results show that the level of innovation in conventional farming techniques is appreciable: adoption of crop rotation, introduction of new plant protection products, weed-killers and fertilizers for durum wheat; adoption of new varieties of potato, introduction of new machines and planting techniques for potato growers. However, innovations in marketing and sustainable techniques are non-existent for durum wheat producers, while some organizational and marketing innovations are observed among potato producers. Overall, potato producers are financially self-sufficient, younger, more educated and exploit larger areas than durum wheat producers, which seems to explain their propensity to further innovate. Subsidies and marketing guarantee policies for wheat producers are limiting innovation in this sector, whereas strong competition between northern and southern areas of the country are stimulating innovation among potato producers. Conversely, the unsecured status of land in this sector would act as a brake on innovation and long-term investments.
    Abstract: Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante : au-delà des caractéristiques de l'exploitation agricole, quels sont les autres facteurs qui influencent les différents types d'innovation dans les filières stratégiques de l'agriculture algérienne ? En effet, la politique algérienne actuelle ambitionne de moderniser les filières stratégiques pour accroître la production, substituer la production nationale à l'importation et augmenter le volume des exportations. Ce travail de recherche porte sur l'innovation agricole adoptée par les producteurs de blé dur et les producteurs de pomme de terre. Pour cela, nous avons réalisé une enquête auprès d'une centaine d'agriculteurs et des entretiens qualitatifs auprès d'acteurs locaux du développement et de l'accompagnement agricoles. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le niveau d'innovation dans les techniques agricoles conventionnelles est appréciable : adoption de la rotation des cultures, introduction de nouveaux produits phytosanitaires, de désherbants et de fertilisants pour le blé dur ; adoption de nouvelles variétés, introduction de nouvelles machines et techniques de plantation pour la pomme de terre. Par contre, les innovations en matière de marketing, de commercialisation ou de techniques durables sont inexistantes pour le blé dur, alors que certaines innovations en matière d'organisation et de marketing sont observées chez les producteurs de pomme de terre. Globalement, ces derniers présentent une autonomie financière, sont plus jeunes, plus instruits et exploitent de plus grandes superficies que les producteurs de blé dur, ce qui semble expliquer leur propension à innover davantage. Enfin, les résultats suggèrent que les politiques de subvention et de garantie de la commercialisation pour les producteurs de blé dur freineraient l'innovation dans cette filière, alors que la forte concurrence entre régions nord et sud stimulerait l'innovation chez les producteurs de pomme de terre. À l'inverse, le statut non sécurisé du foncier dans cette dernière filière agirait comme un frein à l'innovation et aux investissements de long terme.
    Keywords: innovation,agriculture,Algeria,strategic branches,durum wheat,potato,sustainable development,Algérie,filières stratégiques,blé dur,pomme de terre,développement durable
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Enrico Biffis (Imperial College London); Erik Chavez (Imperial College London); Alexis Louaas (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE ParisTech - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique); Pierre Picard (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE ParisTech - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique)
    Abstract: Technology adoption is crucial for the development of low income countries. This paper investigates how parametric insurance can contribute to improving access to finance, and hence to technology, for smallholder farmers. In a model with moral hazard, we show that bundling para-metric insurance with loans may lower collateral requirements, thus promoting the financial inclusion of poor households. The case of agricultural input loans and weather-index insurance is studied in detail and related to bundled finance solutions recently piloted among smallholder farmers in Tanzania.
    Date: 2020–06–19
  13. By: Santeramo, Fabio
    Abstract: Trade negotiations in the agri-food sector have resulted in an exponential increase of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and a growing diffusion of regional trade agreements (RTAs). The combined trade effects of SPS measures and RTAs are difficult to ascertain: SPS measures may be either catalysts for or barriers to trade; RTAs also have a dual effect on trade, sometime favouring intra-bloc trade (i.e. among the signatories of the RTA), other times enhancing extra-bloc trade (i.e. among signatories and non-signatories of the RTA). Moreover, RTAs increasingly contain specific SPS commitments whose trade effects may vary according to the depth of the provisions. The joint effect of SPS measures and RTAs on trade is therefore an open empirical question. After assessing the general effects of SPS measures on agri-food trade, this study examines potential differences in SPS-specific effects between nonsignatories and signatories of RTAs. The study also explores whether the trade effects of SPS measures change when trading partners establish an RTA. Lastly, the study evaluates the extent to which RTAs go beyond WTO trade liberalization requirements. The results reveal that benefits to signatories of RTAs tend to be reduced by SPS measures that affect indiscriminately all trading partners and are not tailor made for a specific trade relationship. Overall, both SPS measures and RTAs are catalysts for trade. More importantly, if trading partners implement both types of policy interventions in a staggered fashion, the effects of one policy reinforces the impact of the other. RTAs potentially offer more versatile frameworks for negotiating SPS commitments that facilitate trade, creating conditions for signatory countries to satisfy each other’s requirements on adequate levels of safety, thus boosting trade. To conclude, SPS measures and RTAs tend to facilitate market access, the former by setting standards to ensure an adequate level of safety, the latter by setting a more versatile framework for negotiations related to SPS measures. Although the trade potential offered to RTA signatories seems obstructed by nondiscriminatory (multilateral) SPS measures, the entry into force of a trade agreement can help signatories meet stringent standards, further facilitating market access. This is allowed, in particular, by the provision of concrete commitments with respect to SPS measures within RTAs, the most promising of which are mutual recognition of standards and the institution of joint SPS committees to implement technical cooperation between signatories on SPS issues. Moving towards these solutions would stimulate trade among countries.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2020–07–01
  14. By: Hardeep Singh (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Digvijay S Negi (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Pratap S. Birthal (ICAR-National Institute for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research)
    Abstract: A significant body of literature interested in studying the impacts of weather risks on agricultural performance has modeled crop yields as a function of either levels or deviations in seasonal rainfall. However, an aspect that has received little attention in the literature relates to the impact of timing of arrival of monsoon on agricultural performance. In this paper, using a pan India district-level panel dataset for a period of 50 years, we investigate three interrelated issues that are critical for managing the weather-induced agricultural risks. One, we examine the impact of timing of arrival of monsoon on crop yields. Two, we assess the mitigation benefits of irrigation against delayed monsoon. And three, by simulating premium rates for an area yield insurance product at varying levels of irrigation coverage, we argue for differential pricing of insurance products for irrigated and rainfed crops or regions.
    Keywords: Monsoon onset, Crop yields, Irrigation, Crop insurance, Premiums
    JEL: Q10 Q18 Q50 G22
    Date: 2020–05
  15. By: Ken Miura (Kyoto University, Japan); Yoko Kijima (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Japan); Takeshi Sakurai (The University of Tokyo, Japan)
    Abstract: This study examines how technology adoption is determined in an intra-household bargaining process between spouses with different incentives and resource constraints. We develop a noncooperative bargaining model in which individual investments affect not only a household’s total income but also its members’ future bargaining position, which can yield Pareto-inferior outcomes. To test for possible inefficiency, we introduce rice seeds to farmers in rural Zambia and randomly distribute vouchers for transportation from the village to a miller in town to husbands and wives. The results show that the identity of the voucher recipients matters for rice seed take-up when wives choose which crop to grow on suitable plots for rice production. We also find that the voucher given to husbands is effective only when they manage the plots by themselves. Furthermore, intra-household information flows are distorted by the recipients. The heterogeneous effects and incomplete information sharing among spouses provide evidence against efficient resource pooling within the family. We present suggestive evidence that limited commitment to the production plan is a key mechanism behind strategic spousal behavior. Overall, this study highlights the importance of directly targeting individuals with productive resources relevant to a technology.
    Keywords: Non-unitary model, productive efficiency, gender, targeting, Zambia
    Date: 2020–07
  16. By: Suesse, Marvin; Wolf, Nikolaus
    Abstract: What determines the development of rural financial markets? Starting from a simple theoretical framework, we derive the factors shaping the market entry of rural microfinance institutions across time and space. We provide empirical evidence for these determinants using the expansion of credit cooperatives in the 236 eastern counties of Prussia between 1852 and 1913. This setting is attractive as it provides a free market benchmark scenario without public ownership, subsidization, or direct regulatory intervention. Furthermore, we exploit features of our historical set-up to identify causal effects. The results show that declining agricultural staple prices, as a feature of structural transformation, leads to the emergence of credit cooperatives. Similarly, declining bank lending rates contribute to their rise. Low asset sizes and land inequality inhibit the regional spread of cooperatives, while ethnic heterogeneity has ambiguous effects. We also offer empirical evidence suggesting that credit cooperatives accelerated rural transformation by diversifying farm outputs.
    Keywords: credit cooperatives; Land Inequality; Microfinance; Prussia; rural transformation
    JEL: G21 N23 O16 Q15
    Date: 2019–12
  17. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: This paper gives insight on organization, financing and productivity of agricultural research in Bulgaria during the period after country’s accession to EU. The analysis is predominately based on the research carried out in the Agricultural Academy – the main institutions responsible for the organization of agricultural research in the country. Our analysis has found out that some of the Academy institutes and stations manage significant land and other resources, but the material and technical endowments of the majority of them is outdated, while some have no "critical" mass of human, financial and material resources needed for carrying effective modern research. The number of researchers and experts employed in the Academy is constantly decreasing due to insufficient budget funding, regulatory constraints, restructuring and layoffs, lack of acceptable pay and working conditions, insufficiently qualified candidates in some areas, etc. Since country’s accession to the EU, there has been a significant reduction in the overall expenditure and budget subsidies for agrarian research institutes and centers. Despite multiple "reforms" of the agrarian research system, the country still does not have an effective structure for organization of R&D and public funding systems, coordination and evaluation of research, evaluation and stimulation of researchers and teams, and protection of intellectual agricultural property rights. The trends and problems in the development of agricultural research in universities and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences are similar to those in the Agricultural Academy. There is no aggregated information about the nature and volume of agricultural research conducted by the Bulgarian universities, institutes of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and in the private sector which requires the collection of similar information in the future in order to improve analysis and management.
    Keywords: agrarian research, innovation, organisation, financing, efficiency, Bulgaria
    JEL: O3 O31 O32 O34 O38 Q1 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2020–01
  18. By: McDonald, James M.; Law, Jonathan; Mosheim, Roberto
    Abstract: The number of licensed U.S. dairy herds fell by more than half between 2002 and 2019, with an accelerating rate of decline in 2018 and 2019, even as milk production continued to grow. As a result, production has been shifting to much larger but fewer farms. Larger operations realize lower costs of production, on average, and those advantages persist. This structural change also features shifts in the location of dairy farming and in the production practices used on farms. This report, following upon two earlier ERS reports on the subject, details how the dairy sector has been transformed, and assesses the financial and productive factors behind that transformation.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2020–07
  19. By: Motkuri, Venkatanarayana
    Abstract: Under the regulated farming strategy and directions of the Telangana state government, the area under rice cultivation in the state is to be restricted. One wonders, whether this policy is to contain the procurement burden that the state government has been bearing.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Rice, Procurement, Telangana
    JEL: Q13 Q18
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Jean-Marc Blazy (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Subervie Julie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jacky Paul (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); François Causeret (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Loic Guinde (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sarah Moulla (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Alban Thomas (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jorge Sierra (ASTRO - Agrosystèmes tropicaux - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In this article, we provide an ex-ante assessment of the cost-effectiveness of a series of innovative Agri-EnvironmentalMeasures (AEM) that subsidize the use of compost. To do so, we ran a choice experiment in the western islands of French Polynesia where the soil organic carbon content is extremely low. The 305 farmers who participated were asked to choose one of several AEM that offer financial support in exchange for using compost in their farming activities, aswell as free technical assistance, a collective financial bonus, and the possibility of combining chemical fertilizers with composts. We found that offering free technical assistance increases the participation rate by 30 percentage points and offering a collective bonus increases it by 14 percentage points. In contrast, including a requirement on the reduction of chemical fertilization would decrease the probability of participation by only two percentage points. We then estimated the amount of carbon that would be sequestered in the soil using compost as prescribed under each of the AEM proposed. We found that the most effective AES would sequester up to 25,000 teqCO2 per ha and per year and that the most cost-effective scheme would reach this target at a cost of about 500 euros per teqCO2. Finally, we find that the so-called 4 per 1000 target could be easily reached through most cost-effective measures even if only half of the farms were enrolled in the program.
    Keywords: climate change,compost,soil carbon,choice experiment,Guadeloupe.
    Date: 2020–06–04
  21. By: Christopher J. Amante; Jacob Dice; David Rodziewicz; Eugene Wahl
    Abstract: Sea level rise will pose increased risks to U.S. coastal real estate markets in the coming decades, though the direct economic costs depend on the severity and uncertainty within climate-change scenarios.
    Keywords: Natural hazards; Sea-level rise; Climate risk; Climate economics; Housing market
    JEL: Q54 R3
    Date: 2020–07–16
  22. By: Jaya Jumrani (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics); J.V. Meenakshi (Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics)
    Abstract: Nearly one-fifth of adult Indians are overweight or obese. Among potential interventions to address the public health problem this poses, are the so-called fat taxes. While these are yet to be implemented in India at scale, this paper looks at the impact of a negative tax (subsidy) on palm oil that has been implemented in three states—Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh— to examine the extent to which this policy has had an impact on edible oil consumption. Using consumer expenditure survey data, and a matched differences-in-differences approach, the paper finds that the subsidy on palm oil led to an increase in its consumption, both in rural and urban areas, with effects being more pronounced in rural areas. The increases are also the largest in Tamil Nadu, relative to other states. There was modest impact on overall consumption of edible oils in rural areas of two states; and there is consistent evidence that consumers displaced market-sourced groundnut and coconut oils for palm oil. The paper draws some nutritional implications of this switch.
    JEL: H31 I38 Q18
    Date: 2020–07
  23. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Mahrt, Kristi; Aung, Zin Wai; Lambrecht, Isabel; Scott, Jessica
    Abstract: This report describes the baseline data collected from 1,835 men and women respondents in 998 households in two irrigation sites in the central dry zone in Myanmar to help diagnose, design, and test interventions to enhance the Myanmar Agricultural Development Support Project’s impacts on gender equality and nutrition. Baseline data show large gender gaps, in which fewer women than men achieved adequacy in all 11 indicators of empowerment. Eighty-nine percent of women versus 64 percent of men respondents were not empowered, and 66 percent of dual-adult households have gender gaps. The main contributors of disempowerment among women were high tolerance and acceptance of intimate partner violence, lack of work balance, and low membership in groups, especially influential groups. Although 95 percent of respondents owned smartphones, women were less likely than men to access Internet or social media through their phones. Thirty-nine percent of respondents received rice-related information and half received health-related information. Nine to 14 percent of respondents attended agriculture- or health-related training courses. Women were significantly less likely to receive agriculture and nutrition-related information and training than men. The dietary diversity score, a common indicator of diet quality and a good proxy for nutrition, is low in the sample. The individual dietary diversity score was 4.32, with no significant difference between women and men and no major differences between irrigation water users and other households. Dairy, nuts and seeds, eggs, vitamin-A-rich fruits and vegetables, and other fruits are not commonly or frequently consumed by a majority of respondents. Beans and dark leafy vegetables, which are relatively abundant in the study context, are consumed by only 38–48 percent of the respondents on a daily basis. Nutrition education highlighting dietary diversity can help the sample communities achieve better nutrition. Overall, most women and men in the sample communities employ good sanitation practices, but more people need to be sensitized on proper garbage disposal, drinking water treatment, and proper and more frequent handwashing.
    Keywords: MYANMAR; BURMA; SOUTHEAST ASIA; ASIA; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; irrigation; technology; internet; mobile phones; nutrition; water treatment; crops; arid zones; diversification; crop diversification; dietary diversity
    Date: 2020
  24. By: Mohammad Abdul Malek; Nusrat Abedin Jimi; Subal Kumbhakar; Plamen Nikolov
    Abstract: Improving productivity among farm enterprises is important, especially in low-income countries where market imperfections are pervasive and resources are scarce. Relaxing credit constraints can increase the productivity of farmers. Using a field experiment involving in Bangladesh, we estimated the impact of access to credit on the overall productivity of rice farmers, and disentangled the total effect into technological change (frontier shift) and technical efficiency changes. We found that relative to the baseline rice output per decimal, access to credit resulted in, on average, approximately a 14 percent increase in yield, holding all other inputs constant. After decomposing the total effect into the frontier shift and efficiency improvement, we found that, on average, around 11 percent of the increase in output came from changes in technology, or frontier shift, while the remaining 3 percent was attributed to improvements in technical efficiency. The efficiency gain was higher for modern hybrid rice varieties, and almost zero for traditional rice varieties. Within the treatment group, the effect was greater among pure tenant and mixed-tenant farm households compared with farmers than only cultivated their own land.
    Date: 2019
  25. By: Antoine Leblois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Tristan Le Cotty (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Elodie Maître d'Hôtel (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: The low observed uptake of non-subsidised index-based insurance policies in developing countries has been puzzling researchers for about a decade. This paper analyses the role of drought frequency in farmers' demand for index-based insurance in developing countries. While it is typically assumed that an increase in exposure to risk would result in higher demand for index insurance, this paper finds the opposite: an increase in drought frequency may result in lower demand for index insurance under fairly standard conditions. In an expected utility model, we show that the demand for insurance is an inverted U function of drought frequency. We further show that downside basis risk decreases insurance demand under frequent drought conditions. It implies that insurance against similar but more frequent events cannot meet large demand from farmers. To check the empirical relevance of these effects, we conduct an insurance field experiment in Burkina Faso with 205 farmers. We analyse insurance demand for different drought frequencies, different levels of basis risks and different loading factors through incentivised lottery choices. This analysis confirms that for higher drought frequencies, insurance demand is lower. Insurance demand also decreases with basis risk and the loading factor.
    Keywords: index-based insurance,extreme events,frequency,basis risk
    Date: 2020
  26. By: OECD
    Abstract: Healthy ecosystems, and their associated services, can provide effective natural protection against water-related climate risks. Nature-based solutions (NbS) have recently gained momentum in international policy discussions due to their potential to foster synergies between ecosystem health and human wellbeing, while also offering economic benefits. This paper provides an overview of the use of NbS to date in OECD countries and finds that in most cases ambition for NbS does not match practice. Focusing on the application of NbS for addressing climate-related flood and drought risks, this paper explores why prevailing decision making frameworks may fail to adequately consider NbS. It sets out a policy evaluation framework that supports the identification of, and proposed ways to address constraints on the use of NbS to address water-related climate risks.
    Date: 2020–07–29
  27. By: Hamed Sambo (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - UP13 - Université Paris 13)
    Abstract: In most countries, migration is a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative effects on the living conditions of households in the locality of origin. This paper offers new evidence concerning the effect of migration on the food security of households left behind. The evidence is provided for Ethiopia, a country where internal migration is more predominant, and where food insecurity is still acute. The analysis is based on the 2013/2014 and 2015/2016 Ethiopian Socioeconomic Surveys (ESS), which are both nationally representative. In order to address the self-selection bias of migration, the estimation strategy used relies on the Heckman two-stage estimate and several robustness tests. The result indicates that migration negatively affects household per capita calorie intake while it leads to an improvement of their dietary diversity. However, the overall result is more inclined towards a negative effect of migration on the food security of migrant households in Ethiopia. Policies aimed at improving food security in Ethiopia should therefore consider those households among the priority targets.
    Keywords: Migration,Food security,Households,Ethiopia
    Date: 2020–06–26
  28. By: Shreedhar, Ganga; Mourato, Susana
    Abstract: This paper investigates if narratives varying the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic affects pro-wildlife conservation outcomes. In a pre-registered online experiment (N = 1081), we randomly allocated subjects to either a control group or to one of three narrative treatment groups, each presenting a different likely cause of the COVID-19 outbreak: an animal cause; an animal and human cause (AHC); and an animal, human or lab cause. We found that the AHC narrative elicited significantly greater pro-conservation policy support, especially for bans in the commercial trade of wildlife, when compared to the control group. Possible mechanisms driving this effect are that AHC narratives were less familiar, elicited higher mental and emotional engagement, and induced feelings that firms and governments are responsible for mitigating wildlife extinction.
    Keywords: narratives; communication; conversation; wildlife; extinction; conservation policy; environmental policy; prosocial behaviour; experiment; Covid-19; coronavirus
    JEL: D62 D64 D83 Q20 Q28 C99
    Date: 2020–07–11
  29. By: Sharif, Arshian; Iqbal Godil, Danish; Xu, Bingjie; Sinha, Avik; Abdul Rehman Khan, Syed; Jermsittiparsert, Kittisak
    Abstract: Ascertaining sustainable development is a major issue across the globe, and the economic growth pattern achieved is a predominant reason behind this. The globalization-led economic growth achieved by the emerging economies might not be ecologically sustainable, as globalization might not have been utilized as a policy tool. Moreover, a sound policy calls for considering the entire data spectrum for the analysis, which is largely ignored in the literature. This research contributes to the literature by proffering a policy framework for the emerging economies by analyzing the impact of globalization and tourism on environmental degradation, by considering the Chinese context as a sample. Following the quantile autoregressive distributed lag model, the impact of economic growth, globalization, and tourism on greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide emissions, and the ecological footprint in China over 1978Q1-2017Q4 are analyzed. The results demonstrate that economic growth stimulates environmental degradation, while the presence of Environmental Kuznets Curve is also validated. Moreover, tourism has been found to exert positive environmental externalities, while globalization exerts negative environmental externalities. Based on the outcomes of the research, a comprehensive policy framework has been suggested, following which the Chinese economy might be able to attain the objectives of Sustainable Development Goals 7, 8, and 13.
    Keywords: Tourism; Globalization; EKC; China; QARDL
    JEL: L83 Q5 Q53
    Date: 2020
  30. By: Karan, Shivesh Kishore (Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, Toulouse); Hamelin, Lorie
    Abstract: Crop residues are acknowledged as a key biomass resource to feed tomorrow’s sustainable bioeconomy. Yet, the quantification of these residues at large geographical scales is primarily reliant upon generic statistical estimations based on empirical functions linking the residues production to the primary crop yield. These useful yet unquestioned functions are developed either using direct evidence from experimental results or literature. In the present study, analytical evidence is presented to demonstrate that these methods generate imprecise and likely inaccurate estimates of the actual biophysical crop residue potential. In this endeavor, we applied five of the most used functions to a national case study. France was selected, being the country with the largest agricultural output in Europe. Our spatially-explicit assessment of crop residues production was performed with a spatial resolution corresponding to the level of an administrative department (96 departments in total), also the finest division of the European Union’s hierarchical system of nomenclature for territorial units (NUTS), and included 17 different crop residues. The theoretical potential of crop residues for the whole of France was found to vary from 987 PJ Y-1 to 1369 PJ Y-1, using different estimation functions. The difference observed is more than the entire annual electricity consumption of Belgium, Latvia, and Estonia combined. Perturbation analyses revealed that some of the functions are overly sensitive to a fluctuation in primary crop yield, while analytical techniques such as the null hypothesis statistical test indicated that the crop residues estimates stemming from all functions were all significantly different from one another.
    Date: 2020–07–29
  31. By: Nikulin, Alexander (Никулин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The conducted scientific research is mainly empirical, therefore it is focused on both micro-level – rural households, their traditional and innovative social-economic and social-cultural practices – and macro-level – several cases-regions that differ in the dominant models of rural formal and informal economies, their production-economic practices, and economic-environmental challenges. The study combined quantitative (secondary analysis of sociological and statistical data) and qualitative approaches (case study and “life story”, methods of observation and semi-formalized expert interviews), which allowed to provide an analytical review of traditional and innovative social-economic and environmental practices of rural households, taking into account the regional specifics of the environmental situation, and also to specify the priorities of regional and state policies so that they would support small forms of self-organization of agricultural production and development of rural territories.
    Date: 2020–04
  32. By: Léa Jenin (Food Business and Development Department - University College Cork); Marie Dervillé (UMR SELMET - Systèmes d'élevage méditerranéens et tropicaux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Claire Aubron (UMR SELMET - Systèmes d'élevage méditerranéens et tropicaux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: India is the largest milk producer in the world. The dairy sector has benefited from strong public support since Operation Flood in the 70s, which allowed small scale milk producers to have a stable access to urban markets through an extended network of dairy cooperatives. With the liberalisation reforms of the 90s, the environment under which dairy cooperatives operate has become increasingly competitive and globalized. As a result, cooperatives have started to lose ground in the milk sector: according to the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), in 15 years private operators including Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have created processing capacities equal to that set up by cooperatives in more than 30 years. The policy response in India has been the promotion of Producers Companies as ‘New Generation Cooperatives' which combine the values and equity concerns of cooperatives with features of private enterprises. The state of Andhra Pradesh,one of the leading dairy states of India (ranked 5th for milk production in 2015-16), is chosen as a case study. Private dairies are particularly strong and dynamic: the cooperative sector accounted only for 5.2% of the milk output in 2011 compared to 33.8% in Gujarat. A Business Model (BM) approach enriched by an institutional focus on the rules influencing ownership rights, value creation and distribution inside the value chain is implemented. The comparative study of five dairy business models in three districts shows a diversity of situations. It highlights that private and cooperative BM differ more in terms of transparency and support to farmers' capacity building than in terms of milk price. Preliminary lessons regarding the inclusive development of dairy value chains emphasize the enabling role of the legal framework and of sector-specific institutions.
    Date: 2018–06–28
  33. By: Le, Kien; Nguyen, My
    Abstract: The expropriation of agricultural land to provide new land for industrial and urban expansion, referred to as compulsory acquisition, is prevalent in developing countries. Using Vietnam as a laboratory, this study evaluates the impacts of losing farmland through compulsory acquisition on household welfare and reaches the following findings. A 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of land expropriated results in a 2.2% decrease in household welfare proxied by food expenditure. Besides, politically unconnected and ethnic minority households are disproportionately vulnerable. The adverse welfare effect could take up to 10 years to evaporate. The reduction in household welfare is attributable to the decline in agricultural income and the inability to participate in the non-agricultural labor market. Other aspects of household behavior following compulsory acquisition are also explored, such as saving, social capital, labor, and capital allocation.
    Keywords: Land expropriation, rural households, Vietnam
    JEL: J22 O12 O13 R28
    Date: 2019
  34. By: Claire MacPherson; Olivier Sterck
    Abstract: Assistance to refugees living in camps is shifting from a humanitarian model, based on care and maintenance, to a development model that promotes refugee self-reliance through income-generating activities, market development, and cash transfers. Evidence on the effects of this paradigm shift is limited. Exploiting a regression discontinuity design, this paper tests whether the adoption of a development approach to refugee assistance in a new settlement in Kenya has a positive impact in the short run. We find that refugees benefiting from the new approach have better diets and perceive themselves as happier and more independent from humanitarian aid. We find no effect on assets and employment. These effects appear to be driven by the switch from food rations to cash transfers and by the wider promotion of kitchen gardens. Our findings argue in favor of the development approach to refugee assistance, which is cheaper and leads to better outcomes.
    Keywords: Refugees; Humanitarian aid, Self-reliance; Cash transfers; Agriculture; Kakuma; Kalobeyei
    JEL: O12 O15 I38 Q12
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Chen, Natalie; Juvenal, Luciana
    Abstract: We investigate theoretically and empirically how exporters adjust their markups across destinations depending on bilateral distance, tariffs, and the quality of their exports. Under the assumption that trade costs are both ad valorem and per unit, our model predicts that markups rise with distance and fall with tariffs, but these effects are heterogeneous and are smaller in magnitude for higher quality exports. We find strong support for the predictions of the model using a unique data set of Argentinean firm-level wine exports combined with experts wine ratings as a measure of quality.
    Keywords: distance; export unit values; Heterogeneity; Markups; Quality; Tariff; Trade Costs; Wine
    JEL: F12 F14 F31
    Date: 2019–12
  36. By: Schimmelpfennig, David; Lowenberg-DeBoer, James
    Abstract: In the United States average adoption rates have increased for precision agriculture (PA) technologies used to produce many field crops. PA makes use of information collected on the farm to target site-specific, intensive management of farm production. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) allows close examination of regional patterns of adoption, and how crop types and region interact with differences in farm sizes and soil productivity variability to influence adoption rates. The most common PA technologies are guidance systems that use global positioning systems (GPS) to steer tractors and other farm equipment. Remote sensing, soil mapping, and yield mapping all use GPS to geolocate data and create maps used to guide farm management decision. Variable rate input-application technologies (VRT) make use of remote images, soil tests, yields maps and other sources of information to apply different, more precise levels of inputs in farmer’s fields. GPS guided VRT fertilization was introduced in the early 1990s and increased slowly over the last three decades. The ARMS data for winter wheat (2017), corn (2016) and soybeans (2012) showed use of VRT seeding and pesticide applications growing rapidly. The data indicated that PA technology was being used on farms across all sizes and all regions, with adoption occurring more rapidly on larger farms. VRT use on soybean farms was highest in areas of higher soil variability.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–07–01
  37. By: Lunn, Pete; Lyons, Seán; Murphy, Martin
    Date: 2020
  38. By: Forslid, Rikard
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the environmental impact of emissions related to trade and trans- portation. It is shown that transportation may in principle lower global emissions if the production sector is dirtier than the transport sector. The measure of a sector's dirtiness is related to the emissions taxes and the abatement efficiency within that sector. It is shown that a firm's abatement efficiency can be calculated from the emission-to-cost ratio times the emissions tax. Using Swedish data to rank 5-digit industries in terms of their dirtiness reveals that several production sectors have a higher dirtiness index than transportation does.
    Keywords: Emissions; Trade; Transportation
    Date: 2019–12
  39. By: Grytten, Ola Honningdal (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Lindmark, Magnus (Umeå University); Minde, Kjell Bjørn (Western Norway University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: During the last decades several scholars have argued that environmental degradation first increases in initial phases of economic growth, and thereafter declines as economic growth enters a certain level in developed economies. This makes environmental degradation form an inverse U-shaped curve, called the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Environmental degradation can be measured by different proxies. This paper deals with two, i.e. energy consumption and energy intensity (EI), which again is measured as the ratio between energy consumption and GDP. The relationship of energy consumption and energy intensity to economic growth can thus, serve as tools to examine whether an EKC exists. Hence, this paper presents continuous series of energy consumption, energy intensity and gross domestic product for the Norwegian mainland economy 1835-2019. These are thereafter utilized in order to examine the possible existence of relative and absolute environmental Kuznets curves (EKC). The time series are established by drawing on available data, and annual figures for the period 1835-2019 are presented for the first time. They depict a development which reflect that EKCs exist. The paper also offers a polynomial regression model to investigate into the relationship between environmental degradation, measured by energy consumption, energy intensity and economic growth expressed as GDP per capita. It concludes there is clear evidence of both relative and an absolute EKC-relations between environmental degradation and economic growth, with 1975 as relative and 2002 as absolute turning points.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; energy intensity; energy consumption; economic growth
    JEL: N53 N54 O11 O13 O44 Q01 Q34
    Date: 2020–07–07
  40. By: Cecilia Bellora; Lionel Fontagné (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: The new European Commission has announced policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions drastically. Reaching an ambitious target for a global good – the climate – would require a common price for carbon worldwide. This however clashes with the free-riding problem. Furthermore, unilateral policies are not efficient since they lead to carbon leakages and distort competitiveness. To tackle these issues, the European Union can rely on different policies. Firstly, a carbon pricing of imports can combined with an export rebate to constitute a ‘complete CBA' (Carbon Border Adjustment) solution. Alternatively, a simple tariff at the border can compensate for differences in carbon prices between domestic and imported products. A consumption-based carbon taxation can al so be contemplated. Last, a uniform tariff on imports from countries not imposing (equivalent) carbon policies may help solving the free-riding problem.
    Keywords: Carbon Border Adjustment,Climate Change,International Trade,Tariffs
    Date: 2020–04–14
  41. By: Hahn, William; Sydow, Sharon
    Keywords: Production Economics
    Date: 2020–07–06
  42. By: Wang, Sun Ling; Mosheim, Roberto; Nehring, Richard; Njuki, Eric
    Keywords: Farm Management, Financial Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–07–06
  43. By: César Martínez (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Pierre Courtois (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Mabel Tidball (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Gael Thébaud (UMR BGPI - Biologie et Génétique des Interactions Plante-Parasite - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Date: 2018–07–09

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