nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒06‒29
48 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Agricultural input retailers By Goeb, Joseph; Boughton, Duncan; Maredia, Mywish K.
  2. Modeling the Impacts of Agricultural Support Policies on Emissions from Agriculture By David Laborde; Abdullah Mamun; Will Martin; Valeria Piñeiro; Rob Vos
  3. Livestock, land use and food security in 2050: Insights from the Agrimonde-Terra foresight By Chantal Le Mouel; Olivier Mora
  4. Impacts of Land Use and Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems in France By Basak Bayramoglu; Raja Chakir; Anna Lungarska
  5. The Potential Impacts of an EU-wide Agricultural Mitigation Target on the Irish Agriculture Sector By Adenaeuer, Lucie; Breen, James; Witzke, Heinz-Peter; Kesting, Monika; Hayden, Anne
  6. Production effects of wetland conservation: evidence from France By Moriah B. Bostian; Pierre Dupraz; Jean Minviel
  7. Innovation, Growth and Structural Change in American Agriculture By Julian M. Alston; Philip G. Pardey
  8. Generation and distribution of productivity gains in beef cattle farming: Who are the winners and losers between 1980 and 2015? By P. Veysset; M. Lherm; P. Boussemart; P. Natier
  9. Accounting for externalities in cross-sectional economic models of climate change impacts By Moretti, Michele; Vanschoenwinkel, Janka; Van Passel, Steven
  10. Going Beyond Average – Using Machine Learning to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Environmental Subsidies at Micro-Level By Stetter, Christian; Menning, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes
  11. The Food Problem and the Aggregate Productivity Consequences of Climate Change By Ishan B. Nath
  12. Here Comes the Rain Again: Productivity Shocks, Educational Investments and Child Work By Christophe Jalil Nordman; Smriti Sharma; Naveen Sunder
  13. Information, Technology Adoption and Productivity: The Role of Mobile Phones in Agriculture By Apoorv Gupta; Jacopo Ponticelli; Andrea Tesei
  14. The groundnuts Fairtrade arrangement and its spillover effects on agricultural commercialization and household welfare outcomes: Empirical evidence from central Malawi By Kaiyatsa, Stevier; Matita, Mirriam; Chirwa, Ephraim; Mazalale, Jacob
  15. Relationships Between Health and Environmental Information on the Willingness to Pay for Functional Foods: The Case of a New Aloe Vera Based Product By Elena Castellari; Elena Claire Ricci; Stefanella Stranieri; Stephan Marette; Martina Sarnataro; Claudio Soregaroli
  16. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Mechanization service providers By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Win, Myat Thida; Masias, Ian
  17. Assessing the long-term impact of agricultural research on productivity: evidence from France By Stéphane Lemarié; Valerie Orozco; Jean-Pierre Butault; Antonio Musolesi; Michel Simioni; Bertrand Schmitt
  18. Analysing the resilience of the European commodity production system with PyResPro, the Python Production Resilience package By Matteo Zampieri; Andrea Toreti; Andrej Ceglar; Pierluca De Palma; Thomas Chatzopoulos
  19. Do farmers follow the herd? The influence of social norms in the participation to agri-environmental schemes. By Philippe Le Coent; Raphaële Préget; Sophie Thoyer
  20. Impact of private labels and information campaigns on organic and fair trade food demand By Douadia Bougherara; Carole Ropars-Collet; Jude Saint-Gilles
  21. A stochastic meta-frontier approach to estimating the impact of cooperatives membership on rice farmers’ efficiency: Contrasting results from Senegal By Adjin, K. Christophe; Henning, Christian H.C.A.
  22. Can we nudge farmers into saving water? Evidence from a randomized experiment By Sylvain Chabe-Ferret; Philippe Le Coent; Arnaud Reynaud; Subervie Julie; Daniel Lepercq
  23. Geographic environmental Kuznets curves: the optimal growth linear-quadratic case By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  24. After Covid-19, will seasonal migrant agricultural workers in Europe be replaced by robots? By Cristina Mitaritonna; Lionel Ragot
  25. Do Environmental Markets Cause Environmental Injustice? Evidence from California’s Carbon Market By Danae Hernandez-Cortes; Kyle C. Meng
  26. Winners and Losers from Enclosure: Evidence from Danish Land Inequality 1682-1895 By Boberg-Fazlic, Nina; Lampe, Markus; Martinelli Lasheras, Pablo; Sharp, Paul
  27. The impact of the French soda tax on prices and purchases: an ex post evaluation By Sara Capacci; Olivier Allais; Celine Bonnet; Mario Mazzacchi
  28. Seasonality in commodity prices across India: Extent and implications By Baruah, Prerona
  29. Identifying the role of women in UK farming through a systematic review of international literature By Dunne, Chloe; Siettou, Christina; Wilson, Paul
  30. Maize price volatility: does market remoteness matter? By Moctar Ndiaye; Elodie Maître d'Hôtel; Tristan Le Cotty
  31. Productivity dispersion and persistence among the world's most numerous firms By Burke, Marshall; Emerick, Kyle; Maue, Casey
  32. The European Union-Japan economic partener-ship agreement: trends and issues in the wine economy By Etienne Montaigne; Rikko Togawa; Samson Zadmehran; Alfredo Coelho; Shigeaki Oda
  33. A Unifying Approach to Measuring Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation By Bento, Antonio M.; Miller, Noah; Mookerjee, Mehreen; Severnini, Edson R.
  34. Drivers of meat consumption By Chantal Le Mouel; Anna Birgit Milford; Benjamin L. Bodirsky; Susanne Rolinski
  35. The Role of Dairy Farmers in Minnesota’s Rural Economy By Hadrich, Joleen; Roberts, Megan; Tuck, Brigid
  36. The pain of a new idea: Do Late Bloomers response to Extension Service in Rural Ethiopia? By Alexander Jordan; Marco Guerzoni
  37. Identification of Time-Inconsistent Models: The Case of Insecticide Treated Nets By Aprajit Mahajan; Christian Michel; Alessandro Tarozzi
  38. Pesticides, agriculture and environment. How to reduce the use of pesticides and to limit their environmental impacts By Jean-Noel Aubertot; J.M. Barbier; Alain Carpentier; J.J. Gril; Laurence Guichard; P. Lucas; Serge Savary; Isabelle Savini; Marc Voltz; . Inra; . Cemagref,la Recherche Pour l'Ingénierie de l'Agriculture Et de l'Environnement,paris (fra)
  39. Effects of front-of-pack labels on the nutritional quality of supermarket food purchases: evidence from a large-scale randomized controlled trial By Dubois, Pierre; Albuquerque, Paulo; Allais, Olivier; Bonnet, Céline; Bertail, Patrice; Combris, Pierre; Lahlou, Saadi; Rigal, Natalie; Ruffieux, Bernard; Chandon, Pierre
  40. Land Transactions in Rural Areas: Comparative analysis between Japan and Scotland By Kato, Yumi Isaka; Hubbard, Carmen; Garrod, Guy
  41. Costs and Benefits of Rural-Urban Migration : Evidence from India By Imbert, Clément; Papp, John
  42. Food prices in Scottish remote areas: are they higher than average prices? By Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Russo, Carlo
  43. A critical survey of databases on tariffs and trade available for the analysis of EU agricultural agreements By Sophie Drogue; Lubica Bartova
  44. Exploring the links between agriculture, migration and food security: a survey of diversified, multi-situated farming households in Northwestern Nicaragua By Sandrine Fréguin-Gresh; Lissania Padilla; Karen Pavon; Douglas Elizondo; Geneviève Cortes; Valentina Banoviez Urrutia; Alissia Lourme Ruiz; Sandrine Dury; Emmanuelle Bouquet
  45. Environmental certification: a study of a beef agro industrial system in Brazil By Abrahao, Ana
  46. Doing more with less: Leveraging social norms and status concerns in encouraging conservation farm practices By Howley, Peter; Ocean, Neel
  47. Denmark and Russia: What can we learn from the historical comparison of two great Arctic agricultural empires? By Elena Korchmina; Paul Sharp
  48. Willingness to Pay for Better Air Quality: The case of China By Liu, L-Q.; Yin, Z-L.; Xie, B-C.; Zhou, W.

  1. By: Goeb, Joseph; Boughton, Duncan; Maredia, Mywish K.
    Abstract: Agricultural input retailers play a key role in Myanmar’s agri-food system by supplying farmers with fertilizer, seed, pesticides, and other inputs necessary for successful harvests. Because farm-level input use is an important driver of yields for all major food crops, shocks to the input retail sector have major implications both for rural household welfare and for national food security. COVID-19 and the policies enacted to mitigate its spread have shocked Myanmar’s economy. Agricultural input retailers, like many other businesses, are squeezed between both supply and demand side shocks. On the supply side, agricultural inputs have long, international supply chains that could be disrupted by restrictions on international or internal trade and transport. On the demand side, the shocks to rural households’ incomes, crop prices, and uncertainty could affect input purchases. This research note seeks to help the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation of the Government of Myanmar and agricultural sector stakeholders understand the related shocks to Myanmar’s agricultural input retailers. We conducted a phone survey with 221 input shop owners and managers to understand (i) the demand-side effects of COVID-19 shocks as reflected in sales of key inputs, such as fertilizers, maize seed, vegetable seeds, and pesticides,the supply-side effects both in general and for key inputs, and (iii) business responses to COVID-19 shocks.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, farm inputs, supplies, farmers, fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, Covid-19, agricultural input retailers
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:myanpn:8&r=all
  2. By: David Laborde; Abdullah Mamun; Will Martin; Valeria Piñeiro; Rob Vos
    Abstract: To understand the impacts of support programs on global emissions, this paper considers the impacts of domestic subsidies, price distortions at the border, and investments in emission-reducing technologies on global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. In a step towards a full evaluation of the impacts, it uses a counterfactual global model scenario showing how much emissions from agricultural production would change if agricultural support were abolished worldwide. The analysis indicates that, without subsidies paid directly to farmers, output of some emission-intensive activities and agricultural emissions would be smaller. Without agricultural trade protection, however, emissions would be higher. This is partly because protection reduces global demand more than it increases global agricultural supply, and partly because some countries that currently tax agriculture have high emission intensities. Policies that directly reduce emission intensities yield much larger reductions in emissions than those that reduce emission intensities by increasing overall productivity because overall productivity growth creates a rebound effect by reducing product prices and expanding output. A key challenge is designing policy reforms that effectively reduce emissions without jeopardizing other key goals such as improving nutrition and reducing poverty. This analysis is an important building block towards a full understanding the impacts of reforms to agricultural support on mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change. That full analysis is being undertaken in current work incorporating land use changes and examining the impacts of specific reforms on mitigation, resilience and economic outcomes.
    JEL: F1 F13 F18 O13 O24 O44 Q01 Q17 Q18 Q2 Q28 Q5 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27202&r=all
  3. By: Chantal Le Mouel (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Olivier Mora (UAR - Délégation à l'Expertise scientifique collective, à la Prospective et aux Etudes - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: Agrimonde-Terra scenarios of land use and food security in 2050 offer the opportunity to re-examine the on-going debate on the place of animal production in land use and food security, and as a result, of their role in the future of global food systems. The results of Agrimonde-Terra confirm the major role of animal production for land use and food security in 2050. Agrimonde-Terra concludes that a transition to more sustainable food systems will require simultaneous action on the demand side of animal products and on the supply side of plant and animal products, but with some nuances notably the role of animal production for food security in developing countries. Thus, under Agrimonde-Terra's hypotheses all scenarios lead to a significant expansion of agricultural land area in developing regions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Abstract: Les scénarios d'usage des terres et de sécurité alimentaire en 2050, issus de la prospective Agrimonde-Terra, offrent l'opportunité de réexaminer les termes du débat sur la place des productions animales dans l'usage des terres et la sécurité alimentaire, et par suite sur leur rôle au regard de l'avenir des systèmes alimentaires globaux. Les résultats d'Agrimonde-Terra confirment le rôle majeur des productions animales pour l'usage des terres et la sécurité alimentaire en 2050. Agrimonde-Terra conclut qu'une transition vers des systèmes alimentaires plus durables nécessitera d'agir simultanément du côté de la demande de produits animaux et du côté de l'offre de produits végétaux et animaux, mais en apportant quelques nuances, notamment en insistant sur le rôle de la production animale pour la sécurité alimentaire dans les pays en développement. Ainsi, les hypothèses d'Agrimonde-Terra conduisent, quel que soit le scénario, à une expansion significative de la surface agricole dans certaines régions en développement, en particulier en Afrique sub-saharienne.
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02619332&r=all
  4. By: Basak Bayramoglu (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Raja Chakir (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Anna Lungarska (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Pressures on freshwater ecosystems are mainly human induced and driven by land use and climate change. We develop an empirical framework to estimate the impacts of land use (agriculture, forest, pasture, urban) and climate change on freshwater biodiversity, measured by a fish-based index, in France. Our estimation results reveal that rivers in areas with more intensive agriculture and steep pasture are associated with lower freshwater biodiversity compared with forest areas. Our simulations show that climate change will exacerbate these negative impacts through land use adaptation. We discuss how two command-and-control policies could help improving freshwater biodiversity and cope with the adverse effects of land use and climate change.
    Abstract: Les pressions sur les écosystèmes d'eau douce sont principalement induites par l'homme et entraînées par l'usage des sols et le changement climatique. Nous développons un cadre empirique pour estimer les impacts de l'usage des sols (agriculture, forêt, pâturages, urbain) et du changement climatique sur la biodiversité d'eau douce, mesurée par un indice basé sur les poissons, en France. Les résultats de nos estimations révèlent que les rivières situées dans des zones d'agriculture plus intensive et de pâturages abrupts sont associées à une biodiversité d'eau douce inférieure par rapport aux zones forestières. Nos simulations montrent que le changement climatique va exacerber ces impacts négatifs grâce à l'adaptation de l'usage des sols. Nous discutons de la façon dont deux politiques de contrôle pourraient aider à améliorer la biodiversité d'eau douce et à faire face aux effets néfastes de l'usage des sols et du changement climatique.
    Keywords: Freshwater biodiversity,Fish-based index,Land use,Climate change,Water quality,Spatial panel data model
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02619251&r=all
  5. By: Adenaeuer, Lucie; Breen, James; Witzke, Heinz-Peter; Kesting, Monika; Hayden, Anne
    Abstract: The recently published Irish Climate Action Plan has outlined the leading role which agriculture will have to take for Ireland in order to achieve national reduction of GHG emissions. The agricultural sector model CAPRI is used to investigate the impact of an EU-wide agricultural mitigation target on the Irish agriculture sector. Three scenarios developed under the JRC-project EcAMPA2, allowing the endogenous implementation of mitigation technologies, will show the possible impact range that such a policy target could have. It can be inferred that the Irish agriculture sector can achieve the set mitigation target by adapting livestock production systems, resulting in efficiency gains and implementing specific mitigation technologies. Without a mitigation target, changes are marginal, and voluntary adoption will rarely take place. Subsidising the implementation of mitigation technologies can buffer the impact that a mitigation target will have on the Irish agriculture sector, while achieving the set reduction.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303702&r=all
  6. By: Moriah B. Bostian (Portland State University - Partenaires INRAE); Pierre Dupraz (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Jean Minviel (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: This study takes a production function approach to examine the effects of farm wetland area for a set of producers in the Limousin region of France. By combining data from a recent survey of regional wetland areas with detailed farm-level production panel data, we find that maintaining wetland areas poses significant costs to farmers, in terms of foregone production value. These results help to explain the relatively low participation rate in agri-environmental schemes targeted to wetlands by farmers in this region. This represents a new application of the production function approach to estimate the cost of maintaining wetlands on working agricultural land, and is one of few studies to examine agricultural wetland costs outside of the US. This framework could be used to further inform payment incentives for agrienvironmental schemes more generally.
    Abstract: La productivité des zones humides agricole est étudiée par la spécification d'une fonction de production, estimée sur un ensemble de producteurs agricoles de la Région française du Limousin. L'analyse des données de panel rassemblant les comptabilités d'une centaine d'exploitation suivies pendant trois ans montre que le maintien agricole des zones humides implique des coûts significatifs en termes de pertes de production. Ces résultats aident à comprendre la relative faiblesse de l'adoption par les agriculteurs des mesures agroenvironnementales ciblant les zones humides de cette région. Ce travail est une nouvelle application de l'approche par la fonction de production pour estimer le coût de maintien des zones humides, et l'une des rares applications sur ce thème, hors des Etats-Unis. La méthodologie peut être utilisée pour l'établissement de paiements incitatifs dans le cadre de programmes agri-environnementaux ou pour des services environnementaux en général.
    Keywords: wetlands,conservation payments,France,agri-environmental schemes,agricultural production,paiements pour services environnementaux
    Date: 2020–06–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02796850&r=all
  7. By: Julian M. Alston; Philip G. Pardey
    Abstract: U.S. agriculture was transformed during the 20th century by waves of innovation with mechanical, biological, chemical, and information technologies. Compared with a few decades ago, today’s agriculture is much less labor intensive and farms are much larger and more specialized, supplying a much-evolved market for farm products. Over recent decades, the global landscape for agricultural R&D has shifted away from farms, away from the public sector toward the private sector, and away from the United States towards agriculturally important middle-income countries, especially China, India and Brazil. U.S. investments in agricultural R&D are stalling even though meta-evidence shows that past U.S. investments in agricultural R&D have yielded very favorable returns: median reported benefit-cost ratios in the range of 12:1. Sustained U.S. investment and innovation will be required to preserve past productivity gains in the face of climate change, coevolving pests and diseases, and changing technological regulations—let alone increase productivity. Great potential exists for innovation in crop and livestock genetics and digital farming technologies to generate new products and production processes, but innovators are facing increasingly strong headwinds from social and political forces that seek to dictate technology choices.
    JEL: O13 O3 O4 O51 Q16 Q28 Q52
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27206&r=all
  8. By: P. Veysset (UMRH - Unité Mixte de Recherches sur les Herbivores - UMR 1213 - VAS - VetAgro Sup - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en alimentation, santé animale, sciences agronomiques et de l'environnement - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); M. Lherm; P. Boussemart (LEM - Lille économie management - LEM - UMR 9221 - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); P. Natier
    Abstract: Surplus accounting is a method for evaluating trends in how a firm's productivity factors (intermediate inputs, capital, land, labour) are performing and how the productivity gains are redistributed between agents in the economy. Here the surplus accounting method was applied on a database of 164 Charolais-area suckler cattle farms running from 1980 to 2015. Over this 36-year period – with differences per sub-period – the cumulative productivity surplus (PS) increased at a low rate of +0.17%/year (i.e. cumulative volume of outputs produced increased slightly more than cumulative volume of inputs used). This timid increase in PS is linked to the constant expansion in labour productivity whereas other factor productivities have shrunk. The observable period-wide macrotrends are that commercial farm businesses struggle to protect their revenues, we also observe a slight fall in input prices, land rent and financing costs, and a huge climb in direct support-policy payments. The bulk of the cumulative economic surplus has been captured downstream – 64% downstream of the cattle value chain as a drop in prices, and 22% downstream of other value chains (chiefly cereals). It emerges that the productivity gains in beef cattle farming mostly benefit the downstream value chain (packers–processors, distributors and consumers), whereas it is mainly government money backing this drop in prices of agricultural output. Here we see the principal of the 1992 ‘MacSharry' reform at work, with a transfer from the taxpayer through direct support-policy payments through to the consumer via lower prices. The simple fact that farmers' incomes are stagnating is a clear indication that they are net losers in this distribution of productivity gains, despite the improvement in labour factor productivity.
    Keywords: efficiency,farm economics,livestock farms,beef sector,surplus account
    Date: 2019–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02107423&r=all
  9. By: Moretti, Michele; Vanschoenwinkel, Janka; Van Passel, Steven
    Abstract: Environmental effects and natural resources depletion associated with agriculture production affect the agriculture response to climate change. Traditional cross-sectional climate response models ignore this requirement. This research estimates the impact of climate on European agriculture using a continental scale Ricardian analysis. We correct farm income by accounting for resources (energy, fertilizers, pesticides and water) use intensity by calculating the sustainable value for a sample of 9,497 specialized field crop farms across Europe. The results show that a uniform increase in temperature (+1°C) across all four seasons lead to significant and negative effects on farmland values, net revenue and farms’ sustainable value, while additional precipitation (+1 cm) across the all seasons increases farms' land values and sustainable values, and harms farms’ net revenue. Compared with the traditional Ricardian method, the marginal effect of 1° C increase in temperature shift from positive to negative in Northern countries, while it leads to less damages in Southern countries when net revenue and farms’ sustainable values are used as dependent variables. We demonstrate that accounting for the environmental effects and depletion of natural capital by agriculture significantly improves the ability of the Ricardian method to estimate agriculture climate response functions in the long run.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303704&r=all
  10. By: Stetter, Christian; Menning, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes
    Abstract: Legislators in the EU have long been concerned with the environmental impact of farming activities. As a means to mitigate adverse ecological effects and foster desirable ecosystem services in agriculture, the EU introduced so-called agri-environment schemes (AES). This study suggests a machine learning method based on generalized random forests (GRF) for assessing the environmental effectiveness of such agri-environment payment schemes at the farm-level. We exploit a set of more than 130 contextual predictors to assess the individual impact of participating in agri-environment schemes in the EU. Results from our empirical application for Southeast Germany suggest the existence of heterogeneous impacts of environmental subsidies on mineral fertiliser quantities, greenhouse gas emissions and crop diversity. Individual treatment effects largely differ from traditionally used average treatment effects, thus indicating the importance of considering the farming context in agricultural policy evaluation. Furthermore, we provide important insights into the optimal targeting of agrienvironment schemes for maximising the environmental efficacy of existing policies.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303699&r=all
  11. By: Ishan B. Nath
    Abstract: This paper integrates local temperature treatment effects and a quantitative macroeconomic model to evaluate the impact of climate change on sectoral reallocation and aggregate productivity. First, I use firm-level data from a wide range of countries to estimate the effect of temperature on productivity in manufacturing and services. Estimates suggest that extreme heat reduces non-agricultural productivity, but less so than in agriculture, implying that hot countries could adapt to climate change by importing food and shifting labor toward manufacturing. Second, I embed my estimates in an open-economy model of structural transformation covering 158 countries to investigate this possibility. Simulations suggest that subsistence food requirements drive agricultural specialization more than comparative advantage, however, such that climate change perversely pulls labor into agriculture where its productivity suffers most and reallocation exacerbates the global decline in GDP. The productivity effects of climate change reduce welfare by 1.5-2.7% overall and 6-10% for the poorest quartile. Trade reduces the welfare costs of climate change by only 7.4% under existing policy, but by 31% overall and 68% for the global poor in a counterfactual scenario that assigns all countries the 90th percentile level of trade openness.
    JEL: O14 Q17 Q54 R11
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27297&r=all
  12. By: Christophe Jalil Nordman (IRD, UMR LEDa, DIAL, PSL, Université Paris Dauphine, IFP (Pondicherry, India)); Smriti Sharma (Newcastle University Business School, Newcastle Upon Tyne); Naveen Sunder (Bentley University, Waltham, MA (USA))
    Abstract: In predominantly agrarian economies with limited irrigation, rainfall plays a critical role in shaping households’ incomes and subsequently their spending decisions. This study uses household-level panel data from a nationally representative survey in India to estimate the effect of agricultural productivity shocks – as proxied by exogenous annual rainfall deviations from long-term average – on education expenditures and children’s work status in rural Indian households. Our results show that a transitory increase in rainfall significantly reduces education expenditures and increases the likelihood of child labor across a range of work activities. Additionally, we show that productivity-enhancing inputs such as land ownership and credit access do not mitigate these countercyclical effects of rainfall variations, indicating the importance of market imperfections (in labor and land markets). We also find that the effects of productivity shocks are reinforced for historically marginalized castes, and moderated for more educated households. These highlight that the average effects mask considerable heterogeneity based on household and regional characteristics.
    Keywords: Rainfall shocks, education expenditures, child work, market imperfections, India
    JEL: D13 I21 J16 O12
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt202005&r=all
  13. By: Apoorv Gupta; Jacopo Ponticelli; Andrea Tesei
    Abstract: We study the effect of information on technology adoption and productivity in agriculture. Our empirical strategy exploits the expansion of the mobile phone network in previously uncovered areas of rural India coupled with the availability of call centers for agricultural advice. We measure information on agricultural practices by analyzing the content of 2.5 million phone calls made by farmers to one of India's leading call centers for agricultural advice. We find that areas receiving coverage from new towers and with no language barriers between farmers and advisers answering their calls experience higher adoption of high yielding varieties of seeds and other complementary inputs, as well as higher increase in agricultural productivity. Our estimates indicate that information frictions can explain around 25 percent of the agricultural productivity gap between the most productive and the least productive areas in our sample.
    JEL: O33 O4 Q16 Q55
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27192&r=all
  14. By: Kaiyatsa, Stevier; Matita, Mirriam; Chirwa, Ephraim; Mazalale, Jacob
    Abstract: We use a unique panel dataset of smallholder farmers that were collected in central rural Malawi in 2006/07 and 2017/18 agricultural seasons to test whether there are spillover effects of groundnut Fairtrade arrangement on small-scale agricultural commercialization and household welfare for smallholder farmers that did not participate in the arrangement. Our findings reveal that implementation of groundnuts the Fairtrade arrangement in Mchinji district has 29% spillover effect on commercialisation intensity for smallholder farmers that did not participate in the arrangement. However, the arrangement did not contribute to the improvement of agricultural income and asset value of non-participants. Based on our results, we recommend government’s support to smallholder farmers to allow them continue commercialising farming, and improve their welfare.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303707&r=all
  15. By: Elena Castellari (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Elena Claire Ricci (Università degli Studi di Verona); Stefanella Stranieri (Università degli studi di Milano [Milano]); Stephan Marette (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Martina Sarnataro (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Claudio Soregaroli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: There is an increasing interest in healthy and sustainable product characteristics. Consumers determine their dietary intake and frame production systems with their choices. However, little is known about the relationships between health and environmental information in influencing these choices, especially when considering functional foods. This study assessed the influence of health-related and environmental-friendliness-related product information on the willingness to pay (WTP) for functional foods. To this end, a WTP elicitation experiment was set up using a jam-like fruit compote enriched with Aloe vera gel. Participants were provided with different messages related to the health and environmental benefits of Aloe vera products, and were also asked to taste the product. Results indicated that providing new information significantly increased the WTP for the enriched compote. This increase was significant for both health and environmentally based benefits, with the health message leading to a higher WTP. Combining health and environmental messages produced an additive effect on WTP which was independent of the sequential order in which the two messages were given. Results contrasted the view that health messages are the main drivers of WTP, and open a broader range of communication in terms of marketing strategies and sustainable policy objectives.
    Abstract: Il existe un intérêt croissant pour les caractéristiques de santé et durabilité des produits. Cependant, on sait peu de choses sur les relations entre les informations sur la santé et l'environnement et leur influence sur les choix des consommateurs, en particulier en ce qui concerne les aliments « fonctionnels ». Cette étude a évalué l'influence des informations sur la santé et à l'environnement, sur le consentement à payer pour les aliments fonctionnels. Cette expérience se focalise sur une compote de fruit enrichie en Aloe Vera. Les participants ont reçu différents messages concernant les avantages pour la santé et l'environnement des produits à base d'Aloe Vera et ont également été invités à les goûter. Les résultats ont indiqué que la révélation de nouvelles informations augmentait considérablement le consentement à payer (CAP) de la compote enrichie. Cette augmentation est significative tant avec les informations sur la santé qu'avec les informations sur l'environnement, avec le message sur la santé conduisant à un CAP plus élevé. La combinaison des messages relatifs à la santé et à l'environnement a produit un effet additif sur le CAP, indépendant de l'ordre séquentiel dans lequel les deux messages ont été révélés.
    Keywords: food choices,functional food,health information,choice experiment,sustainability,environmental information
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02627431&r=all
  16. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Win, Myat Thida; Masias, Ian
    Abstract: Agricultural mechanization service providers (MSP) are crucial to enabling smallholder farmers to undertake a range of power-intensive farm and post-harvest operations in a timely manner. These operations are important for food production and farm income. MSPs are capital-intensive operations. The economic viability of these businesses is highly sensitive to capacity utilization, which generates the cash flow needed to repay equipment loans; to prices of imported capital goods, including machines, equipment, and fuels; and to the availability of machine operators, among others. Hence, the operations of MSPs are sensitive to restrictions on mobility and trade. The COVID-19 pandemic in Myanmar, the restrictions imposed as policy responses to control the spread of the virus, and the associated market disruptions affect the operations of MSPs across the country. However, the specific impacts MSPs experience depends on factors specific to different regions and states. Measures to support MSPs and to ensure farmer access to their services should be guided by an understanding of the situation on the ground.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, agricultural mechanization, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, mechanization, farmers, loans, smallholders, Covid-19, mechanization service providers (MSP)
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:myanpn:7&r=all
  17. By: Stéphane Lemarié (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Valerie Orozco (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Jean-Pierre Butault (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Antonio Musolesi (Department of Economics and Management - University of Ferrara); Michel Simioni (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques); Bertrand Schmitt (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the economic impact of agricultural research on productivity in France over the period 1959-2012. Adopting a dynamic time series model, we provide evidence that the impact of French agri- cultural research is in the range of values estimated for other countries, with the estimated long-run elasticity being 0.16, which corresponds to an internal rate of return of 22%. The estimated elasticity decreases at the beginning of the 1970s. Complementary analyses are developed to take into account the evolution of the priorities of public agricultural research (reorientation towards more fundamental objectives and focus on broader objective than productivity enhancement).
    Keywords: research lags,economic impact of agricultural research,knowledge stocks,france,agricultural R&D
    Date: 2020–06–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02791517&r=all
  18. By: Matteo Zampieri; Andrea Toreti; Andrej Ceglar; Pierluca De Palma; Thomas Chatzopoulos
    Abstract: This paper presents a Python object-oriented software and code to compute the annual production resilience indicator. The annual production resilience indicator can be applied to different anthropic and natural systems such as agricultural production, natural vegetation and water resources. Here, we show an example of resilience analysis of the economic values of the agricultural production in Europe. The analysis is conducted for individual time-series in order to estimate the resilience of a single commodity and to groups of time-series in order to estimate the overall resilience of diversified production systems composed of different crops and/or different countries. The proposed software is powerful and easy to use with publicly available datasets such as the one used in this study.
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2006.08976&r=all
  19. By: Philippe Le Coent (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Raphaële Préget (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Sophie Thoyer (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: This article analyses the role played by social norms in farmers' decisions to enroll into an agri-environmental scheme (AES). First, it develops a simple theoretical model highlighting the interplay of descriptive and injunctive norms in farmers' utility functions. Second, an empirical valuation of the effect of social norms is provided based on the results of a stated preference survey conducted with 98 wine-growers in the South of France. Proxies are proposed to capture and measure the weight of social norms in farmers' decision to sign an agri-environmental contract. Our empirical results indicate that the injunctive norm seems to play a stronger role than the descriptive norm.
    Keywords: social norms,behaviour,agri-environmental contracts
    Date: 2020–06–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02791014&r=all
  20. By: Douadia Bougherara (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Carole Ropars-Collet (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jude Saint-Gilles (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: We use Almost Ideal Demand Systems (AIDS) models estimated by the nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) method on scanner data (i) to examine the demand for ecolabeled food products (organic and fair trade) as a function of the good having a private label (PL) or a national brand (NB) and (ii) to assess the impact of information campaigns promoting organic and fair trade products. We find that while demand is elastic for NB organic milk and NB fair trade coffee, it is inelastic for their PL counterpart. As for organic eggs, demand is always inelastic. Cross-price elasticities show substitutability between ecolabeled and conventional goods but only within the NB goods (milk and eggs) and within the PL goods (milk and coffee), but also complementarity between NB conventional and PL ecolabeled goods (milk and coffee). Finally, we find that while information campaigns increase the predicted expenditure shares of PL organic milk by 33%, of NB fair trade coffee by 50%, they decrease the predicted expenditure shares of PL conventional eggs but only by 3%. These effects are non-lasting.
    Keywords: organic,fair trade,information campaign
    Date: 2020–06–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02790604&r=all
  21. By: Adjin, K. Christophe; Henning, Christian H.C.A.
    Abstract: Using cross-sectional data from 835 rice-farming households in Senegal, we investigated the extent to which membership in farmers’ cooperatives affects farm technical efficiency. To do so, we combine the propensity score matching method with the sample selection stochastic frontier model (Greene, 2010) and the stochastic meta-frontier approach (Huang et al., 2014). The propensity score matching helps in mitigating biases from observable variables. The sample selection stochastic frontier framework was used to control for biases arising from unobserved characteristics in the production frontier. Using the meta-frontier approach, farmers’ technical efficiency were estimated and compared. Results show that cooperative membership contributes significantly in improving rice production. However, when considering group-specific frontiers (farmers operating in their own benchmark: members vs non-members), cooperatives members do not technically perform better than non-members. Furthermore, when considering the meta-frontier estimates, significant differences in technical efficiency between members and non-members can still be observed in favour of non-members.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303700&r=all
  22. By: Sylvain Chabe-Ferret (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Philippe Le Coent (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Arnaud Reynaud (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Subervie Julie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Daniel Lepercq (CACG - Compagnie d'Aménagement des Côteaux de Gascogne)
    Abstract: Improving water efficiency is a growing challenge for the Common Agricultural Policy. In this article, we test whether social comparison nudges can promote water-saving behavior among farmers. We report on a pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, in which information on individual and group water consumption were sent every week to farmers equipped with smartmeters. We do not detect an effect of nudges on average water consumption. We however find that the nudge decreases water consumption at the top of the distribution while it increases consumption at the bottom. This study highlights the potential of nudges as an agricultural policy tool.
    Keywords: nudges,behavioral economics,irrigation water use,government policy
    Date: 2020–06–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02791612&r=all
  23. By: Raouf Boucekkine (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche); Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Salvatore Federico (UNISI - Università degli Studi di Siena); Fausto Gozzi (LUISS - Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli [Roma])
    Abstract: We solve a linear-quadratic model of a spatio-temporal economy using a polluting one-input technology. Space is continuous and heterogenous: locations differ in productivity, nature self-cleaning technology and environmental awareness. The unique link between locations is transboundary pollution which is modelled as a PDE diffusion equation. The spatio-temporal functional is quadratic in local consumption and linear in pollution. Using a dynamic programming method adapted to our infinite dimensional setting, we solve the associated optimal control problem in closed-form and identify the asymptotic (optimal) spatial distribution of pollution. We show that optimal emissions will decrease at given location if and only if local productivity is larger than a threshold which depends both on the local pollution absorption capacity and environmental awareness. Furthermore, we numerically explore the relationship between the spatial optimal distributions of production and (asymptotic) pollution in order to uncover possible (geographic) environmental Kuznets curve cases.
    Keywords: Growth,geography,transboundary pollution,infinite dimensional optimal control problems
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02194227&r=all
  24. By: Cristina Mitaritonna; Lionel Ragot
    Abstract: The covid-19 crisis and the ensuing closure of borders has profoundly affected the mobility of migrant seasonal workers. As some European agricultural sectors highly depend on these workers, governments in EU countries have urgently adopted different strategies to avoid disruptions due to their absence. Alternatives seeking to cope without this experienced foreign seasonal labour force, pose two difficulties: their effectiveness is not guaranteed and/or they are accompanied by a significant increase in production costs and therefore in prices. As this large-scale temporary shock may lead to longer-term structural changes in the agricultural sectors concerned, we draw on the UK’s post-Brexit vote experience to discuss alternatives to foreign migrant seasonal workers. The covid-19 pandemic may well accelerate the adoption of robots for picking fruits and vegetables in the EU fields.
    Keywords: Migrant Seasonal Workers;Agriculture;Covid-19;Labour Shortage
    JEL: F22 J20 Q10
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cii:cepipb:2020-33&r=all
  25. By: Danae Hernandez-Cortes; Kyle C. Meng
    Abstract: Market-based environmental policies are widely adopted on the basis of allocative efficiency. However, there is a growing distributional concern that market forces could increase the pollution exposure gap between disadvantaged and other communities by spatially reallocating pollution. We estimate how this “environmental justice gap” changed following the 2013 introduction of California’s carbon market, the world’s second largest and the one most subjected to environmental justice critiques. Embedding a pollution transport model within a program evaluation framework, we find that while the EJ gap was widening prior to 2013, it has since fallen by 21-30% across pollutants due to the policy.
    JEL: H4 I14 Q5 Q51 Q52 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27205&r=all
  26. By: Boberg-Fazlic, Nina; Lampe, Markus; Martinelli Lasheras, Pablo; Sharp, Paul
    Abstract: There is a vast literature on the effects of land inequality and agrarian reforms, but little on the origins of this inequality. We exploit a new and unique parish-level database of land inequality in Denmark, from 1682 to 1895, during which period there was comprehensive land reform and enclosure. We demonstrate that inequality increased after land reform in areas with more productive land, measured using contemporary tax assessments. We instrument for land quality using glacial and postglacial sediment soil types. We propose a mechanism whereby agrarian reforms allowed areas with better soil quality to realize greater productivity gains. Malthusian mechanisms and internal migration then led to greater population increases in more fertile areas, leading to a larger share of smallholders and landless laborers. We present evidence for this mechanism in part from population density revealed by censuses. After the reforms, the geographical pattern of inequality remained strikingly constant, although population and inequality continued to grow throughout the nineteenth century.
    Keywords: Denmark; enclosures; Land Inequality
    JEL: N53 O13 Q15
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:14616&r=all
  27. By: Sara Capacci (UNIBO - Università di Bologna [Bologna]); Olivier Allais (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Celine Bonnet (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Mario Mazzacchi (UNIBO - Università di Bologna [Bologna])
    Abstract: We estimate the price and consumption effects of the 2012 French tax on sweetened non-alcoholic drinks using a difference-in-difference approach. Our identification strategy exploits Italian data as a natural control group. We use French and Italian Consumer Price Indices, purchase prices and quantities from the 2011 and 2012 Kantar and GfK home-scan surveys for two French regions and two neighbouring Italian regions, and expenditure data from the 2011 and 2012 Italian Expenditure Survey. We check for the robustness of our results by applying the difference-in-difference models using only French data and considering water as the benchmark (control) good. We find that the tax is transmitted to the prices of taxed drinks, with full transmission for soft drinks and partial transmission for fruit juices. The evidence on purchase responses is mixed and less robust, indicating at most a very small reduction in soft drink purchases (about half a litre per capita per year), an impact which would be consistent with the low tax rate. We find suggestive evidence of a larger response by the sub-sample of heavy purchasers. Fruit juices and water do not seem to have been affected by the tax.
    Keywords: soda tax, difference-in-difference, policy evaluation
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02619862&r=all
  28. By: Baruah, Prerona
    Abstract: Primary agricultural-markets may be prone to large seasonal price drops when certain constraints inhibit farmer-sellers from behaving as rational economic agents. As several Asian countries are reeling under acute agrarian distress, this study focuses on India to conduct disaggregated univariate time-series analysis on the seasonal component of four major agricultural commodity prices in over 300 wholesale markets (mandis) using monthly data spanning more than a decade (2003-2016). Adapting from recent contributions made to seasonality estimation in short samples, the study tests harvest-pattern based specifications of seasonality (viz. trigonometric and saw-tooth functions) against an unrestricted dummy-variable specification to reduce estimation bias. Empirical results show considerable variation in magnitudes of seasonal price gaps (SG) across space and commodity. In several cases, they are higher than in international prices. A cross-sectional analysis of the estimated SGs over socio-economic indicators reveals that seasonal price drops have a direct relationship with the proportion of smallholders in a district. This has adverse implications for inequality and welfare. Furthermore, SGs are lower in the districts which have relatively higher access to credit. The work concludes that effective delivery of policy necessitates location-specific approaches. Continuing with blanket policy responses to the agrarian crisis may aggravate existing inequalities.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303694&r=all
  29. By: Dunne, Chloe; Siettou, Christina; Wilson, Paul
    Abstract: Women play an imperative role in the economic strengthening and sustainability of the agricultural sector, yet very little economic research documents the role and contribution of farming women in developed countries. Through an interdisciplinary systematic literature review of 184 international peer-reviewed, English-language studies between 1970 and 2020 we identify the effect gendered discourses have elicited within developed countries and present how this has shaped women’s economic contribution and visibility within UK agriculture. The study reveals key economic differences both between men and women, and within women as a group, with factors such as access to land, education, organisation and policy driving these differences. Strategies impacting women’s economic agency are also evaluated in the context of wider policy. The outcomes of this study increase understanding of factors shaping women’s economic contribution and visibility in UK agriculture and will inform further research investigating female participation in agricultural business management and decision making.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303698&r=all
  30. By: Moctar Ndiaye (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, UM1 - Université Montpellier 1); Elodie Maître d'Hôtel (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Tristan Le Cotty (Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the role of market remoteness in explaining maize price volatility in Burkina Faso. A model of price formation is introduced to demonstrate formally that transport costs between urban and rural markets exacerbate maize price volatility. Empirical support is provided to the proposition by exploring an unusually rich data set of monthly maize price series across 28 markets over 2004–13. The methodology relies on an autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model to investigate the statistical effect of road quality and distance from urban consumption centers on maize price volatility. The analysis finds that maize price volatility is greatest in remote markets. The results also show that maize-surplus markets and markets bordering Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo have experienced more volatile prices than maize-deficit and non-bordering markets. The findings suggest that enhancing road infrastructure would strengthen the links between rural markets and major consumption centers, thereby also stabilizing maize prices.
    Keywords: maize,price volatility,market remoteness,transport costs
    Date: 2020–06–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02793025&r=all
  31. By: Burke, Marshall; Emerick, Kyle; Maue, Casey
    Abstract: A vast firm productivity literature finds that otherwise similar firms differ widely in their productivity and that these differences persist through time, with important implications for the broader macroeconomy. These stylized facts derive largely from studies of manufacturing firms in wealthy countries, and thus have unknown relevance for the world's most common firm type, the smallholder farm. We use detailed micro data from over 12,000 smallholder farms and nearly 100,000 agricultural plots across four countries in Africa to study the size, source, and persistence of productivity dispersion among smallholder farmers. Applying standard regression-based approaches to measuring productivity residuals, we find much larger dispersion but less persistence than benchmark estimates from manufacturing. We then show, using a novel framework that combines physical output measurement, estimates from satellites, and machine learning, that about half of this discrepancy can be accounted for by measurement error in output. After correcting for measurement error, productivity differences across firms and over time in our smallholder agricultural setting closely match benchmark estimates for non-agricultural firms. These results question some common implications of observed dispersion, such as the importance of misallocation of factors of production.
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:14553&r=all
  32. By: Etienne Montaigne (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Rikko Togawa (Kyoto University [Kyoto]); Samson Zadmehran (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Alfredo Coelho (Bordeaux Sciences Agro - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences Agronomiques de Bordeaux-Aquitaine); Shigeaki Oda (Kyoto University [Kyoto])
    Abstract: This article briefly analyzes the implications for the wine sector of the signing of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the European Union and Japan on the 17th of July 2018. After having recalled the consequences on all the exchanges and then on the agri-food sector, the effects on the wine sector were specified, in particular the disappearance of the 15% customs duties and the recognition of PDOs and PGIs. This note recalls the classic advantages of this type of agreement but underlines the complexity of an impact assessment by market segments. The power of the EU wine is compared to the Japanese weakness. But this agreement is also seen as enabling the EU to level the playing field with the signatory countries of the Trans-Pacific Agreement: Australia, Chile, New Zealand and the United States. Finally, due to the nature and origins of their wines, the Japanese wine production is expected to remain in a highly differentiated market segment, rather oriented towards high prices following the German and Swiss models.
    Abstract: Cet article analyse brièvement les conséquences sur le secteur viticole de l'accord de partenariat économique (APE) - Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) que l'Union Européenne et le Japon ont signé le 17 juillet 2018. Après avoir rappelé les conséquences sur l'ensemble des échanges, puis sur le secteur agro-alimentaire, les effets sur la filière vin sont précisés, en particulier la disparition des 15 % de droits de douanes et la reconnaissance des AOP et IGP. Cette note rappelle les avantages claissiques de ce type d'accord mais souligne la complexité d'une évaluation d'impact par segment de marché. La puissance de l'UE viticole est comparée à la faiblesse japonaise. Mais par ailleurs cet accord est considéré comme un rattrapage de compétitivité vis-à-vis des pays signataires de l'accord transpacifique : l'Australie, le Chili, la Nouvelle Zélande et les États-Unis. Enfin la production japonaise est appelée à se maintenir dans un segment de marché très différencié par la nature et l'origine de ses vins, et plutôt orientée vers des prix élevés comme dans les modèles allemand et suisse.
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02623130&r=all
  33. By: Bento, Antonio M. (University of Southern California); Miller, Noah (University of Southern California); Mookerjee, Mehreen (Zayed University); Severnini, Edson R. (Carnegie Mellon University)
    Abstract: We develop a unifying approach to estimating climate impacts and adaptation, and apply it to study the impact of climate change on local air pollution. Economic agents are usually constrained when responding to daily weather shocks, but may adjust to long-run climatic changes. By exploiting simultaneously variation in weather and climatic changes, we identify both the short- and long-run impacts on economic outcomes, and measure adaptation directly as the difference between those responses. As a result, we identify adaptation without making extrapolations of weather responses over time or space, and overcome prior studies' biases in the estimates of climate adaptation.
    Keywords: climate change estimation methods, climate impacts, adaptation, local air pollution, ambient ozone concentration, "climate penalty" on ozone
    JEL: Q53 Q54 C51
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp13290&r=all
  34. By: Chantal Le Mouel (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Anna Birgit Milford (Division of Food Production and Society - NIBIO - Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research); Benjamin L. Bodirsky (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research); Susanne Rolinski (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research)
    Abstract: Increasinggloballevelsofmeatconsumptionareathreattotheenvironmentandtohumanhealth.Toidentify measuresthatmaychangeconsumptionpatternstowardsmoreplant-basedfoods,itisnecessarytoimproveour understandingofthecausesbehindthedemandformeat.Inthispaperweusedatafrom137differentcountries toidentifyandassessfactorsthatinfluencemeatconsumptionatthenationallevelusingacross-countrymul- tivariateregressionanalysis.Wespecifyeithertotalmeatorruminantmeatasthedependentvariableandwe considerabroadrangeofpotentialdriversofmeatconsumption.Thecombinationofexplanatoryvariableswe useisnewforthistypeofanalysis.Inaddition,weestimatetherelativeimportanceofthedifferentdrivers.We findthatincomepercapitafollowedbyrateofurbanisationarethetwomostimportantdriversoftotalmeat consumptionpercapita.Incomepercapitaandnaturalendowmentfactorsaremajordriversofruminantmeat consumptionpercapita.OtherdriversareWesternculture,Muslimreligion,femalelabourparticipation,eco- nomic and social globalisation and meat prices. The main identified drivers of meat demand are difficult to influencethroughdirectpolicyintervention.Thus,actingindirectlyonconsumers'preferencesandconsumption habits(forinstancethroughinformation,educationpolicyandincreasedavailabilityofready-madeplantbased products)couldbeofkeyimportanceformitiga tingtheriseofmeatconsumptionpercapitaall overtheworld.
    Keywords: meat consumption,nutrition transition,climate change mitigation,cross-country analysis
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02175593&r=all
  35. By: Hadrich, Joleen; Roberts, Megan; Tuck, Brigid
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–06–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ummeep:303821&r=all
  36. By: Alexander Jordan; Marco Guerzoni
    Abstract: The paper analyses the efficiency of extension programs in the adoption of chemical fertilisers in Ethiopia between 1994 and 2004. Fertiliser adoption provides a suitable strategy to ensure and stabilize food production in remote vulnerable areas. Extension services programs have a long history in supporting the application of fertiliser. How-ever, their efficiency is questioned. In our analysis, we focus on seven villages with a considerable time lag in fertiliser diffusion. Using matching techniques avoids sample selection bias in the comparison of treated (households received extension service) and controlled households. Additionally to common factors, measures of culture, proxied by ethnicity and religion, aim to control for potential tensions between extension agents and peasants that hamper the efficiency of the program. We find a considerable impact of extension service on the first fertiliser adoption. The impact is consistent for five of seven villages.
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2006.02846&r=all
  37. By: Aprajit Mahajan; Christian Michel; Alessandro Tarozzi
    Abstract: Time-inconsistency may play a central role in explaining inter-temporal behavior, particularly among poor households. However, little is known about the distribution of time-inconsistent agents, and time-preference parameters are typically not identified in standard dynamic choice models. We formulate a dynamic discrete choice model in an unobservedly heterogeneous population of possibly time-inconsistent agents. We provide conditions under which all population type probabilities and preferences for both time-consistent and sophisticated agents are point-identified and sharp set-identification results for naïve and partially sophisticated agents. Estimating the model using data from a health intervention providing insecticide treated nets (ITNs) in rural Orissa, India, we find that time-inconsistent agents account for almost 80 percent of our sample and that sophisticated and naïve agents are considerably present-biased. Counterfactuals show that the under-investment in ITNs attributable to present-bias leads to substantial costs that are about six times the price of an ITN.
    JEL: D9 I1 I3
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27198&r=all
  38. By: Jean-Noel Aubertot (Agronomie - Agronomie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - INA P-G - Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon); J.M. Barbier (Unité mixte de recherche écophysiologie des plantes sous stress environnementaux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - ENSA M - Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Montpellier); Alain Carpentier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); J.J. Gril (Inconnu); Laurence Guichard (Agronomie - Agronomie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - INA P-G - Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon); P. Lucas (AVI-PATHO - Station de Pathologie Végétale - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Serge Savary (UMR SAVE - Unité Mixte de Recherche en Santé Végétale (INRA/ENITA) - Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin (ISVV) - ENITAB - École Nationale d'Ingénieurs des Travaux Agricoles - Bordeaux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Isabelle Savini (UESC - Unité Expertise Scientifique Collective - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Marc Voltz (UMR LISAH - Laboratoire d'étude des Interactions Sol - Agrosystème - Hydrosystème - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - IRD [ Madagascar] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques); . Inra (INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); . Cemagref,la Recherche Pour l'Ingénierie de l'Agriculture Et de l'Environnement,paris (fra) (IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture)
    Abstract: Le texte constitue le rapport de l'expertise collective, réalisée par l'Inra et le Cemagref à la demande des ministères chargés de l'Agriculture et de l'Ecologie, sur les conditions d'utilisation des pesticides en agriculture, les moyens d'en réduire l'emploi et d'en limiter les impacts environnementaux. Ce champ, très vaste, a nécessité la mobilisation d'une trentaine d'experts de différentes disciplines (agronomie, protection des plantes, sciences du sol, hydrologie, bioclimatologie, écotoxicologie, économie, sociologie...). Le rapport met en évidence que bien que les contaminations et les impacts environnementaux des pesticides soient difficiles à quantifier, il convient tout d'abord d'en réduire la dispersion dans l'environnement. Mais, les techniques correctives ne peuvent avoir qu'une efficacité partielle, aussi faut-il nécessairement envisager une réduction d'utilisation des pesticides. Cependant, la production agricole est très dépendante vis-à-vis des pesticides ; cette dépendance est confortée par leur faible coût relatif par rapport aux prix d'autres facteurs de production et des productions agricoles elles-mêmes. A contrario, les techniques plus économes en pesticides, plus complexes à mettre en oeuvre, génèrent des coûts directs et indirects non négligeables et elles sont aussi réputées plus "risquées". Aussi l'objectif de réduction des utilisations de pesticides doit-il être envisagé comme un objectif volontariste. D'autant plus qu'il va à l'encontre d'un système dont la cohérence technico-économique explique le succès. Tenter de faire évoluer ce système nécessite de modifier le contexte réglementaire et économique (rapports de prix, relation au sein des filières agroalimentaires) et au-delà, de mobiliser les différents acteurs concernés, agriculteurs, industriels, pouvoirs publics, consommateurs.
    Keywords: Environnement, espace et société
    Date: 2020–06–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02832492&r=all
  39. By: Dubois, Pierre; Albuquerque, Paulo; Allais, Olivier; Bonnet, Céline; Bertail, Patrice; Combris, Pierre; Lahlou, Saadi; Rigal, Natalie; Ruffieux, Bernard; Chandon, Pierre
    Abstract: To examine whether four pre-selected front-of-pack nutrition labels improve food purchases in real-life grocery shopping settings, we put 1.9 million labels on 1266 food products in four categories in 60 supermarkets and analyzed the nutritional quality of 1,668,301 purchases using the FSA nutrient profiling score. Effect sizes were 17 times smaller on average than those found in comparable laboratory studies. The most effective nutrition label, Nutri-Score, increased the purchases of foods in the top third of their category nutrition-wise by 14%, but had no impact on the purchases of foods with medium, low, or unlabeled nutrition quality. Therefore, Nutri-Score only improved the nutritional quality of the basket of labeled foods purchased by 2.5% (−0.142 FSA points). Nutri-Score’s performance improved with the variance (but not the mean) of the nutritional quality of the category. In-store surveys suggest that Nutri-Score’s ability to attract attention and help shoppers rank products by nutritional quality may explain its performance.
    Keywords: field experiment; food; labelling; nutrition; policy; RCT; supermarket
    JEL: L81
    Date: 2020–04–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:104335&r=all
  40. By: Kato, Yumi Isaka; Hubbard, Carmen; Garrod, Guy
    Abstract: This study aims to explore the interactions between land policy/reform and the social and economic characteristics of land markets and inform the design of future land policies in Scotland and Japan. Specifically, it aims to understand how social networks and political institutions work in the market, based on a theoretical framework drawn from New Economic Sociology (NES) and New Institutional Economics (NIE). For this, Social Network Analysis is conducted for a small number of cases in both countries, where dynamic land pattern changes can be observed. After identifying the entire network of a land market, the connections between key actors are traced through interviews. Results could show the existence of contrasting dominant channels in the markets, e.g., one based on norms or trust which represents the NES position or the other based on rules/regulations or government support which reflects the NIE position. Moreover, the presence of norms, trust and power in the network, the contribution of brokers in the information flow, and the influence of each channel on transaction costs will be clarified. Lastly, if there are gaps between institutional goals and social networks’ motivations, whether and how they should be reconciled is discussed, with lessons and recommendations for ongoing land policy/reform.
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303709&r=all
  41. By: Imbert, Clément (University of Warwick); Papp, John (R.I.C.E)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on rural-urban migration decisions in developing countries. Using original survey data from rural India, we show that seasonal migrants prefer to earn 35 percent less on local public works rather than incur the cost of migrating. Structural estimates suggest that the fixed cost of migration is small, and can be entirely explained by travel costs and income risk. In contrast, the flow cost of migration is very high. We argue that higher living costs in the city explain only a small part of the flow cost of migration, and that most of it is non-monetary.
    Keywords: Internal Migration ; Workfare Programs ; India ; Urban ; Rural JEL Classification: H53 ; J22 ; J61 ; O15 ; R23
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cge:wacage:459&r=all
  42. By: Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Russo, Carlo
    Abstract: Since the consumer prices skyrocketed in 2007, prices have been regularly monitored to anticipate potential impact of communities’ welfare. As part of this, there have been concerns that remote communities have been particularly affected by higher prices due to the effect of higher transportation costs or even the possibility that retailers may have spatial market power. Thus, the purpose of this study is to analyse whether remote rural areas in Scotland suffer of food prices that are higher than the country’s average prices. The methodology comprised in constructing expensiveness indexes for the basket of food purchased by a household computed following Aguiar and Hurst (2007) approach and considering 2,583 households from a scanner panel dataset for 2018. These indexes were then regressed -using weighted least squares- against several socioeconomic and demographic variables. The results indicate that according to the expectation food prices paid in remote rural areas are higher than the average prices in Scotland. Younger and older people pay higher prices and being those around 40 years old who pay the least. Moreover, households with children and led by women pay lower prices. Finally, the higher the shopping intensity (in terms of trips) the lower the prices paid. These results not only have implications for rural areas but also for a growing older population.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303697&r=all
  43. By: Sophie Drogue (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Lubica Bartova (Slovak University of Agriculture)
    Abstract: Applied trade analysis and modeling would not be possible without databases. Over the last few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to put together and harmonize a huge amount of data. This has lead to the construction of large-scale datasets on trade (imports and exports in volume and value terms). In parallel, increasing attention has been devoted to measuring tariffs and other trade barriers. These efforts are still under way. It is only recently that large-scale models, for example, have taken into account the lower tariffs applied under preferential agreements (the former generation of models only considered the "bound" tariffs that act as a ceiling in many countries). The changes resulting from the introduction of better data on tariffs have been very significant, and many institutions have revised considerably their estimates of, say, gains resulting from trade liberalization (Ackerman 2005). However, empirical difficulties faced by modelers suggest that there is still a need for improvement, especially in the area of applied tariffs and tariff rate quotas. The aim of this study is to review the main data sources dealing with world tariffs and trade. After discussing some issues and methodology, we provide a brief description of the main datasets available in terms of the origin of the data, its accessibility, reliability and shortcomings.
    Date: 2020–06–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02814480&r=all
  44. By: Sandrine Fréguin-Gresh (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UM - Université de Montpellier); Lissania Padilla (Instituto de Investigacion y Desarrollo Nitlapan - Partenaires INRAE); Karen Pavon (Instituto de Investigacion y Desarrollo Nitlapan - Partenaires INRAE); Douglas Elizondo (Sustainable Sciences Institute); Geneviève Cortes (UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3, UM - Université de Montpellier); Valentina Banoviez Urrutia (UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3); Alissia Lourme Ruiz (NutriPass - Nutrition et Alimentation des Populations aux Suds - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UM - Université de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Sandrine Dury (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques, Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UM - Université de Montpellier); Emmanuelle Bouquet (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques, Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: This paper presents a survey conducted in northwestern Nicaragua, which aims at understanding how the flows of money and food generated by the diversified and multi-situated activities of farm households intervene in food access and perception of food security. In the study area, family agriculture develops in difficult agro-ecological conditions, and aims at producing staple food production and cattle ranching. In response to the lack of income, farm households have diversified their agricultural production with off-farm activities, locally and in migration. This diversification and multilocation allow them to generate income and food, essential for food security in regions at the origin. Social relationships between household members and beyond (extended family, neighborhood, and institutional actors) structure the flows of money and food. To capture these flows, the survey questionnaire, composed of three sections, is organized around a unique identification key: the individual. By capturing individual activities and resource flows directed towards the family kitchen, the survey offers possibilities for analyzing food security based on the deconstruction of conventional analysis units (residence, household, operation). Production and circulation communities are then established to study the supply strategies of the consumption community, which is the starting point for the analysis of food security. The questionnaire was applied to 350 households in a study area located in the North-west of Nicaragua. Data were gathered by paper questionnaire and face-to-face interview between April and June 2016. Additional individual interviews were conducted between February and May 2016. The data were entered between July and October 2016, before being checked, cleaned and prepared for analysis between June and October 2017 on the SPSS software. The metadata was produced on NESSTAR.
    Abstract: Cet article présente une enquête menée dans le nord-ouest du Nicaragua, qui vise à comprendre comment les flux d'argent et d'aliments générés par les activités diversifiées et multilocalisées des familles agricoles interviennent dans l'accès aux aliments et dans la perception de la sécurité alimentaire. Dans la région d'étude, l'agriculture familiale est caractérisée par des conditions agro-écologiques difficiles et repose sur la production vivrière et l'élevage bovin. En réponse au manque de revenus, les ménages ont depuis longtemps diversifié leurs activités hors exploitation, localement ou en migration. Cette diversification et cette multilocalisation leur permettent d'obtenir des revenus et des aliments, indispensables à la sécurité alimentaire dans les régions d'origine. Ces flux d'argent et d'aliments se fondent sur des rapports sociaux entre les membres des ménages et au-delà (famille élargie, voisinage, acteurs institutionnels). Pour capter ces flux, le questionnaire d'enquête, composé de trois sections, s'organise autour d'une clef d'identification unique : l'individu. En captant les activités individuelles et les flux de ressources dirigés vers la cuisine familiale, l'enquête propose des possibilités d'analyse de la sécurité alimentaire basées sur la déconstruction des unités classiques d'analyse (résidence, ménage, exploitation). Des communautés de production et de circulation sont alors établies pour pouvoir étudier les stratégies d'approvisionnement de la communauté de consommation, point de départ de l'étude de la sécurité alimentaire. Le questionnaire a été appliqué à 350 ménages dans une région d'étude au nord-ouest du Nicaragua. La collecte s'est faite par questionnaire papier et en entretien face-à-face entre avril et juin 2016. Des entretiens individuels complémentaires ont été conduits entre février et mai 2016. Les données ont été saisies entre juillet et octobre 2016, avant d'être contrôlées, nettoyées et préparées pour les analyses entre juin et octobre 2017 sur le logiciel SPSS. Les métadonnées ont été produites sur NESSTAR.
    Keywords: food security,households,migration,nicaragua,agriculture,sécurité alimentaire,ménage
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02619997&r=all
  45. By: Abrahao, Ana
    Abstract: The present study aims to analyze the environmental certification process in the context of the Agro Industrial System (SAG) of beef production in Brazil through mapping and promulgations. This research become relevant as environmental certifications attest to the implantation of a practical process of environmental management in participating organizations that vision the philosophy of Sustainable Development. Approaches to this qualitative analysis were: Sustainable Development, Environmental Management, Environmental Certification, The Stakeholders Theory and SAG. Semi structured interviews were conducted with those responsible for certification processes in organizations related to agribusiness. Findings show that, in each of these organizations, environmental management was well structured which facilitated the process of certification as most of the requisites had been met economically, environmentally, and socially. It was observed that, in Brazil, the certification process is advancing in the SAG of the beef cattle culture.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303696&r=all
  46. By: Howley, Peter; Ocean, Neel
    Abstract: Using an online survey with randomisation, we illustrate how identity-based utility can be harnessed to encourage pro-environmental behaviours. Results show that providing farmers with an opportunity to demonstrate their ‘green credentials’ increases their intention of maintaining environmental practices by an average of 19%, while the use of descriptive norms increases intent to participate in a biodiversity activity by an average of 8%. Interventions such as these represent a low-cost, yet powerful supplement to traditional policy tools. New approaches for engendering behavioural change are likely to be particularly important in a UK context as the UK transitions out of the EU.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2020–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc20:303705&r=all
  47. By: Elena Korchmina (NYU Abu Dhabi, Higher School of Economics (Moscow)); Paul Sharp (University of Southern Denmark, CAGE, CEPR)
    Abstract: We propose that the “historically relevant” comparison of the Danish and Russian Empires from the early eighteenth century until the First World War presents a useful starting point for a promising research agenda. We motivate the comparison, noting that the two empires enjoyed striking geographical, political and institutional similarities. Beyond this, we also demonstrate that the two empires were bound together by war, royal marriage, and migration. We suggest some examples of what might be investigated, with a particular focus on agriculture, due to its importance to both Danish and Russian economic history. Finally, we zoom in on the role Danish experts played for developing the Russian butter industry.
    Keywords: Agriculture, comparative studies, Denmark, Russia
    JEL: N01 N53 N73 N93
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hes:wpaper:0187&r=all
  48. By: Liu, L-Q.; Yin, Z-L.; Xie, B-C.; Zhou, W.
    Abstract: Air pollution is a big threat to human beings and has attract worldwide attention from governments and scholars. Based on the survey of happiness in China, this paper attempts to analyze the impact of local air quality on the happiness of individuals, and to evaluate the monetary value of mitigating air pollution. Through merging individual happiness data in a nationally representative survey with daily air quality index (AQI) according to the date and location of each respondent, it calculates the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between air quality and income, and then estimates respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for better air quality. Moreover, it has further explored the differences of WTPs among groups. This study reaches the conclusion that happiness is positively associated with income but negatively correlated with air pollution. Besides, individual happiness is heavily influenced by income, age, gender, health condition, marital status and other variables. Furthermore, WTPs differ greatly among groups and the estimated average WTP of whole sample is 549.36RMB(or 0.90% of annual household income) per year per family for one unit reduction in AQI.
    Keywords: Happiness, Willingness to pay, Air pollution, China
    JEL: L94
    Date: 2020–05–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cam:camdae:2042&r=all

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