nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒06‒22
forty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Climate-Smart Agriculture, Cropland Expansion, and Deforestation in Zambia: Linkages, Processes, and Drivers By Hambulo Ngoma; Johanne Pelletier; Brian P. Mulenga; Mitelo Subakanya
  2. Climate Change and the Distribution of Agricultural Output By Francisco Costa; Fabien Forge; Jason Garred; João Paulo Pessoa
  3. Adoption of environment-friendly agricultural practices with background risk: experimental evidence By Marianne Lefebvre; Estelle Midler; Philippe Bontems
  4. Locking Crops to Unlock Investment : Experimental Evidence on Warrantage in Burkina Faso By Delavallade,Clara Anne; Godlonton,Susan
  5. Covid-19 and Food Protectionism : The Impact of the Pandemic and Export Restrictions on World Food Markets By Espitia,Alvaro; Rocha,Nadia; Ruta,Michele
  6. The Determinants of Agricultural Exports: Empirical Validation for the Case of Tunisia By Bakari, Sayef; Khalfallah, Sirine; Zidi, Ahmed
  7. Impacts of agricultural produce cess (tax) reform options in Tanzania By Aymeric Ricome; Kamel Louhichi; Sergio Gomez-Y-Paloma
  8. Environmental co-benefits and adverse side-effects of alternative power sector decarbonization strategies By Gunnar Luderer; Michaja Pehl; Anders Arvesen; Thomas Gibon; Benjamin Bodirsky; Harmen Sytze de Boer; Oliver Fricko; Mohamad Hejazi; Florian Humpenöder; Gokul Iyer; Silvana Mima; Ioanna Mouratiadou; Robert Pietzcker; Alexander Popp; Maarten van den Berg; Detlef van Vuuren; Edgar Hertwich
  9. Wine Regulations By Giulia Meloni; Kym Anderson; Koen Deconinck; Johan Swinnen
  10. Is the College Farm Sustainable? A Case Study from Davidson College By Amanda Green; David Martin; Gracie Ghartey-Tagoe
  11. Changes in Stakeholder Perceptions of the Quality of Institutional Architecture and Quality of Agriculture and Food Security Policy Processes in Zambia By Hambulo Ngoma; Mywish Maredia; Nicole M. Mason; Milu Muyanga; Antony Chapoto
  12. Decentralisation of agri-environmental policy design By François Bareille; Matteo Zavalloni
  13. The Impact of Retaliatory Tariffs on Agricultural and Food Trade By Colin A. Carter; Sandro Steinbach
  14. Poor Dietary Quality is Nigeria’s Key Nutrition Problem By Olivier Ecker; Andrew Comstock; Raphael Babatunde; Kwaw Andam
  15. The Ocean and Early-Childhood Mortality By Alex Armand, Ivan Kim Taveras
  16. Nutritional Implications of Dietary Patterns in Mali By Melinda Smale; Veronique Theriault; Amidou Assima; Yenizie Kone
  17. A dynamic theory of spatial externalities By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  18. Land and Opportunity Access: Migration Drivers for Youth and Young Adults in Rural Zambia By Megan Bellinger; Milu Muyanga; David Mather; Henry Machina; Nicole M. Mason
  19. Supermarkets and household food acquisition patterns in Vietnam in relation to population demographics and socioeconomic strata: insights from public data By Huong Thi Trinh; Burra D. Dhar; Michel Simioni; Stef de Haan; Tuyen Thi Thanh Huynh; Tung V. Huynh; Andrew D. Jones
  20. Machine Learning in Gravity Models: An Application to Agricultural Trade By Munisamy Gopinath; Feras A. Batarseh; Jayson Beckman
  21. The Low-carbon Roadmap of the Finnish Forest Industries: An Economic Impact Assessment By Lintunen, Jussi; Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Kulvik, Martti
  22. Effects of Deforestation on Household Time Allocation among Rural Agricultural Activities: Evidence from Western Uganda By Tony Muhumuza; Paul Okiira Okwi
  23. Interactions between Resident Risk Perceptions and Wildfire Risk Mitigation: Evidence from Simultaneous Equations Modeling By Meldrum, James; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Champ, Patricia; Gomez, Jamie; Falk, Lilia; Barth, Christopher
  24. The Water of Life and Death: A Brief Economic History of Spirits By Lara Cockx; Giulia Meloni; Johan Swinnen
  25. A Comparison of EU and Us consumers' willingness to pay for gene-edited food: Evidence from apples By Marette, Stephan; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Beghin, John C.
  26. Policy modelling in agriculture: Testing the response of agriculture to adjustment policies in Nigeria By Mike Kwanashie; Abdul-Ganiyu Garba; Isaac Ajilima
  27. Long-term growth impact of climate change and policies: the Advanced Climate Change Long-term (ACCL) scenario building model By Claire Alestra; Gilbert Cette; Valérie Chouard; Rémy Lecat
  28. Co-management of fisheries through a negotiation lens: The case of prud’homies By Yazdan Soltanpour; Iuri Peri; Leila Temri
  29. Asia’s emergence in global beverage markets: The rise of wine By Kym Anderson
  30. Willingness to pay for mangrove preservation in Xuan Thuy National Park, Vietnam: do household knowledge and interest play a role? By Hung Trung Vo; Thanh Viet Nguyen; Michel Simioni
  31. Economic Properties of Multi-Product Supply Chains By Philip A. Tominac; Victor M. Zavala
  32. Towards a green fiscal reform in the Slovak Republic: Proposals for strengthening the role of market-based environmental policy instruments By OECD
  33. COVID-19 and Global Beverage Markets: Implications for Wine By Glyn Wittwer; Kym Anderson
  34. The Incidence of Foreign Market Accessibility on Farmland Rental Rates By Jisang Yu; Nelson B. Villoria; Nathan P. Hendricks
  35. Entrepreneurial Skills and Job Preference among Agriculture Undergraduates: Evidence from Niger State, Nigeria By Ayodeji Alexander; Ajibola Coker; Balaraba Sule
  36. A study on skills for trade and economic diversification (STED) in the non-traditional coconut export sectors of The Philippines By Bello, Rolando T.; Pantoja, Blanquita R.; Tan, Maria Francesca O.; Banalo, Roxanne A.; Alvarez, Joanne V.; Rañeses, Florita P.
  37. Soil pollution diffusion in a spatial agricultural economy By Carmen Camacho; Alexandre Cornet
  38. Economic liberalization and privatization of agricultural marketing and input supply in Tanzania: A case study of cashewn uts By Ngila Mwase
  39. From global economy-wide modelling to modelling a small product market: The case of wine By Kym Anderson; Glyn Wittwer
  40. Industrial Waste and Urban Bio-diversity in Developing country: Mapping Aquatic Biodiversity in Nepal By Bista, Raghu

  1. By: Hambulo Ngoma; Johanne Pelletier; Brian P. Mulenga; Mitelo Subakanya
    Abstract: Key Findings -Between 167,000 and 300,000 hectares of forest are lost every year in Zambia, and different polices are in place or have been proposed to contain forest loss. -Agriculture land expansion is one of the major drivers of deforestation, yet increasing agricultural production is necessary to feed a growing population and meet changing diets. -This paper assesses the extent of cropland expansion among smallholder farmers and whether or not climate smart agriculture (CSA) can help reduce expansion and deforestation. -About 21 percent of rural farm households interviewed in RALS 2019 expanded cropland between the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 farming seasons, clearing on average 0.18 ha, but only 13 percent of rural smallholders expanded their cropland into forests, clearing an average of 0.10 ha of forestland per household. -Smallholder cropland expansion into forests represents about 60 percent of the average 250,000 ha of forests lost per year in Zambia. -Most households expanded cropland because of the need to meet subsistence food needs and a few others in response to market opportunities. -Much of the cropland expansion among smallholder farmers is concentrated in Luapula, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, and Western provinces. -Using CSA had no statistically significant effects on cropland expansion in our sample, indicating that CSA alone might not avert expansion-led deforestation. -Thus, CSA-led intensification alone might not reduce deforestation unless if complemented with improved forest management policies.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Land Economics/Use, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–01–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miffpb:303673&r=all
  2. By: Francisco Costa (FGV EPGE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Fabien Forge (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON); Jason Garred (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON); João Paulo Pessoa (Sao Paulo School of Economics - FGV, São Paulo, Brazil)
    Abstract: This paper uses a multi-run climate projection model to examine the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of agricultural outcomes in India. Weather draws resulting in extremely low agricultural revenues (1-in-100-year events) are projected to become the norm, increasing by 53 to 88 percentage points by the end of the 21st century. As a result, Indian farmers will face a 16% to 33% decline in mean revenue over the course of the century, presenting a more urgent problem than changes in yield variability. Analysis using a structural general equilibrium model suggests consequences of a similar magnitude for welfare.
    Keywords: climate change; agriculture; India; crop yield; volatility; extreme events
    JEL: Q15 Q54 Q56 O13
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ott:wpaper:2003e&r=all
  3. By: Marianne Lefebvre (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - Institut National de l'Horticulture et du Paysage); Estelle Midler (Alexander von Humboldt Professorship of Environmental Economics - Osnabrück University); Philippe Bontems (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole)
    Abstract: Agriculture is one of the economic sectors most exposed to exogenous risks such as climate hazards and price volatility on agricultural markets. Agricultural policies targeting the adoption of environment-friendly but potentially risk-increasing practices cannot ignore this challenge. Farmers have indeed to decide if they take the foreground risk associated with the adoption of environment-friendly practices, while simultaneously facing exogenous background risk beyond their control. Using a theoretical model and a public good experiment, we analyse the adoption of agri-environmental practices and the effect of agri-environmental subsidies in a context where risks are both foreground and background. While most of the literature on background risk focuses on its impact on individual decisions, we analyse the influence of background risk in a context of strategic uncertainty (contribution to a public good). The results highlight the potential synergies between greening the CAP and supporting risk management. We find that background risk discourages the adoption of green practices, although it affects all farmland independently from the farmer's choice of practices (environment friendly or conventional). An incentive payment per hectare of land farmed with green practices increases the adoption of risk-increasing practices but is significantly less effective in the presence of background risk.
    Keywords: Background risk,Agri-environmental measures,Risk aversion,Public good game,Lab experiment,Common Agricultural Policy
    Date: 2020–05–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02615779&r=all
  4. By: Delavallade,Clara Anne; Godlonton,Susan
    Abstract: Financial market imperfections remain pervasive in developing countries, constraining potentially profitable investment decisions, especially for rural smallholder farmers. Warrantage is an innovative model of rural finance with the potential to overcome credit, storage, and commitment constraints through a localized inventory credit scheme. Exploiting random variations in household access to warrantage and intensity of access across villages, this paper studies the direct impact of this scheme on beneficiaries as well as its spillover effects. Take-up of storage is high (94 percent), while credit take-up is moderate (38 percent). Households with access to warrantage primarily store sorghum and maize and sell their production over an extended period of time, earning higher average prices and resulting in higher sales revenue ($248, or 33 percent, on average). Increased incomes are spent on long-term investments, including human capital expenditures (education), livestock purchases, and investment in agricultural inputs for the subsequent year.
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture,Livestock and Animal Husbandry,Educational Sciences,Nutrition,Food Security
    Date: 2020–05–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9248&r=all
  5. By: Espitia,Alvaro; Rocha,Nadia; Ruta,Michele
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of Covid-19 and uncooperative trade policies on world food markets. It quantifies the initial shock due to the pandemic under the assumption that products that are more labor intensive in production are more affected through workers'morbidity and containment policies. It then estimates how escalating export restrictions to shield domestic food markets could magnify the initial shock. The analysis shows that, in the quarter following the outbreak of the pandemic, the global export supply of food could decrease between 6 and 20 percent and global prices increase between 2 and 6 percent on average. Escalating export restrictions would multiply the initial shock by a factor of 3, with world food prices rising by up to 18 percent on average. Import food dependent countries, which are in large majority developing and least developed countries, would be most affected.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Trade Policy,Rules of Origin,Climate Change and Agriculture,Crops and Crop Management Systems
    Date: 2020–05–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9253&r=all
  6. By: Bakari, Sayef; Khalfallah, Sirine; Zidi, Ahmed
    Abstract: In this investigation, we attempt to identify and to examined the determinants of agricultural exports in Tunisia. To achieve this aim, we used annual data for the period 1972 – 2017 and seven ad hoc specifications. Empirical results of each specification show us that gross domestic product in the agricultural sector, agricultural imports, bank loans to the agricultural sector and imports of agricultural machinery have a positive effect on agricultural exports in the long run. Conversely, domestic investment in the agricultural sector and the exploitation of agricultural land have a negative effect on agricultural exports in the long term. In the short term, only domestic investments in the agricultural sector cause agricultural exports. Findings and interpretations provide evidence that is very substantial to inspire validity planning and reforms to ameliorate agricultural investment and agricultural trade, so it can uphold economic development in Tunisia.
    Keywords: Determinants, Agricultural, Exports, Tunisia.
    JEL: F11 F12 F13 F14 F17 F18 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2020–05–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:100611&r=all
  7. By: Aymeric Ricome (JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Seville]); Kamel Louhichi (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Sergio Gomez-Y-Paloma (JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Seville])
    Abstract: The government of Tanzania is willing to improve the socio-economic environment for the farming sector to encourage farmers to produce (and sell) more products from their activities. To that end, the central government is reforming the local tax system and particularly the agricultural produce cess, which is a turnover tax on marketed agricultural products charged by local government authorities (LGAs) at a maximum of 5% of the farm-gate price. Although it constitutes a significant source of revenue for many LGAs, this tax restricts an increase in production by farmers, and thus improvement of their livelihoods. In 2017, the government reduced the maximum cess rate from 5% to 3%. However, this reduction seems insufficient according to stakeholders, and several options to further reduce the rate are currently under discussion by the government. This report provides an ex ante impact assessment of the main reform options, using a microeconomic simulation model called FSSIM-Dev (Farming System Simulator for Developing Countries). Based on positive mathematical programming, this model was applied to a representative sample of 3,134 farm households spread throughout the country, taken from the World Bank LSMS–ISA surveys. Simulation results show that reduction of the cess rate leads to greater intensification and an increase in farm income, ranging between +2% and +21% depending on options and regions. The largest positive impacts are observed in the Northern and Western highlands. As expected, large farms and farms specialized in cash crops tend to gain more from the reduction in cess. At the individual farm household level, the impact is modest: 95% of the farms will experience an income increase of less than 10%. The impact on food security and rural poverty reduction is quite limited (improvement is less than 2%). Finally, the results show that a uniform cess rate of 1% for all crops seems to be the most efficient policy option.
    Abstract: Ce rapport présente les résultats d'une analyse d'impact de plusieurs options de réforme de la taxe sur les produits agricoles en Tanzanie. Il s'agit d'une taxe sur le chiffre d'affaire des produits agricoles commercialisés perçue par les collectivités locales (LGA) fixée à un taux maximal de 5% du prix producteur. Bien qu'elle constitue une source de revenus importante pour de nombreuses LGA, cette taxe empêche l'augmentation de la production agricole, et donc l'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des exploitants. En 2017, le gouvernement a réduit le taux maximal de 5% à 3%. Cependant, cette réduction semble insuffisante selon les parties prenantes, et plusieurs options pour réduire davantage ce taux sont actuellement à l'étude par le gouvernement. Cette analyse est réalisée à l'aide d'un modèle microéconomique appliqué à un échantillon représentatif de 3134 ménages agricoles répartis sur l'ensemble du pays provenant des enquêtes LSMS-ISA de la Banque Mondiale. Les effets potentiels des options de réforme simulées sur l'utilisation des terres, la production, l'utilisation des intrants, le revenu agricole, les revenus des gouvernements locaux et certains indicateurs liés à la sécurité alimentaire sont présentés et discutés dans ce rapport.
    Keywords: agrarian reform,agricultural levy,agricultural policy,agricultural production,agricultural production policy,economic analysis,economic consequence,farm household,farm income,food security,land use,local government,research report,Tanzania,Analyse d’impact,Taxe agricole,Modèle de ménage agricole,Sécurité alimentaire,LSMS-ISA,Tanzanie
    Date: 2020–04–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02535711&r=all
  8. By: Gunnar Luderer (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research); Michaja Pehl; Anders Arvesen; Thomas Gibon (LIST - Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology); Benjamin Bodirsky (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research); Harmen Sytze de Boer (PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency); Oliver Fricko; Mohamad Hejazi; Florian Humpenöder (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research); Gokul Iyer; Silvana Mima (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Ioanna Mouratiadou (Scottish Agricultural College - University of Edinburgh); Robert Pietzcker (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research); Alexander Popp (PIK - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research); Maarten van den Berg; Detlef van Vuuren (Utrecht University [Utrecht]); Edgar Hertwich
    Abstract: A rapid and deep decarbonization of power supply worldwide is required to limit global warming to well below 2?°C. Beyond greenhouse gas emissions, the power sector is also responsible for numerous other environmental impacts. Here we combine scenarios from integrated assessment models with a forward-looking life-cycle assessment to explore how alternative technology choices in power sector decarbonization pathways compare in terms of non-climate environmental impacts at the system level. While all decarbonization pathways yield major environmental co-benefits, we find that the scale of co-benefits as well as profiles of adverse side-effects depend strongly on technology choice. Mitigation scenarios focusing on wind and solar power are more effective in reducing human health impacts compared to those with low renewable energy, while inducing a more pronounced shift away from fossil and toward mineral resource depletion. Conversely, non-climate ecosystem damages are highly uncertain but tend to increase, chiefly due to land requirements for bioenergy.
    Keywords: life-cycle assessment,climate-change mitigation,land-use,integrated assessment,water demand,transformation pathways,electricity-generation,severe accidents,air-pollution,impact assessment
    Date: 2019–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02380468&r=all
  9. By: Giulia Meloni (LICOS Center for Institutions and Economic Performance & Department of Economics, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium); Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Koen Deconinck (LICOS Center for Institutions and Economic Performance & Department of Economics, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium); Johan Swinnen (LICOS Center for Institutions and Economic Performance & Department of Economics, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium)
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview and analysis of wine regulations in an international and historical comparative perspective. Wine is an excellent sector to study government interventions, because for centuries wine markets have been subject to many government regulations that differ greatly within and between countries. Wine consumption taxes, for example, range from zero in some countries to more than 100% in others. The EU has extensive quantity and quality regulations for wine, while other major producers such as Australia and the United States are much less regulated. After a general overview of current regulations and historical evolutions, we analyze three key wine regulations in more detail: consumption taxes, planting rights and geographical indications. Most wine regulations reveal a tension between the public interest and vested private interests.
    Keywords: Consumption taxes, Planting rights, Geographic indications
    JEL: L51 L66 Q15
    Date: 2019–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adl:winewp:2019-01&r=all
  10. By: Amanda Green; David Martin; Gracie Ghartey-Tagoe (Department of Economics, Davidson College)
    Abstract: Farms on college and university campuses are not new, but the current focuses on the farms being “sustainable” and contributing to the “local food movement” are relatively new and serve as motivation (in addition to their pedagogical value) for school administrators to start them. It is important for administrators to evaluate college farms given these new focuses as well the traditional budgetary standards. We contribute to this discussion by focusing on the example of the Davidson College Farm. Davidson College is a 2,000-student, residential liberal arts college located just north of Charlotte, North Carolina. The College established the Farm in 2012 to provide its Dining Services with local and organic food, and currently operates on 2 acres of land. Although we do frame our analysis around the relatively narrow question, is the Davidson College Farm sustainable[?], we believe that our process for answering it generalizes to the many small farms that serve colleges and universities We frame “sustainability” in terms of environmental and financial sustainability, but we also address the roles of supporting the local food community and of educating students. We address these aspects using the Farm’s operating parameters, financial data, and conclusions drawn from semi-structure interviews with key decision makers. We point out that while the Farm Manager operates organically (but not certifiably organic), the Farm’s small size means that it has little environmental impact. The Farm supports the local food movement by not competing (unfairly) against local farmers, which hampers the Farm’s financial viability. However, that financial unsustainability could be addressed readily if the Farm’s contribution to the students’ education was properly valued in its budget. Thus, the support the Farm offers to the local food community comes at relatively large financial costs, but its academic value outweighs those financial losses.
    Keywords: College Farm, Food Systems Education, College Food System, College Farm Valuation
    JEL: Q12
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dav:wpaper:20-06&r=all
  11. By: Hambulo Ngoma; Mywish Maredia; Nicole M. Mason; Milu Muyanga; Antony Chapoto
    Abstract: Key Findings -Despite sustained efforts by successive Zambia governments to implement policies that assure food and nutrition security, questions remain around policy coherence and consistency in the agricultural sector. -This brief reports on the perceived changes in the quality and design of agriculture and food security policy processes, and on the quality of the institutional architecture supporting these processes in Zambia. -Stakeholders in Zambia seem to perceive that policy analyses from research institutes is objective. This is important for evidence-based policy making. -Stakeholders are also more satisfied than at baseline with the quality and content of, participation in policy design and implementation in policy processes, and the level of dialogue between government and other stakeholders. -Stakeholders are also more satisfied than at baseline with the quality and content of, participation in policy design and implementation in policy processes, and the level of dialogue between government and other stakeholders. -Stakeholder perceptions of the overall quality of agricultural and food security policies marginally declined by 0.27 points (on a scale of 0 to 3) between 2017 and 2019. This seems to suggest that stakeholders somewhat perceive a less satisfactory quality of dialogue, coordination, cooperation, and partnership between stakeholders in the agricultural sector and government for advancing policy reforms on agriculture and food security issues in Zambia. -Stakeholder perceptions of the quality of the institutional architecture of agriculture and food policy processes in Zambia barely changed, declining just by 0.05 points on a scale of 0 to 3) between 2017 and 2019. -These findings suggest that, among other things, there is scope for the agricultural and food security policy processes in Zambia to be more inclusive, engage more with stakeholders, and more effectively utilize the available empirical evidence to inform policy design. -The perceived objectivity of current policy analyses in Zambia should strengthen the use of evidence to inform policy processes in the country
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–01–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miffpb:303672&r=all
  12. By: François Bareille (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - AgroParisTech - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, DISTAL - Università di Bologna); Matteo Zavalloni (Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences - University of Bologna)
    Abstract: We theoretically examine the gains of the decentralisation of agri-environmental policy design. We consider a model with homogeneous regions and joint production of local and global public goods from agriculture. Assuming that governments are characterised by different agency costs and knowledge of the PG values, we evaluate whether decentralisation is a suitable strategy to improve the efficiency of agri-environmental payments.We find that partial decentralisation always improves the welfare.We apply our theoretical model to the case of abandoned wetlands in Brittany. We find that national governments are the most suitable to design agri-environmental policies. Our results contribute to reflections on future Common Agricultural Policy.
    Abstract: Nous examinons théoriquement les gains liés à la décentralisation de la conception des politiques agroenvironnementales dans le cas où (i) les régions sont homogènes, (ii) l'agriculture produit conjointement des biens publics locaux et globaux et (iii) les différents gouvernements hiérarchiques se caractérisent par des coûts d'agence différents et une connaissance hétérogène de la valeur des biens publiques locaux et globaux. Dans cette situation, nous constatons qu'une décentralisation partielle, comme celle en réflexion pour la future Politique Agricole Commune, améliore toujours le bien-être.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy reform,environmental federalism,public goods,subsidiarité
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02629239&r=all
  13. By: Colin A. Carter; Sandro Steinbach
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the short-run trade effects of retaliatory tariffs against agriculture and food exports from the United States. The results indicate that these tariffs caused a substantial decline in U.S. agriculture and food exports and induced a reorientation of international trade patterns. We find that losses in foreign trade with retaliatory countries outweigh the gains from trade with non-retaliatory countries by more than USD 14.4 billion. Our results also indicate that non-retaliatory countries accommodated the increased demand from retaliatory countries by reorienting their trade relationships. We find that countries in South America and Europe benefited the most from these adjustments gaining more than USD 13.5 billion in additional foreign sales. The effects of retaliatory tariff increases across products vary substantially, with soybeans and meat products experiencing the most considerable redistribution effects.
    JEL: F14 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27147&r=all
  14. By: Olivier Ecker; Andrew Comstock; Raphael Babatunde; Kwaw Andam
    Abstract: Key Findings -Nigeria faces a growing triple burden of malnutrition. -Poor dietary quality is the root cause of all forms of malnutrition. -Poor dietary quality is a universal problem in Nigeria. Observed dietary diversification is mainly driven by increased consumption of empty, non-staple calories. -Agricultural seasonality tends to have limited effects on dietary quality in general. -Agricultural and related trade policies have an important role to play in improving household diets and reducing the triple burden of malnutrition. -Policymakers should consider adopting a food system framework for reforming federal and state-level food and nutrition policies.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development
    Date: 2020–04–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miffpb:303682&r=all
  15. By: Alex Armand, Ivan Kim Taveras
    Abstract: Fish stocks have decreased substantially over the last decades due to human exploitation of the ocean. This declining trend has been exacerbated by climate change, with acidifying waters harming marine life. This paper exploits exogenous variation in water acidity across time and space to study how the ocean impacts early-childhood mortality. We collate and analyze more than 1.5 million births between 1972 and 2018 in communities near the shore of 36 developing countries. By comparing children born in the same location but on different dates and controlling for a set of high-dimensional fixed effects, we identify the causal impact of in utero exposure to the ocean’s acidity on mortality. In coastal areas, a 0.01 unit increase in acidity causes 2 additional neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births. This result is robust to within-siblings comparisons. It is selectively affecting the weakest children as the effect gradually vanishes after the first month of life. Mothers do not compensate with any additional health investment during the gestation period. Reduced access to nutrients derived from fish that are essential to fetal growth is the key mechanism behind our findings. While fish is critical to global food security, humanity’s relationship with the ocean remains poorly understood. This paper provides the first quantitative evidence linking the exploitation of natural resources with malnutrition and neonatal selection.
    Keywords: Child, Mortality, Neonatal, Health, Climate Change, Ocean, Acidification, Nutrition.
    JEL: I15 H51 Q54 Q2
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nva:unnvaa:wp03-2020&r=all
  16. By: Melinda Smale; Veronique Theriault; Amidou Assima; Yenizie Kone
    Abstract: Key Findings -Rural and urban households are net food buyers. -Processed food shares are greater in urban (60%) than rural areas (48%), but consumption of meals outside the home remains low -Average household dietary diversity scores are higher in urban than in rural areas. Women’s and household diet diversity vary by season in urban and rural areas. -About half of farm women interviewed did not meet minimum adequate dietary diversity during the lean season. -Women’s consumption of sugary foods in rural areas appears to remain slight. -The effect of fertilizer subsidies on women’s dietary diversity is significant overall but small in magnitude -By food source, the effect of fertilizer subsidies on the component of women’s dietary diversity produced on farm is nil. The contribution of gifts to women’s dietary diversity declines. The influence of the fertilizer subsidy on women’s dietary diversity through market purchases is positive in the Delta but negative on the Koutiala Plateau.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development
    Date: 2020–04–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miffpb:303679&r=all
  17. By: Raouf Boucekkine (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UCL IRES - Institut de recherches économiques et sociales - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain); Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Salvatore Federico (DEPS - Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Statistica - UNISI - Università degli Studi di Siena); Fausto Gozzi (Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza [Roma] - LUISS - Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli [Roma])
    Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the theory of spatial externalities. In particular, we depart in several respects from the important literature studying the fundamental pollution free riding problem uncovered in the associated empirical works. First, instead of assuming ad hoc pollution diffusion schemes across space, we consider a realistic spatiotemporal law of motion for air and water pollution (diffusion and advection). Second, we tackle spatiotemporal non-cooperative (and cooperative) differential games. Precisely, we consider a circle partitioned into several states where a local authority decides autonomously about its investment, production and depollution strategies over time knowing that investment/production generates pollution, and pollution is transboundary. The time horizon is infinite. Third, we allow for a rich set of geographic heterogeneities across states while the literature assumes identical states. We solve analytically the induced non-cooperative differential game under decentralization and fully characterize the resulting long-term spatial distributions. We further provide with full exploration of the free riding problem, reflected in the so-called border effects. In particular, net pollution flows diffuse at an increasing rate as we approach the borders, with strong asymmetries under advection, and structural breaks show up at the borders. We also build a formal case in which a larger number of states goes with the exacerbation of pollution externalities. Finally, we explore how geographic discrepancies affect the shape of the border effects.
    Keywords: spatial externalities,environmental federalism,transboundary pollution,differential games in continuous time and space,infinite dimensional optimal control problems
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:halshs-02613177&r=all
  18. By: Megan Bellinger; Milu Muyanga; David Mather; Henry Machina; Nicole M. Mason
    Abstract: Key Findings -Participation in business activities are associated with a lower likelihood of migration, especially among youth; -Wage or salaried employment in the private non-agricultural sector is associated with a higher likelihood of migration; -When broken out by age group, however, participation in a high-return wage or salaried activity is associated with a lower likelihood of migration among youth; -Overall participation in business or wage and salaried employment is quite low among the youth and young adult population; -The perceived ability to buy and sell land is associated with a higher likelihood of migration among youth and those who choose to move to another rural destination; and -Access to titled land is negatively correlated with likelihood of migration to rural areas among young adults.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2020–01–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miffpb:303674&r=all
  19. By: Huong Thi Trinh (International Center for Tropical Agriculture); Burra D. Dhar (Thuongmai University - Partenaires INRAE); Michel Simioni (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Stef de Haan (International Potato Center); Tuyen Thi Thanh Huynh (Thuongmai University - Partenaires INRAE); Tung V. Huynh (Can Tho Socio-Economic Institute - Partenaires INRAE); Andrew D. Jones (School of Public Health - University of Michigan [Ann Arbor] - University of Michigan System)
    Abstract: Food environments in Southeast Asia's emerging economies are rapidly evolving, alongside fast-paced socioeconomic and demographic changes. The widespread expansion of supermarkets and parallel restructuring of traditional markets in Vietnam are likely to impact patterns of household food acquisition. Using provincial-level time series data on the abundance of supermarkets and multiyear household survey data, this paper examines the impact of the differential country-wide presence of supermarkets with indices of food quality and quantity acquired by households. We classified provinces into three clusters based on the number of supermarkets: high (HighSM), medium (MedSM), and low (LowSM). We found that a higher number of supermarkets associated with the exceedable Vietnamese recommendation composition of macronutrients at the household-level, but not food quantity.Households with higher per capita food expenditure in HighSM provinces tended to procure foods with higher protein content and lower shares of fat and carbohydrate as compared to similar households in the others provinces. Ethnic minority households in MedSM clusters obtained food with lower carbohydrate and higher fat:protein ratios in comparison to ethnic majority households. Additionally, larger-sized households in HighSM provinces typically bought foods with higher fat shares than smaller-sized households. In contrast, in MedSM and LowSM provinces, larger-sized households typically procured foods with higher protein and lower fat shares. The diversity of foods obtained by households in MedSM and LowSM provinces decreased over time. Within the Midlands and Northern Mountains Area we observed a decrease in the diversity of food acquired among households in the LowSM clusters. This study elucidates potential impacts of the supermarket expansion on household food baskets. Insights from this study can be used to provide evidences for policy recommendation and to design and target interventions aimed at strengthening food environments to address the challenge of the double burden of malnutrition in the country.
    Keywords: supermarkets,household food diversity score,macronutrient shares,compositional data analysis,vietnam household living standard survey,poisson regression
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02624928&r=all
  20. By: Munisamy Gopinath; Feras A. Batarseh; Jayson Beckman
    Abstract: Predicting agricultural trade patterns is critical to decision making in the public and private domains, especially in the current context of trade disputes among major economies. Focusing on seven major agricultural commodities with a long history of trade, this study employed data-driven and deep-learning processes: supervised and unsupervised machine learning (ML) techniques – to decipher patterns of trade. The supervised (unsupervised) ML techniques were trained on data until 2010 (2014), and projections were made for 2011-2016 (2014-2020). Results show the high relevance of ML models to predicting trade patterns in near- and long-term relative to traditional approaches, which are often subjective assessments or time-series projections. While supervised ML techniques quantified key economic factors underlying agricultural trade flows, unsupervised approaches provide better fits over the long-term.
    JEL: C45 F14 Q17
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27151&r=all
  21. By: Lintunen, Jussi; Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Kulvik, Martti
    Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we analyse the economic impacts of the low-carbon roadmap made for the Finnish forest industries. The analysis is based on a future scenario provided by AFRY. Given the unit prices and production levels of six forest industry production categories, we assess the value added and employment effects to the Finnish economy. If the scenario is fulfilled, the change would be stark compared to the developments in the previous decades. The value added of forest industries would increase 55–75% from 2017 to 2035 and 90–135% from 2017 to 2050. The indirect effects through the value chains would be of similar magnitude. If the development of labour productivity would remain at recently observed levels, the increased forest industry production would maintain the current employment level.
    Keywords: Forest industry, Climate change, Low carbon, Impact, Value added, Employment
    JEL: L6 L73 Q01
    Date: 2020–06–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rif:report:105&r=all
  22. By: Tony Muhumuza; Paul Okiira Okwi (German Institute for Economic Research)
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aer:wpaper:242&r=all
  23. By: Meldrum, James; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah; Champ, Patricia; Gomez, Jamie; Falk, Lilia; Barth, Christopher
    Abstract: Fire science emphasizes that mitigation actions on residential property, including structural hardening and maintaining defensible space, can reduce the risk of wildfire to a home. Accordingly, a rich body of social science literature investigates the determinants of wildfire risk mitigation behaviors of residents living in fire-prone areas. Here, we investigate relationships among wildfire hazards, residents’ risk perceptions, and conditions associated with mitigation actions using a combination of simulated wildfire conditions, household survey responses, and professionally assessed parcel characteristic data. We estimate a simultaneous model of these data that accounts for potential direct feedbacks between risk perceptions and parcel-level conditions. We also compare the use of self-reported versus assessed parcel-level data for estimating these relationships. Our analysis relies on paired survey and assessment data for approximately 2000 homes in western Colorado. Our simultaneous model demonstrates dual-directional interactions between risk perceptions and conditions associated with mitigation actions, with important implications for inference from simpler approaches. In addition to improving general understanding of decision-making about risk and natural hazards, our findings can support the effectiveness of publicly supported programs intended to encourage mitigation to reduce society’s overall wildfire risk.
    Keywords: wildland fire; risk assessment; parcel-level risk; scale; mitigation; simultaneous modeling; home ignition zone
    JEL: D83 Q54
    Date: 2019–08–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:100852&r=all
  24. By: Lara Cockx (Department of Economics, Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan); Giulia Meloni (LICOS Center for Institutions and Economic Performance & Department of Economics, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium); Johan Swinnen (LICOS Center for Institutions and Economic Performance & Department of Economics, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Belgium)
    Abstract: Spirits represent around 50% of global alcohol consumption. This sector is much less studied than other alcohol beverages such as wine or beer. This paper reviews the economic history of spirits and analyses recent trends in the spirits markets. The technology to produce spirits is more complex than for wine or beer. Distillation was known in ancient Chinese, Indian, Greek and Egyptian societies, but it took innovations by the Arabs to distil alcohol. Initially this alcohol was used for medicinal purposes. Only in the middle ages did spirits become a widespread drink and did commercial production and markets. The Industrial Revolution created a large consumer market and reduced the cost of spirits, contributing to excess consumption and alcoholism. Governments have intervened extensively in spirits markets to reduce excessive consumption and to raise taxes. There have been significant changes in spirits consumption and trade over time. Over the past 50 years, the share of spirits in global alcohol consumption increased from around 30% to around 50%. In the past decades, there was strong growth in emerging markets, including in China and India. The spirits industry has concentrated, but less so than e.g. the brewery industry. Recent developments in the spirits industry include premiumization, the growth of craft spirits and the introduction of terroir for spirits.
    Keywords: Spirits; distillation technology; globalization and convergence of alcohol preferences; alcohol and health; alcohol regulations; craft and industry concentration
    Date: 2019–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adl:winewp:2019-03&r=all
  25. By: Marette, Stephan; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Beghin, John C.
    Abstract: We compare consumers’ attitude towards and willingness to pay (WTP) for gene-edited (GE) apples in Europe and the US. Using virtual choices in a lab and different technology messages, we estimate WTP of 162 French and 166 US consumers for new apples, which do not brown upon being sliced or cut. Messages center on (i) the social and private benefits of having the new apples, and (ii) possible technologies leading to this new benefit (conventional hybrids, GE, and genetically modified (GMO)). French consumers do not value the innovation and actually discount it when it is generated via biotechnology. US consumers do value the innovation as long as it is not generated by biotechnology. In both countries, the steepest discount is for GMO apples, followed by GE apples. Furthermore, the discounting occurs through “boycott” consumers who dislike biotechnology. However, the discounting is weaker for US consumers compared to French consumers. Favorable attitudes towards sciences and new technology totally offset the discounting of GE apples.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2020–06–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nbaesp:303808&r=all
  26. By: Mike Kwanashie; Abdul-Ganiyu Garba; Isaac Ajilima (Ahmadu Be/b University, Zaria, Nigeria)
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aer:wpaper:57&r=all
  27. By: Claire Alestra; Gilbert Cette; Valérie Chouard; Rémy Lecat
    Abstract: This paper provides a tool to build climate change scenarios to forecast Gross Domestic Product (GDP), modelling both GDP damage due to climate change and the GDP impact of mitigating measures. It adopts a supply-side, long-term view, with 2060 and 2100 horizons. It is a global projection tool (30 countries / regions), with assumptions and results both at the world and the country / regional level. Five different types of energy inputs are taken into account according to their CO2 emission factors. Full calibration is possible at each stage, with estimated or literature-based default parameters. In particular, Total Factor Productivity (TFP), which is a major source of uncertainty on future growth and hence on CO2 emissions, is endogenously determined, with a rich modeling encompassing energy prices, investment prices, education, structural reforms and decreasing return to the employment rate. We present four scenarios: Business As Usual (BAU), with stable energy prices relative to GDP price; Decrease of Renewable Energy relative Price (DREP), with the relative price of non CO2 emitting electricity decreasing by 2% a year; Low Carbon Tax (LCT) scenario with CO2 emitting energy relative prices increasing by 1% per year; High Carbon Tax (HCT) scenario with CO2 emitting energy relative prices increasing by 3% per year. At the 2100 horizon, global GDP incurs a loss of 12% in the BAU, 10% in the DREP, 8% in the Low Carbon Tax scenario and 7% in the High Carbon Tax scenario. This scenario exercise illustrates both the “tragedy of the horizon”, as gains from avoided climate change damage net of damage from mitigating policies are negative in the mediumterm and positive in the long-term, and the “tragedy of the commons”, as climate change damage is widely dispersed and particularly severe in developing economies, while mitigating policies should be implemented in all countries, especially in advanced countries modestly affected by climate change but with large CO2 emission contributions.
    Keywords: Climate, Global warming, Energy prices, Government policy, Growth, Productivity, Long-term projections.
    JEL: H23 Q54 E23 E37 O11 O47 O57 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bfr:banfra:759&r=all
  28. By: Yazdan Soltanpour (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, University of Catania); Iuri Peri (University of Catania); Leila Temri (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: While the European Union's fishing policy is mainly based on maximum sustainable yield, at the local fishing community level, fishers' main incentive to sustain fish stocks appears to be maintenance of social relationships. Divergence of the stakeholders' objectives on the management of marine resources creates conflicts of interest that can be overcome through a process of negotiation. The formulation of the solution is embedded in the perspective of the stakeholders. In this paper we analyze the negotiation mechanisms between the French Mediterranean local fishing communities and the European Union common fishery policy. Inspired by interactive governance theory, the performance of Prud'homies, a local governance entity in the French Mediterranean, has been analyzed through their capacity to cooperate and represent the fishers' voice in formal institutes. We are witnessing a declining representation of this local institute among the official decision-makers of the marine resource governance.
    Keywords: participation,voice,local fihing community,interactive governance,marine fisheries,governance,pêche maritime,gouvernance,voix
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02491206&r=all
  29. By: Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia)
    Abstract: Asia’s alcohol consumption, and its retail expenditure on each of beer, distilled spirits and grape wine, have more than doubled so far this century. In the process, the mix of beverages in Asia’s consumption of alcohol has been converging on that of the west as wine’s share rises. Since Asia’s beverage production has not kept up with its expansion in demand, imports net of exports are increasingly filling the gap – especially for wine. This paper analyses trends in consumption and imports for the region and key Asian countries, and provides projections to 2025 using a new model of global beverage markets.
    Keywords: Changes in beverage tastes, premiumization of alcohol consumption, impacts of tax and trade policies, beverage market projections
    JEL: F14 F17 L66 Q13
    Date: 2020–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adl:winewp:2019-02&r=all
  30. By: Hung Trung Vo (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, Thu Dau Mot University - Partenaires INRAE); Thanh Viet Nguyen (Vietnam National University); Michel Simioni (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Xuan Thuy National Park, a special nature reserve with mangrove swamps located in the Red River Delta in North Vietnam, plays an important role in combating coastal erosion and provides a habitat for many endangered bird species. This study applied double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation method to directly estimate how much locals are willing to pay for mangrove conservation at Xuan Thuy National Park. In particular, the technique was used to provide better assess to the non-use value of biodiversity and ecosystem support of mangroves. Survey respondents from 350 households in the buffer zone were presented with a hypothetical scenario describing a policy that quantifies the environmental change to be achieved by 2030, and specifying a lump sum payment. Non-parametric estimate of mean WTP was found at 511,090 VND per household (22.03 USD) whereas parametric estimate of mean WTP derived from the log-logistic specification was found at 619,908 VND (26.73 USD) per household. Awareness of mangrove benefit and interest in conservation activities have a positive impact on WTP responses, in addition to income. The findings will help policy-makers adopt sound environmental policies and advise locals on the importance of protecting the mangroves which in turn protect their livelihoods.
    Keywords: mangrove preservation,contingent valuation,double-bounded discrete choice,Xuan Thuy national park,vietnam,environmental services valuation
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02624828&r=all
  31. By: Philip A. Tominac; Victor M. Zavala
    Abstract: We interpret multi-product supply chains (SCs) as coordinated markets; under this interpretation, a SC optimization problem is a market clearing problem that allocates resources and associated economic values (prices) to different stakeholders that bid into the market (suppliers, consumers, transportation, and processing technologies). The market interpretation allows us to establish fundamental properties that explain how physical resources (primal variables) and associated economic values (dual variables) flow in the SC. We use duality theory to explain why incentivizing markets by forcing stakeholder participation (e.g., by imposing demand satisfaction or service provision constraints) yields artificial price behavior, inefficient allocations, and economic losses. To overcome these issues, we explore market incentive mechanisms that use bids; here, we introduce the concept of a stakeholder graph (a product-based representation of a supply chain) and show that this representation allows us to naturally determine minimum bids that activate the market. These results provide guidelines to design SC formulations that properly remunerate stakeholders and to design policy that foster market transactions. The results are illustrated using an urban waste management problem for a city of 100,000 residents.
    Date: 2020–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2006.03467&r=all
  32. By: OECD
    Abstract: Environmental fiscal reforms are an essential building block to steer countries onto a sustainable long-term development path. This paper develops proposals for strengthening the role of market-based environmental policy instruments in the Slovak Republic. The paper discusses reform options aimed at mitigating air pollution and climate change, improved waste management and biodiversity conservation. This includes measures such as introduction of automatic indexation of environmentally related taxes, differentiation of energy tax rates by emission intensity of fuels, broadening tax bases to include all emission sources and reforming preferential fiscal treatment of household fuel use – a major source of local air pollution. In the waste management domain, raising the landfill tax to better reflect external environmental costs of particular tax bases would help encourage diversion of waste from landfills. A complementary waste incineration tax would help incentivise waste prevention, composting and material recycling.
    Date: 2020–06–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:envaac:19-en&r=all
  33. By: Glyn Wittwer (Centre of Policy Studies, Victoria University, Australia); Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia)
    Keywords: Coronavirus, alcohol markets, income shock
    JEL: L66 L81 R21
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adl:winewp:2020-01&r=all
  34. By: Jisang Yu; Nelson B. Villoria; Nathan P. Hendricks
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of the tariffs that U.S. export crops face on farmland rental rates. The estimation of the impact of the localized measure on the rents faces two aggregation problems that lead to identification challenges: a) aggregating tariffs across trading partners to obtain crop-specific tariffs, and b) aggregating the crop-specific tariffs across crops to obtain the localized measure. Utilizing shift-share style approaches, we find that a one percent increase in the localized tariff reduces the rents by about 2.6 - 5.3% point, which implies that the 2018 Chinese retaliatory tariffs would reduce the rents by about 2%.
    JEL: F13 F14 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27180&r=all
  35. By: Ayodeji Alexander; Ajibola Coker; Balaraba Sule
    Abstract: Key Findings -Low level of skills acquisition in the agriculture sector limits youth employment in the economy, even when the preference for agro- based employment is high. -The type of secondary education received by students and their perceptions of the agriculture profession are key factors in attracting youths to the agriculture sector, with implications for the government diversification drive. -The major challenges faced under the SIWES are difficulties in securing job placement, funding and duration of the scheme.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2020–02–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:miffpb:303677&r=all
  36. By: Bello, Rolando T.; Pantoja, Blanquita R.; Tan, Maria Francesca O.; Banalo, Roxanne A.; Alvarez, Joanne V.; Rañeses, Florita P.
    Abstract: In the Philippines’ coconut sector, government initiatives have shifted from focusing on traditional coconut exports such as coconut oil, desiccated coconut and copra oil cake or meal to non-traditional coconut exports such as virgin coconut oil, coco sugar and coco coir. The main objectives of this study are to identify current and potential skill needs, to estimate skill gaps, and to provide recommendations for the design of effective and coherent skills development policies to support growth and expand opportunities for the creation of productive employment in the non-traditional coconut export sector. Specifically, this study: reviews the relevant skills literature and government policies and programs and private sector-led initiatives on skills and human resource development; analyses past and current statistical data on skills and employment in the coconut sector and elicits information on skills issues from key informants and focus groups.
    Keywords: skills development, coconut, export diversification
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ilo:ilowps:995072489702676&r=all
  37. By: Carmen Camacho (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PSE - La plante et son environnement - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - INA P-G - Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Alexandre Cornet (UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: There exists a pressing need to analyze the impact of agriculture on soil fertility. This paper develops a spatial growth model for an agricultural economy, in which pollution diffuses across space. In order to produce, the economy needs fertile soil, naturally bounded by the amount of available land. When regions have not yet reached their maximal soil fertility, they can locally invest in abatement in order to reduce soil pollution. Once a location reaches this maximum of fertile land, the economy is split in two: a fertile region and a polluted region. We analytically show how the polluted region can either stagnate at low levels of fertility, or catch up with the fertile region. Our results are numerically illustrated, including the resiliency of the economy to recover from pollution shocks.
    Keywords: Spatial dynamics,Ramsey model,Soil Pollution,Partial differential equations,Dynamic programming,Optimal Control
    Date: 2020–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-02652191&r=all
  38. By: Ngila Mwase (UNDP Zambia)
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aer:wpaper:86&r=all
  39. By: Kym Anderson (Wine Economics Research Centre, School of Economics, University of Adelaide, Australia, and Arndt-Corden Dept of Economics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia); Glyn Wittwer (Centre of Policy Studies, Victoria University, Australia)
    Abstract: Under Tom Hertel’s guidance, GTAP’s myriad contributions in providing databases and models for economy-wide analysis of the world’s markets have been enormous, and deservedly well recognized. Less appreciated by the policy community and many economists has been the additional contribution GTAP has made to improving the modelling of global markets for individual product markets. The smaller the national and global markets for a particular product, the less sense it makes to model them as part of the overall economy. But several of the features of CGE models nonetheless can be incorporated usefully into global product market models. This paper reports on one such attempt, namely to model the world’s winegrape and wine markets. Building on a prototype first reported by Wittwer, Berger and Anderson (2003), a much-improved model was developed by Anderson and Wittwer (2013) and has now been further revised with its database updated to 2014 and projected to 2025. Both the model and the new database are described and, to illustrate the model’s usefulness, we compare the 2025 baseline with alternative scenarios chosen to illustrate the empirical importance of possible additional shocks to those markets. One is a more-than-expected strengthening of the US dollar. Another is a set of possible Brexit scenarios, bearing in mind that the UK has been one of the world’s biggest wine-importing countries. We conclude the paper by mentioning fruitful areas for further work such as expanding the model to include other beverages and analysing possible increases in beverage taxes as health lobby groups in many countries strengthen their anti-alcohol and anti-sugar drives.
    Keywords: Global wine markets, trade policies, real exchange rates, Brexit
    JEL: C63 F17 Q02 Q11
    Date: 2018–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adl:winewp:2018-03&r=all
  40. By: Bista, Raghu
    Abstract: This study investigates empirically the relationship between industrial waste and urban biodiversity in Nepal by using mapping method based on secondary data sources. In addition, it estimates social cost of urban biodiversity loss. Its result is positive correlation between industrial waste and urban biodiversity loss. Its social cost is interestingly significant.
    Keywords: Industrial Waste, Urban Biodiversity, Aquatic Biodiversity, Nepal
    JEL: D13 O3 O32 Q28 Q51 Q53 Q57 Z1 Z18
    Date: 2019–11–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:100623&r=all

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