nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒04‒20
thirty-six papers chosen by

  1. The effects of Integrated Soil Fertility Management on household welfare in Ethiopia By Hörner, Denise; Wollni, Meike
  2. Spatial Spillovers in the Implicit Market Price of Soil Erosion: An Estimation using a Spatio-temporal Hedonic Model By Marcelo Caffera; Felipe Vásquez; Daniel Rodríguez; Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier; José Ignacio Hernández; Mariela Buonomo
  3. A systematic review of contract farming and it's impacts on broiler producers in Lebanon By Kozhaya, Rodrique
  4. More market, more efficiency? Water market impacts on water use efficiency in the Australian agricultural sector By Simon de Bonviller; Phu Nguyen-Van; Anne Rozan
  5. Consumer Milk Expenditures and Preferences for Tennessee Milk By Upendram, Sreedhar; Jensen, Kimberly L.; DeLong, Karen; Menard, Jamey; Eckelkamp, Elizabeth
  6. Integrative Economic Evaluation of an Infrastructure Project as a Measure for Climate Change Adaptation: A Case Study of Irrigation Development in Kenya By Daiju Narita; Ichiro Sato; Daikichi Ogawada; Akiko Matsumura
  7. How Do Agro-Pastoral Policies Affect the Dietary Intake of Agro-Pastoralists? Evidence from Niger By Christophe Muller; Nouréini Sayouti
  8. Reproductive Failure Impacts on Retained Beef Heifer Profitability By Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; DeLong, Karen L.
  9. Does Integrated Soil Fertility Management increase returns to land and labor? Plot-level evidence from Ethiopia By Hörner, Denise; Wollni, Meike
  10. Corn and Cotton Producers' Prevented Planting Decision By Adkins, Kevin; Boyer, Christopher N.; Smith, S. Aaron; Griffith, Andrew P.; Muhammad, Andrew; McClure, Angela; Raper, Tyson
  11. Productivity Dispersion and Persistence Among the World's Most Numerous Firms By Casey C. Maue; Marshall Burke; Kyle J. Emerick
  12. Trade Shocks and Philippine Rice Imports Amidst SARS-CoV-2 By Gerald Gracius Y. Pascua
  13. Estimating Restaurant Willingness to Pay for Local Beef By Griffith, Andrew P.; McKay, Lettie C.; DeLong, Karen L.; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Boyer, Christopher N.; Lambert, Dayton M.
  14. Biosecurity, automation technologies and economic resilience of travel, tourism and hospitality companies By Ivanov, Stanislav; Webster, Craig; Stoilova, Elitza; Slobodskoy, Daniel
  15. Evaluating Transition Planning by Tennessee Farmers By Hughes, David W.; Holland, Robert; Mehlhorn, Joey E.; Delmond, Anthony
  16. COVID-19 Outbreak and Air Pollution in Iran: A Panel VAR Analysis By Mozhgan Asna-ashary; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Mehdi Feizi; Saeed Malek Sadati
  17. Prospects of Integrating Biodiversity Offsets in Japan’s Cooperation Projects: A Review of Experience from Developing Countries By Tetsuya Kamijo
  18. Do we need to be educated to have Green concerns? By Magali Jaoul-Grammare; Anne Stenger
  19. International Trade of Rattan Industry in Indonesia: Global Value Chain, Absolute and Comparative Advantage By Ferliana, Nikita
  20. Bull Qualification for Tennessee Agricultural Enhancement Program Through the University of Tennessee Bull Testing Sale By Boyer, Christopher N.; Griffith, Andrew P.; Rhinehart, Justin; Kirkpatrick, David
  21. Tennessee Consumers' Views About Cidery Visits By Jensen, Kimberly; Hughes, David; Wright, Hannah; DeLong, Karen; Gill, Mackenzie; Menard, Jamey
  22. Comparative Advantage as a Bargaining Chip in Global Value Chain: Indonesia Rattan Industry By Ramadhanty, Shafitri Arindya
  23. The innovativeness of green sector enterprises By Adam Sulich; Małgorzata Rutkowska; Jerzy Tutaj
  24. Application of linear programming in production planning By Solaja, Oluwasegun Abraham; Abiodun, Joachim Abolaji; Abioro, Matthew Adekunle; Ekpudu, Jonathan Ehimen; Olasubulumi, Olajide Moses
  25. Economic Viability of Large-scale Irrigation Construction in 21st Century Sub-Saharan Africa:Centering around an Estimation of the Construction Costs of the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya By Masao Kikuchi; Yukichi Mano; Timothy Njagi Njeru; Douglas J. Merrey; Keijiro Otsuka
  26. The green management in the context of regional development. By Małgorzata Rutkowska; Adam Sulich
  27. Effective alleviation of rural poverty depends on the interplay between productivity, nutrients, water and soil quality By Sonja Radosavljevic; L. Jamila Haider; Steven J. Lade; Maja Schluter
  28. The relationship between country and individual household wealth and climate change concern: The mediating role of control By Fielding, Kelly; Nauges, Céline; Wheeler, Sarah Ann
  29. Spoken Words Fly Away, Written Words Remain: Employment Contracts between Farmers and Farm Workers By Jäckering, Lisa; Meemken, Eva-Marie; Sellare, Jorge; Qaim, Matin
  30. Improving Beef Cattle Profitability by Changing Calving Season Length By Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; Pohler, Ky G.
  31. Oakland’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax: Impacts on Prices, Purchases and Consumption by Adults and Children (Journal Article) By John Cawley; David Frisvold; Anna Hill; David Jones
  32. Is the Social Safety Net a Long-Term Investment? Large-Scale Evidence from the Food Stamps Program By Martha J. Bailey; Hilary W. Hoynes; Maya Rossin-Slater; Reed Walker
  33. New Ecological Paradigm meets behavioral economics: On the relationship between environmental values and economic preferences By Andreas Ziegler
  34. N-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve: A Note on Validation and Falsification By Sinha, Avik; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Balsalobre, Daniel
  35. Introduction :Les circuits courts alimentaires, regards croisés entre l'Amérique latine et l'Europe occidentale By Denis Requier-desjardins; Laurence Roudart
  36. The Economics of Adopting Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films By Velandia, Margarita; Smith, Aaron; Wszelaki, Annette; Galinato, Suzette; Marsh, Thomas

  1. By: Hörner, Denise; Wollni, Meike
    Abstract: Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is a technology package consisting of the joint use of improved seeds, organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is increasingly promoted to enhance soil fertility, crop productivity and income of smallholder farmers. While studies find positive effects of ISFM at the plot level, to date there is little evidence on its broader welfare implications. This is important since system technologies like ISFM mostly involve higher labor and capital investments, and it remains unclear whether these pay off at the household level. Using data from maize, wheat and teff growing farmers in two agroecological zones in Ethiopia, we assess the impact of ISFM on crop and household income, and households’ likelihood to engage in other economic activities. We further study effects on labor demand, food security and children’s education. We use the inverse probability weighting regression adjustment method, and propensity score matching as robustness check. We find that ISFM adoption for maize, wheat or teff increases income obtained from these crops in both agroecological zones. Yet, only in one subsample, it also increases household income, while in the other it is associated with a reduced likelihood to achieve income from other crops and off-farm activities. Results further show that ISFM increases labor demand. Moreover, we find positive effects of ISFM on food security and primary school enrollment in those regions where it goes along with gains in household income. We conclude that welfare effects of agricultural innovations depend on farmers income diversification strategies.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2020–04
  2. By: Marcelo Caffera; Felipe Vásquez; Daniel Rodríguez; Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier; José Ignacio Hernández; Mariela Buonomo
    Abstract: We estimate the implicit market price of soil erosion, fitting a spatio-temporal hedonic price model using quarterly data of 3,563 agricultural farms traded in Uruguay between 2000 and 2014. A unique feature of our estimation is that we allow for possible spatial spillovers. We find evidence of a negative and statistically significant association between erosion and land values. A 1% increase in own topsoil loss due to own erosion is associated with a decrease of 0.22% in the per-hectare price of agricultural land (p-value: 0.013, 95% CI: -0.0039, -0.0005). This is equivalent to a decrease of 7.7 USD in the average price per hectare and USD 1,040 in the price of the average farm (134 hectares). This value increases to USD 1,277 when we add the average cross marginal effect of erosion in nearby farms. Our estimates are sensitive to our measure of erosion and our specification of the spatio-temporal weighting matrix. We also find evidence consistent with our hypothesis that farms entering a governmental erosion control plan sent a valuable signal to the market regarding soil management. An indicator of whether the farm has at least one parcel under the government erosion control plans is associated with a 29% increase in the farm´s per-hectare price (p-value: 0.000, 95% CI: 16.26%, 41.53%) higher than those with no parcel under these plans. The average total marginal effect (own plus cross effects) of the erosion control plans is 35.37% (p-value: 0.000, 95% CI: 20.33%, 50.40%).
    Keywords: spatial spillovers, spatio-temporal hedonic model, soil erosion, farmland values,Uruguay
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Kozhaya, Rodrique
    Abstract: This Thesis has been realized within the agribusiness sector and experiments the Transaction Cost Theory a branch of the New Institutional Economy which explain market failure caused by many factors. Transaction costs are associated with carrying a transaction between buyers and sellers. This study has been conducted between 2014 and 2017; and has collected data from 11 broiler producers in Jezzine, Lebanon, about: Production costs, capital investment, revenues, land tenure, access to infrastructure, and information about the contract. The propensity score matching method is used to compare the effect of participating in contract farming and to solve the hypotheses, which say: There is a positive relationship between contract farming and the economic benefits of broiler producers and the development of the broiler sector in Jezzine District. Findings from farmer’s interviews indicated that sustainability, guaranteed price, risk reduction, credit facilities and technical aids are the main reasons for signing a contract. In contrast, Farmers have expressed problems concerning the contractors’ responsibilities such as delay in payment and delivery. Also, when prices are high, it was argued that farmers were selling the products in the open market.
    Keywords: Contract farming, broiler producers, economic sustainability.
    JEL: M0 M1 M10
    Date: 2020–01–11
  4. By: Simon de Bonviller; Phu Nguyen-Van; Anne Rozan
    Abstract: Water markets emerged as economic tools to deal with water scarcity. By reallocating existing water resources instead of using costly engineering projects to extend the existing supply, they are expected to increase the efficiency of water resources allocation. In this article we question empirically the impacts of water markets on the efficiency of agricultural production, as defined by a stochastic frontier approach. Using regional data on agricultural production and climatic factors, we analyze the link between the existence of water markets, the intensity of water trade and the efficiency of agricultural production in Australia, home to some of the most developed water markets in the world. We find that the existence of water markets in a region is associated with higher agricultural production efficiency, but no significant relationship is identified between the intensity of water trade and efficiency.
    Keywords: water markets; stochastic frontier; technical efficiency in agricultural production; Murray-Darling Basin.
    JEL: Q56 Q25 Q15
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Upendram, Sreedhar; Jensen, Kimberly L.; DeLong, Karen; Menard, Jamey; Eckelkamp, Elizabeth
    Abstract: The dairy industry in Tennessee has experienced changes over the past few decades. As of August 2019, the current number of dairy operations licensed to sell Grade A milk in the state is 196, down from 271 in 2018 (Tennessee Department of Agriculture). A potential market opportunity for Tennessee dairy producers is to sell milk to consumers who prefer local milk. In 2018, the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, Business Development Division, instituted the Tennessee Milk logo. This logo was designed to help consumers identify milk that was entirely sourced, processed and bottled in Tennessee. The market for milk with the Tennessee Milk logo is emerging and little is known about consumers’ preferences and attitudes toward fluid milk labeled with the Tennessee Milk logo. The goal of this publication is to convey results of a consumer survey regarding Tennessee consumers’ milk expenditures and preferences for Tennessee Milk to dairy producers, retailers and policy makers. This study presents: • Willingness to pay for Tennessee Milk. • Purchase amounts for Tennessee Milk. • Locations where consumers would purchase Tennessee Milk. • Consumer attitudes toward Tennessee Milk. • Distance traveled for milk to be considered local. • Current milk purchase patterns. • Respondent demographics.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2019–10–01
  6. By: Daiju Narita; Ichiro Sato; Daikichi Ogawada; Akiko Matsumura
    Abstract: Abstract As climate change adaptation is becoming a recognized policy issue, the need is growing for quantitative economic evaluation of adaptation-related public investment, particularly in the context of climate finance. Irrigation, which enhances and stabilizes water supplies for farming, is a potential means of climate change adaptation, but attempts at economic evaluation of its effectiveness as an adaptation measure are few, in part because such assessments require an integration of various types of simulation analyses. Against this background, we conduct a case study of a Kenyan irrigation development project using a combination of simulation models to evaluate the effectiveness of that project for climate change adaptation. The results show that despite the uncertainties in precipitation trends, increased temperatures due to climate change have a general tendency to reduce rice yields, and that irrigation development will mitigate income impacts from the yield loss, i.e., will likely be effective as a means for climate change adaptation.
    Keywords: climate change adaptation, economic assessment, irrigation, agriculture, downscaling, runoff analysis, Africa
    Date: 2020–03
  7. By: Christophe Muller (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nouréini Sayouti (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PASEL - Projet d’appui au secteur de l’élevage)
    Abstract: Agricultural policies in poor rural developing countries typically aim at improving household nutrition by raising households' agricultural profit and presumably their dietary intake as a consequence. However, it is not clear how much of the impact of these policies goes through profit in practice. If the proportion is large, this would confirm the policy orientation and direct the attention of policy makers toward the different financial incentives. Even full activity substitution may occur, which may transform households' lifestyles and access to nutrient sources and thereby affect their nutrition. If, in contrast, the policy impact does not go through profit, then the policy perspective should be adjusted, and a thorough examination and monitoring of its other channels of influence should be undertaken. Using statistical mediation analysis, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of agricultural policies directed toward pastoralist households on their dietary intake in terms of these direct and indirect (through profit) effects. Based on an agro-pastoral survey conducted in Niger in 2016, the effects of extension services associated with better access to markets are found to be channeled mostly through pastoral profits, while this is not the case for private veterinary services and low-cost livestock feed programs. Extension services may foster specialization in cattle and sheep raising, which incentivizes households to switch toward a nomadic lifestyle and limits their access to cereals, a valuable source of calories. As a result, extension services are found to damage their calorie intake.
    Keywords: Agro-pastoral policies,Mediation analysis,Agricultural household models,Niger
    Date: 2020–04
  8. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; DeLong, Karen L.
    Abstract: The lifeblood of most cow-calf operations is the females that make up the herd. Cow-calf producers make culling and retention decisions on a regular basis that influence profitability. The decision to cull a cow, or to add a female to the herd, is largely based on the animal’s structural integrity (i.e., feet, udder), disposition, expected reproductive success, and expected profitability. Thus, there is a certain risk related to cattle prices, cow reproductive efficiency, and calf performance. Cow-calf producers have several alternatives when it comes to replacing a culled cow, including purchasing open heifers, bred heifers or mature cows. However, the most common option is retaining female calves for replacement heifers (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA], 2009). Retaining calves from one’s own operation is common because the producer has the advantage of knowing the heifers’ genetics, reducing herd exposure to disease from off-farm animals, and no cash expense for the purchase of external heifers. Despite reducing certain risks by retaining one’s own animals, retaining and developing heifers to place back in the breeding herd is still a large and risky investment that will impact long-term profitability of the operation (Mathews and Short, 2001). Many cattle producers recognize that open/late calving cows impact profitability (USDA, 2009). To be more specific, open cows due to failed pregnancy, abortions and calf death contribute to costs but do not generate revenue. Deciding to cull or retain a female that failed to produce a calf impacts long-run profits. The research objective of this study was to determine how reproductive failure impacts the profitability of raising replacement beef heifers in Tennessee in a spring and fall calving season. Results in this report could benefit producers by showing the economic implications of selecting replacement heifers based on fertility and ability to contribute to the herd.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–10–01
  9. By: Hörner, Denise; Wollni, Meike
    Abstract: Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is widely promoted to enhance soil fertility, yields and livelihoods among smallholders, and ultimately combat environmental degradation. Its core is the combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizers with improved crop varieties. Yet, farmers face adoption barriers, such as additional monetary and labor investments. To date, much of the evidence on ISFM effects comes from experimental field trials instead of micro-level farmer data. In particular, studies on labor outcomes are scarce, but important to assess the viability of ISFM in smallholder settings. This study addresses this gap by providing a comprehensive analysis of ISFM effects on land productivity, net crop value, labor demand, labor productivity and returns to unpaid labor using survey data from over 6,000 teff, maize and wheat plots and 2,000 households in Ethiopia. We employ a multinomial endogenous switching model to account for endogeneity from observed and unobserved heterogeneity. We find that both partial and complete ISFM adoption lead to significant increases in land productivity and net crop value, in particular when improved seeds are used. In moister regions, complementing improved varieties with inorganic fertilizer seems most important, while in drier regions, enhancing it with organic fertilizer appears crucial. ISFM is related to higher labor demand, but also significantly increases labor productivity and financial returns to labor. These findings imply that ISFM can contribute to improve farmers’ livelihoods by breaking the nexus between low productivity, environmental degradation and poverty.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2020–04
  10. By: Adkins, Kevin; Boyer, Christopher N.; Smith, S. Aaron; Griffith, Andrew P.; Muhammad, Andrew; McClure, Angela; Raper, Tyson
    Abstract: Federal crop insurance programs have a prevented planting provision that can protect producers from the financial losses and risk associated with not being able to plant the intended crop within the planting period. Revenue protection, revenue protection with harvest price exclusion, yield protection, and area risk protection insurance policies pay indemnities if producers were unable to plant the insured crop by a designated final planting date or within any applicable late planting period due to natural causes, typically drought or excess moisture (USDA, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, 2017). The final planting date is the W 820 Corn and Cotton Producers’ Prevented Planting Decision Kevin Adkins, Graduate Research Assistant Christopher N. Boyer, Associate Professor S. Aaron Smith, Assistant Professor Andrew P. Griffith, Associate Professor Andrew Muhammad, Professor and Blasingame Chair of Excellence Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics Angela McClure, Professor Tyson Raper, Assistant Professor Department of Plant Sciences 2 Corn and Cotton Producers’ Prevented Planting Decision last day a producer can plant the insured crop and receive full coverage from their crop insurance policy. The late planting period is generally a maximum of 25 days after the final planting date but can vary depending on the crop. Table 1 provides important dates for Tennessee corn and cotton producers when examining prevented planting decisions (USDA, Risk Management Agency, 2019).
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–05–01
  11. By: Casey C. Maue; Marshall Burke; Kyle J. Emerick
    Abstract: A vast firm productivity literature finds that otherwise similar firms differ widely in their productivity and that these differences persist through time, with important implications for the broader macroeconomy. These stylized facts derive largely from studies of manufacturing firms in wealthy countries, and thus have unknown relevance for the world's most common firm type, the smallholder farm. We use detailed micro data from over 12,000 smallholder farms and nearly 100,000 agricultural plots across four countries in Africa to study the size, source, and persistence of productivity dispersion among smallholder farmers. Applying standard regression-based approaches to measuring productivity residuals, we find much larger dispersion but less persistence than benchmark estimates from manufacturing. We then show, using a novel framework that combines physical output measurement, estimates from satellites, and machine learning, that about half of this discrepancy can be accounted for by measurement error in output. After correcting for measurement error, productivity differences across firms and over time in our smallholder agricultural setting closely match benchmark estimates for non-agricultural firms. These results question some common implications of observed dispersion, such as the importance of misallocation of factors of production.
    JEL: O12 Q12
    Date: 2020–04
  12. By: Gerald Gracius Y. Pascua (Department of Economics, Ateneo de Manila University)
    Abstract: In the midst of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic, rice exporter Viet Nam is mulling suspension of their rice exports. Should the Philippines, as one of the world’s biggest rice importers, worry about its rice stock? If one will consider the dynamics of rice trade in the region, the country should not fear as much about supply yet. A more significant concern in the foreseeable future; however, will be the resulting increase of prices in the global market as demand picks up. In the extreme case that Viet Nam halts its exports for the rest of the year and the Philippines imports an additional 0.3 MMT as proposed by the Department of Agriculture, the market shocks may contribute to an estimated 43 percent increase in the price of milled rice this year. The Philippines has to consider further diversifying its import sources by tapping other rice exporters in the region in order to emerge with a stronger trade position after this pandemic.
    Keywords: export restriction, trade diversification, international trade, rice, SARS-CoV-2, ASEAN
    JEL: F13 F15 Q17
    Date: 2020–03
  13. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; McKay, Lettie C.; DeLong, Karen L.; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Boyer, Christopher N.; Lambert, Dayton M.
    Abstract: Two surveys have been conducted in Tennessee to evaluate consumer willingness to pay for beef with a Tennessee label (Dobbs et al. 2016; Merritt et al. 2018). However, no known Tennessee survey has contacted restaurants to estimate their demand for locally (Tennessee) produced foods. Thus, the goal of this publication is to convey the results of a restaurant survey that elicited restaurant willingness to pay (WTP) for steak and ground beef labeled hypothetically as Tennessee Certified Beef (TCB). The purpose of this publication is to provide information to cattle producers in Tennessee who may have an interest in marketing Tennessee-produced beef to restaurants. These results can also help assist these producers in targeting restaurants that have a higher likelihood and higher WTP for Tennessee-produced beef. This publication was adapted from McKay et al. (2019).
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2019–07–01
  14. By: Ivanov, Stanislav (Varna University of Management); Webster, Craig; Stoilova, Elitza (Chatbot Agency; Slobodskoy, Daniel
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 will have a massive impact upon travel, tourism, and hospitality globally. With a massive reduction in tourism globally because of the health crisis, the industry will likely have to plan a recovery and rebuilding of the industry. Part and parcel of the reorganization will involve increasingly depending upon automation technologies. In this article, we discuss how the virus has impacted upon the global industry and discuss how automation technologies will be implemented into the industry to ensure a vibrant return to a strong tourism economy. We expect that employers and industry will look differently upon many automation technologies and implement these technologies into their operations to ensure a return to a situation in which tourism can take place in ways that ensure the biosecurity of travellers and ensure that the industry’s operations return to be able to work in profitable ways.
    Date: 2020–03–29
  15. By: Hughes, David W.; Holland, Robert; Mehlhorn, Joey E.; Delmond, Anthony
    Abstract: Farm transition planning is one of the most underutilized farm financial planning tools and is also one of the most under-researched issues in agriculture (Fetsch 1999). We evaluate the results of a survey administered to 100 farmers attending the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Tennessee Farm Bureau. After briefly reviewing previous research in farm transition planning, we describe our survey approach, analyze our survey results and discuss the implications and conclusions of our study. The primary audience is Extension personnel, agricultural policy makers and leadership of appropriate nonprofit organizations such as the Tennessee Farm Bureau. Our hope is that possible providers of information regarding farm transition planning will be better informed and as a result, more farm transition planning will actually occur.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2019–03–01
  16. By: Mozhgan Asna-ashary (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad); Mohammad Reza Farzanegan (Philipps-University Marburg); Mehdi Feizi (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad); Saeed Malek Sadati (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)
    Abstract: The new Coronavirus pandemic has extensive negative socioeconomic impacts. However, its effects on climate change and in particular air pollution, at least at the beginning of the outbreak, is not clear. Fear of getting the Coronavirus in crowded public spaces increased the use of personal cars, while prevention policies that seek to decrease population movement reduced their usage. This paper investigates the relationship between the outbreak of COVID-19, measured by the number of infected cases, and air pollution, measured by PM2.5, in 31 Iranian provinces over the 19 February 2020 to 11 March 2020 period. We employ a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) approach along with impulse response functions (IRFs), variance decomposition, and Granger causality tests. The analysis shows negative responses of the PM pollution to positive shock in COVID-19 cases in Iran.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Iran, panel vector autoregressive model, air pollution.
    JEL: I18 Q53
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Tetsuya Kamijo
    Abstract: Abstract Development-induced biodiversity losses continue unabated because most developments invariably result in some residual biodiversity loss. Mitigation measures in traditional environmental impact assessment (EIA) can rarely achieve the goal of No Net Loss (NNL). Biodiversity offsets are applied to the field of international development assistance to achieve NNL in accordance with mitigation hierarchy. However, there are few available references for planning offset projects for the aid practitioners in charge of cooperation projects in developing countries. The purpose of this working paper is to present a practical approach for incorporating offsets in Japan’s cooperation projects. The paper is based on a review of publications in academic journals and experience drawn from the four recent case studies on preparation of offset projects in developing countries. The paper advocates the need to integrate offset planning within the EIA framework. Based on the analysis of the case studies, prospects of biodiversity offsets in achieving NNL are analysed. The paper concludes that the introduction of offset policy, the political will for policy operation, and the long-term support to developing countries are important for the success of biodiversity offsets in cooperation projects. Japan’s initiatives toward biodiversity offsets can positively influence in promoting conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in developing countries.
    Keywords: Biodiversity offsets, cooperation projects, No Net Loss, environmental impact assessment, ecosystem services
    Date: 2020–03
  18. By: Magali Jaoul-Grammare; Anne Stenger
    Abstract: In the Unesco’s report (2014), an essential role is given to education in the preservation of the environment, by improving understanding on environment deterioration or modifying individuals’ behaviors. Indeed, many papers analyzed the importance of education on environmental sensitivity. However, they generally focus on only one environmental concern. The originality of our study is that it takes into account a large range of green concerns. We lead an exploratory analysis in order to try to answer to the following problematic: what are the effects of educational level and socio demographic characteristics on various green concerns? Preliminary results tend to confirm and highlight some relationships between education and environmental concerns. We especially underline that the more educated, the more open to global issues like biodiversity or climate change issues.
    Keywords: Education, Environmental concerns, socio demographic characteristics.
    JEL: C38 I20 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2020
  19. By: Ferliana, Nikita
    Abstract: International Trade of Rattan Industry in Indonesia: Global Value Chain, Absolute and Comparative Advantage
    Date: 2020–04–08
  20. By: Boyer, Christopher N.; Griffith, Andrew P.; Rhinehart, Justin; Kirkpatrick, David
    Abstract: The purpose of this report is to present summary statistics of cost reimbursement eligibility through TAEP for bulls sold in the University of Tennessee bull test sale from 2011-2016. Specifically, we show the percentage of bulls that qualified for cost reimbursement by bull type, which include balanced bull, terminal bull and calving ease bull. More information about these bull types is available on the TAEP website. We also show the average price of the bulls sold that qualified for reimbursement for each bull type. All bull sale prices were adjusted for inflation into 2016 dollars. Less than 4 percent of the bulls sold during this time period were breeds other than Angus. Therefore, we only present results for Angus bulls. The total number of Angus bulls sold over this time period was 561.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–06–04
  21. By: Jensen, Kimberly; Hughes, David; Wright, Hannah; DeLong, Karen; Gill, Mackenzie; Menard, Jamey
    Abstract: Hard apple ciders have been a growing segment of alcoholic beverage consumption and, as of 2019, there were 1,145 cider makers in the U.S. (Cyder Market 2019). Hard cidermaking facilities are called cideries. Cideries may use apple juice that is purchased, apples purchased and pressed into juice, or apples grown on-site then pressed into juice to make the hard cider. Hence, some cideries grow apples on-site to make their cider, while others purchase juice or apples. Cider is not brewed like beer; rather, it is fermented using a process similar to making wine. Like wineries or breweries, cideries can constitute an agritourism destination. For example, wine trails have been used to tie winery visits with those to nearby attractions, services and accommodations (Che & Wargenau, 2011). As noted, cideries could also serve as attractions in concert with rural landscapes and other nearby attractions, services and accommodations (Smith and Lal 2017). In addition to the cider-making experience, visitors could also have the opportunity to visit orchards where the cider apples are produced. While some other states have a well-developed hard cider industry, the industry in Tennessee is just beginning. The state currently has 12 cider makers (Cyder Market 2019). New York, California, Michigan, Washington and Oregon have the largest number of cider producers (Cyder Market 2019). Given that the cider industry is emerging in Tennessee, little market information exists about preferences by consumers in the state regarding hard apple ciders or tourism visits to cideries. The industry could potentially benefit from information regarding Tennessee consumer preferences for cider and cidery services. The overall goal of this research is to develop a greater understanding of the Tennessee market for hard apple cider and to explore ways to facilitate the growth of the state’s emerging hard cider industry. The information from this study should be of interest to entrepreneurs and businesses that are interested in beginning or expanding hard cider-making enterprises in Tennessee. The objectives of this study are to provide market information about Tennessee consumers’ views on visiting cideries in the state, the distances they would be willing to travel to visit a cidery, their expenditures at cideries, what services/amenities they view as important when they visit cideries, and the factors that might influence their purchases of hard ciders at cideries.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing
    Date: 2019–12–02
  22. By: Ramadhanty, Shafitri Arindya
    Abstract: This article provides a perspective of the Indonesian rattan industry in terms of comparative advantage and the Global Value Chain.
    Date: 2020–04–03
  23. By: Adam Sulich; Małgorzata Rutkowska; Jerzy Tutaj
    Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of innovativeness of green sector enterprises. Based on the literature review, the essence of green economy was pointed out and the green sector in Poland was analyzed. Further on, innovation and its importance for the green sector are discussed.
    Keywords: Innovations; Green economy; Green sector; Green enterprises
    JEL: O31 Q56
    Date: 2019–02–07
  24. By: Solaja, Oluwasegun Abraham; Abiodun, Joachim Abolaji; Abioro, Matthew Adekunle; Ekpudu, Jonathan Ehimen; Olasubulumi, Olajide Moses
    Abstract: Optimum utilization of limited resources in the production floor demands that the production manager makes decisions on the best allocation of limited resources. Linear programming techniques are applied in this study to a production planning problem in a feed mill producing company. The linear Programming model was formulated based on data obtained from the company operations’ diary. Data was processed with the help of Management Scientist Version 5.0. The study reveals improved profit through streamlining of the product range and cutting off the less productive products. This suggests the company may adopt the outcome of the linear programming techniques in production planning to improve monthly profit. This study has shown that linear programming techniques are powerful tools that can be of help to managers in decision making and allocation of limited resources and indicate operations and profit improvement.
    Keywords: Production, Optimization, Planning, Feed, Linear Programming.
    JEL: C61 E23
    Date: 2019–08
  25. By: Masao Kikuchi; Yukichi Mano; Timothy Njagi Njeru; Douglas J. Merrey; Keijiro Otsuka
    Abstract: The main reason for the success of the 20th century Green Revolution in Asia was the development of large-scale irrigation projects. But, since the late 1990s, these investments were out of the development agenda, partly because the success of the Green Revolution reduced the need for such irrigation development and partly because the lower-than-expected performance of many large-scale irrigation projects resulted from difficulties in designing, constructing, operating, and managing large-scale irrigation schemes. This was the case in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as well. During the past decade, however, large-scale irrigation development seems to be coming back in SSA as a means to promote a Green Revolution there. This revival has evoked heated discussion as to whether the conditions that made the large-scale irrigation projects an infeasible option have been overcome. This paper examines whether large-scale irrigation construction in SSA is economically feasible by estimating how much it would cost if the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya, one of the best performing irrigation schemes in SSA, were to be constructed today as a brand-new scheme. The results show that the new construction of the Mwea Scheme may be economically viable if the shadow price of rice is as high as the world price that prevailed during the mini-rice crisis in 2008-2013; however, the viability is marginal, by no means robust. The project costs per unit of beneficiary irrigated area of our hypothetical ‘Mwea Project’ and a few 21st-century large-scale irrigation projects in planning or under construction are two to four times higher than those of 20th-century counterparts. For such expensive projects to be economically viable, the agricultural performance of these projects must be two to four times higher as well, which means, in terms of rice yield, 9 t/ha/year to 20 t/ha/year. There is certainly untapped potential in SSA for large-scale irrigation development, either construction of new schemes or rehabilitation of the existing ones, but the economically feasible potential remains limited. International donor agencies and national governments wanting to plan large-scale irrigation projects are recommended to assess seriously whether their plan is economically and technologically feasible and indisputably superior to other types of irrigation development, many of which were not available during the construction boom in the 20th century but are available now.
    Keywords: Cost overrun, Cost structure, Malevolent hiding hand, Internal rate of return, Project overhead costs
    Date: 2020–01
  26. By: Małgorzata Rutkowska; Adam Sulich
    Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of innovativeness of green sector enterprises. Based on the literature review, the essence of green economy was pointed out and the green sector in Poland was analyzed. Further on, innovation and its importance for the green sector are discussed.
    Keywords: Green management; Regional development
    JEL: Q01 R11
    Date: 2019–08–15
  27. By: Sonja Radosavljevic; L. Jamila Haider; Steven J. Lade; Maja Schluter
    Abstract: Most of the world poorest people come from rural areas and depend on their local ecosystems for food production. Recent research has highlighted the importance of self-reinforcing dynamics between low soil quality and persistent poverty but little is known on how they affect poverty alleviation. We investigate how the intertwined dynamics of household assets, nutrients (especially phosphorus), water and soil quality influence food production and determine the conditions for escape from poverty for the rural poor. We have developed a suite of dynamic, multidimensional poverty trap models of households that combine economic aspects of growth with ecological dynamics of soil quality, water and nutrient flows to analyze the effectiveness of common poverty alleviation strategies such as intensification through agrochemical inputs, diversification of energy sources and conservation tillage. Our results show that (i) agrochemical inputs can reinforce poverty by degrading soil quality, (ii) diversification of household energy sources can create possibilities for effective application of other strategies, and (iii) sequencing of interventions can improve effectiveness of conservation tillage. Our model-based approach demonstrates the interdependence of economic and ecological dynamics which preclude blanket solution for poverty alleviation. Stylized models as developed here can be used for testing effectiveness of different strategies given biophysical and economic settings in the target region.
    Date: 2020–04
  28. By: Fielding, Kelly; Nauges, Céline; Wheeler, Sarah Ann
    Abstract: Although past findings are inconclusive, there is evidence of a negative relationship between wealth—at the household and country level—and climate change concern. One explanation for this relationship is that wealth provides a buffer against the risks of climate change, leading people in wealthy countries or wealthy households to perceive a greater sense of control over climate change impacts which in turn results in lower levels of concern. We tested this hypothesis with data sourced from the OECD Environment Directorate which conducted a detailed household survey in 2011 of 11 OECD countries (N=10,162). Our results accord with past studies showing a significant negative relationship between country and household wealth and individuals’ perceptions of the seriousness of climate change. Moreover, our findings suggest that this relationship is mediated through sense of control, measured at the country level by the readiness index and at the household level by the extent of adoption of energy efficiency improvements. These findings raise the question of how best to incentivise action on climate change amongst those with the ability - but not necessarily the motivation - to respond.
    Keywords: climate change concern; wealth; control; country wealth; household wealth.
    Date: 2020–04
  29. By: Jäckering, Lisa; Meemken, Eva-Marie; Sellare, Jorge; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Farm workers in developing countries often belong to the poorest of the poor. They typically face low wages, informal working arrangements, and inadequate social protection. Written employment contracts with clearly defined rights and obligations could possibly help, but it is not clear how such contracts could be introduced and promoted in traditional peasant environments. To address this question, we develop and implement a randomized controlled trial with farmers in Côte d’Ivoire. We evaluate whether an awareness campaign about possible features and benefits of employment contracts can influence farmers’ preferences and willingness to sign a contract with their workers. Choice experimental results show that – in comparison to the control group – farmers who were randomly assigned to the awareness campaign have a stronger preference for written contracts and a higher willingness to include contractual features with social benefits for workers. We also analyze treatment effects on farmers’ knowledge and behavior. Farmers in the treatment group are more informed about the procedure of initiating and signing a contract. They are also significantly more likely to have started this procedure by talking with their workers about a contract and making an appointment with the local authorities. Effects on actually signing a contract as the last step of this procedure are not significant, possibly because the time frame of the research was relatively short. Nevertheless, results suggest that information and awareness campaigns may help to improve farm workers’ employment conditions in traditional peasant environments.
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2020–04
  30. By: Griffith, Andrew P.; Boyer, Christopher N.; Pohler, Ky G.
    Abstract: Cow-calf producers face many annual decisions, as well as some less frequent but very fundamental decisions. A couple of those fundamental decisions include determining the appropriate calving season (e.g., spring or fall) and calving season length (e.g., 45, 60, 90 days). Approximately 67 percent of the cow-calf operations in the United States do not have a defined calving season (United States Department of Agriculture [USDA], 2009). This is despite research showing that a controlled calving season is more profitable than year-round calving (Doye et al., 2008). However, this decision can be difficult because nutritional demands, reproduction, calf performance and market prices have to be considered and evaluated. A Tennessee study by Henry et al. (2016) found that fall-calving herds had higher net returns and less variability in net returns than spring calving when marketing calves at weaning. However, less is known about the implication calving season length has on profitability for spring- and fall-calving cattle herds. Calving season length is defined here as the number of days from the start of calving to the end of calving. Given that many cow-calf producers in the United States sell calves at weaning (USDA, 2009) and that weaning is often based on producer convenience, calves born late in the calving season are often marketed at a lighter weight than early-born calves. Another drawback of a longer calving season is that late-calving cows have less time for uterine repair prior to the start of the next breeding season, which could negatively influence reproductive performance (Johnson, 2005; Mousel et al., 2012). A positive aspect of a longer breeding and calving season is that it provides more opportunities for cows to breed and wean a calf. Thus, there could be a trade-off between increasing weaning weight and calf uniformity and a lower percentage of cows bred in a shorter breeding season. Despite the aforementioned trade-off, there are reproductive management practices that can be utilized to address some of these challenges. One method is to cull openand late-calving cows and replace them with early-maturing heifers while also utilizing estrus synchronization (ES) and timed artificial insemination (TAI). These practices can narrow the calving window and produce a heavier and more uniform group of calves while maintaining a pregnancy rate that would be associated with a longer breeding season (Johnson, 2005; Johnson and Jones, 2008; Lamb and Mercadante, 2016). The objective of this research was to determine how calving season length influences net returns for spring- and fall-calving beef cattle herds in Tennessee. Data originated from a 19-year study in Tennessee of spring- and fall-calving herds. Production risk was evaluated for 45-, 60- and 90- day calving season lengths. Scenarios for 45- and 60-day calving season lengths that assume the producer used an improved reproductive management (IRM) practice to increase calving rates were also evaluated. Producers will benefit by better understanding the importance reproductive efficiency has on the profitability of the herd.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–02–03
  31. By: John Cawley; David Frisvold; Anna Hill; David Jones
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the impact of the tax on retail prices, product availability, purchases, and child and adult consumption of taxed beverages in Oakland, as well as of potential substitute beverages.
    Keywords: Sugar-sweetened beverages, Excise tax, Tax incidence, Consumption, Obesity
  32. By: Martha J. Bailey; Hilary W. Hoynes; Maya Rossin-Slater; Reed Walker
    Abstract: We use novel, large-scale data on 43 million Americans from the 2000 Census and the 2001 to 2013 American Communities Survey linked to the Social Security Administration’s NUMIDENT to study how a policy-driven increase in economic resources for families affects children’s long-term outcomes. Using variation from the county-level roll-out of the Food Stamps program between 1961 and 1975, we find that children with access to greater economic resources before age five experience an increase of 6 percent of a standard deviation in their adult human capital, 3 percent of a standard deviation in their adult economic self-sufficiency, 8 percent of a standard deviation in the quality of their adult neighborhoods, 0.4 percentage-point increase in longevity, and a 0.5 percentage-point decrease in likelihood of being incarcerated. Based on these estimates, we conclude that Food Stamps’ transfer of resources to families is a highly cost-effective investment into young children, yielding a marginal value of public funds of approximately 56.
    JEL: H53 I38
    Date: 2020–04
  33. By: Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines whether environmental values are correlated with economic preferences from behavioral economics and considers possible consequences when independence is assumed. The data for this analysis stem from a large-scale computer-based survey among more than 3700 German citizens. Our indicators for environmental values are based on the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), which is a standard instrument in social and behavioral sciences and increasingly common in economic studies. The econometric analysis with Generalized Poisson regression models reveals strong correlations between two NEP scales and several economic preferences, which are based on established experimental measures: While social preferences (measured in an incentivized dictator game) and positive reciprocity are significantly positively correlated, trust and (less robust) negative reciprocity are significantly negatively correlated with the NEP scales, respectively. Only risk and time preferences (also measured in an incentivized experiment) are not robustly significantly correlated with the NEP scales. These estimation results strongly recommend the additional inclusion of economic preferences in econometric analyses that use a NEP scale as explanatory factor of main interest for environmentally relevant behavior. In particular, not considering social preferences, trust, and positive and negative reciprocity can lead to strong distortions due to omitted variable biases. This conclusion is illustrated in an empirical example that reveals biased estimation results for the effect of a NEP scale on donation activities if not all relevant economic preferences are included as control variables.
    Keywords: Environmental values, New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), economic prefer-ences, individual behavior, artefactual field experiments
    JEL: Q50 D01 D91 Q57 A13
    Date: 2020
  34. By: Sinha, Avik; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Balsalobre, Daniel
    Abstract: The empirical testing of Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis plays a significant role in designing a macroeconomic model for sustainable economic development. In doing so, we have chosen the N-shaped EKC, i.e., cubic specification of EKC, and have shown the validation criteria by checking the first order differentiation of the empirical model(s). Then, we have selected several studies in which these particular validation criteria have not been followed and have shown how the models derived in those studies are falsified. This research note may have a significant implication for studies to be carried out based on the EKC hypothesis by ensuring a certain level of model validation, which is sometimes ignored by researchers.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve, Validation, Falsification
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2018–04–04
  35. By: Denis Requier-desjardins; Laurence Roudart
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Velandia, Margarita; Smith, Aaron; Wszelaki, Annette; Galinato, Suzette; Marsh, Thomas
    Abstract: Biodegradable plastic mulch films (BDM) are an alternative to conventional polyethylene (PE) mulches. Like PE mulches, BDM offer multiple benefits for specialty crop production such as weed control, soil moisture conservation and yield improvement, with the additional benefit of being 100 percent biodegradable, with no formation of toxic residues (Miles et al., 2018). BDM do not have to be removed; rather, they will be tilled into the soil at the end of the season. These additional benefits offset challenges faced when using PE mulches such as 1) the negative environmental impacts associated with the way PE mulches are traditionally disposed of (e.g., landfilling, on-farm burning and stockpiling); and 2) costs associated with end-of-season activities such as plastic mulch removal and disposal. The disposal of PE mulches in landfills raises some concerns as the complete decomposition of these mulches in the soils could take more than 300 years, and this process could potentially form chemical byproducts that are harmful to the environment (Ghimire et al., 2018). Also, the disposal of PE mulches by open burning on the farm can release carcinogenic substances and other toxic particles into the air that are harmful to the environment and human health (Moore and Wszelaki, 2016). It is also important for farmers to understand the short-run economic implications of adopting BDM for their farm enterprises. Some of the economic information growers need to gather before making the decision to adopt BDM are listed below.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–05–01

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.