nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒03‒23
forty-nine papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Investment Needs for Irrigation Infrastructure along Different Socioeconomic Pathways By Palazzo,Amanda; Valin,Hugo Jean Pierre; Batka,Miroslav; Havlík,Petr
  2. Observability of food safety losses in maize: Evidence from Kenya: By Hoffmann, Vivian; Mutiga, Samuel H.; Harvey, Jagger; Nelson, Rebecca J.; Milgroom, Michael G.
  3. The roles of agroclimatic similarity and returns on scale in the demand for mechanization: Insights from Nigeria By Takeshima, Hiroyuki
  4. The Nutrition Sensitivity of Food and Agriculture in South Asia By Dizon,Felipe Jr Fadullon; Josephson,Anna Leigh; Raju,Dhushyanth
  5. Household food consumption patterns in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia By Wolle, Abdulazize; Hirvonen, Kalle; de Brauw, Alan; Baye, Kaleab; Abate, Gashaw T.
  6. Do grassroots interventions relax behavioral constraints to the adoption of nutrition-sensitive food production systems?: By Alvi, Muzna; Ward, Patrick S.; Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.
  7. Assessing and strengthening Malawi’s pluralistic agricultural extension system: Evidence and lessons from a three-year research study By Ragasa, Catherine; Mthinda, Catherine; Chowa, Clodina; Mzungu, Diston; Kalagho, Kenan; Kazembe, Cynthia
  8. Signalling change: Micro insights on the pathways to agricultural transformation By Parvathi, Priyanka; Amare, Mulubrhan; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Barrett, Christopher B.
  9. Land plot size, machine use and agricultural intensification in China By Liu, Yanyan; Zhou, Yuan
  10. Unintended consequences of environmental policies: the case of set-aside and agricultural intensification By Raja Chakir; Alban Thomas
  11. Digital technologies for financial inclusion of smallholder farmers: Needs assessment in three states of India By Ceballos, Francisco; Kannan, Samyuktha; Singh, Vartika; Kramer, Berber
  12. Geography of smallholders’ tractor adoptions and R&D–Induced land productivity: Evidence from household survey data in Ghana: By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan
  13. The role of agriculture in the structural transformation of Indonesia: By Morley, Samuel; Kennedy, Adam; Pradesha, Angga; Hadiwidjaja, Gracia
  14. Irrigation and women’s diet in Ethiopia: A longitudinal study: By Baye, Kaleab; Choufani, Jowel; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.; Davies, Emma
  15. Promoting seed systems for stress-tolerant varieties at scale: Potential for bundling with insurance-advisory services By Cecchi, Francesco; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Omondi, Simon; Chegeh, Joseph; Tabalia, Amos; Kramer, Berber
  16. Agriculture-nutrition linkages, cooking-time, intrahousehold equality among women and children: Evidence from Tajikistan: By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Park, Allen; Ilyasov, Jarilkasin; Ergasheva, Tanzila
  17. Irrigation-nutrition linkages: Evidence from northern Ghana: By Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Choufani, Jowel; Bryan, Elizabeth; Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Ringler, Claudia; Amikuzuno, Joseph
  18. Women’s empowerment in agriculture: Lessons from qualitative research By Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rubin, Deborah; Elias, Marlène; Mulema, Annet Abenakyo; Myers, Emily
  19. Adding a nutrition behavior change communication component to an early childhood development intervention in Malawi: A cluster randomized trial By Gelli, Aulo; Gladstone, Melissa; Twalibu, Aisha; Nnensa, Theresa; Kariger, Patricia; Alderman, Harold
  20. Determinants of agricultural machinery adoption intensities in Ghana By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan
  21. Measuring coffee yields: A comparison of one-time harvest and allometric methods By Hoffmann, Vivian; Kagezi, Godfrey; Rwakazooba, Ezra; Zane, Giulia
  22. The effects of income fluctuations on rural health and nutrition By Kosec, Katrina; Song, Jie
  23. The quality of sugarcane registered to women: Evidence from an intervention in Uganda By Ambler, Kate; Jones, Kelly M.; O'Sullivan, Michael
  24. The (marginal) cost of technology adoption: A cost-effectiveness analysis of Digital Green’s video-mediated agricultural extension approach in Ethiopia By Bernard, Tanguy; Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.; Abate, Gashaw T.
  25. Food systems for healthier diets in Bangladesh: Towards a research agenda: By de Brauw, Alan; Waid, Jillian; Meisner, Craig A.; Akter, Fahmida; Khan, Bushra Ferdous; Alam, Nazmul
  26. A land accounting model for IMPACT (with early results) By Robertson, Richard D.
  27. Palm oil and the politics of deforestation in Indonesia By Cisneros Tersitsch, Marco Elías; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Nuryartono, Nunung
  28. Interested, indifferent or active information avoider of climate labels: Cognitive dissonance and ascription of responsibility as motivating factors By Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan; Nordström, Jonas
  29. Distinguishing Between Policy, Drought and International Events in the Context of the Murray Darling Basin Plan By Glyn Wittwer; Michael D Young
  30. Mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a Source of Income among Farmers By Mar Heisen A. Yanos
  31. Measuring employment in the agri-food system: Existing data and directions for future research By Ambler, Kate; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Labarta, Ricardo; Maredia, Mywish; Scollard, Phoebe
  32. Promoting fruit and vegetable intake in urban Ethiopia: An experiment using video-based communication By Abate, Gashaw T.; Baye, Kaleab; de Brauw, Alan; Hirvonen, Kalle
  33. Impact of conflict on agriculture in Mali: By Masset, Edoardo; Gelli, Aulo; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Diallo, Amadou Sekou
  34. Poverty Impact of Food Price Shocks and Policies By Laborde,David; Lakatos,Csilla; Martin,William J.
  35. Opportunities and challenges in field data validation and corroboration: Matching household survey data with project monitoring data in Ethiopia By Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.; Abate, Gashaw T.; Bernard, Tanguy
  36. Integration and Price Transmission in Key Food Commodity Markets in India By Boffa,Mauro; Varela,Gonzalo J.
  37. Agricultural research and extension system in Nepal: An organizational review By Babu, Suresh Chandra; Sah, Ram Pratap
  38. Assessing agricultural trade comparative advantage of Myanmar and its main competitors: Findings from UN Comtrade: By Zhang, Huaqi; Chen, Kevin
  39. Evolution of agricultural mechanization in Vietnam: Insights from a literature review and multiple rounds of a farm household survey By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Masias, Ian
  40. Foodborne disease in Kenya: County-level cost estimates and the case for greater public investment By Hoffmann, Vivian; Baral, Siddhartha
  41. Mechanization growth and declining farm size in South Asia: Exploring the role of biological technologies in Nepal Terai By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan
  42. Technologies and strategies for aflatoxin control in Kenya: A synthesis of emerging evidence By Hoffmann, Vivian; Grace, Delia; Lindahl, Johanna; Mutua, Florence; Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mutegi, Charity; Herrman, Tim
  43. Global Investment Costs for Coastal Defense through the 21st Century By Nicholls,Robert John; Hinkel,Jochen; Lincke,Daniel; van der Pol,Thomas
  44. Assessing Rural Accessibility and Rural Roads Investment Needs Using Open Source Data By Mikou,Mehdi; Rozenberg,Julie; Koks,Elco Eduard; Fox,Charles James Edward; Peralta Quiros,Tatiana
  45. Managing the biodiversity impacts of fertiliser and pesticide use: Overview and insights from trends and policies across selected OECD countries By Megha Sud
  46. African commitments for agricultural development goals and milestones for Cote d’Ivoire By Diallo, Souleymane Sadio; Fofana, Ismaël; Diallo, Mariam Amadou
  47. Access to iodized salt in four areas of rural Papua New Guinea By Schmidt, Emily; Namusoke, Hanifa; Temple, Victor J.; Codling, Karen; Rudert, Christiane; Holtemeyer, Brian; Benson, Todd
  48. Strengthening institutional capacity for disaster management and risk reduction through climate-resilient agriculture: By Babu, Suresh Chandra; De Pinto, Alessandro; Paul, Namita
  49. Access to markets, weather risk, and livestock production decisions: Evidence from Ethiopia By Abay, Kibrom A.; Jensen, Nathaniel D.

  1. By: Palazzo,Amanda; Valin,Hugo Jean Pierre; Batka,Miroslav; Havlík,Petr
    Abstract: This paper conducts an assessment of the global costs for expanding, upgrading, and improving irrigation infrastructure in developing countries, along different future scenarios toward 2050. It uses the GLobal BIOsphere Management Model, a partial equilibrium model of the global agricultural and forestry sectors. It examines the impacts of irrigation expansion on the agriculture and food system, from the perspective of different Sustainable Development Goals, in particular food security (goal 2), land use change and biodiversity (goal 15), greenhouse gas emissions (goal 13), and sustainable water use (goal 6). It finds that irrigation support policies improve food security globally and can reduce the burden on land by limiting expansion of cropland area. However, the effectiveness of irrigation to achieve a larger set of goals depends on the regional context. In South Asia and the Middle East and North Africa, the expansion of irrigation increases unsustainable water extraction practices. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the infrastructure costs and impacts under different socioeconomic developments, levels of radiative forcing and climate change scenarios, dietary patterns, trade openness, and efficiencies of irrigation systems. The findings indicate that irrigation systems could play an important role in adaptation to the most adverse climate change; however, increased water scarcity may also limit adaptation potentials.
    Keywords: Hydrology,International Trade and Trade Rules,Food Security,Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture,Nutrition
    Date: 2019–02–19
  2. By: Hoffmann, Vivian; Mutiga, Samuel H.; Harvey, Jagger; Nelson, Rebecca J.; Milgroom, Michael G.
    Abstract: Unlike physical losses, deterioration of food safety can be difficult to observe. In low- and middle- income countries, much of the food supply is never tested for safety hazards. We analyze data from 1500 maize samples and associated consumer surveys collected from clients of small-scale hammer mills in rural Kenya. We find that while visible damage to maize is penalized by lower prices, there is no correlation between price and aflatoxin, a carcinogenic fungal contaminant, implying an absence of market incentives to manage this aspect of food loss. Aflatoxin contamination is, however, correlated with consumer perceptions of quality, especially for self-produced maize, suggesting an information asymmetry that could lead to inefficiencies in this market.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, food safety, crop losses, maize, safety, prices, food prices, aflatoxins, mycotoxins, markets, storage, crop storage, postharvest losses, O12 Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, O13 Economic Development: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Energy, Environment, Other Primary Product, O15 Economic Development: Human Resources, Human Development, Income Distribution, Migration,
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: Despite economic transformations and urbanization, declining shares of the workforce employed in the agricultural sector, and gradual growth of agricultural mechanization, production costs in the agricultural sector and food prices remain high in Nigeria relative to those in some of the other developing countries. Understanding how the adoption of mechanical technologies is related to agricultural productivity is, therefore, important for countries like Nigeria. Using farm household data from northern Nigeria as well as var-ious spatial agroclimatic data, this study shows that the adoption of key mechanical technologies in Nigerian agriculture (animal trac-tion, tractors, or both) has been high in areas that are more agro-climatically similar to the locations of agricultural research and de-velopment (R&D) stations, and this effect is heterogeneous, being particularly strong among relatively larger farms. Furthermore, such effects are likely to have been driven by the rise in returns-to-scale in the underlying production function caused by the adoption of these mechanical technologies. Agricultural mechanization, repre-sented here as the switch from manual labor to animal traction and tractors, has been not only raising the average return on scale but also potentially magnifying the effects of productivity-enhancing public-sector R&D on spatial variations in agricultural productivity in countries like Nigeria.
    Keywords: NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural mechanization, agroclimatic zones, agricultural productivity, innovation adoption, technology, tractors, farm size, animal power, agroclimatic similarity, returns on scale, inverse probability weighting,
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Dizon,Felipe Jr Fadullon; Josephson,Anna Leigh; Raju,Dhushyanth
    Abstract: Through a review of the literature, this paper examines the links of food and agriculture with nutrition in South Asia, a region characterized by a high level of malnutrition. The review finds that the level and stability of food prices play a critical part in food consumption, with rising prices affecting poor households the most. Although public food transfer programs are aimed at addressing this, most are too small to have a marked effect in protecting or promoting nutrition. Several supply-side food and agricultural interventions suggest promise in improving nutrition, although their effects have yet to be well identified. These include the cultivation of home gardens, animal farming, and use of biofortification and post-harvest fortification. All these efforts will be futile, however, without parallel efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change.
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture,Food Security,Climate Change and Environment,Climate Change and Health,Science of Climate Change,Nutrition
    Date: 2019–03–06
  5. By: Wolle, Abdulazize; Hirvonen, Kalle; de Brauw, Alan; Baye, Kaleab; Abate, Gashaw T.
    Abstract: Overweight and obesity are rising rapidly in Ethiopia's urban areas, constituting a major public health concern. Dietary choices can be one of the key drivers of adult body-weight. Using data collected from a large household survey in Addis Ababa, we provide a snapshot of dietary patterns in Ethiopia's largest urban area. We find that starchy staples (cereals, roots, and tubers) are prominent in household food baskets, taking up 25 percent of the food budget and providing more than 50 percent of consumed calories, on average. In contrast, the consumption of all kinds of fruits and vitamin A-rich vegetables is very low. For the average household, meat products account for nearly 18 percent of the food budget but provide only 2 percent of total calories. Richer households consume relatively less starchy staples than poorer households, but more animal-source foods and vegetables. However, the importance of fruits in household diets rises very slowly with household incomes. Together, these findings suggest that further income growth will result in drastic changes in the composition of food demand in Addis Ababa. Considering projections for increasing incomes, especially in urban areas, this will have major implications for agricultural production in rural areas connected to Ethiopia’s cities. There is also an urgent need to design cost-effective public health campaigns to reduce the emerging overweight and obesity crisis in urban Ethiopia.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; households; food consumption; household consumption; overweight; obesity; health; food access; nutrition
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Alvi, Muzna; Ward, Patrick S.; Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.
    Abstract: In many developing countries, agricultural policies and programs are often designed in a way to promote productivity growth with modern inputs and technologies, and with limited reference to the nutrition gains that can be made through production diversification. We test whether grassroots programs can relax behavioral constraints inhibiting the adoption of diversified nutrition-sensitive production systems. We use a series of lab-in-field experiments and survey instruments in Odisha, India to elicit male and female farmers’ preferences for risk, aversion to loss, empowerment and aspirations for one’s self and children. We find that respondents in villages where grassroots interventions were promoted showed significantly lower levels of risk aversion, higher levels of loss aversion and higher aspirations for themselves and their children, along with improvements in production and consumption diversity. Insights into the prevalence of behavioral constraints and interventions that relax such constraints fills an important knowledge gap in how to design programs that promote more nutrition-sensitive food production systems.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, nutrition, production systems, agricultural productivity, diversification, food systems, intervention, agri-food systems, laboratory-in-field experiments, prospect theory, public goods games, diversified food, grassroots interventions,
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Mthinda, Catherine; Chowa, Clodina; Mzungu, Diston; Kalagho, Kenan; Kazembe, Cynthia
    Abstract: In July 2016, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and partners launched a three-year evidence-based policy support project to analyze demand for and supply of agricultural extension services in Malawi and help design activities to strengthen service providers’ capacity to address farmers’ demands for information. For this project, IFPRI partnered with Wadonda Consult and the Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR) to conduct the household survey and qualitative interviews. Funding came from the Government of Flanders, the U.S. Agency for International Development through the Strengthening Agricultural and Nutrition Extension (SANE), the German Agency for International Cooperation [GIZ]), and the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM). The project collected two rounds of nationally representative panel data of 2,880 households (2016 and 2018), two rounds of focus group discussions (FGDs), census of extension service providers in 15 districts, and a series of in-depth interviews. This note summarizes the main findings from 10 reports completed to analyze and draw conclusions from the stories behind these datasets.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural extension, agricultural extension systems, farmers, information, smallholders, advisory services, technology adoption, extension services,
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Parvathi, Priyanka; Amare, Mulubrhan; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Barrett, Christopher B.
    Abstract: Most studies of agricultural transformation document the impact of agricultural productivity on macroeconomic indicators of development. Much less is known about the micro-scale changes within the farming sector that signal a transformation precipitated by exogenous agricultural productivity growth. This study identifies early trends in the agricultural sector that indicate an onset of structural change. We also comparatively analyse the patterns of micro-level changes between Sub-Saharan African (SSA) farmers and rural smallholders in Southeast Asia (SEA). We use panel data from the Living Standard Measurement Study – Integrated Survey on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) on Uganda and Malawi and from the Thailand Vietnam Socio-economic panel (TVSEP). We apply a fixed effects instrumental variable regression to identify the exogenous component of the agricultural productivity shock. Results indicate that exogenous increases in lagged agricultural income improve average village off-farm income and trigger a change in cultivation patterns within the agrarian sector in both SEA and SSA. However, we find that the patterns of transformation are not uniform across countries.
    Keywords: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, smallholders, agricultural development, agricultural sector, microeconomic analysis, nonfarm income, livestock production, farm size, agricultural mechanization, structural change, agricultural transformation,
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Liu, Yanyan; Zhou, Yuan
    Abstract: China has experienced unprecedented economic achievement for more than three decades and remains one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rapid urbanization and development of the non-farm economy have led to massive movements of labor from rural to urban areas, leaving agricultural production mostly in the hands of female and senior farmers. Due to considerable surplus labor in rural areas, these changes did not raise concerns about agricultural production until recently, when the rural real wage experienced a sharp rise, signaling the exhaustion of this surplus. Since 2010, China has changed from a net exporter to a net importer of grains. Currently, China’s self-sufficiency ratio of wheat, rice and corn is about 95%. About 80% of consumed soybean and other agri-products, such as milk and sugar, are imported. As the world's most populous country, further reduction of self-sufficient ratio of major agri-products could lead to problems in food security world-wide. In order to maintain agricultural production as labor costs continue to rise, agricultural labor input will need to be substituted with machine input. China's farming system, like that of many Asian Countries, is characterized by small landholdings, a high degree of land fragmentation, and high intensification at both the intensive and extensive margin. Although China has experienced rapid farm mechanization in recent decades thanks to the rapid development of machinery rental markets, the extent to which mechanization can be realized in China's farming system remains a critical question. Small plot size poses serious constraints for mechanization because of scale economies of machine. In addition, a considerable amount of China's land is located in hills or mountains, posing further difficulties for mechanization. Recently we completed a study to explore the extent to which small plot size deters mechanization in China and the implications for agricultural production, specifically the number of cultivating seasons per year. In our field trips in China, we often observed that small plots were less frequently cultivated; the farmers we interviewed attributed this reduced intensification to the difficulty of using machines on small plots, especially if these plots are in mountainous and hilly areas. Cultivating in these small plots become less worthwhile when labor costs increase.
    Keywords: CHINA, EAST ASIA, ASIA, agricultural production, field size, plot size, land, mechanization, machine use, land plot size, agricultural intensification,
    Date: 2019
  10. By: Raja Chakir (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Alban Thomas (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole)
    Abstract: Set-aside policies providing agronomic and ecological benefits have been mainstream practices in European agriculture. Because they may lead to intensification on cultivated land, they can however have mixed environmental effects. To evaluate the indirect impact of a set-aside policy on crop intensification, we consider two elasticity indicators with respect to set-aside subsidy: chemical input demand and intensity of input use. We estimate a structural, multi-output micro-econometric model on a panel of French farmers from 2006 to 2010, accounting for multivariate selection on crops and land use (corner solutions). We estimate both a parametric and a more robust semi-nonparametric estimator, to detect deviations from normality and homoskedasticity. Our results show that a set-aside subsidy can provide farmers with incentives to intensify their production, leading to potential adverse environmental effects.
    Keywords: set-aside,fertilizer and pesticide demand,corner solution,decoupling,land use
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Ceballos, Francisco; Kannan, Samyuktha; Singh, Vartika; Kramer, Berber
    Abstract: Financial instruments such as savings, loans, and insurance are critical tools in managing risk for smallholder farmers across the developing world. Although smallholder farmers are disproportionately affected by adverse events, they are the least likely to have access to formal loans, insurance, or bank accounts, leaving them less prepared to manage weather and disaster risk. As the effects of climate change intensify, building resilience—the ability to mitigate, cope, and recover from shocks and stresses without compromising future welfare—is essential for reducing rural poverty and improving food and nutrition security.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, digital technology, technology, smallholders, farmers, data, mobile phones, insurance, willingness to pay, Picture-Based Insurance (PBI), financial inclusion,
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan
    Abstract: Despite the urbanization and gradual rise of medium-to-large scale farming sector, smallholders without substantial mechanization remain central to agriculture in countries like Ghana. Significant knowledge gaps exist on the adoptions of agricultural mechanization among smallholders for whom the scope for exploiting complementarity with land is limited. We test the hypotheses that high-yielding technologies, which potentially raise total factor productivity and also returns to more intensive farm power use, are important drivers of adoptions of agricultural mechanization among smallholders. Using the three rounds of repeated crosssectional, nationally representative data (Ghana Living Standard Surveys 2006, 2013, 2017), as well as unique tractor-use data in Ghana, and multi-dimensional indicators of agroclimatic similarity with plant- reeding locations, this paper shows that the adoption of rented agricultural equipment and tractors in Ghana has been induced by high-yielding production systems that have concentrated in areas that are agroclimatically similar to plant-breeding locations. These effects hold for mechanization adoptions at both extensive margins (whether to adopt or not) and intensive margins (how much to adopt). These linkages have strengthened between 2006 and 2010s, partly due to improved efficiency in supply-side factors of mechanization.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural mechanization, technology, land productivity,
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Morley, Samuel; Kennedy, Adam; Pradesha, Angga; Hadiwidjaja, Gracia
    Abstract: Indonesia has managed to combine high rates of growth, rapid reductions in rural poverty and a significant structural transformation of its economy all at the same time without a big increase in urban manufacturing. Agriculture was a critical part of this transformation through two important channels. First, export-oriented agriculture, particularly palm oil and rubber contributed to rising foreign exchange receipts and helped make compatible rapid growth without balance of payments pressure on the macro economy. Second, through the release of workers from low productivity agriculture to more productive nonagricultural activities, structural change contributed between 25 and 50 percent of the rise in national labor productivity depending on the period. The government also played an important role in agricultural development and productivity growth. Public investments in irrigation in combination with subsidies for fertilizer and improved seeds increased agricultural productivity generating an adequate supply of food for domestic needs with less labor.
    Keywords: INDONESIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, palm oils, rubber, commodities, agricultural productivity, irrigation, subsidies, fertilizers, agricultural development, structural transformation, agricultural transformation, productivity growth,
    Date: 2019
  14. By: Baye, Kaleab; Choufani, Jowel; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Griffiths, Jeffrey K.; Davies, Emma
    Abstract: Some agricultural practices, such as irrigation, have the potential to buffer seasonal dietary gaps and thus improve diets, particularly for subsistence farmers but also for rural and urban households that purchase irrigated produce from local markets. While the seasonality of households and children’s diets is well documented, little is known about the seasonality of women’s diets and the influence of irrigation. Using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, this study characterized women’s diet over time and evaluated the potential implications of seasonality and irrigation on women’s diet. Women’s dietary diversity was low (3-4 out of 10 food groups) and exhibited high seasonal variability (P
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, intensification, irrigation, technology, diet, diversification, seasonality, gender, women, sustainable intensification, dietary diversity, women’s diet,
    Date: 2019
  15. By: Cecchi, Francesco; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Omondi, Simon; Chegeh, Joseph; Tabalia, Amos; Kramer, Berber
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers may suffer losses from ex-treme weather events, pests and disease. This is expected to worsen in the face of climate change. Natural disasters are a threat to food security not only ex post, by inducing farmers to sell their as-sets, keep children out of school or borrow at high rates; they also threaten livelihoods ex ante, by discouraging farmers from investing in high-return practices and technologies (Elbers et al., 2007). Fortunately, significant progress has been made in the past two decades in developing and releasing seeds with genetic traits that are more tolerant to weather shocks, pests and disease. These im-provements in seed technology are offering prom-ising pathways to improve farmers’ adaptive ca-pacity, increasing investments and thereby agri-cultural productivity (Emerick et al., 2016).
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, insurance, seeds, advisory services, technology, Information and Communication Technologies (icts), smallholders, smartphones,
    Date: 2019
  16. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Park, Allen; Ilyasov, Jarilkasin; Ergasheva, Tanzila
    Abstract: Household-level agriculture-nutrition linkage (ANL) tends to be strong in a rural subsistence setting with limited access to the food market. In such a context, markets for food processing services also may be imperfect, and consequently a household’s time-investments in cooking may become important. Using the primary data in Tajikistan, we show that longer periods of time dedicated to cooking by women in the household often significantly enhance household-level ANL. Furthermore, an increase in the diversity, scale, and efficiency of household production, as well as longer cooking time, can also reduce intrahousehold inequality in nutritional outcomes among women and children. These effects are stronger in areas with lower nighttime light intensity and for households with lower values of cooking assets. In a context where household-level ANL is strong, ANL may also depend on households’ self-production of complementary inputs, including cooking services. This dependence reveals both unique opportunities for and vulnerabilities of ANL for the rural poor.
    Keywords: TAJIKISTAN, CENTRAL ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, nutrition, cooking, gender, women, children, child nutrition, markets, agriculture-nutrition linkage, cooking time, intrahousehold equality, inverse-probability weighting, generalized propensity score, food markets,
    Date: 2019
  17. By: Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Choufani, Jowel; Bryan, Elizabeth; Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Ringler, Claudia; Amikuzuno, Joseph
    Abstract: We analyze the linkages between irrigation and nutrition using data from irrigators and non-irrigators in Northern Ghana. The results show that (i) there is a modest difference in the overall household dietary diversity score between irrigators and non-irrigators, (ii) there are significant differences in the consumption of animal source foods between irrigators and non-irrigators, (iii) there are significant differences in the consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar and honey between irrigators and non-irrigators, and (iv) the sources of food consumption differ between irrigators and non-irrigators. The analysis shows strong association between households’ nutritional status and their access to irrigation, with evidences suggesting that the irrigation-nutrition linkages play out both through the income and production pathways in Northern Ghana.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, irrigation, nutrition, food consumption, income, production, technology, Irrigation-Nutrition Linkages,
    Date: 2019
  18. By: Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rubin, Deborah; Elias, Marlène; Mulema, Annet Abenakyo; Myers, Emily
    Abstract: There is growing recognition of the importance of women’s empowerment in its own right and for a range of development outcomes, but less understanding of what empowerment means to rural women and men. The challenge of measuring empowerment, particularly across cultures and contexts, is also garnering attention. This paper synthesizes qualitative research conducted conjointly with quantitative surveys, working with eight agricultural development projects in eight countries, to develop a project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI). The qualitative research sought to identify emic meanings of “empowerment,†validate the domains and indicators of the quantitative index, provide greater understanding of the context of each project and of strategies for facilitating empowerment, and test a methodology for integrating emic perspectives of empowerment with standardized etic measures that allow for comparability across contexts.
    Keywords: empowerment, gender, women, indicators, qualitative research, emic perspectives, Women's empowerment,
    Date: 2019
  19. By: Gelli, Aulo; Gladstone, Melissa; Twalibu, Aisha; Nnensa, Theresa; Kariger, Patricia; Alderman, Harold
    Abstract: The Nutrition Embedded Evaluation Program Impact Evaluation (NEEP-IE) cluster randomized control trial (CRCT) aimed to assess the effectiveness of implementing an agriculture and nutritional intervention through preschools, known as community-based child care centres (CBCCs) in Malawi (6). This included; activities to promote nutritious food production and consumption, promotion of optimal feeding and caring practices and engagement with parents in pre-school meal planning and preparation. The NEEP-IE trial has demonstrated that CBCCs can be an effective platform to scale-up an integrated agriculture and nutrition intervention, and improve food production diversity, maternal knowledge, nutrition practices at household level and diets of pre-schoolers and their younger siblings, as well as improve linear growth in younger siblings aged 6-24m (7). This study presents the impact results of the NEEP-IE trial focusing on child development outcomes of pre-school children during a 12m intervention period.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, child development, impact assessment, preschool education, preschool children, behaviour changes, child care, diet, nutrition, behavior change communication,
    Date: 2019
  20. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan
    Abstract: Increased capital use in agriculture, including mechanization, is con-sidered an integral process of agricultural transformation. Despite some recent emergence of medium-to-large scale farmers in SSA, as well as labor-movement out of agricultural sector (particularly youths), smallholders without substantial mechanization have re-mained the majority in the agricultural sector in countries like Gha-na. Globally, mechanization has often been associated with large-scale farming given the complementarity between machine and land. The experiences in Asia in the last few decades, however, suggest that mechanization may grow even among smallholders before they transition into larger-scale farmers. These experiences have prompted the need to understand better how mechanization may be adopted by smallholders for whom the scope for exploiting complementarity between mechanization and land is limited. We test the hypotheses that high-yielding technologies, which potentially raise returns to more intensive farm power use, are im-portant drivers of adoptions of agricultural mechanization among smallholders at both extensive and intensive margins. We do so using the three rounds of repeated cross-sectional, nationally rep-resentative data (Ghana Living Standard Surveys (GLSS) 2006, 2013, 2017), as well as unique tractor-use data in Ghana collected by IFPRI and Savannah Agricultural Research Institute (IFPRI-SARI data), and multi-dimensional indicators of agroclimatic similarity with plant-breeding locations.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural mechanization, technology, equipment, tractors, machinery, agroclimatic similarity,
    Date: 2019
  21. By: Hoffmann, Vivian; Kagezi, Godfrey; Rwakazooba, Ezra; Zane, Giulia
    Abstract: Measuring yields accurately is critical for evaluating the impact of interventions that aim to increase ag-ricultural productivity. Self-reported survey data may be subject to social desirability bias, especially in the context of intervention-based studies. Further, farmers participating in training programs may put more effort into measuring their yield because they are interested in learning whether the new practices are effective, which could systematically bias their self-reports, compared to those of farmer not offered training. Therefore, it is often argued that field measurements such as crop cuttings and weighing are required for accurate measurement. In this note, we assess the suitability of allometric measurement for use in the context of large-scale data collection on coffee yields. We compare allometric yield estimates of Robusta coffee grown by smallholder farmers in Uganda with those obtained through a one-time harvest of both ripe and unripe cherries of a specified minimum size at the beginning of the fruiting season.
    Keywords: UGANDA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, Coffea, crop yield, yields, harvesting, allometry, measurement, agricultural productivity, smallholders, farmers, fruiting,
    Date: 2019
  22. By: Kosec, Katrina; Song, Jie
    Abstract: Our working paper, “The Effects of Income Fluctuations on Rural Health and Nutrition,†provides causal evidence on how the income fluctuations poor households confront across the globe influence health and nutrition outcomes across the life cycle. We use individual-level data from a 13-year, nationally-representative rotating panel survey of Kyrgyzstan to estimate the effects of fluctuations in the incomes of agriculture-dependent households on the heights and weights of young children (age 0–5) and on the incidence of overweight and obesity among children and adults. Our focus on departures of income from trend is distinct from analysis of the effects of long-term changes in income. It offers insight into how health responds to income fluctuations that are ubiquitous in developing countries rather than the impacts of global shifts in a country’s prosperity. We address the endogeneity of income to health and consumption using an instrumental variables approach; we instrument for income with predicted income, obtained using the household’s initial period share of income from six different revenue sources, agricultural production costs from two different sources (crop and livestock), and aggregate growth rates of each of these eight revenues and costs over time. We find that young children (age 0-5) exposed to reductions in income experienced reductions in height. At the same time, older children and adults saw decreases in BMI and—for adults—decreases in the incidence of overweight.
    Keywords: KYRGYZSTAN, CENTRAL ASIA, ASIA, income, rural communities, health, nutrition, household income, households, children, child nutrition, child development, malnutrition, income fluctuations, Kyrgyzstan Integrated Household Survey,
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Ambler, Kate; Jones, Kelly M.; O'Sullivan, Michael
    Abstract: In smallholder households that engage in commercial agriculture, women are often involved in the phys-ical labor related to the cash crop, but do not engage in the market-facing activities. As a result, men tend to control the profits from these crops, which are increasingly important to household livelihoods. The Farm and Family Balance project implemented an intervention that sought to mitigate this issue. The project encouraged households associated with a large sugar company near Jinja, Uganda to regis-ter at least one of their sugarcane blocks with the wife instead of the husband, thereby including her in the market activities associated with that block and giving her access to the block profits. Take-up of the intervention was high; 72% of households that were offered the opportunity chose to participate. The project was implemented as a randomized control trial to allow for the study of the impacts on house-holds. In this note, we provide information regarding the quality of the blocks transferred to women and the resulting changes to the company’s portfolio.
    Keywords: UGANDA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, gender, women, sugarcane, interventions, smallholders, agriculture, cash crops, crop production, women's participation,
    Date: 2019
  24. By: Bernard, Tanguy; Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.; Abate, Gashaw T.
    Abstract: Since 2014, Digital Green and the Government of Ethiopia have been piloting a video-mediated approach to agricultural extension provision. The approach aims to increase the growth rate of yields and output for major food staples by encouraging farmers to adopt productivity-enhancing agricultural technologies and practices. The video-mediated extension approach is highlighted by three integrated components: production of short, localized video content, screening videos in group sessions facilitated by extension agents, and verification of the uptake of the target technologies and practices. A key tenet of this approach is its ability to increase adoption rates at a relatively low cost per farmer.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, extension activities, innovation adoption, yields, productivity, capacity building, technology adoption, video technology,
    Date: 2019
  25. By: de Brauw, Alan; Waid, Jillian; Meisner, Craig A.; Akter, Fahmida; Khan, Bushra Ferdous; Alam, Nazmul
    Abstract: The national food system of Bangladesh has made substantial progress since experiencing famine in 1974, soon after independence. After the famine, the government placed a strong emphasis on policies required to attain grain self-sufficiency; since attaining self-sufficiency, the production system, policies related to it, and resulting diets have begun to diversify. Nonetheless, undernutrition remains a problem, and fruit and vegetable consumption are inadequate for most people relative to international recommendations. Moreover, as the food system has begun to transition towards a modern one, challenges related to food safety and perceived food adulteration have begun to rise. Further, increased processed food intakes are potentially associated with existing rising overweight and obesity status. Both government interventions and innovations are needed to help shift the national food system to improve nutrient-dense food availability, particularly among the poor, and to limit the increase in processed food consumption.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, food systems, health, diets, policies, malnutrition, food safety, processed foods, food consumption, food supply, healthy diets, food environment,
    Date: 2019
  26. By: Robertson, Richard D.
    Abstract: Understanding the global distribution of agricultural production provides valuable context for policymaking concerning development, wellbeing, and climate change. The IMPACT model generates broad regional aggregations of agricultural production and how much land would be needed, but a much more fine-grained picture would be helpful. The basic building blocks of such a companion system are presented here. Describing site specific land use and cropping choices as they are currently realized is a difficult proposition. Projecting them into the future is an even more challenging task. A key problem is that none of the simple “right†ways adequately mimic observed behavior. We present a mix of theoretical and heuristic approaches that bring together climate data, cost of access, and crop modeling results, to develop pixel level allocations of crops and natural lands consistent with economic simulations from the IMPACT model. We find that climate change is much more of a threat to natural land types than agricultural expansion into such locations.
    Keywords: GLOBAL, land use, land cover, geographical information systems, agricultural production, land use mapping, land cover mapping, climate change, land allocation, global modeling, linked economic models, IMPACT model,
    Date: 2019
  27. By: Cisneros Tersitsch, Marco Elías; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Nuryartono, Nunung
    Abstract: This paper studies the interactions between political and economic incentives to foster forest conversion in Indonesian districts. Using a district-level panel data set from 2001 to 2016, we analyze variation in remotely sensed forest loss and forest fires as well as measures of land use licensing. We link these outcomes to economic incentives to expand oil palm cultivation areas as well as political incentives arising before idiosyncratically-timed local mayoral elections. Empirical results document substantial increases in deforestation and forest fires in the year prior to local elections. Additionally, oil palm plays a crucial role in driving deforestation dynamics. Variations in global market prices of palm oil are closely linked to deforestation in areas which are geo-climatically best suited for growing oil palm and they amplify the importance of the political cycle. We thus find clear evidence for economic and political incentives reinforcing each other as drivers of forest loss and land conversion for oil palm cultivation.
    Keywords: deforestation,palm oil,local election cycles,Indonesia
    JEL: O13 Q15 Q56 P16
    Date: 2020
  28. By: Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Lagerkvist, Carl Johan (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Nordström, Jonas (AgriFood economics centre)
    Abstract: Active avoidance of information is gaining attention in behavioral sciences, and recently also its’ relevance from an economic theory perspective. We explore motivations and policy implications of active avoidance of carbon emission information. In a stated preference survey respondents were asked to indicate if they wished to access carbon emission information (info-takers) or not (info-decliners) when selecting protein source in a first stage. In a second stage all respondents were provided carbon emission information. The info-takers reduced their CO2-emissions from their food choices with 32%, while the info-decliners also reduced their CO2 emissions (12%). This provides evidence of active information avoidance among at least some info-decliners. We explore cognitive dissonance and responsibility feelings and personal norms as motivations for actively avoiding carbon emission information on meat products, and how these motivations affect the reaction if imposed information. Our results show that carbon emission information increases choice task uncertainty most among individuals that experience climate related cognitive dissonance and/or responsibility feelings. These findings point to the potential of carbon emission information as a measure for changing food consumption towards less carbon emitting products. The study also highlights the importance of how the information is provided and presented.
    Keywords: Climate label; information avoidance; cognitive dissonance; carbon emission reduction; consumer behavior; strategic avoidance
    JEL: D12 D83 Q18 Q54
    Date: 2020–03–12
  29. By: Glyn Wittwer; Michael D Young
    Abstract: This study starts by examining the background economic circumstances of the 2007 Water Act and the 2012 Murray Darling Basin Plan. During the 1990s, a competitive Australian dollar contributed to an expansion of some sectors in the Murray Darling Basin, notably wine grapes. From the turn of the millennium, two adverse background events brought difficulties for agriculture in the Basin. First, the millennium drought resulted in reduced irrigation water allocations and contributed to diminished dry-land productivity, notably in 2002-03 and from 2006-07 to 2008-09. Second, the Australian dollar appreciated markedly relative to levels of the 1990s in the wake of the mining boom. This diminished returns to agriculture. In the context of background difficulties, there were mixed responses in Basin communities to the Water Act (McCormick 2007). Some farmers embraced the financial option that arose from proposed buybacks, using proceeds as an opportunity to restructure or retire. Others regarded buybacks as a threat to the viability of Basin communities. Using TERM-H2O, a multi-regional CGE model of Basin regions, previous studies showed that the marginal impacts of buybacks are second-order relative to drought, and can even be positive. A change in political direction has resulted in a suspension of water buybacks, regarded by economists as the cheapest mechanism to increase environmental flows. The Basin Plan is at present concentrating on infrastructure upgrades. An updated version of TERM-H2O shows that a $4 billion program on upgrades between 2020 and 2024 to procure almost 500 GL of water for the environment would result in a net present value (NPV) welfare loss of $1.1 billion. The investment in upgrades increases jobs in the Basin by around 1000 relative to no investment for each of the five years of upgrades. Thereafter, Basin jobs increase by around 100 relative to no upgrades, based on estimated productivity gains arising from the upgrades. This study also models the marginal impacts of increased public spending of $4 billion over 10 years on services in the Basin. This is treated as a substitute for infrastructure upgrades. In this scenario, the same volume of water rights, almost 500 GL, is set aside for environmental purposes. Each dollar spent on education, health and community services creates four times as many jobs as spending on infrastructure upgrades. That is, jobs in the Basin rise relative to base by between 1,800 and 2,100 over the decade of additional spending. The NPV of the welfare loss is $0.125 billion.
    Keywords: irrigation reforms environmental flows, regional economic impacts
    JEL: Q15 C68
    Date: 2020–03
  30. By: Mar Heisen A. Yanos (Isabela State University, San Mateo, Isabela,3318, Philippines Author-2-Name: Rosalie C. Leal Author-2-Workplace-Name: Isabela State University, San Mateo, Isabela,3318, Philippines Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This study assesses the impact of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a source of income among San Mateo folks. More specifically, this study aims to measure the benefits of respondents derived from mungbean as a source or additional income and the creation of a database of the generated activities, employment and innovative projects from mungbean.Methodology/Technique - The respondents of the study were 100 mungbean growers that were randomly selected within San Mateo. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and focus group discussion and was analyzed using frequency and percentage.Findings - The data analysis reveals that mungbean farming generates both income and employment. The findings also reveal that a return of investment of 132.66% per hectare can be generated in producing mungbean.Novelty - This study aims to validate the economic impact of mungbean production among the people in San Mateo, Isabela. It is also the goal of this study to analyze how the production of mungbean helps increase employment in the community. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Mungbean; Assessment; San Mateo; Productivity; Farmers.
    JEL: Q12 Q14
    Date: 2020–03–30
  31. By: Ambler, Kate; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Labarta, Ricardo; Maredia, Mywish; Scollard, Phoebe
    Abstract: Rapidly growing populations in sub-Saharan Africa have resulted in a focus by both policy-makers and researchers on understanding and creating employment opportunities for youth. While most attention has focused on jobs outside the agricultural sector, the persistent importance of agriculture in African economies means that the sector cannot be ignored when considering new employment opportunities. A large portion of existing work has made use of Living Standard Measurement Surveys (LSMS) and oth-ers of similar structure and design to describe employment patterns, by focusing on the distinction be-tween on- and off-farm labor, and household enterprises versus hired or wage labor.
    Keywords: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, employment, agrifood systems, employees, labour market, households, data, measurement, agri-food systems, Living Standard Measurement Surveys (LSMS),
    Date: 2019
  32. By: Abate, Gashaw T.; Baye, Kaleab; de Brauw, Alan; Hirvonen, Kalle
    Abstract: This pilot experiment aims to address the knowledge gaps on the nutrition and health benefits of fruits and vegetables to help find ways to increase both consumption frequency and amounts at the house-hold level. While there are already commendable efforts in the country to improve overall nutrition knowledge through behavioral change communication, so far, the interventions focus on rural areas and are limited to conveying recommended behaviors with little or no emphasis on the mechanisms by which diet quality can improve nutrition and health outcomes. This experiment will be the first of its kind to introduce systematic nutrition behavioral change communication in urban Ethiopia with an enhanced intervention to communicate the mechanisms through which the consumption of fruits and vegetables can lead to better nutrition and health outcomes.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, fruit, vegetables, urban areas, non-communicable disease, food consumption, technology, nutrition, video communication,
    Date: 2019
  33. By: Masset, Edoardo; Gelli, Aulo; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Diallo, Amadou Sekou
    Abstract: Our paper aims to investigating the impact of conflict on population displacement, agricultural production and agricultural assets, and the mitigating effect of food aid. The paper is structured in the following way. In the next section we provide a description of the survey data used in the analysis. Section 3 describes the interplay of conflict and emergency aid in the area. Section 4 analyses the impact of conflict on agriculture, while section 5 investigates to what extent emergency aid mitigated the negative impact of conflict on agriculture. Section 6 discusses the limitations of the study and suggests some potential future lines of research.
    Keywords: MALI, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agriculture, conflicts, migration, agricultural production, food aid, emergency relief, population displacement, emergency aid,
    Date: 2019
  34. By: Laborde,David; Lakatos,Csilla; Martin,William J.
    Abstract: In the event of large swings in world food prices, countries often intervene to dampen the impact of international food price spikes on domestic prices and to lessen the burden of adjustment on vulnerable population groups. While individual countries can succeed at insulating their domestic markets from short-term fluctuations in global food prices, the collective intervention of many countries may exacerbate the volatility of world prices. Insulating policies introduced during the 2010-11 food price spike may have accounted for 40 percent of the increase in the world price of wheat and one-quarter of the increase in the world price of maize. Combined with government policy responses, the 2010-11 food price spike tipped 8.3 million people (nearly 1 percent of the world's poor) into poverty.
    Keywords: Inequality,International Trade and Trade Rules,Food Security,Macroeconomic Management,Nutrition
    Date: 2019–02–05
  35. By: Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.; Abate, Gashaw T.; Bernard, Tanguy
    Abstract: The application of digital tools to agricultural extension and advisory services has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Among the many advantages it offers is the ability to capture and analyze large amounts of data on farmers, their farms, crops, and fields; and the choices they make about input use, technologies, management practices, and marketing.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural extension, data collection, monitoring techniques, innovation adoption, Information and Communication Technologies (icts), technology adoption, household survey data, video technology,
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Boffa,Mauro; Varela,Gonzalo J.
    Abstract: This paper examines patterns of market integration for food commodities in India. First, it tests the extent of domestic spatial market integration for retail and wholesale markets in 2006?14 and 2008?15, respectively, and looks at patterns of price transmission of shocks from international sources. Second, it measures vertical integration from wholesale to retail markets and tests for asymmetric speed of adjustment to shocks. Third, it examines the determinants of spatial integration. The results reveal that in India, food markets are imperfectly integrated across space, with the law of one price being systematically rejected, with heterogeneities across states and products. There is substantial co-movement between wholesale and retail prices, although integration is still imperfect in all commodities but one: rice, for which perfect vertical integration cannot be rejected. Retail prices adjust faster when wholesale prices rise than when wholesale prices fall. The analysis of the determinants of spatial integration reveals that prior to implementation of the Goods and Services Tax, the mere act of crossing a state border increased prices; unexploited gains from arbitrage persisted after considering the effects of transport costs; and information frictions and menu costs reduced market integration.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Transport Services,Trade and Services,Hydrology,Food Security
    Date: 2019–02–25
  37. By: Babu, Suresh Chandra; Sah, Ram Pratap
    Abstract: This paper aims to address the status and challenges of agriculture research and extension and their linkages in Nepal. Agriculture plays a vital role in Nepal’s economy, employment, and livelihoods, contributing nearly 33 percent to gross domestic product, 66 percent to employment, and 50 percent to exports. Despite the government of Nepal’s (GON’s) priority and policy supports for more than two decades, the growth of agriculture has been very slow (less than 3.0 percent), mainly due to inadequate access to demand-driven technologies and extension services and to inputs, credits, markets, and incentives. Dynamic agriculture research and extension systems are instrumental for bringing transformations in agriculture.
    Keywords: NEPAL, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, agricultural extension, agricultural research, advisory services, agricultural extension systems, agricultural development, public-private cooperation, agricultural research systems, institutional reform, agricultural transformation,
    Date: 2019
  38. By: Zhang, Huaqi; Chen, Kevin
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide a better understanding of Myanmar’s agricultural export performance against its competitors in different regions and determine the policy actions for improving Myanmar’s export performance. The normalized revealed comparative advantage (NRCA) index is computed to compare the agricultural competitiveness between Myanmar and its competitors from 2007 to 2016. The results show that: 1) Myanmar’s agricultural export sector enjoys comparative advantage in the global market, but it is not competitive when compared with its major competitors; 2) Myanmar reveals a high level of NRCAs in black gram & pigeon peas, natural rubber, sesame seeds, rice, and frozen fish, while it has low NRCAs in crustaceans and dried fruits; and reveals no comparative advantage in bananas, fish fillets, maize, nuts, and watermelon in certain years. Three major policy implications are drawn, including diversifying Myanmar’s export portfolio, strengthening export promotion and development, and attracting foreign direct investment to upgrade the cross-border value chain.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, trade, agricultural trade, exports, performance, agricultural export, competitiveness, revealed comparative advantage,
    Date: 2019
  39. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan; Nguyen, Cuong Van; Masias, Ian
    Abstract: Vietnam has experienced rapid growth in agricultural mechani-zation lately; particularly in the use of tractors and combine-harvesters. A recent IFPRI study documented the evolution of the growth of mechanization in Vietnam based on an extensive review of the existing literature and several rounds of a nationally repre-sentative household survey. The level of tractor use in Vietnam was relatively high in the 1970s and the early 1980s but declined through the late-1980s before it started taking off again in the 1990s. The relatively high level of tractor uses up to the early-1980s were partly due to political and military reasons, as both the West and the Soviet Union gave substantial support in providing heavy machinery, including tractors. In this note, we focus on the evolution of mechanization from 1990s to 2000s.
    Keywords: VIET NAM, VIETNAM, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, agricultural mechanization, tractors, combine harvesters, private sector, machinery industry, farm size, food security, technology, hiring service providers,
    Date: 2019
  40. By: Hoffmann, Vivian; Baral, Siddhartha
    Abstract: The right to safe food is enshrined in the Kenyan constitution. Through their jurisdiction over matters of agriculture – specifically crop and animal husbandry, abattoirs, and veterinary services – and health, including the licensing and control of undertakings that sell food to the public, county governments in Kenya have a critical role to play in meeting this obligation to their citizens. Food safety has ‘public good’ characteristics and requires sufficient public investment. Appropriate budgetary allocation for food safety investments, requires that county governments understand the current costs of foodborne disease (FBD), as well as the gains they could achieve through improved public capacity to manage food safety risks. However, due to limited availability of data attributing ill-health to specific causes, as well as general under-reporting of health complaints to medical systems, estimates of the health and economic costs of foodborne disease (FBD) in Kenya exist only at the national level. In the context of devolution, the lack of county-specific estimates constitutes a barrier to effective policy-making regarding the control of FBD. In this study, we combine recent national estimates of the health burden attributable to FBD from the World Health Organization (WHO) with county-level data on diarrhea rates to estimate the health and economic burdens of FBD for Murang’a, Laikipia, Nakuru, Nyandarua, and Nairobi counties.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, foodborne diseases, public investment, food safety, health, diarrhoea, costs, child health, diarrheal disease, foodborne diarrheal disease, maternal health,
    Date: 2019
  41. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yanyan
    Abstract: The agricultural sector in developing countries including those in South Asia, like Nepal, faces dual challenges of the persistent dominance of smallholder-based farming, and at the same time, rising labor costs due partly to growing non-farm sectors. The underlying factors that lead to the co-existence of these seemingly conflicting patterns are not yet clear. However, an important consequence is that inclusive agricultural transformation requires increased agricultural capital use like machines among these smallholders that remain in the agricultural sector. Studying the experiences in lowland Nepal (Terai zone) which has seen significant growth in tractor use since the mid-90s, despite the continuous decrease in average farm size, offers useful insights into what induce the adoptions of mechanization among smallholders who naturally lack the scope for exploiting the scale economies due to complementarity between machine and land. We test the hypotheses that high-yielding technologies, which potentially raise returns to more intensive farm power use, are important drivers of adoptions of agricultural mechanization among smallholders. We do so by using two-rounds of Agricultural Census data in Nepal, as well as Nepal Living Standard Survey (NLSS), and indicators of agroclimatic similarity with plant-breeding locations within Nepal.
    Keywords: NEPAL, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agricultural mechanization, technology, farm size, tractors, equipment, machinery, agroclimatic similarity,
    Date: 2019
  42. By: Hoffmann, Vivian; Grace, Delia; Lindahl, Johanna; Mutua, Florence; Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mutegi, Charity; Herrman, Tim
    Abstract: Aflatoxin is a poisonous substance produced by a fungus, Aspergillus flavus, that occurs naturally in soils of cultivated and non-cultivated areas. The fungus commonly produces the toxin in maize, groundnut, and other staple grains and vegetables, and is especially prevalent in Africa. When animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin, milk and (at very low levels) meat, fish and eggs, can also be contam-inated. This note brings together recent research from the CGIAR and others on technologies for aflatoxin control in Africa and provides recommendations for catalyzing their adoption.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, technology, aflatoxins, health, maize, groundnuts, contamination, livestock, subsidies, food safety, biological control, aflatoxin control,
    Date: 2019
  43. By: Nicholls,Robert John; Hinkel,Jochen; Lincke,Daniel; van der Pol,Thomas
    Abstract: Sea-level rise threatens low-lying areas around the world's coasts with increased coastal flooding during storms. One response to this challenge is to build or upgrade coastal flood defenses. This report examines the potential investment costs of such an adaptation strategy applied globally over the 21st century for sea-level rise scenarios consistent with three Representative Concentration Pathways and 3 Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. For all the protection models considered, much less than half of the world's coast is protected. The total defense costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates, amounting to as much as US$18.3 trillion. With cost-benefit analysis, there are large uncertainties and empirical observations of protection standards are limited. Hence, the estimates should be considered as indicative, and this remains an important topic for future research. Further, building defenses is not a one-off capital investment. Over the 21st century, the cost of a comprehensive protection strategy is dominated by maintenance costs in all the cases considered in this report. This indicates that in addition to capital investment, the development of appropriate institutions and governance mechanisms to deliver maintenance, as well as the necessary funding streams, are essential for such a protection-based adaptation strategy to be effective.
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change,Hydrology,Natural Disasters,Energy and Natural Resources,Coastal and Marine Resources,Ecosystems and Natural Habitats,Wetlands
    Date: 2019–02–19
  44. By: Mikou,Mehdi; Rozenberg,Julie; Koks,Elco Eduard; Fox,Charles James Edward; Peralta Quiros,Tatiana
    Abstract: Rural accessibility is the only metric used in the Sustainable Development Goals to track progress toward better transport services in low- and middle-income countries. This paper estimates the rural accessibility index, defined as the proportion of the rural population who live within 2 kilometers of an all-season road, in 166 countries using open data. It then explores the cost of increasing the rural accessibility index in 19 countries, using an algorithm that prioritizes rural roads investments based on their impact on rural access and connectivity. Investment costs quickly balloon as the rural accessibility index increases, questioning the affordability of universal access to paved roads for many countries by 2030. If countries spent 1 percent of their gross domestic product annually on the upgrade of rural roads, even under optimistic assumptions on growth of gross domestic product, rural accessibility would only increase from 39 to 52 percent by 2030 across all developing countries. Alternative solutions to rural integration must thus be implemented in the short run until countries can afford to increase significantly access to all weather roads. For example, drones that supply regular food and medicine supply to remote communities are much more affordable than roads in the short term.
    Keywords: Rural Transport,Rural Roads&Transport,Intelligent Transport Systems,Hazard Risk Management,Global Environment Facility,Biodiversity
    Date: 2019–02–19
  45. By: Megha Sud
    Abstract: This paper reviews the impacts and costs of pesticide and fertiliser pollution as well as the policy responses to counter these in selected OECD countries. More specifically, the paper begins with an overview of the main biodiversity and health impacts of excess pesticide and fertiliser. In economic terms, nitrogen pollution, for example, has been estimated to cost the European Union between EUR 70 billion and EUR 320 billion per year. The paper also provides an overview of the trends in both pesticide sales (per 1000 ha of agricultural land area), and pesticide use (in tonnes of active ingredients), as well as soil nutrient balances in OECD countries before reviewing policy instruments available to promote more sustainable fertiliser and pesticide use. Case studies of specific policy responses used to address adverse impacts of pesticides including in Denmark and France are presented along with case studies of policies to counter nutrient pollution in Denmark, Japan and the United States. Based on the literature review and case studies, the paper concludes with policy insights and recommendations.
    Keywords: agricultural policy, biodiversity conservation, ecological economics, ecosystem services, environment & development, government policy
    JEL: Q24 Q57 Q58 H23
    Date: 2020–03–13
  46. By: Diallo, Souleymane Sadio; Fofana, Ismaël; Diallo, Mariam Amadou
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of agricultural investment to the achievement of Côte d'Ivoire's development objectives. More specifically, it aims to analyze the extent to which the implementation of the National Agricultural Investment Programme can contribute to the achievement of the objectives and targets of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the African Union's Agenda 2063. The methodological used combines a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and a microsimulation model to assess the impact of agricultural investment options on different outcomes related to the different agendas above. The simulation results indicate that the implementation of the NAIP would enable Côte d'Ivoire to make significant progress and achieve some of the CAADP, SDGs and the African union’s 2063 Agenda’s targets. Thus, the country could achieve investment targets by slightly exceeding the 10% share of public expenditure in total government expenditure and a significant increase in private investment in agriculture. This progress in terms of investment could result in an acceleration of agricultural growth so that Côte d'Ivoire's agricultural GDP would increase at a growth rate above the target of 6% per year. It would also make it possible to achieve several SDGs by 2030, as well as certain targets of the African Union's Agenda 2063. However, despite progress in terms of productivity in some segments of the agricultural value chain, the fight against poverty will remain a major challenge that the country will not be able to meet.
    Keywords: COTE D'IVOIRE, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural development, economic development, development plans, poverty, Sustainable Development Goals, National Agricultural Investment Programme,
    Date: 2020
  47. By: Schmidt, Emily; Namusoke, Hanifa; Temple, Victor J.; Codling, Karen; Rudert, Christiane; Holtemeyer, Brian; Benson, Todd
    Abstract: Dietary iodine deficiency results in stunted physical and mental growth in children. Fortifying commercial household salt with a small but adequate amount of iodine is the principal strategy used globally to prevent iodine deficiency. However, there may be barriers to consuming adequately iodized salt for many rural households in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Using results from a rural household survey conducted in four areas of the country in 2018 that was administered to just over 1,000 households, two issues related to salt iodization in PNG are examined. First, only about 9 percent of survey households reported that they did not consume iodized table salt in the seven days prior to being interviewed for the survey. However, specific characteristics are associated with such households. They tend to be located in remote communities, are in the poorest 20 percent of survey households, have no members who received any formal education, and have experienced recent food insecurity. Particularly for remote households, ensuring that their members consume sufficient iodine will require going beyond salt iodization to use other approaches to iodine supplementation. Second, of the samples of salt obtained from the survey households, the iodine content of two-thirds fell within the PNG regulations, a reasonably encouraging finding. Only about 17 percent of the almost 800 samples obtained had inadequate iodine. However, when the salt samples were examined by brand, it was found that the brand most commonly consumed had the highest share of samples with inadequate iodine levels. Closer monitoring of the iodine content in table salt produced or imported into PNG and enforcement of salt iodization regulations is required.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, OCEANIA, iodized salt, rural areas, iodine deficiency, health, diet, common salt, micronutrient deficiencies,
    Date: 2019
  48. By: Babu, Suresh Chandra; De Pinto, Alessandro; Paul, Namita
    Abstract: The frequency of natural disasters, especially storms and floods, has been increasing globally over the last several decades. Developing countries are especially vulnerable to such disasters but are often the least capable of coping with the associated impacts because of their limited adaptive capacity. Despite the increased interest in strengthening institutional capacity, it remains a challenge for many developing countries. Institutional capacity for disaster management and risk reduction can be built through various mechanisms. One key approach is via the agriculture sector, where climate-resilient agriculture has become an effective tool for adapting to climate change and developing resilience in the long run – resulting in increased capacity for disaster management and risk reduction at the system, institutional, and individual levels. This paper presents the experiences of four countries, which we have evaluated to develop an institutional strengthening framework.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, INDIA, VIET NAM, VIETNAM, SOUTH EAST ASIA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, disaster risk management, disaster risk reduction, climate, resilience, institutional development, climate-smart agriculture, capacity strengthening, institutional capacity, climate resilient agriculture,
    Date: 2019
  49. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Jensen, Nathaniel D.
    Abstract: Despite several studies showing the effect of access to markets and weather conditions on crop production, we know quite little on whether and how livestock production systems respond to variation in weather risk and access to markets. In this paper, we study whether and how livestock production responds to access to markets and varying weather risk. We also explore whether such responses vary across livelihood zones and livestock production systems. We study these research questions using information on the livestock production, ownership, and marketing decisions of households in Ethiopia. We find that households living close to markets are more likely to engage in market-oriented livestock production and use modern livestock inputs. We also find that households exposed to more unpredictable weather are less likely to engage in livestock production for markets. Rather, they are more likely to engage in livestock production for precautionary savings and insurance. Furthermore, greater rainfall uncertainty influences livestock portfolio allocation towards those types of livestock which can be easily liquidated, while also discouraging investment in modern livestock inputs. However, these responses and patterns vary across livelihood zones and production systems - most of these stylized responses and impacts are more pronounced in the arid and semi-arid lands of Ethiopia, where livestock herding remains a dominant source of livelihood. Those households relying only on livestock production seem more sensitive and responsive to weather risk and weather shocks. The heterogeneity in responses to and impacts of weather risk among farming systems and livelihoods highlights the need for more tailored livestock sector policies and interventions.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; livestock; livestock production; weather; risk; market access; marketing; portfolio allocation
    Date: 2020

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