nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒03‒16
fifty-five papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Women’s empowerment and crop diversification in Bangladesh: A possible pathway to climate change adaptation and better nutrition: By De Pinto, Alessandro; Seymour, Gregory; Bryan, Elizabeth; Bhandary, Prapti
  2. Agriculture and undernutrition through the lens of economics: By Headey, Derek D.; Masters, William A.
  3. Exploring transformational adaptation strategy through rice policy reform in the Philippines: By Pradesha, Angga; Robinson, Sherman; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Perez, Nicostrato; Thomas, Timothy S.
  4. Empowering smallholder farmers’ organizations through non-public extension service providers: A case study and lessons from Mozambique By Gêmo, Hélder R.; Babu, Suresh Chandra
  5. Sustainable land management and its effects on water security and poverty: Evidence from a watershed intervention program in Ethiopia By Kato, Edward; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Tiruneh, Solomon; Ringler, Claudia
  6. Landownership and the gender gap in agriculture: Disappointing insights from Northern Ghana: By Yokying, Phanwin; Lambrecht, Isabel
  7. Agrarian Economy and Rural Development - Realities and Perspectives for Romania By Ursu, Ana
  8. Household dietary patterns and the cost of a nutritious diet in Myanmar: By Mahrt, Kristi; Mather, David; Herforth, Anna; Headey, Derek D.
  9. Dairy contract farming in Bangladesh: Implications for welfare and food safety: By Islam, Abu Hayat Md. Saiful; Roy, Devesh; Kumar, Anjani; Tripathi, Gaurav; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
  10. Building a climate change-resilient food system in Korea: The case of extension and technology dissemination services: By Won, Jieun; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rana, Akriti
  11. Climate-smart villages: key to a sustainable future in rural communities By Ferrer, Alice Joan de la Gente
  12. Drivers of the Bangladesh fish economy: Projections of future fish supply and demand: By Comstock, Andrew; Dorosh, Paul A.
  13. Reforming agricultural support for improved environmental outcomes: By Mamun, Abdullah; Martin, Will; Tokgoz, Simla
  14. Does Agricultural Value Added Induce Environmental Degradation? Empirical Evidence from an Agrarian Country By Mary O. Agboola; Festus V. Bekun
  15. IoT-enabled farms and climate-adaptive agriculture technologies: Investment lessons from Singapore By Montesclaros, Jose Ma. Luis; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Teng, Paul S.
  16. Adoption of agricultural technologies in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia: A Panel Data Analysis By Gebru, Menasbo; Holden , Stein T.; Alfnes, Frode
  17. Is there a market for multi-peril crop insurance in developing countries moving beyond subsidies? Evidence from India: By Ghosh, Ranjan Kumar; Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Vartika; Ward, Patrick S.
  18. Does greater food safety consciousness benefit smallholder dairy farmers? Evidence from Nepal: By Thapa, Ganesh; Kumar, Anjani; Roy, Devesh; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
  19. Dynamics in agricultural extension services provision in Malawi: Insights from two rounds of household and community panel surveys: By Ragasa, Catherine; Comstock, Andrew
  20. Estimating financing gaps in rice production in southwestern Nigeria: By Ojo, Temitope O.; Ogundeji, Abiodun A.; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Alimi, Taiwo
  21. Agricultural households' adaptation to weather shocks in Sub-Saharan Africa: What implications for land-use change and deforestation By Philippe Delacote; Julia Girard; Antoine Leblois
  22. Poverty prevalence and correlates of household expenditure in four lowland areas of rural Papua New Guinea: By Schmidt, Emily; Gilbert, Rachel; Holtemeyer, Brian; Mahrt, Kristi
  23. Education Spillovers in Farm Productivity : Revisiting the Evidence By Gille,Veronique
  24. Adoption of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices with background risk: experimental evidence By Lefebvre, Marianne; Midler, Estelle; Bontems, Philippe
  25. The impact of India’s farm science centers (Krishi Vigyan Kendras) on farm households’ economic welfare: Evidence from a national farmers survey: By Kumar, Anjani; Singh, A. K.; Saroj, Sunil; Madhavan M., Misha; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
  26. Gender and agricultural mechanization: A mixed-methods exploration of the impacts of multi-crop reaper-harvester service provision in Bangladesh: By Theis, Sophie; Krupnik, Timothy J.; Sultana, Nasrin; Rahman, Syed-Ur; Seymour, Gregory; Abedin, Naveen
  27. Australia can be a superpower in a low-carbon world economy By Garnaut, Ross
  28. Intrahousehold preference heterogeneity and demand for labor-saving agricultural technology: The case of mechanical rice transplanting in India: By Gulati, Kajal; Ward, Patrick S.; Lybbert, Travis J.; Spielman, David J.
  29. Role of farmers' risk and ambiguity preferences on fertilization decisions: An experiment By Camille Tevenart; Marielle Brunette
  30. Fossil fuel resources, decarbonization, and economic growth drive the feasibility of Paris climate targets By Vivek Srikrishnan; Yawen Guan; Klaus Keller; Richard S.J. Tol
  31. Evaluating the welfare effects of nonfarm enterprises on rural households in Papua New Guinea By Schmidt, Emily; Rosenbach, Gracie; Mueller, Valerie
  32. Empowerment in agricultural value chains: Mixed methods evidence from the Philippines: By Malapit, Hazel J.; Ragasa, Catherine; Martinez, Elena M.; Rubin, Deborah; Seymour, Gregory; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  33. Negotiating agricultural trade in a new policy environment: By Glauber, Joseph W.
  34. Transformation and sources of growth in Southeast Asian agriculture: By Birthal, Pratap S.; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Roy, Devesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam
  35. Food system innovations for healthier diets in low and middle-income countries By de Brauw, Alan; Van den berg, Marrit; Brouwer, Inge D.; Snoek, Harriette; Vignola, Raffaele; Melesse, Mequanint B.; Lochetti, Gaia; Van Wagenberg, Coen; Lundy, Mark; Maître d'Hôtel, Eloide; Ruben, Ruerd
  36. Weathering the ‘perfect storm’: transforming cities into water catchments and urban farms By Noyce, Marc
  37. How Big is the “Lemons” Problem? Historical Evidence from French Wines By Mérel, Pierre; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Paroissien, Emmanuel
  38. Relative Prices and Climate Policy: How the Scarcity of Non-Market Goods Drives Policy Evaluation By Moritz A. Drupp; Martin C. Hänsel
  39. Domestic versus export-led agricultural transformation: Evidence from Uganda’s dairy value chain: By Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Minten, Bart; Swinnen, Johan
  40. Food Prices, Access to Markets and Child Undernutrition in Ethiopia By Brenton,Paul; Nyawo,Mike
  41. Can local products compete against imports in West Africa? Supply-and demand-side perspectives on chicken, rice, and tilapia in Accra, Ghana: By Andam, Kwaw S.; Ragasa, Catherine; Asante, Seth; Amewu, Sena
  42. Weather dataset choice introduces uncertainty to estimates of crop yield responses to climate variability and change: By Parkes, Ben; Higginbottom, Thomas P.; Hufken, Koen; Ceballos, Francisco; Kramer, Berber; Foster, Timothy
  43. Influence Of Climate Change On The Corn Yield In Ontario And Its Impact On Corn Farms Income At The 2068 Horizon By Antoine Kornprobst; Matt Davison
  44. Country-Level Climate-Crop Yield Relationships and the Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security By Brennan McLachlan; G. Cornelis van Kooten; Zehan Zheng
  45. Trend and Forecasting Analysis on Climate Variability: A case of Nepal By Bista, Raghu
  46. Designing Innovative Management for Cultivated Biodiversity: Lessons from a Pioneering Collaboration between French Farmers, Facilitators and Researchers around Participatory Bread Wheat Breeding By Elsa Berthet; Sara Bosshardt; Lise Malicet-Chebbah; Gaëlle van Frank; Benoit Weil; Blanche Segrestin; Pierre Riviere; Léa Bernard; Elodie Baritaux; Isabelle Goldringer
  47. What is the intrinsic value of fertilizer? Experimental value elicitation and decomposition in the hill and terai regions of Nepal By Ward, Patrick S.; Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Vartika; Ortega, David L.; Gautam, Shriniwas; Guerena, David; Shrestha, Rudra Bahadur
  48. Subsidies and Agricultural Productivity: CAP payments and labour productivity (convergence) in EU agriculture By Maria Garrone; Dorien Emmers; Alessandro Olper; Jo Swinnen
  49. The Million Farmers School: An evaluation of its impact on farmers’ agricultural knowledge in Uttar Pradesh, India: By Kumar, Anjani; Verma, Smriti; Prasad, Amit Mohan; Kishore, Avinash; Saroj, Sunil
  50. Nutrition sensitive food system: Policy analysis and investment framework for Myanmar: By Babu, Suresh Chandra
  51. Economic growth, convergence and agricultural economics: By Martin, Will
  52. Information, technology, and market rewards: Incentivizing aflatoxin control in Ghana: By Magnan, Nicholas; Hoffmann, Vivian; Garrido, Gissele; Kanyam, Faniel Akwasi; Opoku, Nelson
  53. From index to indemnity insurance using digital technology: Demand for picture-based crop insurance: By Ceballos, Francisco; Kramer, Berber
  54. Weathering and halting the perfect storm: food system solutions By Campbell, Bruce
  55. Child development and obesity prevention: evidence from the Chilean School Meals Program By Caro, Juan Carlos

  1. By: De Pinto, Alessandro; Seymour, Gregory; Bryan, Elizabeth; Bhandary, Prapti
    Abstract: The existing literature shows that climate change will likely affect several of the dimensions that determine people’s food security status in Bangladesh, from crop production to the availability of food products and their accessibility. Crop diversification represents a farm-level response that reduces exposure to climate-related risks and it has also been shown to increase diet diversity and contribute to the reduction in micronutrient deficiencies. In fact, the Government of Bangladesh has several policies in place that encourage and support agricultural diversification. However, despite this support the level of crop diversification in the country remains low. Women empowerment has been linked to diversified diets and positively associated with better child nutrition outcomes. Furthermore, although traditionally their role in agriculture tends to be undervalued, women involvement has already been shown to affect agricultural production choices and enhance technical efficiency. This paper connects three different areas of inquiry - climate change, gender and nutrition – by exploring whether women’s empowerment in agricultural production leads to increased diversification in the use of farmland. Specifically, we use a series of econometric techniques to evaluate whether there is sufficient evidence to claim that a higher levels of empowerment lead to greater diversity in the allocation of farmland to agricultural crops. Our results reveal that indeed some aspects of women empowerment, but not all, lead to a more diversified use of farmland and to a transition for cereal production to other uses like vegetables and fruits. These findings provide some possible pathways for gender-sensitive interventions that promote crop diversity as a risk management tool and as a way to improve the availability of nutritious crops.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, empowerment, gender, women, nutrition, diversification, climate change,
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Headey, Derek D.; Masters, William A.
    Abstract: Agricultural development has historically focused on poverty reduction and food security but is now increasingly asked to help improve nutrition. Despite this strengthened nutritional mandate, agricultural policies and programs have struggled to develop effective, scalable and cost-effective approaches for reducing undernutrition. This study was therefore undertaken to assess more the more strategic issue of how to re-design agricultural development strategies for greater nutritional impact. To do so we review the literature on agriculture-nutrition linkages through an economic lens, focusing on systemic agriculture-nutrition linkages that go beyond the much-explored question of how a farm family’s agricultural activities affect their own household members’ food consumption or nutrition outcomes. To that end we structured this review around three types of linkages between agriculture and nutrition: (i) agricultural income effects (including income stability); (ii) relative food price determination (including the shadow prices involved in consuming one’s own production); and (iii) agricultural livelihood characteristics (encompassing the many neglected dimensions of agricultural activities and rural livelihoods that influence nutrition and health). For each of these literatures we reflect upon relevant economic theory, methodological challenges, and key empirical evidence. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of these findings for developing more nutrition-sensitive agricultural development strategies.
    Keywords: agriculture, food policy, nutrition, income, food prices, livelihoods, agricultural development, economic development, economic growth,
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Pradesha, Angga; Robinson, Sherman; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Perez, Nicostrato; Thomas, Timothy S.
    Abstract: The Philippines is much more prone to climate change effects than are many other countries. The potential impact on the agriculture sector is of particular concern, given its vital role in the economy and for vulnerable households. Most research warns of the negative impact of climate change on yields for major cereal crops, which could threaten food security and hinder the long-run development process. Incremental adaptation through the introduction of new crop varieties, improved agricultural management practices, and more efficient irrigation are expected to reduce yield losses. However, efforts to promote systemwide adjustment would have broader effects, especially as the risk of climate change increases. This study proposes a new approach for adaptation strategies by exploring policy reform in agriculture as a transformative way to help economic agents adapt to climate change. We specifically explore the rice policy reform currently being pursued by the government through the abolishment of the rice quota program. We find this reform could help transform the agricultural and economic system by allowing scarce resources move from low- to high-productivity sectors, thus increasing the country’s adaptive capacity. However, the rice farmer and vulnerable groups that are prone to climate shocks are adversely affected by the policy. Thus, we introduce alternative intervention policies to complement the reform agenda by providing a cash transfers program to vulnerable groups or a subsidy to support rice farmers. Both offer less impact in economic efficiency gains, but the cash transfer program is superior in terms of supporting the vulnerable group in coping with climate change under the rice reform policy. This shows that the transformational adaptation strategy may create a welfare loss to certain agents but that adding government intervention could act as the second-best policy and become a transition pathway before the whole system transforms to reach the optimal efficiency point when the intervention program is eventually phased out.
    Keywords: PHILIPPINES, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, climate change, rice, food security, food prices, agricultural policies, food policies, transformational adaptation, rice policy, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, policy reform,
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Gêmo, Hélder R.; Babu, Suresh Chandra
    Abstract: The role and impact of non-state extension services providers have not been studied adequately. In this paper, we assess the performance of the non-State extension service provision through farmers organization (FOs) in Mozambique. Using participating methods, focused group discussions, and key informant interviews, we provide an assessment of extension services provision to FOs. The result indicates only 3% of the 1264 surveyed FOs were categorized as "type A", the highest FOs rating scale used by services providers (SPs) in the three regions of the country. Effective monitoring and evaluation (regular, analytical, participatory) at field level and close working interaction between the Public Agricultural Extension Services (PAES) and the SPs were of paramount importance to track the progress made in empowering the FOs. SPs' pro-activeness and competence were critical factors to adequately address the various training needs of the different categories of FOs and local services providers. SPs' financial autonomy was key to compensate for the delays in the disbursements by the PAES. The selection criteria for the participating farmers (trainees) from targeted FOs makes a difference. Younger and more literate farmers (including women) have shown greater motivation and engagement in the training sessions. Outsourcing can be a valuable alternative for the provision of extension services if it targets specific intervention areas (for example, training for FOs), a limited number of activities, well-defined deliverables (including quality and sustainability issues) and timelines. Post-training (and post-project) actions at the policy level and extension services providers are required to contribute to the sustainability of the investment made. Based on these findings, the paper documents several operational lessons from the implementation of the program.
    Keywords: MOZAMBIQUE, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural extension, training, farmers organizations, extension programs, extension approaches, smallholders, extension policies, empowerment, non-state extension service providers, outsourcing,
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Kato, Edward; Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Tiruneh, Solomon; Ringler, Claudia
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impacts of sustainable land management (SLM) on water security and poverty based on an evaluation of a watershed level SLM program promoted in Amhara regional state of Ethiopia. A household survey was conducted in two WLRC watersheds with SLM programming as well as complementary support and two adjacent watersheds without such programming. Our findings show that the SLM program significantly increased plot-level adoption of SLM practices, particularly of soil bunds and stone terraces. We also find that SLM contributes to water security for both crop and livestock production. Households in SLM-supported learning watersheds have more access to groundwater for irrigation and have higher crop yields for maize, mango and millet; have experienced improving water availability for livestock production in the past five years; and have higher income from livestock products than households in control watersheds. The positive impacts of SLM and complementary interventions on livestock income is attributed to the improved water security conditions in the learning watersheds, access to better animal forage planted along the SLM constructed structures, and animal vaccination and artificial insemination services that were part of the broader set of interventions. These findings further show that although SLM impacts were limited, the potential to improve welfare of smallholders across several livelihoods is enhanced when SLM is combined with other multifaceted complimentary interventions.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, sustainability, land management, water management, watershed management, water conservation, poverty, land degradation,
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Yokying, Phanwin; Lambrecht, Isabel
    Abstract: Land provides the basis for food production and is an indispensable input for economic livelihoods in rural areas. Landownership is strongly associated with social and economic power, not only across communities and households, but also within households. The link between landownership and women’s empowerment has been relatively well documented in general, but not specifically in relation to agriculture. This paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing how ownership of land is associated with agency and achievements in agriculture among female and male farmers in northern Ghana, a region transitioning from customary land tenure without individual ownership rights towards a more individualized and market-based tenure system. We use a recursive bivariate probit model and focus on eight different indicators in four distinct domains: decisions on agricultural cultivation, decisions on farm income, agricultural association membership, and time allocation. Our empirical estimates indicate that landownership is positively correlated with men’s and women’s agency in agriculture, namely in decisions on agricultural cultivation and membership in agricultural association. Yet, we also find that the gender gaps in participation in cultivation decisions, the use of agricultural earnings, and in agricultural workload continue to persist among those who own land. While the results underscore the importance of land as a resource that can enhance women’s agency, they also point out that policies aiming to solely advance land rights may not be sufficient to eradicate or even reduce gender inequality in agriculture.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, empowerment, gender, women, agriculture, land tenure, decision making, agricultural decision making, landownership,
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Ursu, Ana
    Abstract: The present volume is the collection of the conference papers presented on the 10th International Symposium Agricultural economics and Rural Development - Realities and Perspectives for Romania, organized by the Research Institute for Agrarian Economy and Rural Development during 14 of November, in Bucharest, Romania. The purpose of the symposium is to present and promote the latest results of research in the field of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development regarding the use of statistical methods in conducting studies, directions of development of regions, assessment of economic sustainability, zoning of agricultural production, bioeconomic agriculture, trade in agri-food products, protection of biodiversity, innovative technologies in the field of agro-zoo-veterinary, Common Agricultural Policy reform, protected natural areas, typology of rural households, factors determining the standard of living in rural communities, agrotourism potential - a component of sustainable rural development etc. The symposium proceedings is structured in 4 specialized sections, where the read my find interesting argues regarding this research field.
    Keywords: Agriculture systems, rural development, common agricultural policy, food production
    JEL: C3 E6 F1 H2 J1 O1 P48 Q1 R1 R2
    Date: 2019–11–14
  8. By: Mahrt, Kristi; Mather, David; Herforth, Anna; Headey, Derek D.
    Abstract: Despite significant poverty reduction over the past decade, undernutrition in Myanmar remains widespread. Food prices play an important role in influencing diets and nutrition outcomes, especially for poorer households. In this study, we use national household food expenditure data to assess dietary patterns and estimate regional costs of nutritious diets in Myanmar relative to a recommended diet derived from food-based dietary guidelines. We estimate these costs following the cost of a recommended diet method (CoRD), which is based on minimum food group prices. We also develop and demonstrate an extension of this method using food group prices that reflect typical food consumption preferences (CoRD-FP). We assess the affordability of the recommended diet by comparing observed household food expenditure to the CoRD and the CoRD-FP. In 2015, 52 percent of the Myanmar population lived in households with food expenditure below the CoRD-FP, compared to 70 percent in 2010. Even the CoRD, which measures the lowest possible cost of meeting the recommended diet, exceeded household food expenditure for 32 and 24 percent of the population in 2010 and 2015, respectively. Low affordability is driven by high costs of animal-source foods and vegetables, which account for half the CoRD-FP. A majority of households over-consume staples and under-consume micronutrient-dense food groups. This imbalance is driven in part by the high caloric price of nutrient-dense foods relative to rice. The inability of more than half of households in Myanmar to afford a recommended diet at existing food expenditure levels suggests the need for policies that reduce the prices of micronutrient-dense foods, ideally through pro-poor improvements in agricultural productivity and marketing.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, food prices, dietary guidelines, diet, nutrition, food consumption, dietary costs, food-based dietary guidelines and recommendations, dietary patterns, nutrient adequacy, food expenditure, nutritious diet,
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Islam, Abu Hayat Md. Saiful; Roy, Devesh; Kumar, Anjani; Tripathi, Gaurav; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
    Abstract: Contract farming is emerging as an important institutional innovation in the high value food chain in developing countries including Bangladesh, and its socioeconomic implications are topic of interest in policy debates. This study is an empirical assessment to explore the determinants of participation and the impact of contract farming on welfare and adoption of food safety practice in Bangladesh. Our analysis indicates that contract farmers are more likely to have better access to agricultural extension services, attended proportionately more community meetings, households members are member of organizations, access more credit, are located farther from output market, and have larger herd sizes. We also find that network variables such as time spent with cooperatives and other institutions and price fluctuation and average prices received experience before participation in contract are strongly associated with participation in contract farming. We find that contract farming has a robust positive impact on welfare measured by expenditure, farm profit and farm productivity, and food safety practice adoption even after innovatively controlling for observed and unobserved heterogeneity among dairy farmers. More specifically results indicate that a one unit increase in the likelihood of participating in contract farming is associated with a 42, 35,34 and 9 percent increase in household expenditure, gross margin and net margin per cow, and food safety practice adoption rate respectively, among other positive impacts.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, contract farming, welfare, food safety, dairy farming, household expenditure, profit, agricultural productivity, regression analysis, treatment regression model, contract farmers, dairy farmers, farm profit, farm productivity, O33 Technological Change: Choices and Consequences, Diffusion Processes, Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets, Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing, Cooperatives, Agribusiness, Q18 Agricultural Policy, Food Policy,
    Date: 2019
  10. By: Won, Jieun; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rana, Akriti
    Abstract: Climate change affects various stages of the food system including production, processing, distribution, and consumption. To cope with this vulnerability, many nations have engaged in a global movement to establish strategies aimed at food security. As in other countries, in the Republic of Korea climate change has had, and will continue to have, a significant influence on the food system, creating many uncertainties. In response, the Korean government and relevant agencies under national strategies have implemented various policy measures and programs to respond to the effects of climate change and strengthen the country’s food resiliency. In this paper we examine those strategies, measures, and specific programs, and in particular those that involve agricultural extension and technology dissemination. These various sector-specific or cross-sector strategies have not only counteracted climate change impacts but also improved the incomes of farming households, who have struggled with import competition and low profitability under Korea’s generally slowing economy. The Korean government has also implemented extension and tech dissemination projects in and with developing countries with the aim of building resilient food systems in the era of climate change. We find that such programs would benefit from the formation and maintenance of international networks, and moreover, each international program must be preceded by a thorough needs assessment that takes into account the regional context and each project should promote appropriate technologies-that is, technologies customized or particularly suited to the local context.
    Keywords: SOUTH KOREA, REPUBLIC OF KOREA, EAST ASIA, ASIA, climate change, resilience, extension activities, advisory services, agricultural extension, technology transfer, smallholders, Information and Communication Technologies (icts), food systems, climate-resilient food system, extension and technology dissemination services, smallholder farmers,
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Ferrer, Alice Joan de la Gente
    Abstract: The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) has been pilot-testing climate-smart villages (CSVs) in South East Asia (SEA), in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR and the Philippines, since 2014. The CSVs serve as loci for community mobilisation and participatory processes, where knowledge and capabilities of men and women are enhanced and their motivation is promoted to take action towards food security, agricultural productivity, and climate change adaptation and mitigation. In the CSVs, evidence is generated at local scales of what Climate Smart Agriculture options work best – where, why and how – and this evidence is used to draw out lessons for agricultural development practitioners, policy makers and investors from local to global levels. The CSV approach, being context-responsive, process-focused and outcomeoriented, strengthens existing village programs and structures towards climate action. The CSV approach is now being considered in programs in the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar. Here we report how the CSVs have been contextualised, how participatory processes have been implemented, and how emerging outcomes have been attained.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–08
  12. By: Comstock, Andrew; Dorosh, Paul A.
    Abstract: Fish play a major role in the Bangladesh food system. Fish production, processing and marketing are major source of incomes for many households, and fish consumption accounts for a significant share of protein consumption in the Bangladeshi diet. Moreover, fish production and consumption are growting rapidly, with the aquaculture subsector as a major driver of change of both supply and demand. In this paper, we present estimates of demand elasticities for four categories of fish (aquaculture, inland capture, mixed production, and marine) using a modified Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System. These demand estimates are then used in projections of future supply and demand for these different types of fish under different productivity growth assumptions. Our results show that, at current rates of productivity increase, growth in fish production will outpace increases in demand from population and income growth, resulting a decline in real prices over time. A more rapid increase in productivity would lead to even larger supply increases and corresponding price declines. These effects are most keenly felt by the poorest households who see significant increases in fish consumption. Fish production from aquaculture is likely to have higher rates of productivity growth than the more extensive inland capture and marine systems, leading to a long term shift increase in the share of aquaculture production and consumption.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agricultural production, fish farms, aquaculture, fishery production, supply balance, food prices, fish price, Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS), multimarket model, fish production systems,
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Mamun, Abdullah; Martin, Will; Tokgoz, Simla
    Abstract: Agricultural support has changed substantially in both rich and poor countries in recent years. In rich countries, there has been a strong move to decoupled subsidies and a fall in average rates of protection. In developing countries, market price support remains the dominant form of protection and average rates of support have risen—breaking the traditional pattern of taxing agriculture. Emissions from agriculture and land use change have contributed up to a third of total greenhouse gas emissions, with beef, milk and rice production accounting for more than 80 percent of agricultural emissions. Agricultural support was biased against emission-intensive goods until recent years and is now only slightly biased towards them. Although emission intensities are relatively higher in the developing countries, they have fallen far more rapidly in developing countries than in the rich countries in the past quarter-century, as agricultural productivity has grown in developing countries. Policy reform will be challenging given the strong political-economy support for the current structure of protection. Increasing investments in research and development to raise productivity and lower the emissions intensity of agricultural output would help agriculture and the environment.
    Keywords: agriculture, environment, reforms, greenhouse gas emissions, land use change, agricultural productivity, research, greenhouse gases, market prices, agricultural support, market price support, F18 Trade and Environment, F64 Economic Impacts of Globalization: Environment, Q18 Agricultural Policy, Food Policy, H23 Taxation and Subsidies: Externalities, Redistributive Effects, Environmental Taxes and Subsidies, Q58 Environmental Economics: Government Policy,
    Date: 2019
  14. By: Mary O. Agboola (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia); Festus V. Bekun (Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the agriculture-induced environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in an agrarian framework. Annual time series data from 1981–2014 was employed using Augmented Dickey–Fuller and the Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root test complemented by the Zivot and Andrews unit root test that accounts for a single structural break to ascertain stationarity properties of variables under consideration. For the cointegration analysis, an autoregressive distributive lag methodology and the recent novel Bayer and Hanck combined cointegration technique is employed. For the direction of causality, the Granger causality test is used as estimation technique. Empirical findings lend support for the long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables under consideration. This study also validates the inverted U-shaped pattern of EKC for the case of Nigeria, affirming that Nigeria remains at the scale-effect stage of its growth trajectory. Further empirical results show that foreign direct investment attraction helps mitigate carbon emissions in Nigeria. Based on these results, several policy prescriptions on the Nigerian energy mix and agricultural operations in response to quality of the environment were suggested for policymakers, stakeholders, and environmental economists that formulate and design environmental regulations and strategies to realise the Goal 7 of sustainable development goals (SDGs).
    Keywords: Agriculture ecosystem, Energy consumption, Granger Causality, EKC, Nigeria
    JEL: C32 Q1 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2019–01
  15. By: Montesclaros, Jose Ma. Luis; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Teng, Paul S.
    Abstract: The adoption of climate-adaptive agricultural technologies (CAATs) for extensive (outdoor) agriculture is stalled by funding gaps experienced by governments in the Mekong countries, with negative implications on the rural farming industry, on income and job security among smallholder farmers, and on food sufficiency and access across the population. We argue that one way of helping bridge these gaps is for providers and users of CAATs for extensive agriculture to learn from the practices of those in CAATs for intensive (indoor) agriculture. Indoor CAATs are already receiving significant private-sector investment, a key reason being their ability to leverage the complementary nature of these technologies within farms that are integrated and enabled to use the so-called Internet of things (IoT). Seamlessly linking different CAATs (sensors, crop analytics, and automation) can allow for synergies that significantly boost crop yields and, in turn, the viability of investing in CAATs. We demonstrate these synergies through two case studies, one that looks at the increasing global investment in indoor CAATs and another that describes a financial viability assessment for an indoor farm in Singapore. We conclude with lessons on how these insights can be transferred to the Mekong countries, including a prototype IoT-enabled extensive farm that integrates multiple CAATs, and an investment assessment tool for translating the yield benefits into terms that investors can appreciate.
    Keywords: SINGAPORE, investment, climate-smart agriculture, private sector, technology, innovation adoption, climate change adaptation, information and communication technologies (icts), internet of things, IoT, climate-adaptive agricultural technologies, UrbanAgInvest, indoor farms,
    Date: 2019
  16. By: Gebru, Menasbo (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Holden , Stein T. (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Alfnes, Frode (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: Agricultural technology change is required in developing countries to increase the robustness to climate-related variability, feed a growing population, and create opportunities for market-oriented production. This study investigates technological change in the form of adoption of improved wheat, drought-tolerant teff, and cash crops in the semi-arid Tigray region in northern Ethiopia. We analyze three rounds of panel data collected from smallholder farms in 2005/2006, 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 with a total sample of 1269 households. Double-hurdle models are used to assess how the likelihood (first hurdle) and intensity of technology adoption (second hurdle) are affected by demographic, weather, and market factors. The results indicate that few smallholders have adopted the new crops, those that have adopted the crops only plant small shares of their land with the new crops, and that there has been only a small increase in adoption over the ten-year period. Furthermore, we find that high population density is positively associated with the adoption of improved wheat, and previous period’s rainfall is positively associated with the adoption of drought-tolerant teff. The adoption of cash crops is positively associated with landholding size and access to irrigation. The policy implications of these results are that the government should increase the improved wheat diffusion efforts in less population dense areas, make sure that drought-tolerant teff seed is available and affordable after droughts, and promote irrigation infrastructure for production of cash crops.
    Keywords: Semi-arid areas; climate risk; new crop varieties; double-hurdle; northern Ethiopia.
    JEL: O33 Q12 Q16 R34
    Date: 2020–03–08
  17. By: Ghosh, Ranjan Kumar; Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Vartika; Ward, Patrick S.
    Abstract: Researchers and policymakers have long understood the benefits of crop insurance but have been consistently disappointed by the poor performance of these programs. Rarely have programs seen sizeable take-up rates without support through large government subsidies, and in many countries, demand has been meager even at prices well below fair-market rates. Experiences from India have largely followed this trend, despite a number of large policy initiatives. Limited demand stems from low perceived value, arguably because the existing insurance products are unsuited to farmers’ needs. The present study fills an important gap in rural development by improving upon existing insurance policy design by incorporating product characteristics better suited to farmers’ preferences. To do so, we conducted a discrete choice experiment with agricultural households in four states in India. While farmers seem to like several of the features of policies offered under existing programs, our results suggest they would generally be willing to pay more than the highly subsidized rate they currently pay and are also clearly dissatisfied with delayed and uncertain indemnity payments and would be willing to pay a significant premium for more assured and timely payment delivery.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, crop insurance, willingness to pay, agriculture, agricultural policies, subsidies, developing countries, farmers, discrete choice experiments, government subsidies, crop insurance program, Q10 Agriculture: General, Q11 Agriculture: Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis, Prices, Q18 Agricultural Policy, Food Policy,
    Date: 2019
  18. By: Thapa, Ganesh; Kumar, Anjani; Roy, Devesh; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
    Abstract: Food quality and safety have been the central issues of food economics and are considered among the most important food attributes. However, evidence of the impact of food safety consciousness on consumers' food purchasing behavior is limited. This paper studies the impact of food safety consciousness on weekly milk expenditure, milk price paid, milk quantity purchased, and the probability of purchasing milk from modern market outlets in Nepal. We conducted dairy consumer survey in four selected districts of the country and employed an instrumental variable regression and quantile instrumental variable to estimate the heterogeneous treatment effects. The results suggest that education, income, and social network are the major factors that positively influence food safety consciousness. An increase in the food safety consciousness level by 1% increases the weekly milk expenditure, milk price paid, and weekly milk purchased by 1.37%, 0.66%, and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that an increase in food safety consciousness by 1% is associated with a 37% higher probability of selecting a modern milk outlet. At higher levels of food safety consciousness, female-headed households are significantly more likely to purchase milk from modern outlets in comparison to male-headed households. Our findings imply that increasing food safety consciousness is likely to improve food security (through more consumption of milk and other healthy food) and the welfare of smallholder dairy farmers (through increased milk demand and higher milk prices paid by consumers).
    Keywords: NEPAL, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, food safety, consumer attitudes, milk, milk prices, dairy farming, smallholders, milk expenditures, market outlet, food safety consciousness, consumers' awareness, dairy farmers,
    Date: 2019
  19. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Comstock, Andrew
    Abstract: The Government of Malawi is in the process of developing its National Agricultural Extension Strategy. Two rounds of national household and community surveys (2016, 2018), coupled with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, were implemented to provide research evidence supporting the Strategy’s development. This paper summarizes emerging trends from these surveys and monitors progress in extension services provision, players and actors in extension services provision, and evidence on the coverage and effectiveness of extension approaches. Positive trends include (1) improvements in the percentage of men and women farmers accessing extension services; (2) consistently high ratings in the perceived quality of extension services; (3) more diversity in extension messages, including more information regarding market access and nutrition; (4) greater use of cost-effective tools, such as radio programming and community or group meetings, as sources of agricultural information; and (5) greater crop diversification, although diversification outside of agriculture remains low. Four areas remain weak and need further improvements. First, information sharing among farmers, friends, and neighbors is frequent, and the coverage of those officially trained “lead farmers†(those trained specifically to promote technologies to other farmers) remains low, with only 7 percent of households reporting getting relevant advice from them. Second, while there are more “model villages†and “village agricultural committees†present, we see decreasing participation and ratings for these. Third, we observe greater awareness of promoted technologies, including conservation agriculture, pit planting, and sustainable land practices, but adoption remains very low. Fourth, we observe greater crop diversification, but farm productivity and commercialization remain low. Although we have investigated many dimensions and factors in this paper, there remain challenges and puzzles that could be further addressed in future research. These include constraints on the adoption of minimal expensive inputs and low-cost management practices, constraints on the role of intensive training and labor, and understanding the drivers and factors affecting commercialization and diversification.
    Keywords: MALAWI, SOUTHERN AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural extension, indicators, surveys, extension approaches, extension services, technology adoption, lead farmers, agriculture advice,
    Date: 2019
  20. By: Ojo, Temitope O.; Ogundeji, Abiodun A.; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Alimi, Taiwo
    Abstract: This study analyzed the financing gaps relative to production frontier of rice farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect cross sectional data from 360 rice farmers selected from three States in the region. A Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier and an adapted form of Harrod-Domar (HD) Growth model was employed to determine the financing gap required for the farmers to be at the frontier level. The empirical results of the frontier model show that quantity of labor, quantity of rice as planting material and herbicides were statistically significant in explaining the variations in the efficiency of rice production in Nigeria. However, age, gender, farming experience, household size, access to credit, access to information, adoption of improved variety and location of rice farmers as sources of technical inefficiencies. As revealed by the result of the HD growth model, the average amount of credit per season that farmers had access to was, ₦38,630.56 while the mean financing in the form of credit required to produce at the frontier level was ₦193,626.50, showing a financing shortfall of about 80%. As unravelled by the result of the study, it can thus be concluded that technical efficiency of rice farmers can be improved by improving access to timely credit and agricultural information for improving rice productivity. These findings suggest that filling the financing gap of smallholder rice farmers will improve rice productivity in Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommends that strengthening the existing technology by building farmers’ capacity on farm management practices would be surest means of improving rice productivity growth in Nigeria. This would not only contribute to the intensification of rice production in Nigeria to meet its increasing rice demand, but also improve rice farmers’ productivity and their households’ incomes.
    Keywords: NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, financing, rice, crop production, labour, herbicides, seed quality, smallholders, farm income, stochastic models, agricultural production, technical efficiency, financing gaps, stochastic frontier, Harold-Domar Growth Model,
    Date: 2019
  21. By: Philippe Delacote; Julia Girard; Antoine Leblois
    Abstract: Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa is regularly threatened by the occurrence of weather shocks due to extreme events as well as inter-annual and intra-seasonal climate variability. In this paper, we wonder whether the way farmers respond to shocks can affect land-use and induce deforestation, a question that has only been marginally studied in the literature. We conduct a review of the impacts of weather shocks on agriculture, and review the strategies used by farmers to cope with and adapt to these threats. We then wonder how these strategies can affect land-use, drawing from the land-use change literature, and reviewing publications that have connected weather shocks, adaptation and land-use change. It appears that weather shocks can induce land-use change both in the short and long-term, with some practices leading to land conversion while others may foster conservation. However, many effects remain ambiguous, and are likely to depend on socioeconomic and geographic factors.
    Keywords: Weather shocks, Adaptation, Coping, Land-use, Deforestation, Agriculture
    Date: 2019
  22. By: Schmidt, Emily; Gilbert, Rachel; Holtemeyer, Brian; Mahrt, Kristi
    Abstract: The lack of data on rural household production systems and economic conditions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has impeded efforts to inform development initiatives for the last decade. In 2015/16, a severe El Niño event decimated local crop production and underscored the lack of current data and analysis of PNG’s rural population. This paper presents recently collected data from a rural household survey in PNG, including detailed consumption and expenditure data, to explore poverty prevalence and vulnerability in selected rural areas. In doing so, we evaluate food production and consumption patterns within the survey areas and calculate area-specific poverty lines. In addition, we explore correlates of household consumption expenditure. Results suggest that approximately half of the survey sample have total consumption expenditure below the poverty line. When evaluating calorie consumption by food groups, we find that the rural diet is heavily dependent on starchy foods and a large share of the sample has insufficient protein intake per capita. Further evaluation of the correlates of household expenditure suggest four potential policy initiatives to explore further as conduits to improving overall welfare: 1) identify measures to increase agricultural production and improve resilience to climate shocks; 2) increase investments in education; 3) seek opportunities to enhance migration out of rural areas and 4) reduce the number of household dependents. Given that approximately 80 percent of the population in PNG is dependent on rain-fed, subsistence agriculture, rural data collection and analysis to inform policy priorities and development investments are critical to ensure economic viability and food security. This paper presents the most recent poverty analysis in PNG in nearly a decade and a renewed effort to better inform development priorities for the country’s rural population.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, poverty, households, expenditure, surveys, consumption, lowland, rural areas, rural household survey, consumption expenditure analysis,
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Gille,Veronique
    Abstract: This paper exploits the social organization of India to revisit the question of education spillovers in farm productivity. The fact that social interactions mainly occur within castes in rural India provides tools to show that the observed correlation between farm productivity and neighbors'education is likely to be a spillover effect. In particular, there are no cross-caste and no cross-occupation effects, which underlines that, under specific assumptions, which are stated and explored in the paper, the education of neighbors does not capture the effect of group unobservables. This evidence is complemented by separate estimations by crops, which show results that are consistent with education spillovers. The strategy used in this paper helps understand and interpret previous findings from the literature.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Food Security,Labor Markets,Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture,Gender and Development
    Date: 2019–04–11
  24. By: Lefebvre, Marianne; Midler, Estelle; Bontems, Philippe
    Abstract: Farmers choose to avoid some risks by not engaging into practices with uncertain profits. Yet, they still face background risk beyond their control, such as climate change. The impact of background risk on decisions to adopt risky environment-friendly agricultural practices is analysed through a theoretical model and a public good experiment. We find that background risk discourages adoption, despite the fact that it affects both environmentally-friendly and conventionally farmed land equally. An incentive payment increases adoption but is significantly less efficient in the presence of both foreground and background risks. Results shed light on potential synergies between greening the CAP and supporting risk management.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy; Agri-environmental measures; Background risk,;Lab; experiment; Public good game
    JEL: C93 D81 Q18 Q12
    Date: 2020–03
  25. By: Kumar, Anjani; Singh, A. K.; Saroj, Sunil; Madhavan M., Misha; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
    Abstract: The paper examines the impact of access to India’s farm science centers (Krishi Vigyan Kendras, or KVKs) on agricultural households’ welfare using household-level data from the nationally representative Situation Assessment Survey of Agricultural Households conducted by India’s National Sample Survey Office in 2013. Employing different matching techniques and endogenous switching regression models, we find that the KVKs have a positive and statistically significant impact on agricultural households’ economic welfare, although that impact is heterogeneous. Further, the investments made in expansion of India’s network of KVKs have been quite remunerative, as the benefit-to-cost ratio of expenditure on KVKs ranges from 8 to 12. Moreover, our findings suggest that expanding rural formal credit markets and promoting literacy can maximize the potential impact of KVKs on agricultural households’ economic welfare.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, households, benefit-cost ratio, statistical methods, regression analysis, surveys, extension, impact assessment, extension systems, agricultural extension, farm science centers, agricultural households, economic welfare, ESR Model, PSM Model, Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets, Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing, Cooperatives, Agribusiness, Q17 Agriculture in International Trade, Q18 Agricultural Policy, Food Policy,
    Date: 2019
  26. By: Theis, Sophie; Krupnik, Timothy J.; Sultana, Nasrin; Rahman, Syed-Ur; Seymour, Gregory; Abedin, Naveen
    Abstract: Farmer hiring of agricultural machinery services is common in South Asia. Informal fee-for-service arrangements have positioned farmers so they can access use of machinery to conduct critical, timesensitive agricultural tasks like land preparation, seeding, irrigation, harvesting and post- harvesting operations. However, both the provision and rental of machinery services are currently dominated by men, and by most measures, it appears that women have comparatively limited roles in this market and may receive fewer benefits. Despite the prevailing perception in rural Bangladesh that women do not participate in agricultural entrepreneurship, women do not necessarily lack a desire to be involved. Using a mixed methods approach involving literature review, secondary data collection, focus groups and key informant interviews, and a telephone survey, we studied the gendered differences in women’s and men’s involvement in emerging markets for rice and wheat reaper-harvester machinery services in Bangladesh. We find that women benefit from managing and sometimes owning machinery services, as well as from the direct and indirect consequences of hiring such services to harvest their crops. However, a number of technical, economic, and cultural barriers appear to constrain female participation in both reaper service business ownership and in hiring services as a client. In addition, women provided suggestions for how to overcome barriers constraining their entry into rural machinery services as an entrepreneur. Men also reflected on the conditions they would consider supporting women to become business owners. Our findings have implications for addressing social norms in support of women’s rural entrepreneurship and technology adoption in South Asia’s smallholder dominated rural economies.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, gender, farm equipment, agricultural mechanization, technology, role of women, rural women, agricultural technologies, scale-appropriate mechanization, rural machinery service provision, reaper-harvester,
    Date: 2019
  27. By: Garnaut, Ross
    Abstract: To John Crawford, the role of economics was to illuminate real world conditions and improve policy options. At a time of historic change in climate and Australia’s international environment, we need Crawford’s approach to economics as never before. Growth in global population and incomes, and climate change, are putting pressure on land and water resources. Transformation of land use and food consumption are important dimensions of the response to climate change. Australian research skills in agriculture, biology, botany, engineering and economics can secure the Australian transformation and extend it internationally. The challenges of climate change are especially acute and the opportunities exceptionally large in Australia. The drying and warming of southern Australia is undermining established agricultural and pastoral activities. But rural and provincial Australia have global comparative advantage of considerable value in activities the value of which will be greatly increased in the zero-carbon emissions world that is necessary to limit damage from climate change: renewable energy resources; opportunities for biomass production as a zero-emissions source of inputs into industrial activities; and the opportunity for sequestration of carbon in Australian soils, pastures, woodlands and savannahs, and forests.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–08
  28. By: Gulati, Kajal; Ward, Patrick S.; Lybbert, Travis J.; Spielman, David J.
    Abstract: Evaluations of agricultural technologies rarely consider how adoption may alter the labor allocation of different household members. We examine intrahousehold decision-making dynamics that shape smallholder agricultural households' decision to hire in mechanical rice transplanting (MRT), a technology that reduces demand for labor. To study the adoption decision, we employ an experimental approach to estimating the willingness-to-pay for MRT services, both at the level of individual men and women within the same households, as well as at the overall household level. We find that women value MRT more than men, but this difference in valuation is not driven by differences in their individual characteristics, but primarily by differences in preferences. Although women value MRT more than men, they have less influence over the ultimate technology adoption decision. In households with women working as outside hired laborers, the intrahousehold differences in MRT valuation disappear, suggesting that women value MRT as a means of reallocating on-farm labor to other unpaid family work. Labor-saving mechanization, such as MRT, may have important implications for rural labor markets and on the (gendered) division of labor within agricultural households.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, demand, labour productivity, labour saving technologies, technology, agriculture, Oryza, rice, transplanting, gender, allocation, labour, labour allocation, mechanization, intrahousehold bargaining, labor displacement, market valuation, D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation, J43 Agricultural Labor Markets, Q16 Agricultural R&, D, Agricultural Technology, Biofuels, Agricultural Extension Services,
    Date: 2019
  29. By: Camille Tevenart; Marielle Brunette
    Abstract: In a context of climate change, the agricultural sector offers a potential of mitigation. However, most of the farmers do not adopt the mitigation practices recommended, among them the reduction of nitrogen fertilization. In parallel, various uncertainties characterize agricultural production, so that farmer's risk and ambiguity preferences may be potential determinants to the adoption (or not) of mitigation practices. This is precisely the objective of this paper to explore this way. For that purpose, we realize a questionnaire submitted to French farmers where we elicit risk and ambiguity preferences through simple lottery choices, and then we ask questions about the farmer's fertilization decisions. We show that risk aversion as well as ambiguity aversion impact fertilization practices, through diverse drivers and in an opposite direction. This result implies that fertilization practices are more complex than only classic risk-related behaviors. The incentive approaches associated with mitigation and fertilization have to take into account this complexity.
    Keywords: Risk Uncertainty, Ambiguity, Agriculture, Fertilization, Mitigation
    Date: 2019
  30. By: Vivek Srikrishnan; Yawen Guan; Klaus Keller; Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: Understanding how reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions impacts climate risks requires probabilistic projections of the baseline (“business-as-usual”) emissions. Previous studies deriving these baseline projections have broken important new ground, but are largely silent on two key questions: (i) What are the effects of deep uncertainties surrounding key assumptions such as remaining fossil fuel resources? (ii) Which uncertainties are the key drivers of the projected emissions and global warming? Here we calibrate a simple integrated assessment model using century-scale observations to project global emissions and committed temperature anomalies over the 21st century. We show that the projected emissions are highly sensitive to assumptions about available fossil fuel resources and decarbonization rates. We find that even under an optimistic, low-fossil fuel resources scenario, the median committed warming just by emitted CO2 in 2100 exceeds the 1.5 degree Celsius Paris Agreement target. Across the analyzed scenarios, the probability of exceeding the 2 degree Celsius target just from emitted CO2 ranges from 24% to 39%. The climate-system uncertainties and decarbonization rates are the key factors directly driving this uncertainty. Several economic growth parameters explain a large share of variability though their interactions.
    Keywords: integrated assessment, climate change, scenarios, markov chain monte carlo
    JEL: C11 Q54
    Date: 2020–03
  31. By: Schmidt, Emily; Rosenbach, Gracie; Mueller, Valerie
    Abstract: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the country with the largest rural population share in the East Asia and Pacific region. In addition, PNG is affected by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic events that in severe years cause significant food insecurity due to failed agricultural production. Shrinking land holdings for agricultural production due to the growing population together with climate risk motivates many rural households to explore off-farm income generating opportunities. The analysis reported on here evaluates the importance of nonfarm employment in rural areas in PNG in diversifying risk to household welfare (associated with weather shocks, crop pests and diseases, agricultural price fluctuations, etc.), in smoothing seasonal income fluctuations, and in absorbing excess labor in households with limited agricultural resources. Our study draws upon a wide-ranging literature focused on the role of nonfarm enterprises in the livelihood strategies of rural households globally, e.g., de Janvry and Sadoulet 2001; Lanjouw and Lanjouw 2001; Jayne et al. 2003; Barrett et al. 2005; Haggblade et al. 2007; Lay et al. 2008. We use data collected from rural households in PNG between May and July 2018 by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The survey was administered to 1,026 households in 70 communities across specific districts in East Sepik, Madang, and West Sepik provinces and in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville. Respondent households were asked detailed questions about any nonfarm enterprises (NFE) in which they were involved, including questions on ownership, labor characteristics, and income generation. We explore how engaging in an NFE affects household welfare. In doing so, we evaluate two questions: 1) What barriers to entry exist for male- versus female-owned NFEs? 2) Do the welfare effects of NFE ownership differ by the sex of the owner? Overall, we find that households with an NFE have significantly higher annual per capita consumption compared to matched households without an NFE, amounting to an average increase in the value of annual household consumption of 180 kina (PGK) per capita. In addition, households with an NFE consume approximately 9.5 grams more protein per person per day and achieve greater diversity in their diets compared to households without an NFE. We find that the positive effects of NFE ownership on welfare outcomes are largely driven by male-owned and jointly-owned (male and female) NFEs. The welfare outcomes attributable to female-owned NFEs are much smaller.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, OCEANIA, welfare, households, drought, rural areas, climate change, diet, nonfarm income, nonfarm enterprises, climate risk, household welfare, female-owned enterprises, dietary diversity,
    Date: 2019
  32. By: Malapit, Hazel J.; Ragasa, Catherine; Martinez, Elena M.; Rubin, Deborah; Seymour, Gregory; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: Women’s participation and empowerment in value chains are goals that concern many development organizations, but there has been limited systematic, rigorous research to track these goals between and within value chains (VCs). We use the survey-based project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) to measure women’s and men’s empowerment in the abaca, coconut, seaweed, and swine VCs in the Philippines. Results show that most women and men in all four VCs are disempowered, but unlike in many other countries, Filipino women in this sample are generally as empowered as men. Pro-WEAI results suggest that respect within the household and attitudes about gender-based violence (GBV) are the largest sources of disempowerment for both women and men, followed by control over use of income and autonomy in income-related decisions. Excessive workload and lack of group membership are other important sources of disempowerment, with some variation across VCs and nodes along VCs. Across all four VCs, access to community programs is associated with higher women’s empowerment, and access to extension services and education are associated with higher men’s empowerment. Our results show that, despite the egalitarian gender norms in the Philippines, persistent gender stereotypes influence men’s and women’s empowerment and VC participation.
    Keywords: PHILIPPINES, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, empowerment, agriculture, supply chain, women's participation, gender, livelihoods, agricultural markets, Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index,
    Date: 2019
  33. By: Glauber, Joseph W.
    Abstract: The challenges to meeting the growing global food demand—population and income growth and supply uncertainties complicated by climate change, environmental pressures, and water scarcity—all point to the increasing importance of trade and the need for a more, not less, open trading system. Growth in agricultural trade has been facilitated in part through the rules-based system established under the World Trade Organization (WTO), particularly the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (AoA). The AoA was implemented in 1995 and brought substantial discipline to the areas of market access, domestic support, and export competition. However, progress since the Uruguay Round has been limited. While the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) was launched with much anticipation in 2001, members failed to reach agreement in July 2008 and the trade agenda in Geneva has since advanced slowly. Despite the best efforts of many, the negotiating intensity seen in late 2007 and 2008 has largely dissipated, in part due to the global recession and the inevitable changes in governments that sometime shift the focus of negotiations. Serious efforts were made to renew the negotiations, but in the end, members have had to be content with harvesting the low-hanging fruit, such as trade facilitation and export competition. Although there have been significant accomplishments, they represent but a small portion of what was on the table during the DDA negotiations. In addition, negotiated settlements on the tougher issues, such as market access and domestic support, have become more difficult to obtain in isolation. The recent experience at the WTO’s Eleventh Ministerial Conference in Buenos Aires highlights the difficulties of reaching a negotiated settlement on domestic support in isolation from, say, market access. Given the increasing importance of trade in addressing food security needs and its critical role in efforts to eliminate malnutrition and hunger by 2030, achieving further progress in the liberalization of world trade is of paramount importance.
    Keywords: agricultural trade, agriculture, trade, supply chain, WTO, export control, export subsidies, global agricultural trade, World Trade Organization (WTO), General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT),
    Date: 2019
  34. By: Birthal, Pratap S.; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Roy, Devesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam
    Abstract: Over the past few decades, the agricultural sector of Southeast Asia has experienced robust growth and undergone a structural transformation albeit differentially across the countries in the region. The main aims of this paper are to understand the process of transformation and sources of growth in agriculture in the broader context of economy-wide changes in domestic and international markets, and to suggest technological, institutional and policy measures for faster, efficient and sustainable growth. Our findings show faster growth in agriculture in comparatively low-income countries, with technological change, area expansion and diversification being the main drivers. On the other hand, agricultural growth in high-income countries has been relatively slow, and driven by price increases, mainly of the export-oriented commercial crops, such as oil-palm, rubber and coconut; and also, by area expansion. In view of the fixed supply of land and high volatility in global food prices, area and price driven growth is unlikely to sustain in the long-run. For efficient, sustainable and inclusive growth, the recourse has to be with exploiting potential of (i) existing and frontier technologies, by investing more in agricultural research and extension systems, and (ii) diversification of production portfolio towards higher-value food commodities by strengthening institutions that link farmers to remunerative markets; and investing in post-harvest infrastructure for food processing.
    Keywords: SOUTHEAST ASIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, agricultural production, agricultural prices, crop yield, gross national product, diversification, agricultural development, agricultural transformation, labor productivity, agricultural growth, decomposition of growth,
    Date: 2019
  35. By: de Brauw, Alan; Van den berg, Marrit; Brouwer, Inge D.; Snoek, Harriette; Vignola, Raffaele; Melesse, Mequanint B.; Lochetti, Gaia; Van Wagenberg, Coen; Lundy, Mark; Maître d'Hôtel, Eloide; Ruben, Ruerd
    Abstract: Malnutrition in all its forms is a major challenge everywhere in the world, and particularly in low and middle income countries. To reduce malnutrition, innovations in food systems are needed to both provide sufficient options for consumers to obtain diets with adequate nutritional value, and to help consumers make conscious and unconscious choices to choose healthier diets. A potential solution to this challenge is food systems innovations designed to lead to healthier diets. In this paper, we lay out a multidisciplinary framework for both identifying and analyzing innovations in food systems that can lead to improvements in the choices available to consumers and their diets from a health perspective. The framework identifies entry points for the design of potential food systems innovations, highlighting potential synergies, feedback, and tradeoffs within the food system. The paper concludes by providing examples of potential innovations and describes future research that can be developed to support the role of food systems in providing healthier diets.
    Keywords: food systems, innovations, food fortification, taxes, subsidies, regulations, food supply chain, healthier diets, research framework, public food acquisition programs, information campaigns,
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Noyce, Marc
    Abstract: This paper outlines the work of Biofilta in advancing a soil-based urban farming method that is scalable from household to community-scale food production. Biofilta was selected from a global search of 280 applications across 74 countries in 2017 by LAUNCH Food, funded by DFAT and USAid. All products are made in Australia and the new Foodcube system is made from recycled food-grade plastic that was destined for landfill. Biofilta has demonstrated that the sealed food growing system works in Tuvalu where water availability, space constraints and robust technology are issues facing many similar communities. DFAT has now issued a contract to implement larger-scaled community gardens using the Foodcube to create a circular economy, close nutrient loops and showcase to the world how appropriate the technology is for urban agriculture. Statistics of other gardens being grown in urban car parks showcase how little space it takes to grow the yearly recommended amount of vegetables for an adult according to the World Health Organization. Biofilta is a small private business based in Melbourne. The owners want to expand and partner with organisations across the world to deploy urban agriculture and help smallholders make an income and raise nutrition levels within the community.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–08
  37. By: Mérel, Pierre; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Paroissien, Emmanuel
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence of large welfare losses associated with asymmetric information about product quality in a competitive market. When consumers cannot observe product characteristics at the time of purchase, atomistic producers have no incentive to supply costly quality. We compare wine prices across administrative districts around the enactment of historic regulations aimed at certifying the quality of more than 250 French appellation wines to identify welfare losses from asymmetric information. We estimate that these losses represent up to 13% of total market value, suggesting an important role for credible certification schemes.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2020
  38. By: Moritz A. Drupp; Martin C. Hänsel
    Abstract: Climate change not only impacts production and market consumption, but also the relative scarcity of non-market goods, such as environmental amenities. We study fundamental drivers of the resulting relative price changes, their potential magnitude, and their implications for climate policy in Nordhaus’ prominent DICE model, thereby addressing one of its key criticisms. We propose plausible ranges for these relative prices changes based on best available evidence. Our central calibration reveals that accounting for relative prices is equivalent to decreasing pure time preference by 0.6 percentage points and leads to a more than 50 percent higher social cost of carbon.
    Keywords: climate policy, discounting, non-market goods, social cost of carbon, substitutability
    JEL: Q01 Q54 H43 D61 D90
    Date: 2020
  39. By: Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Minten, Bart; Swinnen, Johan
    Abstract: Driven by increased demand from both local and export markets and facilitated by far-reaching liberalization and privatization policies, the dairy sub-sector in Uganda has undergone significant changes in the last decade. With a comparative advantage in milk production, the southwest of Uganda has started to attract considerable Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in processing capacity, mainly targeting the export market. As a result, processing capacity increased five-fold and dairy became Uganda’s third most important export product, coming from negligible amounts a decade earlier. In this study, we use observational data collected at different nodes within the value chain to compare the structure of the chain and the roles and economic activities of different actors between export-led value chains and value chains that cater for the local market. Doing so allows us to identify the technological and institutional innovations that both result from the emergence of export-led dairy value chains and at the same time drive further upgrading. Our analysis underscores the importance of milk collection centers, which often take the form of farmer cooperatives, in providing many of the support services that enable other actors in the value chain to produce sufficient milk, and maintain milk sanitation levels necessary for an export sector to emerge.
    Keywords: UGANDA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agriculture, supply chain, milk production, privatization, export promotion, exports, technological changes, innovation, technology, trade, Foreign Direct Investment,
    Date: 2019
  40. By: Brenton,Paul; Nyawo,Mike
    Abstract: This paper looks at how changing food prices affect child undernutrition in Ethiopia. It derives height for age (stunting) and weight for height (wasting) as indicators of child undernutrition from the two most recent years of the Livings Standards Measurement Survey and utilizes market prices for key cereals, teff, wheat, and maize at the zone level across all regions of the country. Using a panel data fixed effects model, the analysis finds that, contrary to previous studies, rising crop prices are positively associated with improved child stunting rates for children between ages 6 months and 5 years, while the results for wasting are not conclusive. These results suggest that across the board policy interventions that seek to suppress cereal price increases may have adverse effects on poverty reduction in the long term by undermining potentially positive impacts on child nutrition.
    Keywords: Nutrition,Early Child and Children',Early Child and Children's Health,Reproductive Health,Inequality,Health Care Services Industry
    Date: 2019–04–18
  41. By: Andam, Kwaw S.; Ragasa, Catherine; Asante, Seth; Amewu, Sena
    Abstract: This paper examines the prospects for import substitution in West Africa by analyzing the preferences of urban consumers for food product attributes. We use market surveys, choice experiments, and experimental auctions to assess price and quality competitiveness of locally-produced chicken, rice, and tilapia in Accra, Ghana. For the price analysis, we compare market prices of imported and local counterparts, and we compare the local costs of production to production costs in major exporting countries. For the quality analysis, we compare consumer perceptions and demand for quality attributes of local versus imported products using data from field experiments with 1,322 consumers. Our findings suggest that among the three products, rice has the lowest prospects for import substitution, due to supply-and demand-side constraints to local competitiveness. For rice, consumers prefer imported products, they perceive imports as having better quality than local products, and they are willing to pay a premium for imports. For chicken, consumers have a strong preference for local products, but the potential for expanding chicken production can only be met if production and processing costs can be reduced significantly to boost price competitiveness. For tilapia, a high preference for freshness provides a natural barrier to import entry, and the comparative advantage of local production can be enhanced by making continuous improvements in seed and extension systems, industry coordination, certification, and regulation.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, willingness to pay, tilapia, rice, chickens, supply balance, import substitution, imports, economic, competition, trade, local competitiveness, import substitution strategies, choice experiments, experimental auctions, supply and demand, local products, local production, price competitiveness,
    Date: 2019
  42. By: Parkes, Ben; Higginbottom, Thomas P.; Hufken, Koen; Ceballos, Francisco; Kramer, Berber; Foster, Timothy
    Abstract: Extreme weather events, such as heatwaves, droughts, and excess rainfall, are a major cause of crop yield losses and food insecurity worldwide. Statistical or process-based crop models can be used to quantify how yields will respond to extreme weather and future climate change. However, the accuracy of weather-yield relationships derived from crop models, whether statistical or process-based, is dependent on the quality of the underlying input data used to run these models. In this context, a major challenge in many developing countries is the lack of accessible and reliable meteorological datasets. Gridded weather datasets, derived from combinations of in-situ gauges, remote sensing, and climate models, provide a solution to fill this gap, and have been widely used to evaluate climate impacts on agriculture in data-scarce regions worldwide. However, these reference datasets are also known to contain important biases and uncertainties. To date, there has been little research to assess how the choice of reference datasets in influences projected sensitivity of crop yields to weather. We compare multiple freely available gridded datasets that provide daily weather data over the Indian sub-continent over the period 1983- 2005, and explore their implications for estimates of yield responses to weather variability for key crops grown in the region (wheat and rice). Our results show that individual gridded weather datasets vary in their representation of historic spatial and temporal temperature and precipitation patterns across India. We show that these differences create large uncertainties in estimated crop yield responses and exposure to extreme weather events, which highlight the need for improved consideration of input data uncertainty in statistical studies that explore impacts of climate variability and change on agriculture.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, climate change, crop modelling, weather, yields,
    Date: 2019
  43. By: Antoine Kornprobst; Matt Davison
    Abstract: Our study aims at quantifying the impact of climate change on corn farming in Ontario under several warming scenarios at the 2068 horizon. It is articulated around a discrete-time dynamic model of corn farm income with an annual time-step, corresponding to one agricultural cycle from planting to harvest. At each period, we compute the income given the corn yield, which is highly dependent on weather variables. We also provide a reproducible forecast of the yearly distribution of corn yield for 10 cities in Ontario. The price of corn futures at harvest time is taken into account and we fit our model by using 49 years of historical data. We then conduct out-of-sample Monte-Carlo simulations to obtain the farm income forecasts under a given climate change scenario.
    Date: 2020–03
  44. By: Brennan McLachlan; G. Cornelis van Kooten; Zehan Zheng
    Keywords: Food security; CO2-fertilization, heat and crop yields; regression analysis
    JEL: O13 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2020–02
  45. By: Bista, Raghu
    Abstract: Climate variability in Nepal has become a big environmental issue. This paper investigates empirically and analytically whether climate variability exists or not in different altitude, whether its direction moves and what will be its future direction. We use time series model based on the secondary data of hydrology and metrology collected from Department of Hydrology and Metrology, the Government of Nepal. The time series analysis finds climate variability in the different parts of Nepal in which all months have variability of temperature and rainfall precipitation. From 1975 to 2010, temperature raises annually by 20 C. However, rainfall is declining. It is forecasted change of temperature by 60c over next 40 years. In case of rainfall, it is forecasted constant and results drought in high altitude and flood in low altitude. Climate variability may be a big threat in the different parts of Nepal.
    Keywords: climate variability, environment, altitude, temperature, rainfall, Nepal
    JEL: Q54 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2019–04–04
  46. By: Elsa Berthet (SADAPT - Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires - AgroParisTech - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Sara Bosshardt; Lise Malicet-Chebbah; Gaëlle van Frank; Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL - PSL Research University, MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Blanche Segrestin (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL - PSL Research University, MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pierre Riviere (LHFA - Laboratoire Hétérochimie Fondamentale et Appliquée - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ICT-FR 2599 - Institut de Chimie de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Léa Bernard; Elodie Baritaux; Isabelle Goldringer
    Abstract: The industrialization of farming has significantly threatened cultivated biodiversity. Participatory breeding endeavours to overcome this issue by enabling farmers to select a wide range of crop varieties in different conditions, and to foster genetic mixing through seed exchanges, crosses or mixtures. This necessitates the design of new forms of coordination and organization for the farmers and partners involved. This article reports on an ongoing initiative, aiming to facilitate the participatory design of such forms of coordination and organization. It first outlines the method used (Knowledge-Concept-Proposals or KCP ®), and how it has been tailored to this highly decentralized context involving politically engaged actors on a quest for autonomy. It then presents the exploratory results of the first two workshops: these include group consolidation, the sharing of heterogeneous knowledge, the generation of innovative ideas, and the elaboration of preliminary projects. Finally, this empirical case is compared with other initiatives supporting the participatory design of natural resource management strategies and tools. Its key original dimensions and benefits are that the workshop protocol is replicable, the data produced can be easily exploited, and it allows for testing hypotheses in the field of design science.
    Keywords: dynamic on-farm management,agrobiodiversity,design workshops,innovative design,participatory plant breeding,farmers' population-varieties,participatory research
    Date: 2020–01–23
  47. By: Ward, Patrick S.; Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Vartika; Ortega, David L.; Gautam, Shriniwas; Guerena, David; Shrestha, Rudra Bahadur
    Abstract: The government in Nepal faces double burden of enhancing fertilizer application rates in the country by investing in efforts to boost demand and at the same time, managing its dependence on global markets to fulfill the supply of important nutrients such as Urea and DAP. Without an understanding of the true valuation of fertilizers for farmers, achieving this balance would be difficult. We use Becker-DeGroot-Marshak value elicitation methods to derive the intrinsic value that farmers in Nepal place on fertilizers. Eliciting values under three distinct procurement scenarios, we are able to decompose the total intrinsic value of fertilizer into a willingness-to-pay (WTP) to travel to procure fertilizer, a WTP for assured fertilizer supplies, and a WTP for the productivity benefits of fertilizer. Disaggregating our sample according to location (hills versus terai), we are able to estimate differences in total intrinsic value as well as value components along these geographical dimensions. While farmers in the hills are generally willing to pay more for urea than their counterparts in the terai, the total amount they are willing to pay is, on average, less than the market price for urea. We explore heterogeneity in valuations and discuss the implications of our findings on fertilizer procurement and distribution policies, as well as direct support policies that the Nepal government may consider. While support policiessuch as subsidies may encourage increased utilization of fertilizers, policies that lower barriers to private sector entry and increase the density of fertilizer retailers could also increase fertilizer utilization.
    Keywords: NEPAL, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, fertilizers, subsidies, willingness to pay, application rates, agricultural policies, experimentation, fertilizer policy, experimental auctions, fertilizer application, agricultural development,
    Date: 2019
  48. By: Maria Garrone; Dorien Emmers; Alessandro Olper; Jo Swinnen
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between EU agricultural subsidies and agricultural labour productivity by estimating a conditional growth equation. We use more representative subsidy indicators and a wider coverage (panel data from 213 EU regions over the period 2004-2014) than have been used before. We find that, on average, CAP subsidies increase agricultural labour productivity, and the effect is almost entirely due to decoupled Pillar I payments. Coupled Pillar I payments have no impact. The impact of Pillar II is mixed.
    Date: 2018–12
  49. By: Kumar, Anjani; Verma, Smriti; Prasad, Amit Mohan; Kishore, Avinash; Saroj, Sunil
    Abstract: The Million Farmers School (MFS) is an innovative extension program initiated by the Department of Agriculture in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, in 2017. Twice in a year, the department deploys its entire extension machinery to organize nearly 15,000 training programs for about a million farmers across all districts of the state. Unlike traditional extension services, MFS integrates various facets of agricultural knowledge into a packaged product and delivers through village-level trainings where printed material on the topics of training are also distributed among participants. This study presents early findings of a process evaluation, involving assessments of program design, implementation strategies, and estimation of benefits from program participation. In addition to consultation with public officials and community organizations, a state-level representative survey was conducted on a sample of both participating and non-participating households. The early results based on matching and instrumental variable methods–suggest that knowledge outcomes are significantly better among participants vis-Ã -vis non-participants. The results are robust to different model specifications. The study also qualitatively assesses various aspects of the program’s design and implementation, highlighting the constraints and challenges it faces and offers implementation advice for greater efficacy in its future course.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, agricultural extension, knowledge, training programmes, farmers, Million Farmers School, extension service, agricultural knowledge,
    Date: 2019
  50. By: Babu, Suresh Chandra
    Abstract: Ending malnutrition in all forms is a global development priority. Investment in nutrition can yield high returns in terms of reduced health costs, increased productivity and improved human resources capacity and economic growth (Covic & and Hendriks 2016; Shekar et al. 2017). Nutrition policy-making and program interventions in developing countries fail to bring together several sectors that contribute to nutrition improvement. Since food systems influence the type of food produced, understanding relevant drivers of a country’s food system with an emphasis on nutrition can help to end malnutrition (Per Pinstrup-Andersen 2012a; HLPE 2017; Babu and Kataki 2003). In this paper, we adopt a food systems perspective to review Myanmar’s current food system. With the help of a review of the literature and two national consultative stakeholder workshops, we examine Myanmar’s current food system. This is a crucial step since it identifies gaps existing in the current policies/ strategies being implemented. After the review, we developed an AIT (analyze gaps, identify priority investment areas, and track progress) operational framework that can be used to increase the nutrition-sensitivity of a food system. Applying this framework to Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS), this paper presents an analysis of the gaps that need to be addressed to make ADS nutrition-sensitive, provide priority investment areas, and a tracking system which monitors the progress of these investments.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, nutrition, famine, food systems, malnutrition, agricultural policies, nutrition policies, systems analysis, nutrition sensitive food systems, nutrition-sensitive policies,
    Date: 2019
  51. By: Martin, Will
    Abstract: After nearly two centuries of lagging behind the industrial countries, growth in many developing countries has surged since the early 1990s. This outperformance has major implications for almost all areas of agricultural economics and, if continued, will likely do so into the future. This paper aims to identify the key ways in which the changes in rich and poor country growth rates matter for agricultural economists, as a basis for formulating better research agendas. A key impact arises through sharp increases in demand for agricultural resources as demand for livestock products increases. This changing structure of food demand has important implications for nutrition studies and policies, with the emergence of a double burden of malnutrition. On the supply side, growth in developing countries tends to increase domestic food supply, which is also boosted by increases in research and development spending. Growth in developing countries both stimulates and benefits from increases in infrastructure investment, evaluation of which requires new analytical tools discussed at this conference. Negative impacts include the contribution of increased demand for livestock products to global greenhouse gas emissions. In terms of trade policy, developing country growth is tending to lead to convergence of agricultural policies with the pattern of assistance seen in today’s developed countries, raising concerns about the future need to deal with collective action problems, particularly those that increase the volatility of world prices.
    Keywords: economic growth, agricultural economics, development, agricultural policies, convergent improvement, developed countries, developing countries, trade, trade policies, convergence, O13 Economic Development: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Energy, Environment, Other Primary Product, O41 One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, O47 Measurement of Economic Growth, Aggregate Productivity, Cross-Country Output Convergence, Q17 Agriculture in International Trade, Q18 Agricultural Policy, Food Policy,
    Date: 2019
  52. By: Magnan, Nicholas; Hoffmann, Vivian; Garrido, Gissele; Kanyam, Faniel Akwasi; Opoku, Nelson
    Abstract: Food safety hazards threaten the health and market access of smallholder farming households. Smallholders face a number of barriers to improving food safety and quality, including low awareness, high input costs, and the failure of premium prices to pass through to producers. In this paper we examine how lifting these barriers affects Ghanaian groundnut farmers’ adoption of low-tech, low-cost post-harvest practices that reduce aflatoxin contamination. We conduct a randomized controlled trial in northern Ghana over the course of two seasons to test three interventions: (1) training on aflatoxin and its prevention, (2) distribution of free drying sheets, and (3) a price premium for groundnuts that comply with local aflatoxin regulations. In the first year we test for effects on post-harvest practices and aflatoxin levels, and in the second we test for effects on aflatoxin levels only. We find that training farmers substantially improves post-harvest practices. Drying sheet distribution and to a lesser extent the premium price lead to further improvements. We find substantial corresponding decreases in aflatoxin levels from drying sheet provision in the study region where background aflatoxin levels were highest. Beyond regional differences, benefits are higher for households with higher aflatoxin at baseline, more members, and young children. The estimated impacts of the price premium intervention are of similar magnitude, but not statistically significant.
    Keywords: GHANA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, information, technology, markets, aflatoxins, health, food safety, food quality, technology adoption,
    Date: 2019
  53. By: Ceballos, Francisco; Kramer, Berber
    Abstract: Production risk is pervasive in agriculture, yet smallholder farmers lack access to quality insurance. This is due to asymmetric information in markets for indemnity insurance, and high basis risk, limited trust, and poor understanding of index-based insurance. Digital technologies can help overcome these challenges by improving crop monitoring and yield prediction, allowing insurers to provide products that move towards indemnity insurance. Although this can potentially improve demand, it also comes at the risk of introducing adverse selection. We analyze this trade-off by eliciting willingness to pay for both index-based insurance and picture-based insurance (PBI) for visible crop damage through incentivized auctions with smallholder farmers in northwestern India. Participants reveal a higher willingness to pay for PBI than for index-based coverage. Although at commercial rates, demand remains low for either product, PBI improves demand at the subsidized premium levels maintained by India’s national insurance scheme. Moreover, we find no evidence of adverse selection. We conclude that digital technologies can facilitate a shift from index-based insurance to indemnity insurance. By reducing basis risk and strengthening trust and understanding, this can improve demand for crop insurance.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, willingness to pay, technology, crop insurance, mobile equipment, risk, mobile telephones, photography, insurance, assessment, innovation, losses, digital technology, mobile technology, adverse selection, G22 Insurance, Insurance Companies, Actuarial Studies, O13 Economic Development: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Energy, Environment, Other Primary Product, O16 Economic Development: Financial Markets, Saving and Capital Investment, Corporate Finance and Governance, Q14 Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2019
  54. By: Campbell, Bruce
    Abstract: While the challenges of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in low-income countries are immense, there are opportunities for significant advances and transformations, related to rising urban populations and changing food demands, digitalisation of the food sector, new ways of connecting farmers, and creative financial models. Climate risk management will need to be at the core of future initiatives. Several elements will need to come together to achieve the desired transformation, including meaningful policy and governance change, deepened private sector engagement with smallholders, and significant advances in digitalisation. Through such means, both adaptation and mitigation in agriculture can be tackled.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2019–08
  55. By: Caro, Juan Carlos
    Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the major public health challenges of the 21stcentury.Evidence suggests that timely nutrition and stimulation interventions can prevent excessive weight gain, however little is known about the effects of scaled-up programs. I use a national administrative dataset to explore the short- and long-run exposure effects to the Chilean School Meal Program (SMP) on the nutritional status of children attending public and subsidized schools. I estimate the effects on the standarized body mass index (BMI) using a Regression Discontinuity design based on the SMP eligibility cutoffs over a household vulnerability score. Participation in 1stgrade reduces average BMI of girls but not boys in the same year. Effects are concentrated among overweight or obese children. Effects are driven by improvements in nutritional quality of meals.Non-sedentary students, children with higher socioemotional skills, and those receiving mental health services reap larger benefits from the SMP. Continued participation from1stgrade reduces boys’ average BMI at 5thgrade, relative to never participants.
    Keywords: Nutritional Status, socioemotional development, Human capital, School meal program, Health, Child development
    JEL: I10 I11 I12 J13 J24
    Date: 2020

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