nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒02‒17
25 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Salt of the Earth : Quantifying the Impact of Water Salinity on Global Agricultural Productivity By Russ,Jason Daniel; Zaveri,Esha Dilip; Damania,Richard; Desbureaux,Sebastien Gael; Escurra,Jorge Jose; Rodella,Aude-Sophie
  2. Plants and their peasants: a more-than-human approach to plant breeding and seed politics in Brittany, France By Rezvani, L.
  3. Climate Change and the Distribution of Agricultural Output By Costa, Francisco J M; Forge, Fabien; Garred, Jason; Pessoa, João Paulo
  4. Building resilience to climate shocks in Ethiopia By Koo, Jawoo; Thurlow, James; ElDidi, Hagar; Ringler, Claudia; De Pinto, Alessandro
  5. Climate Change and Agriculture By G. Cornelis van Kooten
  6. Modeling Bioenergy Supply Chains: Feedstocks Pretreatment, Integrated System Design Under Uncertainty By Li, Yuanzhe
  7. Recall Length and Measurement Error in Agricultural Surveys By Wollburg,Philip Randolph; Tiberti,Marco; Zezza,Alberto
  8. The “possible trinity” of agricultural investment policies enhancing employment creation, productivity and sustainability of agricultural investments in Sub-Saharan Africa By Galli, Rossana.
  9. Gender Differences in Agricultural Productivity in Cote d'Ivoire : Changes in Determinants and Distributional Composition over the Past Decade By Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Lawin,Gabriel; Rouanet,Lea Marie
  10. Abstracting Congolese forests: mappings, representational narratives, and the production of the plantation space under REDD+ By Windey, Catherine
  11. Réflexions sur le développement du secteur laitier et sa durabilité dans différentes parties du monde By Mohamed Taher Srairi; Vincent Chatellier; Christian Corniaux; Bernard Faye; Claire Aubron; Nathalie Hostiou; Alejandra Safa; Said Bouhallab; Sylvie Lortal
  12. The Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Temperature Extremes on Birth Outcomes By Chen, Xi; Tan, Chih Ming; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xin
  13. Economic Drivers of Food Loss at the Farm and Pre-Retail Sectors: A Look at the Produce Supply Chain in the United States By Minor, Travis; Astill, Gregory; Raszap, Sharon; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Buzby, Jean C.; Hitaj, Claudia; Kantor, Linda; Kuchler, Fred; Ellison, Brenna; Mishra, Ashok K.; Roe, Brian; Richards, Timothy J.
  14. Beneficiary Views on Cash and In-Kind Payments : Evidence from Ethiopia's Productive Safety By Hirvonen,Kalle Valtteri; Hoddinott,John
  15. Alkire-Foster Indices and Cooperative Membership among Poultry Farming Households in Southwest Nigeria, Evidence from Oyo State. By Ojo, Idowu Oladeji; Popoola, David Prince
  16. The specific role of agriculture for economic vulnerability of small island spaces By Stéphane Blancard; Maximin Bonnet; Jean-François Hoarau
  17. Coconut oil, conservation and the conscientious consumer By Meijaard, Erik; Abrams, Jesse Frank; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Voigt, Maria; Sheil, Douglas
  18. The AF Filières project: application of PSUT frameworks for regional analyses of agriculture and forestry supply chains and footprints in France By Jean-Yves Courtonne; Julien Alapetite; Vincent Wawrzyiak; Michela Bevione
  19. Increasing the cost-effectiveness of water quality improvements through pollution abatement target-setting at different spatial scales By Mikołaj Czajkowski; Hans E. Andersen; Gite Blicher-Mathiasen; Wiktor Budziński; Katarina Elofsson; Jan Hagemejer; Berit Hasler; Christoph Humborg; James C. R. Smart; Erik Smedberg; Per Stålnacke; Hans Thodsen; Adam Wąs; Maciej Wilamowski; Tomasz Żylicz; Nick Hanley
  20. Climate policy without a price signal: Evidence on the implicit carbon price of energy efficiency in buildings By Ghislaine Lang; Bruno Lanz
  21. Toward Successful Development Policies : Insights from Research in Development Economics By Artuc,Erhan; Cull,Robert J.; Dasgupta,Susmita; Fattal,Roberto; Filmer,Deon P.; Gine,Xavier; Jacoby,Hanan G.; Jolliffe,Dean Mitchell; Kee,Hiau Looi; Klapper,Leora; Kraay,Aart C.; Loayza,Norman V.; Mckenzie,David J.; Ozler,Berk; Rao,Vijayendra; Rijkers,Bob; Schmukler,Sergio L.; Toman,Michael A.; Wagstaff, Adam; Woolcock,Michael
  22. Economic and social upgrading in the Philippines’ pineapple supply chain By Henry, Carla.; Chato, Rebecca C.
  23. The Nitrogen Legacy : The Long-Term Effects of Water Pollution on Human Capital By Zaveri,Esha Dilip; Russ,Jason Daniel; Desbureaux,Sebastien Gael; Damania,Richard; Rodella,Aude-Sophie; Ribeiro Paiva De Souza,Giovanna
  24. Explaining World Wine Exports in the First Wave of Globalisation, 1848-1938 By Mar’a-Isabel Ayuda; Hugo Ferrer-PŽrez; Vicente Pinilla

  1. By: Russ,Jason Daniel; Zaveri,Esha Dilip; Damania,Richard; Desbureaux,Sebastien Gael; Escurra,Jorge Jose; Rodella,Aude-Sophie
    Abstract: Salinity in surface waters is on the rise throughout much of the world. Many factors contribute to this change, including increased water extraction, poor irrigation management, and sea-level rise. To date no study has attempted to quantify the impacts on global food production. This paper develops a plausibly causal model to test the sensitivity of global and regional agricultural productivity to changes in water salinity. To do so, it utilizes several local and global data sets on water quality and agricultural productivity and a model that isolates the impact of exogenous changes in water salinity on yields. The analysis trains a machine-learning model to predict salinity globally, to simulate average global food losses over 2000-13. These losses are found to be high, in the range of the equivalent of 124 trillion kilocalories, or enough to feed more than 170 million people every day, each year. Global maps building on these results show that pockets of high losses occur on all continents, but the losses can be expected to be particularly problematic in regions already experiencing malnutrition challenges.
    Date: 2020–02–10
  2. By: Rezvani, L.
    Abstract: This research paper investigates the articulation of agriculture, plant breeding science and capitalism through the lens of semences paysannes (peasant seed) in Brittany, France, using Anna Tsing’s concept of “scalability”. From the early to mid-19th century, the French state instituted an industrial, productivist agricultural paradigm, based in part on a system of seed standardization and certification which illegalized seed produced by farmers. Today, peasant farmers are pushing back, asserting their right to select and produce their own seed as part of the larger movement for peasant agriculture. Evolutive, heterogeneous, freely reproducible peasant seed is viewed as politically transformative, capable of rebuilding barriers to accumulation in agriculture that were broken down with the modernization process and the spread of hybrid seed. While challenging capitalist appropriation of the seed is central to the movement, the question of how and to whom to sell produce remains fraught. This paper focuses on a group of farmers who have entered into a contract with multinational supermarket chain Carrefour to sell their vegetables produced from semences paysannes at premium prices and with an exclusive label. Using ethnographic material based on 5 weeks of fieldwork with farmers in northern Brittany, this paper questions if the biological specificities of semences paysannes guarantee their resistance to capitalist appropriation and accumulation. By analysing Carrefour’s incorporation of vegetables from peasant seed, it is possible to understand how biological barriers to appropriation at the input stage of agriculture can produce value for supermarket capital. However, producing peasant seed reintroduces the unpredictability of plant life onto the farm, countering the way modern plant breeding has suppressed the liveliness of nature. In conjunction with organic practices, seed production help constitute farms as multispecies refugia, connecting farmers and plants in caring relationships and helping to address environmental harm wrought by industrial agriculture. Peasant seed production also necessitates collaboration between farmers, building a form of autonomy that is collective rather than individualistic. Thus, peasant seed production retains its subversive potential in the way it transforms farmer livelihoods and production practices, both materially and affectively.
    Keywords: peasant seed, peasant agriculture, plant breeding, scalability, appropriation, capitalism, industrial agriculture, human-plant relationships, vegetal political ecology
    Date: 2020–01–31
  3. By: Costa, Francisco J M (FGV EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance); Forge, Fabien; Garred, Jason; Pessoa, João Paulo
    Abstract: This paper uses a multi-run climate projection model to examine the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of agricultural outcomes in India. Extreme weather draws resulting in low revenues (1-in-100-year events) are projected to become the norm, increasing by 53 to 88 percentage points by the end of the 21st century. As a result, Indian farmers will face a 16% to 33% decline in mean revenue over the course of the century, presenting a more urgent problem than changes in yield variability. Analysis using a structural general equilibrium model suggests consequences of a similar magnitude for welfare.
    Date: 2020–01–29
  4. By: Koo, Jawoo; Thurlow, James; ElDidi, Hagar; Ringler, Claudia; De Pinto, Alessandro
    Abstract: Ethiopia has made consistent progress in improving development indicators, but vulnerability to extreme weather events is a continuing concern, especially for people reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods. The 2015/16 El Niño event caused both a severe drought and flooding, which highlighted the remarkable improvements in the country’s resilience and the remaining challenges in ensuring that everyone “bounces back†relatively quickly from adverse climatic shocks. Given the links between climate change, cyclical droughts, and poverty, and the high cost of emergency humanitarian assistance, the Government of Ethiopia and development partners decided to review the country’s resilience programming and identify opportunities and challenges to building greater resilience into the agricultural system. This work included three components: a review of the literature and government programs on resilience in Ethiopia; key informant interviews in several regions of the country; and quantitative crop modeling and economywide analyses to inform resilience programming.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; resilience; climate change; climate change adaptation; agricultural sector; development programs; climate shocks
    Date: 2019
  5. By: G. Cornelis van Kooten
    Keywords: climate, agriculture, global warming, wildfire, emissions, agricultural policies
    JEL: Q18 Q54
    Date: 2020–02
  6. By: Li, Yuanzhe
    Abstract: Biofuels have been promoted by governmental policies for reducing fossil fuel dependency and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as facilitating regional economic growth. Comprehensive model analysis is needed to assess the economic and environmental impacts of developing bioenergy production systems. For cellulosic biofuel production and supply in particular, existing studies have not accounted for the inter-dependencies between multiple participating decision makers and simultaneously incorporated uncertainties and risks associated with the linked production systems. This dissertation presents a methodology that incorporates uncertainty element to the existing integrated modeling framework specifically designed for advanced biofuel production systems using dedicated energy crops as feedstock resources. The goal of the framework is to support the bioenergy industry for infrastructure and supply chain development. The framework is flexible to adapt to different topological network structures and decision scopes based on the modeling requirements, such as on capturing the interactions between the agricultural production system and the multi-refinery bioenergy supply chain system with regards to land allocation and crop adoption patterns, which is critical for estimating feedstock supply potentials for the bioenergy industry. The methodology is also particularly designed to incorporate system uncertainties by using stochastic programming models to improve the resilience of the optimized system design. The framework is used to construct model analyses in two case studies. The results of the California biomass supply model estimate that feedstock pretreatment via combined torrefaction and pelletization reduces delivered and transportation cost for long-distance biomass shipment by 5% and 15% respectively. The Pacific Northwest hardwood biofuels application integrates full-scaled supply chain infrastructure optimization with agricultural economic modeling and estimates that bio-jet fuels can be produced at costs between 4 to 5 dollars per gallon, and identifies areas suitable for simultaneously deploying a set of biorefineries using adopted poplar as the dedicated energy crop to produce biomass feedstocks. This application specifically incorporates system uncertainties in the crop market and provides an optimal system design solution with over 17% improvement in expected total profit compared to its corresponding deterministic model.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2019–12–01
  7. By: Wollburg,Philip Randolph; Tiberti,Marco; Zezza,Alberto
    Abstract: This paper assesses the relationship between the length of recall and nonrandom error in agricultural survey data. Using data from the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study?Integrated Surveys on Agriculture in Malawi and Tanzania, the paper shows that key input and output variables are systematically related to the length of the recall period, indicating the presence of nonrandom measurement error. With longer recall periods, farmers report greater quantities of harvest, labor, and fertilizer inputs. Farmers list fewer plots as the recall period increases. The paper argues that it is plausible that farmers overestimate plot-level outcomes, or they forget some of their more marginal plots due to longer recall periods. The analysis also finds evidence of measurement error related to the length of recall in common measures of agricultural productivity. The size of the recall effect typically varies between 2 and 5 percent per additional month of recall length, which is economically significant. With data reliability affecting policy effectiveness, improving agricultural survey data quality remains an important concern. Mainstreaming objective measures where possible and reducing the risk of recall error through shorter recall periods appear to be promising avenues to improve the quality of key variables in agricultural surveys.
    Date: 2020–01–29
  8. By: Galli, Rossana.
    Keywords: agriculture, extensive farming, foreign investment, employment creation, productivity, sustainable development, Africa south of Sahara
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Lawin,Gabriel; Rouanet,Lea Marie
    Abstract: This paper analyzes changes in agricultural productivity gender gaps in Côte d'Ivoire between 2008 and 2016 using decomposition methods. The analysis finds that the unconditional gender gap between male- and female-headed households has decreased by 14 percent over the past decade. The conditional gender gap has decreased by 32 percent and becomes statistically insignificant once accounting for whether households farm export crops. This transition is driven by improvements across crop types, but it is particularly remarkable for export crop productivity, likely due to increased adoption of fertilizer and pesticide by female-headed households. Despite these substantial improvements, female-headed households in the bottom half of the distribution remain disadvantaged. Moreover, over the past decade, female-headed households did not transition into commercial agriculture and have witnessed greater reductions in land area compared with their male counterparts. The results show that helping these female-headed households access agricultural labor, strengthen their land rights, and adopt export crops are the three most promising policy options to reach gender parity in agriculture in Côte d'Ivoire.
    Keywords: Climate Change and Agriculture,Crops and Crop Management Systems,Economics and Gender,Gender and Economic Policy,Gender and Poverty,Gender and Economics,Gender and Development,Inequality,Educational Sciences
    Date: 2020–01–21
  10. By: Windey, Catherine
    Abstract: Inspired by Science and Technology Studies and using findings from a multi-level field research in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this paper analyses the construction and use of controlling geospatial-driven narratives and seemingly neutral cartographic representations of Congolese forests for producing green economic landscapes under REDD+ process. I first show how simplified satellite-based maps, in a messy socio-political context, perform as neutral actants for identifying culprits and assigning blame, leading to a uniform ‘national consensus’ on community-induced threats to nature while letting industrial extraction off the hook. This understanding says very little about socio-political and power relations that shape forest use and change, and virtually ignores local knowledge, thinking and living models. Local communities’ subjectivities and livelihoods are carefully framed into homogeneous ‘poor unproductive but harmful shifting cultivators’, a figure rooted in colonial discourses which permeates people’s imaginaries of forests and of what is possible, plausible and desirable. Despite purported inclusive REDD+ strategies, this framing legitimizes geospatial control over local socio-spatial practices and the production of a monoculture of productivity and bounded rationalized space, materialized in the privately-held and extractive plantation or concession to the detriment of communities’ sovereignty. This model, I show, produces standardized subjectivities of the ‘socially responsible green company’ and the ‘enviropreneurial commodity petty producer/labourer’ integrated in international markets, leaving social and environmental injustices totally unaddressed. My findings emphasize the interlinkages between epistemic and material dispossession and shed light on ongoing processes of slow violence that have long term socio-ecological consequences.
    Keywords: Congo; DRC; REDD+; environmental justice
    Date: 2020–01
  11. By: Mohamed Taher Srairi (IAV - Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II); Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Christian Corniaux (UMR SELMET, PPZS - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Bernard Faye (Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Claire Aubron (UMR SELMET - Systèmes d'élevage méditerranéens et tropicaux - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Nathalie Hostiou (METAFORT - Mutations des activités des espaces et des formes d'organisation dans les territoires ruraux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech - VAS - VetAgro Sup - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement); Alejandra Safa (Food and Agriculture Organization); Said Bouhallab (STLO - Science et Technologie du Lait et de l'Oeuf - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Sylvie Lortal (STLO - Science et Technologie du Lait et de l'Oeuf - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST)
    Abstract: The dairy sector occupies an important place worldwide, in terms of contribution to agricultural land use, jobs and wealth creation. Dairy production results from varied production models from one country to another and is based on animal species with different characteristics. It has increased dramatically in recent decades. The future development of milk production is subject to various constraints that question the best ways of achieving sustainability. In this context, the first part of this article presents the dynamics of the dairy sector in terms of consumption and production in various major geographical areas. The second part deals with the sustainability of the dairy sector, mainly in developing countries, through a selection of three themes: i- the social dimension (often forgotten) and the need to mainstream gender issues; ii- the sustainable use of water resources in Morocco and India, chosen to illustrate two contrasting situations; iii- biodiversity and the essential contribution of non-bovine milks to local development. The third part recalls that international trade exchanges make it possible for many countries with a deficit in milk to meet domestic demand.
    Abstract: La filière laitière occupe une place importante à l'échelle mondiale, en termes de contribution à l'occupation des surfaces agricoles, aux emplois et à la création de richesse. La production laitière, qui résulte de modèles productifs très variés d'un pays à l'autre et qui relève d'espèces animales aux caractéristiques différentes, a considérablement augmenté au cours des dernières décennies. Le développement futur de la production laitière est soumis à différentes contraintes qui interrogent sur les voies à privilégier dans une optique de durabilité. Dans ce cadre, la première partie de cet article présente la dynamique du secteur laitier, en termes de consommation et de production, et ce, pour différentes grandes zones géographiques ; la seconde traite de la durabilité du secteur laitier, principalement dans les pays en développement, au travers d'une sélection de trois thèmes : la dimension sociale (souvent oubliée) et la nécessité d'intégrer les questions de genre ; l'usage durable des ressources hydriques en l'illustrant au travers de deux situations contrastées, celle du Maroc et de l'Inde ; la biodiversité et l'importance de la contribution des laits non bovins au développement local. La troisième partie rappelle que les échanges internationaux permettent, pour de nombreux pays déficitaires en lait, de satisfaire la demande intérieure.
    Keywords: modèle productif,milk production,dairy sector,durability,developing countries,productive model,water resource,international exchange,sustainability,under-developed nations,production laitière,secteur laitier,durabilité,pays en voie de développement,échange international,ressource hydrique
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Chen, Xi (Yale University); Tan, Chih Ming (University of North Dakota); Zhang, Xiaobo (Peking University); Zhang, Xin (Beijing Normal University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of prenatal exposure to extreme temperatures on birth outcomes – specifically, the log of birth weight and an indicator for low birth weight – using a nationally representative dataset in rural China. During the span of our data (i.e., 1991–2000), indoor air-conditioning was not widely available and migration was limited, allowing us to address identification issues endemic in the climate change literature related to adaptation and location sorting. We find substantial heterogeneity in the effects of extreme temperature exposure on birth outcomes. In particular, prenatal exposure to heat waves has stronger negative effects than exposure to cold spells on survivors.
    Keywords: climate change, cold weather, heat waves, birth weight, low birth weight, China
    JEL: I15 Q54 Q51
    Date: 2020–01
  13. By: Minor, Travis; Astill, Gregory; Raszap, Sharon; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Buzby, Jean C.; Hitaj, Claudia; Kantor, Linda; Kuchler, Fred; Ellison, Brenna; Mishra, Ashok K.; Roe, Brian; Richards, Timothy J.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Marketing, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–01–24
  14. By: Hirvonen,Kalle Valtteri; Hoddinott,John
    Abstract: Economists often default to the assumption that cash is always preferable to an in-kind transfer. Do beneficiaries feel the same way? This paper addresses this issue using longitudinal household data from Ethiopia where a large-scale social safety net intervention (PSNP) operates. Even though most payments are made in cash, and even though the (temporal) transaction costs associated with food payments are higher than payments received as cash, most beneficiaries stated that they prefer their payments only or partly in food. Higher food prices induce shifts in stated preferences towards in-kind transfers. More food secure households, those closer to food markets and to financial services are more likely to prefer cash. Though shifts occur, the stated preference for food is dominant: In no year do more than 17 percent of households prefer only cash. There is suggestive evidence that stated preferences for food are also driven by self-control concerns.
    Date: 2020–01–28
  15. By: Ojo, Idowu Oladeji; Popoola, David Prince
    Abstract: This study was conducted in Southwest Nigeria to examine the impact of cooperative membership on the poverty status of poultry farming households in Southwest Nigeria, using the Alkire-Foster multidimensional indices while controlling for selection bias. This can enhance understanding for more impactful policy making. A multistage sampling technique was employed in the random data collection from 210 poultry farmers; 101 Co-operators and 109 Non-co-operators from four local government areas, using well-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, Alkire-Foster multidimensional poverty indices, Treatment effect models of the propensity score matching, inverse probability weighing and nearest neighbour matching algorithms were employed in data analysis using STATA 14. The multidimensional poverty index, incidence of deprivation across nine of the various ten welfare indicators with the aggregated average intensity of deprivations was found to be significantly higher among the Non-co-operator poultry farming household category when compared to their Non-co-operator counterparts. Also, Cooperative societies apart from its poverty reduction impact on the Co-operator, was also found to have significant negative impact on multidimensional poverty status among Non-co-operator poultry farming households. Multipurpose cooperatives was found to reduce poverty more than other types of cooperatives. Finding based policy options were proffered.
    Keywords: Cooperative membership,Multidimensional poverty,Nigeria,Alkire-Foster multidimensional poverty measures,Welfare,Treatment effects
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Stéphane Blancard; Maximin Bonnet; Jean-François Hoarau
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Meijaard, Erik; Abrams, Jesse Frank (University of Exeter); Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Voigt, Maria; Sheil, Douglas
    Abstract: Consumption has consequences, and conscientious consumers increasingly seek sound guidance to reduce their impact. Objective guidance is, however, rarely available. A case in point is coconut production which is generally considered to have low environmental impact. We demonstrate that for one impact measure of all major oil crops —threatened species per volume produced —coconut, together with maize, affect far more species than all other major oil crops, including palm oil. Our analysis indicates that the public discourse about crop impact is distorted. What ethical consumers need is unbiased information based on transparent and objective measures that address multiple concerns, costs and impacts, and allow fair comparisons between products.
    Date: 2020–01–31
  18. By: Jean-Yves Courtonne (STEEP - Sustainability transition, environment, economy and local policy - Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - LJK - Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Julien Alapetite (STEEP - Sustainability transition, environment, economy and local policy - Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - LJK - Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Vincent Wawrzyiak (AURA-EE - Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Energie Environnement); Michela Bevione (STEEP - Sustainability transition, environment, economy and local policy - Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - LJK - Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Date: 2019–06–18
  19. By: Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Hans E. Andersen (Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University); Gite Blicher-Mathiasen (Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University; Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Wiktor Budziński (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Katarina Elofsson (Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University); Jan Hagemejer (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Berit Hasler (Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University); Christoph Humborg (Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University); James C. R. Smart (Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University); Erik Smedberg (Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University); Per Stålnacke (Department of Water Resources, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research); Hans Thodsen (Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University); Adam Wąs (Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Economic Sciences); Maciej Wilamowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Tomasz Żylicz (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Nick Hanley (Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Institute of Biodiversity)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the potential gains in cost-effectiveness from changing the spatial scale at which nutrient reduction targets are set for the Baltic Sea, focusing on nutrient loadings associated with agriculture. Costs of achieving loadings reductions are compared across five levels of spatial scale, namely the entire Baltic Sea; the marine basin level; the country level; the watershed level; and the grid square level. A novel highly disaggregated model, which represents decreases in agricultural profits, changes in root zone N concentrations and transport to the Baltic Sea is proposed, and is then used to estimate the gains in cost-effectiveness from changing the spatial scale of nutrient reduction targets. The model includes 14 Baltic Sea marine basins, 14 countries, 117 watersheds and 19,023 10-by-10 km grid squares. A range of policy options are identified which approach the cost-effective reductions in N loadings identified by the constrained optimization model. We argue that our results have important implications for both domestic and international policy design for achieving water quality improvements where non-point pollution is a key stressor of water quality.
    Keywords: cost-effectiveness, nutrient pollution, agricultural run-off, Baltic Sea, eutrophication
    JEL: Q52 Q53 Q18 Q25 F53 R52
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Ghislaine Lang; Bruno Lanz
    Abstract: In the absence of a global carbon price, many individual countries set up policies to incentivize specific abatement interventions. In turn, minimizing compliance cost requires policy-makers to identify interventions that are worth pursuing. With this in mind, the objective of this paper is to document heterogeneity in the price of carbon implicitly associated with a range of interventions to improve buildings' energy efficiency. We use data for a portfolio of 548 multi-unit buildings observed over 16 years, representing 12,820 rental units, and quantify the impacts of more than 400 energy efficiency interventions among 240 treated buildings. We exploit variation in the timing of investments to provide evidence that treated and control buildings follow the same trend in the absence of energy efficiency investments, and use staggered difference-in-differences regressions to document building-level energy savings, CO2 abatement, and heating expenditure reductions. Our results indicate significant heterogeneity in energy savings across interventions, and suggest that the implicit price of carbon associated with frequently subsidized measures (such as wall insulation and windows replacement) is well in excess of available benefit estimates for avoided emissions.
    Keywords: Regulation; climate policy; implicit carbon price; energy efficiency investments; energy savings; staggered design.
    JEL: H21 H23 Q41 Q49 Q58 R31
    Date: 2020–03
  21. By: Artuc,Erhan; Cull,Robert J.; Dasgupta,Susmita; Fattal,Roberto; Filmer,Deon P.; Gine,Xavier; Jacoby,Hanan G.; Jolliffe,Dean Mitchell; Kee,Hiau Looi; Klapper,Leora; Kraay,Aart C.; Loayza,Norman V.; Mckenzie,David J.; Ozler,Berk; Rao,Vijayendra; Rijkers,Bob; Schmukler,Sergio L.; Toman,Michael A.; Wagstaff, Adam; Woolcock,Michael
    Abstract: What major insights have emerged from development economics in the past decade, and how do they matter for the World Bank? This challenging question was recently posed by World Bank Group President David Malpass to the staff of the Development Research Group. This paper assembles a set of 13 short, nontechnical briefing notes prepared in response to this request, summarizing a selection of major insights in development economics in the past decade. The notes synthesize evidence from recent research on how policies should be designed, implemented, and evaluated, and provide illustrations of what works and what does not in selected policy areas.
    Date: 2020–01–30
  22. By: Henry, Carla.; Chato, Rebecca C.
    Keywords: value chains, fruit, agriculture, economic growth, social development, Philippines
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Zaveri,Esha Dilip; Russ,Jason Daniel; Desbureaux,Sebastien Gael; Damania,Richard; Rodella,Aude-Sophie; Ribeiro Paiva De Souza,Giovanna
    Abstract: The fallout of nitrogen pollution is considered one of the largest global externalities facing the world, impacting air, water, soil, and human health. This paper combines data from the Demographic and Health Survey data set across India, Vietnam, and 33 African countries to analyze the causal links between pollution exposure experienced during the very earliest stages of life and later-life health. The results show that pollution exposure experienced in the critical years of development?from birth until age three?is associated with decreased height as an adult, a well-known indicator of overall health and productivity, and is robust to several statistical checks. Because adult height is related to education, labor productivity, and income, this also implies a loss of earning potential. The analysis begins within an assessment in India, where the data are more available, and is then extended to geographic settings including Vietnam and 33 countries in Africa. The results are consistent and show that early-life exposure to nitrogen pollution in water can lower height-for-age scores during childhood in Vietnam and during infancy in Africa. These findings add to the evidence on the enduring consequences of water pollution and identify a critical area for policy intervention.
    Date: 2020–02–06
  24. By: Mar’a-Isabel Ayuda (Department of Economic Analysis, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain); Hugo Ferrer-PŽrez (Agrifood and Natural Resources Economics Unit, Agrifood Research and Technology Center of Aragon (CITA), Spain); Vicente Pinilla (Universidad de Zaragoza and Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón, Spain)
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to analyse the determinants of world wine exports in the first wave of globalisation, taking into account the principal exporting countries and using an extended version of the gravity model. Our results show that ordinary wine exports were not affected by the increase in the size of the markets of the consuming countries, as in most of them wine was an alcoholic beverage consumed by a very small minority of the population. The harvests of the producing countries, particularly in the preceding years, significantly and positively affected their exports. And inversely, the harvests of the importers harmed them as there was a home bias in consumption due to cultural, price or tariff protection reasons. Finally, in the inter-war period, the trade of wine was severely affected by a series of shocks such as the First World War, the Soviet revolution, the Prohibition and the 1930s depression. As was the case for trade as a whole, the fall in transaction costs favoured exports, at least those of lower priced and lower quality wine. However, the liberalisation of trade had a lesser impact on wine than on other products.
    Keywords: Wine history, wine trade, wine globalisation
    JEL: F14 N50 Q13 Q17
    Date: 2020–02
  25. By: André Le Roux (IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers); Marinette Thébault (CE.RE.GE - CEntre de REcherche en GEstion - IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - Université de Poitiers - ULR - Université de La Rochelle); Yves Roy
    Date: 2019–01–17

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