nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2020‒01‒27
seventeen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Role of Women in Agriculture: Technology-led, Gender Sensitive Policy Options By Singh, K M; Kumari, Priyanka; Ahmad, Nasim; Shekhar, Dibyanshu
  2. Land conflicts and land tenure effects on agriculture productivity in Chad By Djimoudjiel, Djekonbe; Tchoffo Tameko, Gautier
  3. Evaluation of geographical label in consumers’ decision-making process: a systematic review and meta-analysis By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Lamonaca, Emilia
  4. Climate Change and U.S. Agriculture: Accounting for Multi-dimensional Slope Heterogeneity in Production Functions By Timothy Neal; Michael Keane
  5. Green House Gases: A Review of Losses and Benefits By Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad; Kassem, Mohamad
  6. An Analysis of Women’s Participation in Agriculture in Bihar By Singh, K.M.; Kumari, Priyanka; Ahmad, Nasim
  7. Transfer Pathways and Fluxes of Water-Soluble Pesticides in Various Compartments of the Agricultural Catchment of the Canche River (Northern France) By Angel Belles; Claire Alary; Agnès Rivière; Sophie Guillon; Edouard Patault; Nicolas Flipo; Christine Franke
  8. Role of Indigenous Women in Securing Sustainable Livelihoods in Western Himalayan Region, India By Jaimini Luharia; Haresh Sharma
  9. Urban land use fragmentation and human wellbeing By Bertram, Christine; Goebel, Jan; Krekel, Christian; Rehdanz, Katrin
  10. Comparing Deep Neural Network and Econometric Approaches to Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Yield By Timothy Neal; Michael Keane
  11. Choice without Consciousness: Women’s Participation in Household Decisions and Gender Equality in Children’s Education By Saleemi, Sundus; Kofol, Chiara
  12. Weather-index drought insurance in Burkina-Faso: assessment of its potential interest to farmers By Dissemin, uploaded via; Berg, Alexis; Quirion, Philippe; Sultan, Benjamin
  13. On the induced impacts of French pesticide policies: some macroeconomic assessments By Bareille, François; Gohin, Alexandre
  14. Rethinking the Limits of Climate Change Adaptation By Jamero, Ma. Laurice; Esteban, Miguel; Chadwick, Christopher; Onuki, Motoharu
  15. Disposal is Not Free: Fiscal Instruments to Internalize the Environmental Costs of Solid Waste By Thornton Matheson
  16. Agricultural Offset Potential in the United States: Economic and Geospatial Insights By Proville, Jeremy; Parkhurst, Robert T.; Koller, Steven; Kroopf, Sara; Baker, Justin; Salas, William A
  17. Adoption of Improved Seeds, Evidence from DRC By Tanguy Bernard; Sylvie Lambert; Karen Macours; Margaux Vinez

  1. By: Singh, K M; Kumari, Priyanka; Ahmad, Nasim; Shekhar, Dibyanshu
    Abstract: Agriculture occupies a key position in Indian economy providing a source of livelihood for a majority of the population. Successes in agricultural front with high production levels, especially in food grains have indeed been achieved. Women in India are the backbone of the society and important resource in agriculture and rural economy. They make essential contributions to the agricultural development and allied and household activities and pursue multiple livelihood strategies. These activities include producing agricultural crop, cleaning animals, preparing food, working in rural enterprises, engaging in trade and marketing, caring family members and maintaining their homes. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Govt. of India has policy provisions like joint leasing for both domestic and agricultural land under National policy for farmers, however in practice it has made little difference at ground level. There is still a wide gender gap which has to be addressed properly for overall development of women. The paper tries to analyze the policy options available for a gender sensitive agricultural policy which can not only empower women but also ensure sustainable agricultural development.
    Keywords: Gender issues, Natural Resource Management, Gender policy, Technology-led development
    JEL: O15 O29 O38
    Date: 2019–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:98070&r=all
  2. By: Djimoudjiel, Djekonbe; Tchoffo Tameko, Gautier
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to measure the extent of land conflicts and climate change on agricultural productivity and yields in the most conflict-prone regions of Chad. We obtained the results that, the interaction of land conflicts in agricultural activity is a barrier to productivity and the improvement of agricultural yields. The effects of climate change on yields and productivity are dwindle by government reforms and subventions in the agriculture’ sector. Hence, we recommend government to promote customary land tenure to reduce conflict and in other hand to trace transhumance corridors in order to support the State's agricultural reform efforts.
    Keywords: Land conflicts, Land tenure, Agriculture productivity, Climate change
    JEL: Q15 Q16 Q54
    Date: 2019–12–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:97696&r=all
  3. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Lamonaca, Emilia
    Abstract: The Geographical origin of agri-food products has become astrategic tool of differentiation: it is a unique attribute which makes productsdifficult to reproduce, and presumed to be a quality cue for agri-food products. Consumer studies on the relevance of geographical labelling provide heterogeneous evidence on the relevance of this extrinsic attribute as compared to the relevance of other product characteristics. A systematic review of consumer studies on the relevance of geographical labelling has been conducted, and collected data have been quantitatively analysed through a meta-regression approach, in order to assess drivers of differences in relevance of geographical labelling across studies. An ad hoc index has been built to measure the relevance of geographical labelling as compared to other attributes of a product. Several chosen control factors allowed to explain differences in the relevance of geographical label across studies in terms of characteristics of studies (structural heterogeneity), methodological issues (methodological heterogeneity), and publication processes. Results show that the relevance of geographical label, although not biased by publication selection, is influenced by the structural characteristics of studies and, to a lower extent, by issues related to the publication process. In particular, the attitude of consumers towards geographical labels tend to be product- and origin-specific: geographical labelling is the main differentiation tool for expensive products (e.g., wine), but is of low relevance for several countries depending on country-specific factors (e.g., nationality, culture, image and reputation). Managerial and policy implications are provided.
    Keywords: Geographical label; Consumer; Agri-food; Heterogeneity; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2020–01–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:98004&r=all
  4. By: Timothy Neal (UNSW School of Economics); Michael Keane (UNSW School of Economics)
    Abstract: We study potential impacts of future climate change on U.S. agricultural productivity using county-level yield and weather data from 1950 to 2015. To account for adaptation of production to different weather conditions, it is crucial to allow for both spacial and temporal variation in the production process mapping weather to crop yields. We present a new panel data estimation technique, called mean observation OLS (MO-OLS) that allows for spatial and temporal heterogeneity in all regression parameters (intercepts and slopes). Both forms of heterogeneity are important: We find strong evidence that production function parameters adapt to local climate, and also that sensitivity of yield to high temperature declined from 1950-89. We use our estimates to project corn yields to 2100 using 19 climate models and three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We predict unmitigated climate change will greatly reduce yield. Our mean prediction (over climate models) is that adaptation alone can mitigate 36% of the damage, while emissions reductions consistent with the Paris targets would mitigate 76%.
    JEL: C23 C54 D24 Q15 Q51 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:swe:wpaper:2018-08a&r=all
  5. By: Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad; Kassem, Mohamad
    Abstract: This study provides a review of benefit and losses of greenhouse gases. For the last decades, the average global temperature is rising on the surface as well as on the oceans. There are a number of factors behind this rise, but the main cause of this rise is anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gases (GHG). The anthropogenic factors comprise of burning of fossil fuel, coal mining, industrialization etc. During the last century, the CO2 concentration increased by 391 PPM, CH4 and N2O have reached at warming levels. The rise in overall temperature is changing the living pattern of humans and it also damages the economy as well as ecosystem for other living species. The rising GHG concentration may also have some positive effects on the economy, but it has heavy costs as well. GHGs are responsible for the change in climate which include a rise in sea level, ice melting from ice sheets and ocean acidification and climate change is responsible for the other damages like low fresh water resources, damage to the coastal system, damage to human health and raise the issue of food security.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gases, health, food, natural resources
    JEL: P28 P36
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:98108&r=all
  6. By: Singh, K.M.; Kumari, Priyanka; Ahmad, Nasim
    Abstract: Understanding the nature of rural landscape change during the urbanization process is vital to formulate rural management plans for sustainable development. However, there is little information on how rural landscapes changes and limited evidence as to how it can be improved. There were 244.9 million households in India of which 179.7 million households or 833 million people were in rural areas (SECC Survey 2011). Survey revealed that 87.2 million rural households reported one of more criteria of deprivation, while 92 million households were engaged in casual manual labour and agricultural activities. In agriculture, the role of women cannot be denied. They contribute in every operation of agricultural activities and are also active in allied sectors like cattle management, dairying, beekeeping, goat rearing mushroom production and poultry farming etc. Women participation in total workforce was assessed 27.44% as against 72.56% by male workforce in 2011. Share of women agricultural workforce in total workforce was computed to be 16.57% in 2001 which declined to 6.23% in 2011. Causes of decline may be their participation other sectors with improvement in their literacy rate which rose to 51.50% in 2011 as compared to 33.57% in 2001. The male-female sex ratio has registered a decline of 0.11% as compared to 2001 census. Women holding land account for only 13.31% as against 87.27% by men in Bihar. Share of women agricultural workforce in total agricultural workforce was estimated to be 19.32% as per census 2011. Analysis of CACP unit level data of Bihar for the year 2013-14, revealed that the contribution of women in agricultural activities was assessed to be 35.94%. Women’s contribution in agriculture is significant and plays diverse role, still their wages were found 7.04% less than their male counterparts during 2015-16. To strengthen women’s participation in agriculture and allied sectors and to improve their access to land, loan and other facilities, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has policy provisions like joint leasing for both domestic and agricultural land under National policy for farmers. Under credit facility provisions government has framed policy for issuing Kisan Credit Cards to women for creating livelihood through livestock practices and agricultural processing. Beside all efforts, there is still a wide gender gap in the state which may be addressed properly for overall development of women and enhancing the rural landscape of the state in particular and nation in general. The paper tries to analyze the role women in agricultural development of Bihar and the issues confronting them.
    Keywords: Women in agriculture, Gender studies, Agricultural performance, Wage rates disparities
    JEL: J00 J3 J50 J70 Q1
    Date: 2019–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:98067&r=all
  7. By: Angel Belles (MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Claire Alary (Mines Douai EMD - École des Mines de Douai - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris]); Agnès Rivière (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Sophie Guillon (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Edouard Patault (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Nicolas Flipo (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University); Christine Franke (GEOSCIENCES - Centre de Géosciences - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University)
    Abstract: Five frequently used water-soluble pesticides (atrazine, diflufenican, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and ethofumesate) were monitored in surface water and groundwater of an agricultural catchment (Canche River) in Northern France for examining the edge-of-field pathways of substances and their characteristic time of transport. The study of surface water contamination was conducted in 2016 through two time scales: continuously over one year at a single location of the catchment and punctually during four seasons at 15 sampling locations along a longitudinal river profile. In addition, groundwater in winter and summer shows a generally low and relatively constant contamination level. Nevertheless, the outflow of pesticides from groundwater results in a background contamination of surface water. In addition to this, a contamination peak above the baseline level is observed in surface water subsequently to the period of substance application on the fields. Our results show that pesticides were essentially transported into the surface water by fast flow components (runoff water). Loss of pesticides during the contamination peak period and long-term monitoring were compared showing that the transport of substances within weeks after pesticides spreading dominates the annual flux of pesticides, except for atrazine which shows a constant background contamination pattern. Low frequency monitoring schemes provide only a partial picture of the contamination state and do not enable to evaluate the true contamination state of such rivers with regard to the fact that 3/4 of the annual load of pesticides are transported in the stream during only 2-3 months.
    Keywords: water-soluble pesticides,transfer pathways,Canche River watershed,agricultural catchment,runoff,surface water,groundwater,flux rate
    Date: 2019–07–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02404154&r=all
  8. By: Jaimini Luharia (Maharaja Sayajirao University, India); Haresh Sharma (Founder of non-profit Collective Efforts for Voluntary Action, India, current UNOHCHR Fellow)
    Abstract: The ecology in the Western Himalayan region transforms with the change in altitude. The current study focuses on women of indigenous communities of Pangi Valley which is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The valley is bifurcated into three different areas – Saichu, Hudan Bhatori, and Sural Bhatori valleys, and the altitude of the valley ranges from 2,000 m to 6,000 m above sea level. The Pangi valley is inhabited by ‘Pangwals’ and ‘Bhots’ tribes of the Himalayas who speak their local tribal language called’ Pangwali’. Due to the difficult geographical location, the daily lives of these people are constantly challenged and they are most of the time-deprived of benefits targeted through government programs. However, the indigenous communities earn their livelihood through livestock and forest-based produce while some of them migrate to nearby places for better work. The current study involves snowball sampling methodology for data collection along with in-depth interviews of women members of Self-Help Groups and women farmers. The findings reveal that the lives of these indigenous communities largely depend on forest-based products. So, it creates all the more significance of enhancing, maintaining and consuming natural resources sustainably. Under such circumstances, the women of the community play a significant role of guardians in the conservation and protection of the forests. They are into cultivation of products like ‘Hazelnut’, ‘Gucchi’ rare quality mushroom, medicinal plants exclusively found in the region thereby promoting long term sustainable conservation of agro-biodiversity of the Western Himalayan region (Sharma, 2019).
    Keywords: Forest Conservation, Indigenous women, Sustainable Livelihoods, Sustainable Development, Poverty Alleviation, Western Himalayas
    Date: 2019–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:smo:ipaper:011jl&r=all
  9. By: Bertram, Christine; Goebel, Jan; Krekel, Christian; Rehdanz, Katrin
    Abstract: We study how urban land use fragmentation affects the subjective wellbeing of city residents. Therefore, we calculate fragmentation metrics based on the European Urban Atlas for 15,000 households in the German Socio-Economic Panel. Using random and fixed effects specifications, we find that fragmentation has little impact on wellbeing when aggregating over all land use types. Looking at particular land use types, however, we find that wellbeing is positively affected by lower average degrees of soil sealing, larger shares of vegetation, and a more heterogeneous configuration of medium and low density urban fabric, especially in areas with above average population density.
    Keywords: Urban Land Use,Urban Land Use Fragmentation,Subjective Wellbeing,Life Satisfaction,Spatial Analysis,SOEP,GIS
    JEL: C23 Q51 Q57 R20
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ifwkwp:2147&r=all
  10. By: Timothy Neal (UNSW School of Economics); Michael Keane (UNSW School of Economics)
    Abstract: Predicting the impact of climate change on crop yield is difficult, in part because the production function mapping weather to yield is high dimensional and nonlinear. We compare three approaches to predicting yields: (i) deep neural networks (DNNs), (ii) traditional panel-data models, and (iii) a new panel-data model that allows for unit and time fixed-effects in both intercepts and slopes in the agricultural production function - made feasible by a new estimator developed by Keane and Neal (2020) called MO-OLS. Using U.S. county-level corn yield data from 1950-2015, we show that both DNNs and MO-OLS models outperform traditional panel data models for predicting yield, both in-sample and in a Monte Carlo cross-validation exercise. However, the MO-OLS model substantially outperforms both DNNs and traditional panel-data models in forecasting yield in a 2006-15 holdout sample. We compare predictions of all these models for climate change impacts on yields from 2016 to 2100.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Crop Yield, Panel Data, Machine Learning, Neural Net
    Date: 2020–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:swe:wpaper:2020-02&r=all
  11. By: Saleemi, Sundus; Kofol, Chiara
    Abstract: In this paper, we test if households where women participate in decisions regarding children’s education and allocation of household education budgets incur more equal expenditures on education of boys and girls. Moreover, we test if women’s awareness of gender equality can reduce inequality between boys and girls at the household level. We estimate these effects using three rounds of longitudinal data of rural households in Pakistan. We use both household and year fixed effects to control for endogeneity of the dependent and explanatory variables. The results suggest that households where women participate in decisions regarding children’s education spend higher shares of education expenditures on education of girls in the secondary school age group (11-16). The results of Heckman Selection Model, corroborated by an estimated logit model, suggest that in households where women participate in children’s education decisions and where women are aware of gender equality in education, girl children are more likely to be enrolled in school. The paper contributes to the refinement of measures of women’s empowerment and to understanding of the mechanisms to achieve gender equality in education.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2020–01–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ubzefd:300989&r=all
  12. By: Dissemin, uploaded via; Berg, Alexis; Quirion, Philippe; Sultan, Benjamin
    Abstract: By using a detailed agricultural and climate dataset over Burkina-Faso and simple assumptions regarding the form of an insurance contract, the authors investigate the potential economic efficiency for farmers of a weather-index insurance system in this country. To do so, the results of more than 3000 simulated contracts applied to 30 districts, 21 yr (1984–2004), and five crops (cotton, millet, sorghum, maize, and groundnut) are explored. It is found that such an insurance system, even based on a simple weather index like cumulative rainfall during the rainy season, can present a significant economic efficiency for some crops and districts. The determinants of the efficiency of such contracts are analyzed in terms of yield/index correlations and yield variability. As a consequence of these two main determinants, the farmer's gain from an insurance contract is higher in the driest part of the country. In the same way, maize and groundnuts are the most suitable to implement an insurance system since their respective yields show a large variance and a generally high correlation with the weather index. However, the implementation of a real weather-index insurance system in West Africa raises a number of key practical issues related to cultural, economic, and institutional aspects.
    Date: 2018–03–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:osfxxx:dsmqz&r=all
  13. By: Bareille, François; Gohin, Alexandre
    Abstract: The applications of synthetic pesticides by farmers generate fierce debates in France. This paper offers an original macroeconomic quantification of their economic and environmental impacts. We first reveal the statistically significant influence of the prices of crops and pesticides on these application. This influence is lower for cereals than other crops. We then simulate some economic and environmental impacts of future potential French policies. We find, as expected, that a simple tax policy reduces pesticide use and hurts the economic situation of French farmers and food processors. The French livestock sectors are also negatively impacted. We also find that such a simple policy will increase nitrogen pollution and greenhouse gas emissions due to global land use changes. Finally, policy insights regarding these macroeconomic results are discussed.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2020
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:inrasl:301047&r=all
  14. By: Jamero, Ma. Laurice (Ateneo de Manila University); Esteban, Miguel (Waseda University); Chadwick, Christopher (Liverpool John Moores University); Onuki, Motoharu (The University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: Using a case study approach, this research explores the various potential limiting factors of climate change adaptation, based on the experience of four low-lying islands in central Philippines. In the aftermath of the 2013 7.2-magnitude Bohol earthquake, the islands now become flooded even during normal spring tides. Results show that, while development problems can constrain adaptive capacity against climate hazards, the outlook of the affected communities about their future on their home islands may ultimately determine the limits of adaptation. As social factors may play a greater role in adaptation than environmental factors, climate-smart development is needed, as well as proper education regarding climate risks and available adaptation options.
    Keywords: agriculture; sampling methods
    JEL: Q00
    Date: 2019–06–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ris:adbewp:0584&r=all
  15. By: Thornton Matheson
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of global solid waste generation, its environmental costs, and fiscal instruments that can be used to encourage waste reduction and finance proper disposal. Countries—especially island nations--struggle to manage an ever-increasing volume of solid waste, generation of which is projected to exceed 2 billion tons a year by 2025. Although solid waste management is usually relegated to subnational governments, externalities from inadequate management, which include greenhouse gas emissions and ocean plastic pollution, reach global scale. National governments thus play a critical role in creating incentives for waste minimization and ensuring adequate resources for proper waste management. This paper evaluates potential fiscal instruments to achieve these goals, particularly in developing country policy environments.
    Date: 2019–12–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:imf:imfwpa:19/283&r=all
  16. By: Proville, Jeremy (Environmental Defense Fund); Parkhurst, Robert T.; Koller, Steven; Kroopf, Sara; Baker, Justin; Salas, William A
    Abstract: Although agricultural greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted from a wide variety of activities and regions, many mitigation opportunities exist. This article describes efforts undertaken by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and partners (2007-present) to convert abatement opportunities into carbon offsets, with the aim of reducing GHGs in this sector and providing revenue to landowners. Analysis of emission-abating practices for rice, grasslands, almonds and corn demonstrate that abatement costs are significant for most practices, and accompanied by high break-even carbon prices – often due to the existence of large transaction costs. Nonetheless, total abatement potential is shown to be large for certain activities. For this reason, and given the large series of opportunities not yet explored, a focal point of subsequent efforts should be to reduce transaction costs and barriers to entry.
    Date: 2018–08–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osf:socarx:zea8g&r=all
  17. By: Tanguy Bernard (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IFPRI - International Food Policy Research Institute); Sylvie Lambert (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Karen Macours (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Margaux Vinez (The World Bank - The World Bank - The World Bank)
    Abstract: Agricultural input subsidies are often considered key instruments to increase adoption of new technologies in developing countries. Using unique experimental data from Equa- teur province in DRC, we document the e_ectiveness of such interventions in increasing households adoption of modern seed varieties (MVs). High subsidy levels increase adop- tion, in particular when other access constraints were also relieved. Demand is highly price sensitive, but demand curves do not display strong discontinuity at low prices. We _nd very limited spillover e_ects on adoption by non-voucher recipients. Adoption persists to some extent in the season that follows voucher distribution.
    Keywords: agricultural policies,technology adoption,input subsidies,Sub- Saharan Africa,Democratic Republic of Congo,JEL Codes: Keywords: agricultural policies
    Date: 2019–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-02422695&r=all

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