nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2019‒12‒02
thirty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Creación de un nuevo bien común para las cooperativas agrícolas: Big data, TIC e intercambio de datos By Cynthia GIAGNOCAVO; Daniel HERNÃ NDEZ CÃ CERES
  3. Intertemporal Arbitrage of Water and Long-Term Agricultural Investments: Drought, Groundwater Banking, and Perennial Cropping Decisions in California By Gonzalez, Jesus; Moore, Frances
  4. Status of Agricultural Technologies Adoption and Sustainable Intensification in Chickpea Crop in Rain-fed region: A study in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in India By Rajalaxmi, Amand; Revathi, E.
  5. Harnessing the Private Sector for Agricultural Technology Adoption: A Case Study of Agro-Dealers in Chotila, India By Fenella Carpena
  6. The Farm-to-Fridge Value Chain: Participants’ Roles and Driving Productivity through Technology Interventions By Banerjee, Mohua; Kunamaneni, Suneel
  7. Technology Adoption and Access to Credit via Mobile Phones By Apoorv Gupta; Jacopo Ponticelli; Andrea Tesei
  8. Production Efficiency in Small Agriculture: Do Migrant Remittances Matter?Evidence from Rural Nigeria. By ODOZI, JOHN CHIWUZULUM; Adeniyi, Oluwaosin; Yusuf, Sulaiman A.
  9. The adoption of mechanization, labour productivity and household income: Evidence from rice production in Thailand By Srisompun, Orawan; Athipanyakul, Thanaporn; Isvilanonda, Somporn
  10. Loss Aversion And The Demand For Index Insurance By Immanuel Lampe; Daniel Würtenberger
  11. Review of climate change science, knowledge and impacts on water resources in South Asia. Background Paper 1 By Lacombe, Guillaume; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Nicol, Alan
  12. Rural development in the Common Agricultural Policy: correlations at regional level By Lillemets, Jüri; Viira, Ants-Hannes
  13. Productivity trends and drivers in global agriculture: could the UK match up in a post Brexit world? By Revell, Brian
  14. Sustainable value chains in agriculture. The African Indigenous Vegetables in Southern Nakuru County By Marta Marson; Gianni Vaggi
  15. Price dispersion in thin farmland markets: By Kahle, Christoph; Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
  16. Freshwater as a global commons: International governance and the role of Germany By Herrfahrdt-Pähle, Elke; Scheumann, Waltina; Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines
  17. All They're Cracked Up to Be? The Impact of Chicken Transfers in Guatemala By Mullally, Conner; Rivas, Mayra; McArthur, Travis
  18. Review of water and climate change policies in South Asia. Background Paper 2 By Davis, R.; Hirji, R.
  19. Analysis of Smallholder Maize Market Participation in Kaduna State, Nigeria By Mani, Jamila Rabe; Abdussalam, Zakari; Damisa, M.A.; Yusuf, Musa; Suleiman, N. Jamilu
  20. Opportunities for agent-based modeling in fisheries social science By Burgess, Matthew G.; Carrella, Ernesto; Drexler, Michael; Axtell, Robert L.; Bailey, Richard M.; Watson, James R.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Clemence, Michaela; Costello, Christopher; Dorsett, Chris
  21. Production and market participation decisions of smallholder cowpea producers in the Northern Region of Ghana: A triple hurdle model approach By Kondo, Ebenezer; Sarpong, Daniel Bruce; Egyir, Irene S.
  22. Exploring business-oriented farmers’ willingness to adopt environmental practices By May, Daniel
  23. Vehicle Retirement and Replacement Policy: Assessing Impact and Cost-Effectiveness By Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua
  24. Mobilizing common biocultural heritage for the socioeconomic inclusion of small farmers: panarchy of two case studies on quinoa in Chile and Bolivia By Winkel, Thierry; Núñez-Carrasco, Lizbeth; Cruz, Pablo José; Egan, Nancy; Sáez-Tonacca, Luís; Cubillos-Celis, Priscilla; Poblete-Olivera, Camila; Zavalla-Nanco, Natalia; Miño-Baes, Bárbara; Viedma-Araya, Maria-Paz
  25. Potential impact of minimum unit pricing on advertised alcoholic beverage prices By Noel, Jonathan K.
  26. Directed Technical Change, Environmental Sustainability, and Population Growth By Peter K. Kruse-Andersen
  27. Cooperative case studies from three countries: Is membership a problem or a solution in the 21 st century? By Zsuzsanna Kispál-Vitai; Yann Regnard; Klara Kövesi; Claude-André Guillotte
  28. India’s Balancing Act to Address Climate Change Under the Paris Agreement By Yagyavalk Bhatt; AlJawhara Al Quayid; Nourah Al Hosain; Paul Mollet
  29. Follow the leader? A field experiment on social influence By Kate Ambler; Susan Godlonton; María P. Recalde
  30. Are farmers using cropping systems intensification technologies experiencing poverty reduction in the Great Lakes Region of Africa? By Nguezet, Paul Martin Dontsop; Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Arega, Alene; Tahirou, Abdulaye; Nziguheba, Generose; Khonje, Makaiko; Shiferaw, Feleke; Mignouna, Djana; Okafor, Christopher; Njukwe, Emmanuel; Asten, Piet Van; Mapatano, Sylvain; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Manyong, Victor

  1. By: Cynthia GIAGNOCAVO (Universidad de Almería (Spain)); Daniel HERNÃ NDEZ CÃ CERES (Universidad de Almería (Spain))
    Abstract: Creating a new commons for agricultural cooperatives: Big data, ICT and data sharing. The utilisation of Big Data and ICT technologies on a large scale in agriculture is seen to be a solution for dealing with climate change, environmental degradation, land and water constraints, the necessity to optimise resources, reduce costs, and increase traceability and food safety, amongst other compelling arguments. However, it has also resulted in imbalances in power, investment barriers, reduced access to knowledge and the decreasing ability of farmers and SMEs to control and benefit from their agricultural related activities. This paper considers the legal, governance, institutional and economic issues that may arise in developing a data cooperative or other equitable data sharing structures, taking into account public and private sources of data, and multi-stakeholders involved. A review of successful data sharing examples, including cooperatives, is presented and a test case from the cooperatives of Almería, Spain is considered. This research falls within the context of the EU H2020 project Internet of Food and Farm (IoF2020) and the development of innovative data sharing business models. Rather than falling back on classical contracting arrangements for data sharing, as proposed by Copa-Cogeca, amongst others, it is proposed that a “data commons†approach in keeping with Elinor Ostrom’s SocialEcological Systems Framework be used to frame a cooperative solution to this complex, systems based, challenge. By choosing a cooperative approach, benefits to farmers may go beyond “monetization†of data, and contribute to safeguarding environmental goods.
    Keywords: Data Sharing; Social-Ecological-Technical Systems; Agricultural Cooperatives; Multi-stakeholder cooperatives; Big Data and ICT; Public-private initiatives
    JEL: K22 O13 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Nquyen, Genevieve; Brailly, Julien; Purseigle, Francois
    Abstract: In France as in other European countries, farm outsourcing has been developing for the past twenty years. Today, this phenomenon concerns both small and large farms. What is surprising is the growing number of farmers who outsource precision farming operations that involve sophisticated technologies and specialized expertise. This stylized fact is rather counter-intuitive to the known result of transaction cost theory, according to which in the presence of specific assets, ownership prevails over outsourcing. The objective of our study is to analyze the determinants of these new agricultural outsourcing practices associated with precision agriculture. We start with the transaction costs and property rights frameworks, then discuss recent theoretical contributions of relational contracts to explain the possibility of outsourcing in the presence of high asset specificity. Empirical evidences are provided for France using a mixed research methodology. Based on original data from surveys of 1200 farmers and of 20 of medium and large custom operators, our methodology combines an estimation of discrete choice models of outsourcing for different levels of asset specificity and case studies of major farm outsourcing organizational schemes. Our results show that in the presence of high specific assets, outsourcing can be preferred to ownership for strategic reasons. This phenomenon is counter-intuitive from the point of view of transaction cost theory, but is possible when one considers possible ex-ante incentive mechanisms (expectation of specialization gains, inclusion of a bonus based on the value of the output in the formal contract, participation of a third party), and informal incentive mechanisms built through repeated interactions.
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Gonzalez, Jesus; Moore, Frances
    Abstract: In arid areas, irrigation water is an essential input into agricultural production. However, rainfall and, correspondingly, surface water supplies, are often highly variable, creating uncertainty over the value of long-term, water-dependent investments in these cropping systems. Moreover, climate change is expected to increase both crop water requirements and the variability of seasonal rainfall, meaning the constraints imposed by variable water supplies are likely to grow in cost as climate change progresses. In this setting, storing water in wet years for use in dry years is valuable. In particular, it would be expected to increase the value of perennial crops, which require large up-front investments that pay off gradually over the life of the tree. We first show, in a simple theoretical model, that given the timing of returns to investments in perennial crops, there is always some level of drought risk above which annual crops will be preferred to perennials. We then demonstrate this effect empirically using a unique institutional setting in which access to a relatively new form of water storage, groundwater banking, effectively created spatial variation drought risk between irrigation districts in Kern County, California. Using a 21-year dataset of individual cropping decisions, we provide evidence that access to a large groundwater banking project, the Kern Water Bank, increased the rate at which farmers switched from lower-value annual crops such as wheat and alfalfa, into high-value perennial nut crops, primarily almonds and pistachio.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Rajalaxmi, Amand; Revathi, E.
    Abstract: Chickpea is predominantly cultivated pulse crop in the selected study area in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states in India. The performance of the chickpea crop has been impressive with a positive growth rate in area, production and productivity on adoption of the improved crop technologies (improved short duration varieties, package of practices, farm mechanization) in last three decades period. On this backdrop, present study taken up to analyze the household adoption behavior in adoption of improved agricultural technologies and their impact at farm level. Secondly to assess farm efficiencies and socio-economic and environmental sustainability of chickpea crop in the study area. The findings of the study reveals that, shortage of labour and crop profitability are statistically significant and positively influence chickpea cultivation in the study area whereas improved access to markets and increased support from financial institutions and extension departments may lead to crop shift and decline in chickpea cultivation in the study area. The calculated farm efficiencies explains that, on an average, farmers were able to obtain only 27.43 percent, 89.12 percent and 24.98 percent technical, allocative and economic efficiency respectively. Large landholding farms are more technically and economically efficient whereas marginal farms have achieved highest allocative efficiency. Farm level three dimensional crop performance analysis reveals that, the average crop efficiency achieved in chickpea crop is in the range of 30-60 percent across the different land holdings in the study area. Chickpea cultivation is more profitable on medium and large farm holdings than the marginal and small landholdings. The marginal and small farmers are incurring negative net returns while the medium and large farmers are able to get good average net returns. The social indicates infers that, there exists gender equity in work and income distribution of chickpea cultivation. The peer advice network is stronger compared to the informal and formal advice group in dissemination of crop technologies information in the study area. The environmental crop performance indicators witnessed efficient use of improved seed, unbalanced and excess use of fertilizers and poor application of FYM in chickpea cultivation farms. Constant use of machinery, in rainfed conditions without practicing the sustainable management practices resulted in lower technical and economical farm efficiencies in study area. The intensive cultivation of chickpea crop by using inputs disproportionately without practicing the sustainable management practices, constant mono cropping and failure to provide protected irrigation, poor institutional support are few factors that resulted in significant yield variation across the different land holdings and lower technical and economic efficiency of the chickpea farms in the study area.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2019–11–25
  5. By: Fenella Carpena (Oslo Business School, Oslo Metropolitan University)
    Abstract: Using a case study in India, this short field report explores whether and how agro-dealers may contribute to promoting the adoption of new agricultural technologies.
    Keywords: India, Agriculture, Technology Adoption, Agro-Dealers
    JEL: O13 Q16
    Date: 2019–07–01
  6. By: Banerjee, Mohua; Kunamaneni, Suneel
    Abstract: The value chain of the Indian dairy industry consists of dairy farmers, collection centres, chilling centres, processing plants, retailers and consumers. The objectives of the study are to map the processes and operational challenges existing in the dairy value chain, estimate profitability of the participants at the farm-levels to gauge their potential in undertaking entrepreneurial initiatives, study roles of the privately-owned processing plants in the supply chain, and identify business models of startups in the dairy ecosystem who drive productivity through technology interventions. Exploratory research through multiple field visits, in-depth interviews and personal observations in West Bengal (eastern India) and Bangalore have formed the basis of this study. Using case study format, the roles of the different intermediaries in the value chain have been analysed to develop insights on their entrepreneurial abilities and intent. The findings reveal the largely fragmented, unorganized dairy industry where the channel members majorly operate in silos with linkages only to their immediate backward and forward partners, in a myopic manner. At the farm level, only the chilling centres have sufficient profitability to undertake value-adding entrepreneurial initiatives. The marginal dairy farmers are at subsistence level and hence unable to participate in value creation. The private processing plants are corporate entrepreneurs and their interactions with chilling centres are confined to that of supplier-manufacturer, to ensure seamless supply of milk for their manufacturing processes. They do not engage with the small dairy farmers. In these circumstances, new-age start-ups that create social impact while operating as a viable, for-profit organization, effectively bridge the gaps in the dairy value chain by intervening at all its nodal points and providing technology solutions to create additional value. Farmers are at the core of the dairy processes as they produce the milk and any improvement in the value chain ultimately gets back to the farmer through better prices and better market linkages.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2019–10–21
  7. By: Apoorv Gupta (Northwestern University); Jacopo Ponticelli (Northwestern University & CEPR); Andrea Tesei (Queen Mary University of London, CEPR, CEP (LSE) & CESifo)
    Abstract: Farmers in developing countries often lack access to timely and reliable information about modern technologies that are essential to improve agricultural productivity. The recent diffusion of mobile phones has the potential to overcome these barriers by making information available to those previously unconnected. In this paper we study the effect of mobile phone network expansion in rural India on adoption of high yielding variety seeds and chemical fertilizers. Our empirical strategy exploits geographical variation in the construction of mobile phone towers under a large government program targeting areas without existing coverage. To explore the role of mobile phones in mitigating information frictions we analyze the content of 1.4 million phone calls made by farmers to a major call center for agricultural advice. Farmers seek advice on which seed varieties and fertilizers better meet their needs and how to use them. We find that areas receiving mobile phone coverage experience higher adoption of these technologies. We also observe that farmers are often unaware of the eligibility criteria and loan terms offered by subsidized credit programs. Consistently, we find that areas receiving mobile phone coverage experience higher take-up of agricultural credit.
    Keywords: India, Agriculture, HYV Seeds, Credit Card
    JEL: G21 Q16 E51
    Date: 2019–09–12
  8. By: ODOZI, JOHN CHIWUZULUM; Adeniyi, Oluwaosin; Yusuf, Sulaiman A.
    Abstract: This paper investigates how remittances flow to Nigeria from household migrants correlate with farm production efficiency of the left behind in rural areas using the Living Standard Measurement Survey data set. We applied the production frontier model from which efficiency scores for two groups of farmers were recovered: migrant households and non-migrant households. We subjected the efficiency scores to Anova and stochastic dominance analyses. Mean production efficiency for migrant households was signifcantly higher at p<0.05. Across all percentiles, migrant households had higher technical efficiency level compared to households with out migrants. Thus rejecting the hypothesis of negative production efficiency effect of migrant remittances flow to farm households. While policy programmes should promote labour mobility and remittances, it supposes a complementary policy that promote labour saving farm technologies
    Date: 2018–10–06
  9. By: Srisompun, Orawan; Athipanyakul, Thanaporn; Isvilanonda, Somporn
    Abstract: The planning of mechanization requires the quantitative assessment of a mechanization index and the impact of this index on agricultural yield and economic factors. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the adoption of agricultural mechanization and scale production on labour productivity and the generation of income for farmers. Cross-sectional data for jasmine rice production by 569 households in 1,003 plots in the north eastern part of Thailand in 2017 were employed. The study found that the average rice planting workforce and labour productivity have an inverse relationship with planted area, while large farms have the highest ratio for machine labour to workforce. The rice yield, labour usage and labour productivity of the farmers varied by mechanization level (ML) and farm size while different levels of Machinery Owned labour (MO) have no effect on rice yield. Therefore, there are three main suggestions: 1) performing land consolidations, since applying a production strategy with large rice paddies may increase labour productivity and the net profit of rice famers; 2) improving the quality of machinery for use in rice production in Thailand, especially the performance of the machinery to prevent losses during harvest; and 3) increasing the mechanization level to 50-75%, which could also increase labour productivity and net returns.
    Keywords: Family labour, Farm size, Hired labour, Multivariate analysis-of-variance, Pillai's statistics, Production cost, Rice yield, Small farm
    JEL: Q12 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2019–11
  10. By: Immanuel Lampe; Daniel Würtenberger
    Abstract: This work analyzes if reference dependence and loss aversion can explainthe puzzling low adoption rates of rainfall index insurance. We present a model that predicts the impact of loss aversion on index insurance demand to vary with different levels of insurance understanding. Index insurance demand of farmers who are unaware of the loss-hedging benefit that insurance provides decreases with loss aversion. In contrast, insurance demand of farmers who are aware of the loss-hedging benefit increases with loss aversion. The model further predicts that farmers who are unaware of the loss-hedging benefit will not demand an even highly subsidized index insurance. Using data from a randomized controlled trial involving a sample of Indian farmers we provide empirical support for our core conjecture that insurance understanding mitigates the negative impact of loss aversion on index insurance adoption.
    Keywords: Prospect Theory, Reference Dependence, Microinsurance, Farm Household
    JEL: D91 G22 Q12
    Date: 2019–06
  11. By: Lacombe, Guillaume; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Nicol, Alan
    Keywords: Industrial Organization, Land Economics/Use, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–11–12
  12. By: Lillemets, Jüri; Viira, Ants-Hannes
    Abstract: Balanced territorial development is one of the key objectives of the rural development expenditure of the CAP. However, territorial aspects do not appear to be sufficiently considered in the policy design nor in allocation of funds. We used data on per capita EAFRD expenditures to evaluate correlations between and among NUTS2 regions. Global as well as local measures of spatial autocorrelation demonstrated a high spatial association as payments tend to be above average throughout the eastern part of the EU. The expenditure is increasingly positively associated with small farming, agricultural employment and investments, while relationship with organic production has weakened.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2019–11–25
  13. By: Revell, Brian
    Abstract: The analysis in the paper focuses on global trends in total factor productivity (TFP) growth and some of its key components and drivers. The relative performance of the UK in relation to many key countries with globally important agri-food sectors, either or both as exporters and or importers of agricultural products, and as potential targets of its future UK post-Brexit strategy are examined. Two approaches are explored in order to gain some insights into productivity growth and its measurement: the decomposition output growth through the contributions of growth in land, labour, capital, material inputs and TFP, and modelling output growth to identify the significant contributing variables. Finally, the challenges that the agricultural sector of the might face as a consequence of its proposed UK post Brexit agricultural policy (if and when it might happen) for its productivity are considered and some conclusions regarding the relevance to future agri-technology developments are outlined.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2019–10–21
  14. By: Marta Marson (University of Pavia); Gianni Vaggi (University of Pavia)
    Abstract: The paper is part of a research project on Sustainable Agri-food System Strategies (SASS). We are grateful to all the participants in the project and in particular to Francesco Rampa, Paulina Bizzotto Molina and Silas Wanjala for their comments. The authors acknowledge the support of the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR).The views expressed in the paper are those of the authors.
    Date: 2019–09
  15. By: Kahle, Christoph; Seifert, Stefan; Hüttel, Silke
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of information and search cost in the price formation in thin farmland markets. We adopt a hedonic pricing model under incomplete information to analyze a comprehensive data set with more than 10,000 transactions between 2014{2017 in the Eastern German state Saxony-Anhalt. Estimation employs a two-tiered stochastic frontier to capture deviations from the ecient price due to search costs asymmetrically distributed between buyers and sellers. Relating these costs to the degree of professionalism, we nd institutional sellers relying on public tenders to achieve the lowest losses from being information decient. For buyers, we nd informational advantages in particular for farmers that are also tenants, while non-tenant farmers have only advantages for large transactions.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2019–11–25
  16. By: Herrfahrdt-Pähle, Elke; Scheumann, Waltina; Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines
    Abstract: Water is essential for all life on earth and is a key prerequisite for attaining many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Many countries, however, suffer from physical water scarcity, a lack of access to a safe water supply and sanitation, water pollution or hydrological extremes (droughts and floods) due to climate change. The generality and severity of water problems lead many to speak of a global water crisis. While this crisis mostly manifests at the local or in some cases transboundary level, two global issues are often overlooked. First, global trends such as climate change and the spread of water-intensive consumption and trade patterns are key triggers that cannot be addressed at the local level alone. Second, the aggregation of local or regional water problems may add up to a universal threat to sustainable development. In the face of current challenges, (fresh) water should be conceptualised as a global common good, and global water governance should contribute to improving its protection. [...]
    Date: 2019
  17. By: Mullally, Conner; Rivas, Mayra; McArthur, Travis
    Abstract: We evaluate a program in Guatemala offering training and transfers of a local chicken variety using a randomized phase-in design with imperfect compliance. We do not find strong evidence for or against positive intent-to-treat effects on household-level outcomes, including indicators of expenditure, calorie and protein intake, diet quality, egg consumption and production, as well as chicken ownership and management. Among girls between the ages of six and 60 months, we find that the program reduced stunting by 23.5 (+/- 19.4) percentage points, while also improving other height and weight outcomes. Boys are more likely to suffer from intestinal illness, which could explain differences in program impacts by sex. Children in the poorest households experienced the largest impacts on dietary diversity and the probability of consuming animal-source foods, but these impacts did not translate into larger effects on height or weight.
    Date: 2019–03–06
  18. By: Davis, R.; Hirji, R.
    Keywords: International Development, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–11–11
  19. By: Mani, Jamila Rabe; Abdussalam, Zakari; Damisa, M.A.; Yusuf, Musa; Suleiman, N. Jamilu
    Abstract: This study focused on the analysis of factors influencing market participation decisions and the intensity of participation among smallholder maize farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 600 randomly selected maize farmers in 2017. Result showed that April and December are the months which farmers sell large quantities of maize. Proportional transaction costs including individual farmer characteristics, private assets, public assets influenced the probability and intensity of market participation at various significant levels. Level of education and ownership of assets are critical in determining the intensity of market participation in the study area. The study concludes that variable transaction costs constitute one of the major binding constraints to maize market participation and commercialisation. The results suggest that policies aimed at developing rural infrastructure, improved access to assets, human and capital development and market information system could reduce transaction costs and enhance market participation and market supply.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–09
  20. By: Burgess, Matthew G.; Carrella, Ernesto; Drexler, Michael; Axtell, Robert L.; Bailey, Richard M.; Watson, James R.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Clemence, Michaela; Costello, Christopher; Dorsett, Chris
    Abstract: Like other coupled natural-human systems, fisheries are ultimately managed from the human side. Models are important to understanding and predicting fishing industry responses to, and feedbacks with, changes in the ecosystem or management institutions. In situ controlled experiments are difficult or impossible to conduct. Recent advances in computation have made it possible to construct realistic agent-based models (ABMs) of human systems that track the behaviour of each individual, firm, or vessel. ABMs are widely used for both academic and applied purposes in many settings including finance, urban planning, and the military, but are not yet mainstream in fisheries science and management. ABMs are well suited to understanding emergent consequences of fisher interactions, heterogeneity, and bounded rationality, especially in complex ecological and institutional contexts. For these reasons, we argue that ABMs of human behaviour can contribute significantly to fisheries social science in three areas: (i) understanding interactions between multiple management institutions, (ii) incorporating cognitive and behavioural sciences into fisheries science and practice, and (iii) understanding and projecting the social consequences of management institutions. We provide simple worked examples illustrating the potential for ABMs in each of these areas, using the POSEIDON model, and we discuss terms of reference for addressing common ABM development and application challenges.
    Date: 2018–11–16
  21. By: Kondo, Ebenezer; Sarpong, Daniel Bruce; Egyir, Irene S.
    Abstract: This article investigates the production and market participation decisions of smallholder cowpea producers in the Northern Region of Ghana. It estimated the factors influencing cowpea production and market participation decisions. A cross-sectional primary data of 300 respondents were sampled from four districts in the northern region of Ghana for the study. We employed the Triple Hurdle Model (THM) for the data analysis. The results reveal that factors influencing cowpea production participation, market participation and intensity of participation are similar and include gender, education, distance to nearest market, own means of transportation, access to market information, proximity good road network, labour, tractor services, value of livestock owned, access to improved cowpea seed, and extension services. Policy measures that promote agricultural diversification should be implemented. Inclusion of cowpea as one of the priority food crops under the government’s flagship “Planting for Food and Jobs programme”. The private sector to take up the sale of improved cowpea seed and provision of tractor hiring services to smallholder cowpea producers. Provision of market spaces, good road infrastructure, and maintaining the free compulsory basic education policy as well as the development of more improved cowpea seed varieties will promote cowpea production and market participation in the Northern Region of Ghana.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2019–09
  22. By: May, Daniel
    Abstract: Some researchers argue that climate change can only be combated by reducing economic growth in developed countries. While this is a reasonable argument, it is very unlikely that all these countries will lower their economic activity in the short-medium run in order to favour the environment. This article explores an alternative solution that consists of affecting farmer’s incentives to adopt environmental practices when they operate in a highly business-oriented paradigm. Using a structural equations approach, it was found that farmers can potentially be induced to adopt these practices by means of local policy programs.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2019–10–21
  23. By: Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Governments across the world, motivated by air quality improvement or by climate change mitigation goals, are trying to accelerate the turnover of older, higher-emitting vehicles and replace these with lower emission vehicles. One approach is to encourage consumers to scrap their old, inefficient and more polluting vehicles and buy new ones, typically plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This can be expensive on a per-additional-vehicle basis if fixed subsidy programs allow those owners who would have replaced their vehicles with a low emission vehicle anyway to obtain these subsidies. It is important that all parties — whether invested in conventional internal combustion engine (ICE), hybrid electric or newer, fully electric powertrains — understand the scope for more economically efficient policy to avoid incorrectly estimating the barriers to entry for new vehicle technologies. Previous KAPSARC research used counterfactual simulations to highlight the fact that policymakers might increasingly switch to targeted subsidy designs to improve the cost-effectiveness of low emission vehicle subsidies. This study, however, explores the effectiveness of a real-world targeted subsidy policy, California’s ‘Replace Your Ride’ (RYR) program. RYR gives targeted subsidies to lower-income households living in districts with poor local air quality to retire older vehicles and replace them with newer, cleaner vehicles. The effectiveness of the RYR policy is measured using new vehicle registration and sociodemographic data in a difference-in-difference analysis framework.
    Keywords: Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), Climate change, Hybrid electric vehicles, Plug-in electric vehicles, Subsidies, Targeted subsidy design, Vehicle retirement
    Date: 2018–05
  24. By: Winkel, Thierry; Núñez-Carrasco, Lizbeth; Cruz, Pablo José; Egan, Nancy; Sáez-Tonacca, Luís; Cubillos-Celis, Priscilla; Poblete-Olivera, Camila; Zavalla-Nanco, Natalia; Miño-Baes, Bárbara; Viedma-Araya, Maria-Paz
    Abstract: Valorising the biocultural heritage of common goods could enable peasant farmers to achieve socially and economically inclusive sustainability. Increasingly appreciated by consumers, peasant heritage products offer small farmers promising opportunities for economic, social and territorial development. To identify the obstacles and levers of this complex, multi-scale and multi-stakeholder objective, an integrative conceptual framework is needed. We applied the panarchy conceptual framework to two cases of participatory research with small quinoa producers: a local fair in Chile and quinoa export production in Bolivia. In both cases, the "commoning" process was crucial both to bring stakeholders together inside their communities and to gain recognition for their productions outside and thus reach social and economic inclusion. Despite the difference in scale, the local fair and the export market shared a similar marketing strategy based on short value chains promoting quality products with high identity value. In these dynamics of biocultural heritage valorisation, the panarchical approach revealed the central place as well as the vulnerability of the community territory. As a place of both anchoring and opening, the community territory is the priviledged space where autonomous and consensual control over the governance of common biocultural resources can be exercised.
    Date: 2019–06–06
  25. By: Noel, Jonathan K.
    Abstract: The current study sought to determine the potential effect of a minimum unit price policy on advertised prices for alcoholic beverages at an off-premise outlet. A free, weekly circular was monitored for advertised alcohol prices from July 2017 to June 2018. For each advertised price, the number of standard drinks per purchase, the price per standard drink, and the frequency of prices that would increase under a MUP policy similar to Scotland’s was determined. There was an inverse correlation between the number of standard drinks per purchase and the advertised price per standard drink for beer/malt beverages (r = -0.76, p < 0.001) and wine (r = -0.42, p < 0.001), which would be eliminated under MUP. Under MUP, 59.8% of advertised prices for beer/malt beverages would increase. Implementation of MUP may significantly impact beer and malt beverage prices in the off-premise location monitored in the study.
    Date: 2019–05–03
  26. By: Peter K. Kruse-Andersen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
    Abstract: Population growth has two potentially counteracting effects on pollution emissions:(i) more people implies more production and thereby more emissions, and (ii) more people implies a larger research capacity which might reduce the emission intensity of production, depending on the direction of research. This paper investigates how to achieve a given climate goal in the presence of these two effects. A growth model featuring both directed technical change and population growth is developed. The model allows for simultaneous research in polluting and non-polluting technologies. Both analytical and numerical results indicate that population growth is a burden on the environment, even when all research efforts are directed toward non-polluting technologies. Thus research subsidies alone cannot ensure environmental sustainability. Instead, the analysis shows that environmental sustainability requires pollution taxes and/or population control policies.
    Keywords: Directed technical change, endogenous growth, environmental policy, environmental sustainability, climate change, population growth
    JEL: J11 O30 O41 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2019–11–19
  27. By: Zsuzsanna Kispál-Vitai (Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Pécs); Yann Regnard; Klara Kövesi (FoAP - Formation et apprentissages professionnels - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - ENSTA Bretagne - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement, Département SHS - Département Sciences Humaines et Sociales - ENSTA Bretagne); Claude-André Guillotte (Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada)
    Abstract: The operations of the cooperative organization are an actively debated issue. The effi ciency and viability of this organizational form still pose many unanswered questions. The literature is not unequivocal in evaluating the merits and drawbacks of this organization. This article provides empirical evidence from research about cooperatives covering three countries (Canada, France and Hungary) and tests theoretical hypotheses in the framework of organizational economics and cooperative theory. The fi ndings point towards the positive infl uence of the social environment and cooperative values on organizational choice. The results prove the continued relevance of this type of organization in the 21 st century in agriculture in all three researched countries. JEL-codes: Q13, L0
    Keywords: cooperatives,case study research,social infl uence,values
    Date: 2019–10–09
  28. By: Yagyavalk Bhatt; AlJawhara Al Quayid; Nourah Al Hosain; Paul Mollet (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: As an emerging economy, a major part of India’s nationally determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement is an emissions intensity target. With its current policies, India is on track to achieve its climate targets under the Agreement. However, the Indian government is balancing a complicated set of domestic priorities and constraints against its wish to be seen as a global leader on climate change.
    Keywords: Climate Change, KAPSARC Toolkit for Behavioral Analysis (KTAB), Paris Agreement, Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG)
    Date: 2018–12
  29. By: Kate Ambler (International Food Policy Research Institute); Susan Godlonton (Williams College); María P. Recalde (The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: We conduct an artefactual field experiment with farmers in endogenously formed groups in rural Malawi to investigate social influence in risk taking. Our experiment minimizes influence through social learning and social image channels. Treatments vary whether individuals observe the behavior of a formally elected leader, an external leader, or a random peer. Results show that peers are most influential, followed by formal leaders, and then external leaders. Exploratory analysis suggests that farmers follow peers because they extract information from their choices and share risks with them; while other forms of social utility are gained from following the example of leaders.
    Keywords: peer effects, risk taking, lab-in-the-field, agriculture, Malawi
    JEL: C9 D8 O13 Q12
    Date: 2019–11–22
  30. By: Nguezet, Paul Martin Dontsop; Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Arega, Alene; Tahirou, Abdulaye; Nziguheba, Generose; Khonje, Makaiko; Shiferaw, Feleke; Mignouna, Djana; Okafor, Christopher; Njukwe, Emmanuel; Asten, Piet Van; Mapatano, Sylvain; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Manyong, Victor
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–09

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