nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2019‒09‒23
seventeen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Land Tenure Systems and Agricultural Productivity in Gombe Nigeria By Daniel Dabara; Kabir Omotoso Lawal; Augustina Chiwuzie; Olusegun Omotehinshe
  2. Returns to mechanization through rental equipment By julieta caunedo
  3. Urban food security in the context of inequality and dietary change: a study of school children in Accra By Sara Stevano; Deborah Johnston; Emmanuel Codjoe
  4. Water, Sanitation and Agriculture Linkages with Health and Nutrition Improvement By Gerber, Nicolas; von Braun, Joachim; Usman, Muhammed Abdella; Hasan, Mohammad Monirul; Okyere, Charles Yaw; Vangani, Ruchi; Wiesmann, Doris
  5. Greenhouse Gases: A Review of Losses and Benefits By Ali, Amjad; Audi, Marc
  6. Implementing result-based agri-environmental payments by means of modelling By Bartkowski, Bartosz; Droste, Nils; Ließ, Mareike; Sidemo-Holm, William; Weller, Ulrich; Brady, Mark V.
  7. Huff Inspired Gravity Model in Valuation of homes near Scenic lands -- A geographically weighted regression based hedonic model By Jay Mittal; Sweta Byahut
  8. Agricultural Credit System in India: Evolution, Effectiveness and Innovations By Gulati, Ashok; Juneja, Ritika
  9. Moral Foundations and Voluntary Public Good Provision: The Case of Climate Change By Heinz Welsch
  10. Efficient Water Allocation when Climate is Changing: An interdisciplinary approach By Eugenio Figueroa; Ramón E. López; Gino Sturla
  11. Politiques agricoles, emploi et revenu des femmes au Burkina Faso By Wamadini dite Minata Souratie; Farida Koinda; Rasmata Samandoulougou; Bernard DecaluweÌ
  12. The Interplay between Oil and Food Commodity Prices: Has It Changed over Time? By Peersman, Gert; Rüth, Sebastian K.; Van der Veken, Wouter
  13. The global distribution of economic activity: nature, history, and the role of trade By Henderson, Vernon; Squires, Tim; Storeygard, Adam; Weil, David
  14. Is Environmental Tax Harmonization Desirable in Global Value Chains? By Haitao Cheng; Hayato Kato; Ayako Obashi
  15. Digitisation in forest industry in Bulgaria - state and perspectives By Georgieva, Daniela; Popova, Radostina
  16. Dynamics in Land Use and Driving Factors on Change in Arable Land in Tanzania By Amani Uisso; Harun Tanrivermis
  17. EvaSylv: A user-friendly software to evaluate forestry scenarii including natural risk By Patrice Loisel; Guillerme Duvillié; Denis Barbeau; Brigitte Charnomordic

  1. By: Daniel Dabara; Kabir Omotoso Lawal; Augustina Chiwuzie; Olusegun Omotehinshe
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the existing land tenure systems in Gombe state, Nigeria with a view to determining its impact on agricultural productivity in the study area. Land tenure system is concerned with man’s relationship with land, involving intervention in the prevailing pattern of land ownership, control and usage in order to change the structure of holdings, improve land productivity and broaden the distribution of benefits to all. Nigeria is an agrarian nation with over 56.8% of her working force engaged in farming. Agricultural development and productivity has the advantage of provision of more employment and a better base for farm financed welfare in the economy. However, the study revealed that agricultural productivity in Nigeria is hindered by tenure rules such as stipulated in the Nigerian Land Use Act of 1978. Furthermore, land tenure insecurity, political/bureaucratic bottlenecks in land rights acquisition for agricultural purposes are among the pertinent issues and challenges that have contributed to stagnating agricultural productivity in the study area. It was recommended that for a vibrant and sustainable development in the agricultural sector of the economy, a new land tenure reform is imperative. The reform agenda, should carefully consider the pertinent issues and challenges inherent in the present land tenure systems with a view of providing solutions to them and expediting agricultural development and productivity in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Agrarian; agricultural development; land reform; land tenure; tenure security
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2019–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arz:wpaper:eres2019_277&r=all
  2. By: julieta caunedo (Cornell University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the role of the availability of formal rental equipment markets for agri- cultural productivity. Mechanization is one of the main inputs in modern agriculture, and the lack of it is arguably an important contributor to the low productivity observed in poor countries, and in particular, among smallholder farmers. We partner up with one of the largest equipment rental providers in India and study barriers to mechanization, and returns to it. Using administrative data from our implementation partner, we document usage pat- terns of equipment throughout the crop season as well as delays in service completion by plot size. We nd heterogeneity in patterns of usage across plot sizes. We combine these ndings with survey data on detailed farmer characteristics, including wealth and household characteristics, as well as on price and credit sensitivity to identify the population of farmers for which barriers to mechanization are more pervasive. We then build a structural model of equipment rental markets where richer farmers own and rent-out equipment, while poorer ones rent-in equipment or specialize in labor intensive farming activities. Informed by key predictions of the model we design a randomized control trial (RCT) to inform us on the magnitude of the costs associated to delays in service provision, as well as on the magnitude of barriers to adoption associated to (i) technical constraints (small lot sizes), (ii) farmer's nancial constraints and (iii) information frictions. These estimates are then feed into the structural model to assess the general equilibrium eect of barriers to mechanization on agricultural productivity.
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:red:sed019:1193&r=all
  3. By: Sara Stevano (University of the West of England, Bristol); Deborah Johnston (SOAS University of London); Emmanuel Codjoe (University of Ghana)
    Abstract: Diets are changing globally, as agricultural and food systems have become globalised and created new forms of food production, distribution, and trade. Understanding how patterns of globalisation affect the welfare of populations is a key development question, but we know little about the way that the globalisation of food and agriculture systems affect different individuals or groups. By looking at schoolchildren in Accra, this study explores food security in the context of inequality and dietary change. We use a novel approach based on triangulation of primary data on food consumption and a synthesis of secondary literature on food trade, food policy and urban food environment. Thus, we bridge a divide between micro-level analyses of food consumption and macro-level studies of food systems, and seek to contextualise children’s food consumption patterns in the broad picture of global dietary change. We find that socio-economic status is a critical dimension of food security and food consumption, with poorer children more vulnerable to food insecurity and narrow dietary diversity. However, consumption of packaged and processed foods, often sugar-rich and nutrient-poor, cuts across wealth groups. In the 1990s, the question of urban food security was seen as embedded in that of urban poverty. We argue that the urban food security question today is defined by two intersecting phenomena: intra-urban inequality and global dietary change. The urban poor continue to face the fundamental challenge of adequate food access. In addition, urban food security is endangered by a food environment that provides consumers with unhealthy food options that are widely available, cheap and enticing. Therefore urban food security can no longer be addressed only through agricultural policies that ensure availability of affordable staples for a growing urban population, but it strongly needs agricultural and trade policies that regulate imports of cheap, processed, unhealthy foods.
    Date: 2018–01–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uwe:wpaper:20181804&r=all
  4. By: Gerber, Nicolas; von Braun, Joachim; Usman, Muhammed Abdella; Hasan, Mohammad Monirul; Okyere, Charles Yaw; Vangani, Ruchi; Wiesmann, Doris
    Abstract: In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly recognized access to safe water and sanitation infrastructure a matter of human right. This right is reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, whose targets 1 and 2 point to universal access to safe and affordable drinking water and adequate sanitation by 2030, in a gender equitable way. Progress towards these targets has been recorded, building on successes achieved under the previous framework of the Millennium Development Goals (Target 7.c). These positive developments could be expected to spill over to other dimensions of human development, health and nutrition in particular. Yet, progress in either of these dimensions, particularly among young children (SDG target 2.2 on ending all forms of malnutrition), is not commensurate. In this paper, we advocate for a systemic approach to water management for improved health and nutrition. We focus on rural and peri-urban areas of the developing world, where multi-purpose water systems are particularly relevant. As competition for safe water resources intensifies, it is important to understand the trade-offs between specific uses and their implications for health and nutrition, based on the gender and age of individuals. We conduct statistical and econometric analyses of secondary, nationally representative data for four countries: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana and India. These data sets have been routinely used to report on progress toward SDG 6 (availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all) and SDG 2 (ending hunger and achieving food security and improved nutrition for all). Our cross-sectional analysis reflects the positive association between access to improved sanitation infrastructure and long-term child nutrition outcomes (height-for-age and weight-for-age). On the other hand, the analysis fails to demonstrate a positive association between access to improved drinking water sources and the same child nutrition indicators. In the next step, we investigate the associations between multi-use water systems, especially around agricultural activities, and health and nutrition. To that end, we compile data from four household surveys we collected in the same countries, including indicators on the type of irrigation system. The regression analysis of this pooled dataset is complemented by an in-depth, context-specific analysis of behavior around drinking water use and irrigation practices. The analyses reveal a low correlation between water quality at the point of source and water quality at the point of use, drawing attention to behavioral issues around water use. Similarly, the prevalence of open defecation seems much more important to health and nutrition than the existence of sanitation infrastructure. Finally, irrigation is not per se a detrimental factor for drinking water quality or nutrition, but the integration of waste water irrigation in particular needs to be carefully managed in order to avoid adverse nutrition and health effects.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Health Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2019–09–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ubzefd:292665&r=all
  5. By: Ali, Amjad; Audi, Marc
    Abstract: This study provides a review of benefit and losses of greenhouse gases. For the last decades, the average global temperature is rising on the surface as well as on the oceans. There are a number of factors behind this rise, but the main cause of this rise is anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gases (GHG). The anthropogenic factors comprise of burning of fossil fuel, coal mining, industrialization etc. During the last century, the CO2 concentration increased by 391 PPM, CH4 and N2O have reached at warming levels. The rise in overall temperature is changing the living pattern of humans and it also damages the economy as well as ecosystem for other living species. The rising GHG concentration may also have some positive effects on the economy, but it has heavy costs as well. GHGs are responsible for the change in climate which include a rise in sea level, ice melting from ice sheets and ocean acidification and climate change is responsible for the other damages like low fresh water resources, damage to the coastal system, damage to human health and raise the issue of food security.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gases, health, food, natural resources
    JEL: N5 Q5
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:96081&r=all
  6. By: Bartkowski, Bartosz; Droste, Nils; Ließ, Mareike; Sidemo-Holm, William; Weller, Ulrich; Brady, Mark V.
    Abstract: From a theoretical point of view, result-based agri-environmental payments are clearly preferable to action-based payments. However, they suffer from two major practical disadvantages: costs of measuring the results and payment uncertainty for the participating farmers. In this paper, we propose an alternative design to overcome these two disadvantages by means of modelling (instead of measuring) the results. We describe the concept of model-informed result-based agri-environmental payments (MIRBAP), including a hypothetical example of payments for the protection and enhancement of soil functions. We offer a comprehensive discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of MIRBAP, showing that it not only unites most of the advantages of result-based and action-based schemes, but also adds two new advantages: the potential to address trade-offs among multiple policy objectives and management for long-term environmental effects. We argue that MIRBAP would be a valuable addition to the agri-environmental policy toolbox and a reflection of recent advancements in agri-environmental modelling.
    Keywords: agriculture,agri-environmental policy,governance,incentives
    JEL: Q18 Q24 Q52 Q58
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:ufzdps:52019&r=all
  7. By: Jay Mittal; Sweta Byahut
    Abstract: This research uses a hedonic Price modelling framework to assess the marginal implicit price effect of conservation easements (CE) lands on single family houses in Worcester, MA. The house price premium is anticipated with the growing visual accessibility from home to conservation easements lands. The CE lands of interest here are voluntarily protected, privately owned, scenic lands and are based in the urbanized area of City of Worcester, MA. The premium, and the visual accessibility was measured using the transaction of the surrounding homes, and homes spatial relationship with the CE lands. These protected CE lands are perpetually protected with natural, historic, and scenic characteristics that are attractive to the environmental amenity seekers. The home premiums as capitalized due to the visual accessibility of protected lands was measured using a combined weighted measure of ‘view’ and ‘proximity.' This was developed using the Huff's gravity model inspired index -- Gravity Inspired Visibility Index (GIVI). First, a detailed digital elevation model (DEM) raster with all view obstructing buildings and physicals structures stitched an the topography surface was generated and then the views and distances from homes to scenic lands were used to generate the GIVI, using the Viewshed analysis in ArcGIS. The geographically weighted regression (GWR) based hedonic model was then employed to measure the combined effect of both -- distance and view of scenic lands from each homes. Both the global (adjusted R sq =0.52, AICc =29,828) and the geographically weighted regression (GWR) models (adjusted R sq = 0.59, AICc =29,729) estimated the price effect, and the GWR model outperformed the global model. The results from the GWR model indicated an average 3.4% price premium on the mean value of homes in the study area. The spatial variation in home premiums (as percentage values) was also found clearer and more spatially clustered in the GWR model. The highest premium value for select homes in the sample was found to be as high as 34.6% of the mean home price. This is a significant effect of visual accessibility to the preserved scenic lands for land conservation. This research offers a useful framework for evaluating the effect of land protection for land use planning, land conservation and for real estate valuation purposes. It also offers useful insights for conservation agencies, local governments, professional planners, and real estate professionals for prioritizing land sites with scenic views.
    Keywords: Conservation Easement (Environmental Amenity); Geographically weighted regression (GWR); Hedonic Price Modeling (HPM); Real Estate Valuation; Viewshed in GIS
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2019–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arz:wpaper:eres2019_242&r=all
  8. By: Gulati, Ashok; Juneja, Ritika
    Abstract: Indian agriculture is dominated by smallholders. With an average holding size of just 1.08 ha (in 2015- 16), and 86 percent of holdings being of less than 2 ha size, Indian agriculture produces sufficient food, feed, and fiber for India’s large population of 1.35 billion, and in addition generates some net export surplus. This would not have been possible without the infusion of massive credit to farmers to buy modern inputs ranging from seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, farm machinery, etc. But how has this system of agri-credit evolved in India over time? What is its organizational structure, and how effective is it in terms of its reach, especially to smallholders? How efficiently can it deliver credit and what sorts of innovations are unfolding in this sector to make it more efficient, inclusive and sustainable? These are some of the key questions that are addressed in this paper. Our analysis in this paper shows that the Indian agri-credit system has made commendable progress, with major policy changes, especially in 1969. The share of institutional credit to farming households in overall credit increased from about 10 percent in 1951 to 63 percent in 1981. But since then it has hovered around that level until 2013, the latest year for which this information is available from All India Debt and Investment Survey (AIDIS). However, total direct agri-credit (loans outstanding) from formal institutional sources as a percentage of AgGDP increased from about 16 percent in FY1982 to about 42 percent in FY2017; and direct short term institutional credit (loans outstanding) as a percentage of input requirements in agriculture increased from 22 percent in 1990-91 to 123 percent in 2015-16. This indicates that formal credit has been meeting all the requirements of inputs needed for modern agriculture. Also, in terms of inclusiveness, agri-credit institutions have played a major role. Small and marginal farmers, who operate on 47 percent of the operated area and account for 86 percent of the total operational holdings (number), get about 60 percent of institutional loans for agricultural purposes. This is a commendable achievement, although further improvements are always possible. Despite the mushrooming of several microfinance institutions and various innovations in banking, commercial banks remain the main source of formal finance to farmers, accounting for 75 percent of loans outstanding to farmers in 2017, followed by cooperatives at 13 percent and RRBs at 12 percent. Innovations in agri-credit policies (PSL/PSLC), credit instruments (KCC), organizations (MF institutions), business correspondents and micro-ATMs, are all helping to improve farmers’ access to institutional finance. However, most of them focus on productive activities, which presumably push consumption credit to informal sources. The fact that the share of institutional credit in overall credit to agriculture has remained within a narrow range of around 60-65 percent for decades raises concerns as to whether the remaining part of agri-credit is for consumption purposes or whether it is being taken by tenants who find it difficult to borrow from institutional sources due to a lack of land titles as collaterals, or whether the banks do not find that segment of farmers ‘bankable’ due to low credit rating in the face of rising non-performing assets (NPAs) in agriculture. Whatever may be the reasons for this outcome, the study of Indian agri-credit still offers some important lessons for smallholder developing economies such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2019–09–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ubonwp:292565&r=all
  9. By: Heinz Welsch (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Economic theory has invoked moral motivation as an explanation for the voluntary provision of public goods but is vague with regard to the specific moral concerns involved. Using climate change as a case study, this paper relates morally-motivated public good provision to the six moral foundations (MFs) identified by moral psychologists: Care, Fairness and Liberty (individual-focused), and Loyalty, Authority and Sanctity (group-focused). Using data from the European Social Surveys it is found that using the MFs in addition to standard explanatory variables improves the explanation of climate-friendly behaviors and endorsement of climate-friendly regulations by 44 percent. While the Fairness and Care foundations are strong and robust predictors of the dependent variables, the Loyalty foundation contributes positively only when neglecting the nature of climate change mitigation as a global public good. More generally, in contrast to the individual-focused MFs (that apply to all individuals), the group-focused MFs are of little direct relevance for climate change mitigation, as the benefit from mitigation extends beyond the in-group (family, neighborhood, region, or nation) to which these MFs refer. Group-focused MFs are only of indirect relevance as their endorsement fosters general environmental concern.
    Keywords: voluntary public good provision, climate change, moral motivation, moral foundations
    Date: 2019–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:old:dpaper:425&r=all
  10. By: Eugenio Figueroa; Ramón E. López; Gino Sturla
    Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of rising water supply variability provoked by climate change on the welfare of a society whose economy heavily depends on water availability. Several studies recommend that communities should impose policies that ensure a minimum level of water allocation for human consumption. We compare two contracts, one where society allocates to the firm a fixed proportion of the annual water-runoff; and the other one, where due to the uncertainties of climate change, the community instead allocates to human consumption a fixed annual amount of water-runoff. We consider a risk-averse community. We show that, unless water supply is absolutely fixed, a higher variability and scarcity of water supply does not necessarily imply that society is better off choosing a contract that assures a minimum water for human consumption. Depending on the characteristics of water supply frequency distribution, particularly the third moment, it is possible that society would not benefit by switching to the fixed allocation contract for human consumption. We illustrate the main analytical results using data and runoff climate change projections from a water basin located in the central region of Chile, showing that in this case the community is better-off sticking to the current contract.
    Date: 2019–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:udc:wpaper:wp489&r=all
  11. By: Wamadini dite Minata Souratie; Farida Koinda; Rasmata Samandoulougou; Bernard DecaluweÌ
    Abstract: L’eÌ conomie burkinabeÌ€, baseÌ e sur l’agriculture, occupe environ 70% de la population active. Sa contribution aÌ€ la formation du PIB est estimeÌ e aÌ€ 35% en moyenne. Dans ce secteur, travaillent 83% des femmes qui assurent 75% de la production alimentaire malgreÌ leur acceÌ€s limiteÌ aÌ€ la terre et aux ressources productives. Face aÌ€ ces contraintes, le Gouvernement a adopteÌ des mesures visant aÌ€ ameÌ liorer les conditions de vie des femmes rurales par leur acceÌ€s aÌ€ la terre et aux intrants agricoles notamment. Notre eÌ tude eÌ value aÌ€ l’aide d’un modeÌ€le d’eÌ quilibre geÌ neÌ ral calculable statique les effets macroeÌ conomiques et sectoriels de ces mesures sur l’emploi et le revenu des femmes. D’apreÌ€s les reÌ sultats, l’accroissement de l’offre de terre, d’eÌ quipement agricole, et la reÌ duction du couÌ‚t de l’engrais contribuent aÌ€ la seÌ curiteÌ alimentaire, la croissance eÌ conomique et l’ameÌ lioration des conditions de vie des femmes par la creÌ ation d’emploi et l’ameÌ lioration du revenu des meÌ nages. / The Burkina Faso economy, based on agriculture, employs about 70% of the active population. It contribution to GDP is estimated on average at 35%. In agricultural sector, 83% of women produce 75% of food production despite their limited access to land and productive resources. Faced to these constraints, the Government has adopted measures to improve the living conditions of rural women through their access to land and agricultural inputs in particular. Our study uses a static computable general equilibrium model to assess the macroeconomic and sectorial effects of these measures on women's employment and income. Results show that, increasing the supply of land, agricultural equipment, and reducing the cost of fertilizer contribute to food security, economic growth and improve living conditions of women through job creation and improved household income.
    Keywords: Politiques agricoles, emploi, revenu, productiviteÌ , terre, EGC, agricultural policy, employment, income, productivity, land
    JEL: Q18 Q15 C68 J16
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:lvl:mpiacr:2019-19&r=all
  12. By: Peersman, Gert; Rüth, Sebastian K.; Van der Veken, Wouter
    Abstract: Using time-varying BVARs, we find that oil price increases caused by oil supply shocks did not affect food commodity prices before the start of the millennium, but had positive spillover effects in more recent periods. Likewise, shortfalls in global food commodity supply —resulting from bad harvests — have positive effects on crude oil prices since the early 2000s, in contrast to the preceding era. Remarkably, we also document greater spillover effects of both supply shocks on metals and minerals commodity prices in recent periods, as well as a stronger impact on the own price compared to earlier decades. This (simultaneous) time variation of commodity price dynamics cannot be explained by the biofuels revolution and is more likely the consequence of heightened informational frictions and information discovery in more globalized and financialized commodity markets.
    Keywords: commodity markets; food prices; oil prices; spillovers
    Date: 2019–09–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:awi:wpaper:0665&r=all
  13. By: Henderson, Vernon; Squires, Tim; Storeygard, Adam; Weil, David
    Abstract: We explore the role of natural characteristics in determining the worldwide spatial distribution of economic activity, as proxied by lights at night, observed across 240,000 grid cells. A parsimonious set of 24 physical geography attributes explains 47% of worldwide variation and 35% of within-country variation in lights. We divide geographic characteristics into two groups, those primarily important for agriculture and those primarily important for trade, and confront a puzzle. In examining within-country variation in lights, among countries that developed early, agricultural variables incrementally explain over 6 times as much variation in lights as do trade variables, while among late developing countries the ratio is only about 1.5, even though the latter group is far more dependent on agriculture. Correspondingly, the marginal effects of agricultural variables as a group on lights are larger in absolute value, and those for trade smaller, for early developers than for late developers. We show that this apparent puzzle is explained by persistence and the differential timing of technological shocks in the two sets of countries. For early developers, structural transformation due to rising agricultural productivity began when transport costs were still high, so cities were localized in agricultural regions. When transport costs fell, these agglomerations persisted. In late-developing countries, transport costs fell before structural transformation. To exploit urban scale economies, manufacturing agglomerated in relatively few, often coastal, locations. Consistent with this explanation, countries that developed earlier are more spatially equal in their distribution of education and economic activity than late developers.
    Keywords: agriculture; physical geography; development
    JEL: O13 O18 R12
    Date: 2018–02–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ehl:lserod:79709&r=all
  14. By: Haitao Cheng (Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University,); Hayato Kato (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Ayako Obashi (School of International Politics, Economics and Communication, Aoyama Gakuin University)
    Abstract: The current globalization is characterized by the spatial unbundling of parts production and assembly, leading to the dispersion of pollution. We study environmental taxes in a two-country model of global value chains in which the location of parts and assembly can di er. When unbundling costs are so high that parts and assembly must co-locate in the pre-globalized world, pollution is spatially concentrated and harmonizing environmental taxes maximizes the global welfare. By contrast, under low unbundling costs triggering the dispersion of parts and thus of pollution in the world today, the harmonization does not maximize the global welfare.
    Keywords: Environmental policy; Fragmentation; International coordination
    JEL: F18 F23 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2019–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osk:wpaper:1913&r=all
  15. By: Georgieva, Daniela; Popova, Radostina
    Abstract: A main objective of the paper is to present the state, current trends and challenges in front of the enterprises in Bulgarian Forest sector, based on the introduction of digital tools and solutions in business and economy as a whole. A subject of analyses is the degree of digitisation of forest sector enterprises based on the implementation and use of online-based applications and electronic catalogs; specialized information and communication management systems and networks; office and warehouse management software. The indicators under analysis are divided into the following groups - "connectivity and digital skills"; "internal processes" and "relationship with customers, suppliers and third parties". In order to achieve comparability of the results, the selected indicators are the same as those officially used by Eurostat. For the purposes of the analysis, secondary and primary data are used as well as publications in the specialized literature, legislation framework and analyzes of statistical data from national and international databases. The paper presents primary results from in-depth interviews with management representatives from large forest industry enterprises, according to the requirements of the Bulgarian Accountancy Act (AA). Good digital practices in the furniture manufacturers are also presented, and some opportunities for development of the Forest industry entities are suggested.
    Keywords: digitisation; Forest sector; Forest industry; in-depth interviews; large enterprises
    JEL: M0 Q00
    Date: 2019–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:96021&r=all
  16. By: Amani Uisso; Harun Tanrivermis
    Abstract: Tanzania has a population of 44,928,923 people, as according to 2012 national census and projected to be 52,554,628 people in 2017 by Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), and is estimated to have total surface area 945,087 km2. Continental area is 88.2 million hectares, of which Some 70% of the land is considered to be village land supporting more than 80% of the population (farmers and pastoralists) with the approximately 39% of all land being used for agricultural activities, 28% as a reserved land and 2% general (mainly urban) land which is supporting 20% of the population. The gross area cultivated or planted annually is about 5.1 million hectares which are only about 5% of the surface area of Tanzania. The other arable land, but not cultivated, is 10 million ha much of it is used as pasture and meadow. While in the reserve areas there is an additional of 4 million hectares suitable for cultivation.Most of the researches keep on focusing on land use change in general, but little has been exemplified on the arable land in cause and effect relationship. This research carries out on the base of quantitative analysis and more attention on the quantitative study on the cause and effect relationship and hence creating the agricultural or arable land use model within the period of 1987 to 2017. The paper entails to discuss and analyse the land resources characteristics of the change of arable land in Tanzania according to the arable land area and relevant factors affecting the land resources mainly here referred to arable land. Linear regression analysis with Cochrane-Orcutt and Prais-Winsten estimation methods by using SPSS 22.0 software method was adopted to carry out quantitative analysis on the driving factors of arable land and its change in Tanzania. This paper also establishes the multiple regression model of driving factors on arable land area. Finally, some corresponding suggestions and discussions were put forward. The research results give valuable information for decision-makers to design sustainable arable land resources management strategies and national land allocation policies among the land-based sector within the case of Tanzania as well as other African nations.
    Keywords: Arable agricultural land; Driving factors; Regression Analysis; Tanzania
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2019–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arz:wpaper:eres2019_351&r=all
  17. By: Patrice Loisel (MISTEA - Mathématiques, Informatique et STatistique pour l'Environnement et l'Agronomie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Guillerme Duvillié (GOM - Graphes et Optimisation Mathématique [Bruxelles] - ULB - Université Libre de Bruxelles [Bruxelles]); Denis Barbeau; Brigitte Charnomordic (MISTEA - Mathématiques, Informatique et STatistique pour l'Environnement et l'Agronomie - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Forest management relies on the evaluation of silviculture practices. The increase in natural risk due to climate change makes it necessary to consider evaluation criteria that take natural risk into account. Risk integration in existing software requires advanced programming skills. We propose a user-friendly software to simulate even-aged and monospecific forest at the stand level, in order to evaluate and optimize forest management. The software gives the possibility to run management scenarii with or without considering the impact of natural risk. The control variables are the dates and rates of thinning and the cutting age. The risk model is based on a Poisson processus. The Faustmann approach, including tree damage risk, is used to evaluate future benefits, economic or ecosystem services. It relies on the calculation of expected values, for which a dedicated mathematical development has been done. The optimized criteria used to evaluate the various scenarii are the Faustmann value and the Averaged yield value. We illustrate the approach and the software on two case studies: economic optimization of a beech stand and carbon sequestration optimization of a pine stand. Software interface makes it easy for users to write their own (growth-tree damage-economic) models without advanced programming skills. The possibility to run management scenarii with/without considering the impact of natural risk may contribute improving silviculture guidelines and adapting them to climate change. We propose future lines of research and improvement.
    Keywords: optimization,stand level,Decision Support System,forest management,simulation,storm risk,natural risk,29,Faustmann
    Date: 2019–09–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02282504&r=all

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