nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2019‒08‒12
forty-four papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. The Impact of Microcredit on Agricultural Technology Adoption and Productivity: Evidence from Randomized Control Trial in Tanzania By Yuko Nakano; Eustadius F.Magezi
  2. Modeling the Switch from Hail Insurance to Anti-Hail Nets By Marco Rogna; Günter Schamel; Alex Weissensteiner
  3. Public food procurement from smallholder farmers: literature review and best practices By Ana Miranda
  4. The impact of e-wallet on informal farm entrepreneurship development in rural Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi; Simplice A. Asongu
  5. A Hedonic Price Analysis of Processed Food Attributes in Tanzania By Snyder, Jason E.; Tschirley, David L.; Reardon, Thomas A.; Ross, Brent R.
  6. Decomposing U.S. agricultural productivity into weather shocks, technical change, scale effects, input price effects, and cost efficiency By Plastina, Alejandro; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Lence, Sergio H.
  7. How green is sugarcane ethanol? By Sant'Anna, Marcelo Castello Branco
  8. Brexit trade impacts' and Mercosur's negotiations with Europe By J., Julio
  9. Young Rural Women Participation in the E-Wallet Programme and Usage Intensity of Modern Agricultural Inputs in Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi
  10. Exploring the Underlying Economics of Local Food Producers: Opportunities for Rural Economic Development By Bauman, Allison; Jablonski, Becca B. R.; Thilmany McFadden, Dawn D.
  11. Aligning policy and legal frameworks for supporting smallholder farming through public food procurement: the case of home-grown school feeding programmes By Luana F. J. Swensson
  12. Factors Impacting Grocery Store Deflation: A Closer Look at Prices in 2016 and 2017 By Kuhns, Annemarie; Okrent, Abigail M.
  13. The influence of wine awards and sustainability labels on consumers’ WTP: An experimental study at the example of German “Riesling” By Klink-Lehmann, Jeanette Leila; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Hartmann, Monika
  14. Dueling Drought-mitigation Efforts: The Role of Water Use Efficiency and Conservation Policies on Effluent Generation and Quality By Schwabe, Kurt A.; Nemati, Mehdi; Amin, Refat
  15. Evaluation of the Coverage and Benefit Incidences of Food Fortification in Mozambique By International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
  16. The Gains of Ignoring Risk: Insurance with Better Informed Principals. By Laura Abrardi; Luca Colombo; Piero Tedeschi
  17. Can customary systems of land tenure facilitate agricultural productivity growth? An investigation in the West African Sahel By Kusunose, Yoko; Theriault, Veronique; Alia, Didier Y.
  18. Soil Conditioned Climate Effects Matter when Modeling Crop Yields By Dennis, Elliott J.; Hefley, Trevor; Tack, Jesse B.; Hendricks, Nathan P.
  19. The Economic Impact of Small Regional Commissions: Evidence from the Delta Regional Authority By Morin, Tyler; Partridge, Mark
  20. Differential Price Pass-Through in Organic and Conventional Food Markets By Li, Qingxiao; Cakir, Metin; Beatty, Timothy; Park, Timothy A.
  21. Assessing Healthfulness of the Food Environment after the Mandatory Menu Labelling and Predicted Impact on Healthy Eating By Rajbhandari Thapa, Janani; Katapodis, Nicole; Zhang, Donglan
  22. Improving farm environmental performance through technical assistance: empirical evidence on pesticide use By Margaux Lapierre; Alexandre Sauquet; Subervie Julie
  23. Risk and Returns to Forage Mixtures in a Beef Grazing System By Brazil, Kyle; Keyser, Pat; Boyer, Christopher M.; Griffith, Andrew P.
  24. Mission impossible? Country-level coordination in the UN development system By Baumann, Max-Otto
  25. Executive Summary - Evaluation of the Coverage and Benefit Incidences of Food Fortification in Mozambique By International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth
  26. Optimizing agricultural insurance: Evidence from India By Ward, Patrick S.; Singh, Vartika; Gupta, Shweta; Ghosh, Ranjan
  27. To Bomb a Vineyard? Developing a Model for Predicting Water Stress in a Vineyard Utilizing Hyperspectral Imagery Collected from a UAV By Hurley, Sean P.; Horney, Marc; Drake, Aaron
  28. The effects of the National Agricultural Input Voucher Scheme (NAIVS) on sustainable intensification of maize production in Tanzania By Kim, Jongwoo; Mason, Nicole M.; Mather, David
  29. Is micronutrient training effective in creating demand for zinc rice? A randomized control trial study and panel data analysis for Bangladesh By Valera, Harold Glenn A.; Habib, M. Ashraful; Yamano, Takashi
  30. Electronic wallet technology and the enabling environment of smallholder farmers in Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi; Simplice A. Asongu
  31. Lagging-behind Areas as a Challenge to the Regional Development Strategy: What Insights can New and Evolutionary Economic Geography Offer? By Seyed Peyman Asadi; Ahmad Jafari Samimi
  32. Introducing Sentiment Analysis to Agricultural Economics: Case Study from Restaurant Reviews By Tian, Guang; Du, Xiaoxue; Lu, Liang; McIntosh, Christopher S.
  33. Integrating Ethical Values and Economic Value to Steer Progress in Artificial Intelligence By Anton Korinek
  34. Adoption Intensity of Climate Smart Agriculture Technologies in Uganda: A Semiparametric Analysis By Kagoya, Sarah; Bhatta, Dependra; Paudel, Krishna P.; Liu, Kai
  35. The Impact of Crop Insurance on Farm Financial Outcomes By DeLay, Nathan D.; Brewer, Brady E.; Featherstone, Allen M.; Boussios, David
  36. The Potential for Moral Hazard Behavior in Irrigation Decisions under Crop Insurance By Suchato, Paloch; Mieno, Taro; Schoengold, Karina; Foster, Timothy
  37. The Impact of Economic Sentiment Index on the Price Relationship between Organic and Conventional Fruits in Korea By Seok, Jun Ho; Kim, GwanSeon; Kim, Soo-Eun; Mark, Tyler B.
  38. Farmers as suppliers of fish: Household seafood and aquaculture expenditure By Meng, Ting; Wang, Chunxiao; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Yang, Zhenyong
  39. Assessing salt-tolerant rice variety adoption in the Mekong River Delta By Paik, SongYi; Mills, Bradford F.; Le, Dung Thi Phuong; Nhu, Lien Thi
  40. The impact of high-yield technologies on the cocoa market in West Africa By De Figueiredo Silva, Felipe; Zilberman, David; Kaplan, Scott; Potts, Matthew
  41. Farm Capabilities and Performance in Swedish Agriculture By Nybom, Jozefine; Hunter, Erik; Micheels, Eric T.; Melin, Martin
  42. Do agricultural interventions influence network formation? Insights from a randomized experiment in Kenya By Jäckering, Lisa; Gödecke, Theda; Wollni, Meike
  43. The rationale of sharecropping: immigrant bonded laborers and the transition from slavery in Brazil (1830-1890) By Bruno Gabriel Witzel de Souza
  44. Road Infrastructure and Poverty Alleviation: Evidence from Rural China By Zhu, Lifen; Jin, Songqing; Huang, Jikun; Tian, Yongzhong

  1. By: Yuko Nakano; Eustadius F.Magezi
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of microcredit on the adoption of technology and productivity of rice cultivation in Tanzania. Collaboratively with BRAC, a globally-known microfinance institution, we offered microcredit specifically designed for agriculture to randomly selected farmers. We estimate the intention-to-treat effect (ITT) as well as the local average treatment effect (LATE) of microcredit, by using the eligibility to the program as an instrumental variable (IV). Overall, we find statistically weak or even null evidence that the BRAC program increases the use of chemical fertilizer. Also, credit use does not result in an increase in paddy yield, profit from rice cultivation, or household income for borrowers. Our results from sub-sample analyses suggest that credit does not increase the fertilizer use by those who have better access to irrigation water as they have already applied the amount of fertilizer near to the recommended level. On the other hand, credit increases the fertilizer use by those who have limited access to irrigation water and have previously used little fertilizer. However, possibly due to the poor yield response to fertilizer, the increase in chemical fertilizer use does not result in higher yield for them. We also observed similar phenomenon for the comparison between trained and non-trained borrowers before the intervention.
    Keywords: Microcredit, Technology Adoption, Agriculture, Tanzania, Africa
    Date: 2019–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:jic:wpaper:193&r=all
  2. By: Marco Rogna (Free University of Bolzano‐Bozen, Faculty of Economics and Management, Italy); Günter Schamel (Free University of Bolzano‐Bozen, Faculty of Economics and Management, Italy); Alex Weissensteiner (Free University of Bolzano‐Bozen, Faculty of Economics and Management, Italy)
    Abstract: In several areas of the world, hail is one of the most detrimental atmospheric phenomenon for agriculture, causing a significant loss of output and, consequently, of farms’ revenues. Despite being a highly stochastic and localized phenomenon, thus allowing for a sustainable insurance market to hedge against its detrimental effects, this last is often subsidised. The present paper tries to figure out if the promotion of an alternative hedging instrument, anti-hail nets, could help to increase the actuarial soundness of the hail insurance market. In the first part of the paper a simple model is presented showing that the relation between the differential profitability of anti-hail nets versus insurance and the plot specific versus the average expected damage has an inverse U-shape. This implies that incentives to anti-hail nets could cause low risk farmers to exit the insurance market more likely than high risk ones. Such finding is confirmed by the empirical investigation, further showing that higher per-hectare output values and being located in an area strongly affected by hail increase the chance of a plot to be hedged through anti-hail nets.
    Keywords: Actuarial soundness; Agricultural insurance markets; Anti-hail nets; Hail; Panel data
    JEL: D22 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2019–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bzn:wpaper:bemps64&r=all
  3. By: Ana Miranda (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Governments in all parts of the world use their purchasing power to advance social, economic and environmental goals. In a similar vein, public food procurement has also been used to promote a number of positive outcomes. There is growing interest among countries and international institutions in using public food purchases to promote the integration of smallholders into markets and strengthen rural livelihoods. Despite the expansion of public food procurement from smallholder farmers, research into these novel strategies is still limited. This paper will address some of the research gaps by identifying best practices in promoting smallholder participation in public food procurement. It reviews the body of available literature in the field and draws key lessons learned. The findings can assist policymakers in the design and implementation of public food procurement initiatives targeted at smallholders".
    Keywords: Public, food, procurement, smallholder, farmers, literature, review, best, practices
    Date: 2018–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:wpaper:176&r=all
  4. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Transforming agriculture from a largely subsistence enterprise to a profitable commercial venture is both a prerequisite and a driving force for accelerated development and sustainable growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this investigation is to assess the impact of the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) e-wallet programme on informal farm entrepreneurship development in rural Nigeria. Informal sector farmers are those that are not legally registered at the national level though could be connected to a registered association. The research is motivated by the absence of literature focusing on the problem statement or objective of study. One thousand, one hundred and fifty-two rural farmers were sampled across the six geo-political zones of Nigeria. Results from the use of a bivariate probit model indicate that the mobile phone-based technology via the e-wallet programme is a critical factor that has enhanced farm entrepreneurship in rural Nigeria. However, results also show that the impact of mobile phones (as a channel to accessing and using modern agricultural inputs) is contingent on how mobile networks are able to link farmers who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The results suggest that increasing mobile phone services in rural Nigeria enhances farmers’ knowledge, information and adoption of improved farm inputs and by extension, spurs rural informal sector economic activities in sub-Saharan Africa. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed.
    Keywords: Informal sector’s adoption, electronic wallet technologies
    JEL: Q10 Q14 L96 O40 O55
    Date: 2018–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:abh:wpaper:18/047&r=all
  5. By: Snyder, Jason E.; Tschirley, David L.; Reardon, Thomas A.; Ross, Brent R.
    Keywords: Marketing
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290864&r=all
  6. By: Plastina, Alejandro; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Lence, Sergio H.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291203&r=all
  7. By: Sant'Anna, Marcelo Castello Branco
    Abstract: Biofuels offer one approach for reducing carbon emissions in transportation. However, the agricultural expansion needed to produce biofuels may endanger tropical forests. I use a dynamic model of land use to disentangle the roles played by agricultural expansion and yield increases in the supply of sugarcane ethanol in Brazil. The model is estimated using remote sensing (satellite) information of sugarcane activities. Estimates imply that, at the margin, 92% of new ethanol comes from increases in area and only 8% from increases in yield. Direct deforestation accounts for 12% of area expansion. I further assess carbon emissions and deforestation implications from ethanol policies.
    Date: 2019–07–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fgv:epgewp:807&r=all
  8. By: J., Julio
    Abstract: We estimate that a hard Brexit (HB) would reduce UK agro-industrial-imports from the EU by around 50%. Following the dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) the UK Government has proposed to shift towards market-oriented agricultural policies and negotiating free trade agreements (FTAs) with interested countries. Assuming that the UK restores the previous level of agro industrial products, the paper estimates the net export gains that Mercosur could achieve in the UK market for different agro-industrial products. In the event of a Hard Brexit, and assuming that the Mercosur-EU negotiations are not completed before, Mercosur would then face two negotiations in Europe: with the EU27 and with the UK. We argue that failing Mercosur to give priority to talks with the UK, other countries are more than likely sign trade agreements and fill its import gap thus creating additional trade diversion effects against the Mercosur. We offer back-of-the-envelope estimates indicating that under such an FTA, Mercosur could double its agro-industrial exports to the UK. These significant export gains are concentrated in a group of products that are now highly protected by the CAP.
    Keywords: Brexit, Mercosur, trade diversion, trade institutions, agro-industrial trade, Common Agricultural Policy, free trade agreement
    JEL: D4 F13 F14 F15 F17 F5 F51 F53 F55
    Date: 2019–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:94885&r=all
  9. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: We assess the extent young rural women (YRW) participate in the federal government (FGN)e-wallet programme and the subsequent impact on usage intensity of modern agricultural inputs in Nigeria. Six hundred YRW were sampled across six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Using double-hurdle, results show that YRW rarely participate in the e-wallet programme due to the cultural and traditional context which is anchored in beliefs, norms and practices that breed discrimination and feminized poverty. This implies that Nigeria’s agricultural transformation agenda would only succeed if the FGN is able to draw on all its resources and talents, and if the YRW can be able to participate fully in the e-wallet programme. This will require intensified efforts to eliminate discrimination and promote equalities. To bridge the gender gap, the federal ministry of agriculture and rural development should pay close attention to the extent the participation of unmarried girls and young women, including nursing mothers in the e-wallet programme, may be limited by the cultural and/or domestic and child care duties. The findings suggest that FGN should discourage gender disparities in unequal access to agricultural inputs and pervasive, inequality, especially over ownership of agricultural land that limit women’s contribution to household food baskets.
    Keywords: Gender, e-wallet programme, modern agricultural inputs, young rural women, double-hurdle model, Nigeria
    JEL: J43 O40 O55 Q10
    Date: 2018–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:abh:wpaper:18/061&r=all
  10. By: Bauman, Allison; Jablonski, Becca B. R.; Thilmany McFadden, Dawn D.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291295&r=all
  11. By: Luana F. J. Swensson (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "In the past few years, various countries, regions and cities from low-income to high-income economies have been developing a range of food procurement initiatives designed to use the regular demand for food on the part of government entities as a policy instrument targeting broader development objectives". (...)
    Keywords: Aligning, policy, legal, framework, supporting, smallholder, farming, through, public, food, procurement, case, home-grown, school, feeding, programmes
    Date: 2018–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:wpaper:177&r=all
  12. By: Kuhns, Annemarie; Okrent, Abigail M.
    Abstract: Understanding the underlying factors affecting retail food prices allows farmers, food manufacturers, businesses, and consumers to better understand the future of food prices Recent retail food price deflation (2016 and 2017) has left consumers and industry, as well as academics, asking what factors have been placing downward pressure on prices and how might this pressure impact future food-at-home price inflation This report provides an indepth analysis of recent price trends, including discussion of how price changes are transmitted through the supply chain The authors build on the ERS Food Price Outlook by providing an informative supplement to the summary of retail food prices on the agency’s website.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2019–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uerseb:291925&r=all
  13. By: Klink-Lehmann, Jeanette Leila; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Hartmann, Monika
    Keywords: Marketing
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290863&r=all
  14. By: Schwabe, Kurt A.; Nemati, Mehdi; Amin, Refat
    Keywords: Resource/ Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291261&r=all
  15. By: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The main objective of this study is to evaluate the coverage of the National Food Fortification Programme (NFFP) in Mozambique regarding iron-fortified wheat and maize flours and vitamin A-fortified sugar and vegetable oil, as well as the benefit reach across population groups. A population-based cross-sectional household survey and laboratory tests to determine nutrient intake in food samples collected at households are the main source for the analysis". (...)
    Keywords: Evaluation, coverage, benefit, incidences, Food Fortification, Mozambique
    Date: 2019–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:cstudy:32&r=all
  16. By: Laura Abrardi; Luca Colombo (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Piero Tedeschi
    Abstract: We study a competitive insurance market in which insurers have an imperfect informative advantage over policyholders. We show that the presence of insurers privately and heterogeneously informed about risk can explain the concentration levels, the persistent profitability and the pooling of risk observed in some insurance markets. Furthermore, we find that a lower market concentration may entail an increase in insurance premia
    Keywords: Insurance markets, Asymmetric information, Risk assessment, Market concentration.
    JEL: D43 D82 G22
    Date: 2019–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ctc:serie1:def084&r=all
  17. By: Kusunose, Yoko; Theriault, Veronique; Alia, Didier Y.
    Keywords: International Development
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291047&r=all
  18. By: Dennis, Elliott J.; Hefley, Trevor; Tack, Jesse B.; Hendricks, Nathan P.
    Keywords: Production Economics
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291166&r=all
  19. By: Morin, Tyler; Partridge, Mark
    Abstract: Factors such as falling U.S. migration rates and diverging regional economic fortunes have heightened interest in place-based policies. Indeed, the U.S. has had many such federal efforts including recently enacted Opportunity Zones. Historically, substantial federal funding has gone to regional economic development programs such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Yet, little is known about the benefits of some of the smaller place-based programs. We extend the literature on regional commissions by analyzing the economic gains to the Delta Regional Authority (DRA). The DRA was founded in 2000 to provide enhanced development aid to 252 Lower Mississippi Valley counties. Using data over the 1997 to 2016 period, we assess the DRA’s impact on employment, income, migration, and poverty. One-to-one propensity score matching is used to generate a set of counterfactual counties. Due to the endogenous nature of the treatment, we instrument for counties being included in the DRA using a dummy for whether the county is within the Lower Mississippi Watershed. The ensuing results reflects an estimation of the intent- to-treat benefits of the DRA. We find that the DRA is associated with income gains and decreases in unemployment; however, no impact on poverty or migration. In sum, the DRA produces economic benefits that greatly exceed its direct costs.
    Keywords: Rural economic development, place-based policy, program evaluation
    JEL: R11 R58
    Date: 2019–06–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:95200&r=all
  20. By: Li, Qingxiao; Cakir, Metin; Beatty, Timothy; Park, Timothy A.
    Keywords: Marketing
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290865&r=all
  21. By: Rajbhandari Thapa, Janani; Katapodis, Nicole; Zhang, Donglan
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290926&r=all
  22. By: Margaux Lapierre (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Alexandre Sauquet (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Subervie Julie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: In 2008, the French government announced an important shift in agricultural policy, calling for halving the use of pesticides in the next ten years. Since then, it has spent 40 million euros a year on implementing the so-called Ecophyto plan. In this paper, we evaluate the success of this program, focusing on its flagship scheme, which has provided technical assistance to 3,000 volunteer pilot farms since 2011. To do so, we use panel data collected from a representative sample of vineyards: the agricultural systems known as the largest users of pesticides. We use a slate of quasi-experimental approaches to estimate the impact of participation in the program on pesticide use and crop yields on enrolled vineyards. We find that participants have achieved reductions in pesticide use that ranges from 8 to 22 percent, thanks to the program. We moreover find that the reduction in the use of chemicals was accompanied by an increase in the use of biocontrol products. Finally, we find that this change of practices resulted in a reduction in yields for a fraction of enrolled farms while others seems to have maintained yields. Although below the expectations of the French government, these results seem rather encouraging, as they suggest that technical assistance alone can be effective in reducing significantly pesticide use in the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: Treatment effect,Pesticides,Technical assistance,Farming practices
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpceem:hal-02190979&r=all
  23. By: Brazil, Kyle; Keyser, Pat; Boyer, Christopher M.; Griffith, Andrew P.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290721&r=all
  24. By: Baumann, Max-Otto
    Abstract: With its, on average, 18 entities in every developing country, the United Nations (UN) faces an enormous challenge in coordinating its development activities. Under the 2030 Agenda and its complex set of Sustainable Development Goals, coordination has become even more urgent. The UN Secretary-General has recognised this and has made better coordination the main thrust of his reform proposals, which were presented earlier this year. This discussion paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debates and negotiations in New York with a snapshot of country-level coordination in the UN development system. It is based on an analysis of five developing countries and focusses specifically on the working-group level of coordination. The findings are not encouraging: Notwithstanding positive examples here and there, UN country-level coordination can still be characterised as a burdensome extra process with little practical consequence, rather than a way of working together for better results. To analyse these deficits, the paper looks at the incentive systems under which UN entities and their staff operate. It reconstructs how (a lack of) formal provisions, accountability, staff capacities and administrative harmonisation drive or impede coordination. Looking only at the UN itself would, however, miss an important part of the picture, as the UN operates under the mandates and the informal influence of member states. The paper therefore also analyses how member states shape UN country-level coordination through the formal mandates they issue in the General Assembly and the boards, the funding they provide and the ownership they exercise on UN development activities. The paper concludes by offering nine recommendations that complement the reform proposals advanced by the UN Secretary-General.
    Keywords: Regionale + globale + transnationale Governance
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:diedps:72018&r=all
  25. By: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The main objective of this study is to evaluate the coverage of the National Food Fortification Programme (NFFP) in Mozambique regarding iron-fortified wheat and maize flours and vitamin A-fortified sugar and vegetable oil, as well as the benefit reach across population groups. A population-based cross-sectional household survey and laboratory tests to determine nutrient intake in food samples collected at households are the main source for the analysis". (...)
    Keywords: Evaluation, Coverage, Benefit, Incidences, Food, Fortification, Mozambique
    Date: 2019–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:cstudy:33&r=all
  26. By: Ward, Patrick S.; Singh, Vartika; Gupta, Shweta; Ghosh, Ranjan
    Keywords: International Development
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291023&r=all
  27. By: Hurley, Sean P.; Horney, Marc; Drake, Aaron
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291185&r=all
  28. By: Kim, Jongwoo; Mason, Nicole M.; Mather, David
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290878&r=all
  29. By: Valera, Harold Glenn A.; Habib, M. Ashraful; Yamano, Takashi
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290834&r=all
  30. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of growth enhancement support scheme (GESS) on the enabling environment of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Its special focus is to investigate the GESS impact on access to rural farm credit and transport cost of smallholder farmers in the agricultural transformation agenda (ATA) in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach – This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional that describes and interprets what exist at present. A total of one thousand, two hundred farmers were sampled across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Findings – Results from the use of a double-hurdle model indicate that the GESS has a significant impact on farmers’ access to credit, but does not significantly affect rural farm transport cost, which subsequently influence the price of food in the country. Practical implication – This implies that if the federal government of Nigeria is to work towards an ideal agricultural transformation agenda, transport networks should be closely aligned with the GESS priorities to provide connectivity to rural areas that provide most of the country’s agricultural output. Originality/value – This research adds to the literature on agricultural and rural development debate in developing countries. It concludes that embracing rural finance and transportation infrastructure should form the foundation of the ATA in Nigeria, which in turn would provide the enabling environment for more widespread rural economy in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Growth enhancement support scheme, Electronic wallet technology, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: Q10 Q14 L96 O40 O55
    Date: 2019–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:exs:wpaper:19/041&r=all
  31. By: Seyed Peyman Asadi; Ahmad Jafari Samimi
    Abstract: Lagging-behind areas, as an example of convergence failure within a country, have attracted the attention of many researchers who try to adopt appropriate policies and strategies to overcome the problem of low growth paths. The current study concentrates on policy recommendations in the framework of New Economic Geography and Evolutionary Economic Geography for the lagging regions. The agglomerated industry, as a fundamental element of the new economic geography, has limited the potentials of policy prescriptions for lagging-behind areas. Constructing regional advantages, as a policy in evolutionary economic geography, has helped diversifying the policy options for the lagging-behind regions. However, this approach is faced with multi-level challenges in lagging-behind areas including the lack of critical mass in the case of low related variety and the knowledge base gap between the lagging and prosperous regions. Therefore, the policy should provide a structure for the simulation of external knowledge links and differentiate the nature of various related industries if it is going to be a basis for constructing regional advantages.
    Keywords: Lagging-behind areas, development strategy, New Economic geography, Evolutionary Economic Geography
    JEL: R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2019–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:egu:wpaper:1923&r=all
  32. By: Tian, Guang; Du, Xiaoxue; Lu, Liang; McIntosh, Christopher S.
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291219&r=all
  33. By: Anton Korinek
    Abstract: Economics and ethics both offer important perspectives on our society, but they do so from two different viewpoints – the central focus of economics is how the price system in our economy values resources; the central focus of ethics is the moral evaluation of actions in our society. The rise of Artificial Intelligence (AI) forces humanity to confront new areas in which ethical values and economic value conflict, raising the question of what direction of technological progress is ultimately desirable for society. One crucial area are the effects of AI and related forms of automation on labor markets, which may lead to substantial increases in inequality unless mitigating policy actions are taken or progress is actively steered in a direction that complements human labor. Additional areas of conflict arise when AI systems optimize narrow market value but disregard broader ethical values and thus impose externalities on society, for example when AI systems engage in bias and discrimination, hack the human brain, and increasingly reduce human autonomy. Market incentives to create ever more intelligent systems lead to the ultimate ethical question: whether we should aim to create AI systems that surpass humans in general intelligence, and how to ensure that humanity is not left behind.
    JEL: E25 J23 J38 O33
    Date: 2019–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26130&r=all
  34. By: Kagoya, Sarah; Bhatta, Dependra; Paudel, Krishna P.; Liu, Kai
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290723&r=all
  35. By: DeLay, Nathan D.; Brewer, Brady E.; Featherstone, Allen M.; Boussios, David
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290744&r=all
  36. By: Suchato, Paloch; Mieno, Taro; Schoengold, Karina; Foster, Timothy
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291090&r=all
  37. By: Seok, Jun Ho; Kim, GwanSeon; Kim, Soo-Eun; Mark, Tyler B.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290690&r=all
  38. By: Meng, Ting; Wang, Chunxiao; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Yang, Zhenyong
    Keywords: Marketing
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290859&r=all
  39. By: Paik, SongYi; Mills, Bradford F.; Le, Dung Thi Phuong; Nhu, Lien Thi
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291194&r=all
  40. By: De Figueiredo Silva, Felipe; Zilberman, David; Kaplan, Scott; Potts, Matthew
    Keywords: International Development
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291042&r=all
  41. By: Nybom, Jozefine; Hunter, Erik; Micheels, Eric T.; Melin, Martin
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290683&r=all
  42. By: Jäckering, Lisa; Gödecke, Theda; Wollni, Meike
    Keywords: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:291312&r=all
  43. By: Bruno Gabriel Witzel de Souza (University of Goettingen / Germany)
    Abstract: This paper studies the history of bonded labor in the plantations of São Paulo. Brazilian farmers proposed various contracts to bond immigrant households with a credit-labor interlinkage. The aim is to discuss why different laborrental arrangements were adopted. In particular, vis-à-vis the alternatives of fixed rents and wage systems, it asks why sharecropping contracts were offered to European laborers during the transition from slavery in Brazil. Building on some new historical evidence and a formal model, the paper makes two propositions about the rationale of bonded labor and sharecropping. First, the credit dimension was more important to landowners than specific labor-rental regimes. The credit supplied by landowners allowed for the tying of immigrants via indebtedness. This mechanism guaranteed a secure and stable supply of labor to local agricultural elites and permitted the immigration of poor and credit-constrained Europeans. This prepared the insertion of Brazil into the global circuit of the Age of Mass Migration without promoting institutional reforms to attract non-bonded immigrants. Second, sharecropping became the most prevalent contract in the first phase of the transition from slavery not because of an economically rational decision taken by landowners, but more as an emulation of other historical and international experiences with this labor-rental arrangement.
    Date: 2019–06–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:got:iaidps:239&r=all
  44. By: Zhu, Lifen; Jin, Songqing; Huang, Jikun; Tian, Yongzhong
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2019–06–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea19:290686&r=all

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