nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2019‒07‒22
27 papers chosen by

  1. Quality management system for improvement of quality and efficiency of food production: case of dairy products enterprise By Saule Akhmetova; Mariya Suleimenova
  2. Supermarket contracts and smallholder farmers: Implications for income and multidimensional poverty By O. Ogutu, Sylvester; O. Ochieng, Dennis; Qaim, Matin
  3. The influence of Brazilian exports on price transmission processes in the coffee sector: a Markov-switching approach By Vollmer, Teresa; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
  4. Can Smallholder Extension Transform African Agriculture? By Joshua W. Deutschmann; Maya Duru; Kim Siegal; Emilia Tjernström
  5. International Agricultural Mitigation Research and the Impacts and Value of Two SLMACC Research Projects By Fleming, David A; Preston, Kate
  6. L’internationalisation des marchés en productions animales By Vincent Chatellier
  7. The Effects of Decentralized and Video-based Extension on the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management – Experimental Evidence from Ethiopia By Denise Hörner; Adrien Bouguen; Markus Frölich; Meike Wollni
  8. How Can Inclusive Agricultural Health Policy Intervention Promote Shared Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria? Evidence from Randomized Control Trial By Toyin Samuel Olowogbon; Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde; Edward Asiedu
  9. Measurement Error Mechanisms Matter: Agricultural Intensification with Farmer Misperceptions and Misreporting By Kibrom A. Abay; Leah Bevis; Christopher B. Barrett
  10. How U.S. Agriculture Will Fare Under the USMCA and Retaliatory Tariffs By Chepeliev, Maksym; Wally Tyner; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
  11. Investment in climate action By Zhenqian Huang
  12. Public insurance and climate change (part one): Past trends in weather-related insurance in New Zealand By Fleming, David A.; Noy, Ilan; Pastor-Paz, Jacob; Owen, Sally
  13. India’s Biodiesel Programme: A Pathway for Sustainable Entrepreneurship, Employment Generation and Inclusiveness By Biswas, Pradip; Verma, Jyotiprakash; Pohit, Sanjib
  15. Ending hunger and malnutrition - how much would it cost? By Daniel Jeongdae Lee; Kiatkanid Pongpanich
  16. Design of Digital Agricultural Extension Tools: Perspectives from Extension Agents in Nigeria By Oyakhilomen, Oyinbo; Chamberlin, Jordan; Maertens, Miet
  17. Investing in sustainable infrastructure for all By Daniel Jeongdae Lee; Shuvojit Banerjee; Zheng Jian
  18. Circular economy as a performative concept based on a rational utopia By Joel Ntsonde; Franck Aggeri
  19. Fiscal space and national budgets for SDGs By Daniel Jeongdae Lee; Zhenqian Huang
  20. Policy approaches to incentivise sustainable plastic design By Emma Watkins; Jean-Pierre Schweitzer; Eeva Leinala; Peter Börkey
  21. Hurricane Katrina Floods New Jersey: The Role of Information in the Market Response to Flood Risk. By Nicholas Z. Muller; Caroline A. Hopkins
  22. Antimicrobial use, resistance and economic benefits and costs to livestock producers in Brazil By Marisa Cardoso
  23. Combining Soft Systems Methodology, Ethnographic Observation and Discrete-Event Simulation: A Case Study in Cancer Care By Guillaume Lamé; Oualid Jouini; Julie Stal-Le Cardinal
  24. Who are the Loss-Averse Farmers? Experimental Evidence from Structurally Estimated Risk Preferences By Bonjean, Isabelle
  25. From Learning to Doing: Diffusion of Agricultural Innovations in Guinea-Bissau By Rute Martins Caeiro
  26. Emergence of multiplicity of time scales in the modeling of climate, matter, life, and economy By Bernhelm Booss-Bavnbek; Rasmus Kristoffer Pedersen; Ulf R{\o}rb{\ae}k Pedersen
  27. Towards food security and sustainable development through enhancing efficiency of grain industry By Kanat Tireuov; Salima Mizanbekova; Bakhyt Kalykova; Gulmira Nurmanbekova

  1. By: Saule Akhmetova (Almaty Technological University); Mariya Suleimenova (Almaty Technological University)
    Abstract: On the basis of the conducted researches the strategic directions of development of the enterprise are scientifically based. The conceptual principles of creation and functioning of processes at Fudmaster Company JSC are formulated and the structural model of network of processes is created. The functional model and the mechanism of creation of process including its identification, formation, management and improvement are developed. The possibility of use of scientific methodology of FMEA analysis in technology of preparation of production "Kefir from Fudmaster" is shown. On the basis of the offered scientific and methodical approach the process of the production of fermented milk product "Kefir from Fudmaster" is structured. The standard of the organization for formation of processes of dairy production is developed and evidence-based.
    Keywords: quality management system,process,process approach,milk and dairy products,verification,measuring tools,monitoring,controlling
    Date: 2018–09–30
  2. By: O. Ogutu, Sylvester; O. Ochieng, Dennis; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: The food retail sector in many developing countries is transforming with a rapid growth of modern supermarkets. Supermarkets are not only influencing how food is sold to consumers, but also how agricultural products are sourced from farmers. Especially for the procurement of fresh fruits and vegetables, supermarkets often contract farmers directly to ensure consistent, high-quality supply. Previous studies analyzed the effects of supermarket contracts on smallholder farmers’ income. However, most existing studies relied on cross-section data and focused on the estimation of average income effects. Possible implications for other dimensions of household welfare were hardly examined. We add to this literature by using panel data from smallholder vegetable farmers in Kenya and econometric models with household fixed effects to estimate average and heterogeneous treatment effects of supermarket contracts on income and multidimensional poverty. On average, supermarket contracts increase per capita income in smallholder farm households by 60\%. We also find significant reductions in income poverty and multidimensional poverty. Quantile regressions show that farmers in all income groups benefit, but richer households benefit more than poorer ones in absolute terms. On the other hand, supermarket contracts cause the strongest reductions in multidimensional deprivations among the poorest households.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Marketing
    Date: 2019–07
  3. By: Vollmer, Teresa; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
    Abstract: Most analysis of agricultural commodity market integration is solely based on price information. However, adding trade data can improve the understanding of interactions between interrelated markets. We link the analysis of price transmission processes between spot and futures markets with trade information to study the influence of Brazilian coffee exports on global price interdependencies. Using a Markov-switching vector error correction model (MSVECM) we allow for structural changes over time. Our results reveal two regimes. One regime is characterized by periods of sideways or downward trending coffee prices with low price volatility, and the other one by phases of price spikes and high price volatility. Price information is transmitted through both the spot and the futures prices and the speed of the price transmission process is significantly affected by the total daily volume and value of Brazilian coffee exports.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2019–07–05
  4. By: Joshua W. Deutschmann; Maya Duru; Kim Siegal; Emilia Tjernström
    Abstract: Agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lags far behind all other regions of the world. A long list of policy experiments has yielded more evidence on what fails than on what works. We analyze a randomized control trial of a rare scaled-up success story: One Acre Fund’s small farmer program. Much like anti-poverty "graduation" interventions, the program aims to relax multiple constraints to productivity simultaneously. We show that participation causes statistically and economically significant increases in output, yields, and profits. In our preferred specification, maize production increases by 24% and profits by 16%. We find little evidence of heterogeneous treatment effects on yields, but observe some attenuation of impacts on total output and profits at the top end of the distribution.
    JEL: O12 O13 Q12
    Date: 2019–07
  5. By: Fleming, David A; Preston, Kate
    Abstract: Evaluating the benefits of publicly funded research is always a challenging task. This paper cannot produce air-tight quantification of the benefits of Sustainable Land Management and Climate Change (SLMACC) research. We do, however, demonstrate the key building blocks of significant impact have been obtained. First, it is clear that public funding has contributed importantly to New Zealand’s positioning itself as one of the leading global contributors to agricultural mitigation research. Second, the prominence of the research combined with the low likelihood of research occurring on this scale without public support suggests strongly that the results would not have been obtained absent public funding. Finally, though the realization of ultimate environmental and/or economic benefits will depend on the evolution of farming practices and climate change policy settings, the advances in genetic markers for low CH4 animals and identification of emission-reducing management practices have the potential for GHG emission reductions that would be significant in environmental terms, and whose value at likely carbon pricing levels would be in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Although the results discussed are conditional on several factors such as future policy implementation, adoption rates and the practical availability of mitigation options and practices for different farm landscapes; the impacts, economic and environmental values attached to mitigation research cannot be overlooked and provide important insights to the benefits that public investments can make to the development of a more sustainable agricultural system for the country.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Public Economics
    Date: 2018–08
  6. By: Vincent Chatellier
    Abstract: [paper in French] Animal production accounts for 16% of international agri-food trade. The growing imbalance between supply and demand for animal products in Asian countries, where consumption is growing, particularly in China, stimulates trade for the benefit of the major exporting countries: the European Union (EU), the United States, New Zealand, Brazil and Australia. While this development offers trade opportunities for countries with a structural surplus, purchases fluctuate from year to year and price competition is very strong, despite the qualitative requirements of some countries. The EU, which has a positive trade balance in dairy products and pork, but a negative one (in monetary terms) in beef and poultry meat, is the world's largest exporter of animal products (with 22% of the extra-EU trade in 2016). This article analyses the evolution of trade in animal products using customs statistics data (BACI and COMEXT) from 2000 to 2016. It presents the evolution of international trade for different types of goods (dairy products, beef, pork, poultry meat) and highlights the trade trajectories (patterns) of the main net importing countries (China, Japan and Russia) and net exporting countries (India, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, the United States and the EU).
    Keywords: animal products, international trade patterns, trade balance
    JEL: Q13 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Denise Hörner; Adrien Bouguen; Markus Frölich; Meike Wollni
    Abstract: The slow adoption of new agricultural technologies is an important factor in explaining persistent productivity deficits among smallholders in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Farmers delay in particular the uptake of technology packages. Since knowledge constraints are an important barrier to adoption, effective extension approaches are key. In recent decades, extension systems in many SSA countries have moved towards decentralized “bottom-up” models involving farmers as active stakeholders. In this study we assess the effects of a decentralized extension program and an additional video intervention on the adoption of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) among 2,382 farmers in Ethiopia using a randomized controlled trial. ISFM should enhance soil fertility and productivity by combining organic and inorganic soil amendments. We find that both extension-only and extension combined with video increase ISFM adoption and knowledge. We further find evidence for increased adoption of ISFM practices among farmers in treatment communities that do not actively participate in the extension activities. The additional video intervention shows a significant complementary effect for these non-actively involved farmers, in particular regarding the combined use of the practices on the same plot. A causal mediation analysis reveals that increases in knowledge explain part of the treatment effects on adoption.
    JEL: Q01 Q15 Q16
    Date: 2019–07
  8. By: Toyin Samuel Olowogbon; Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde; Edward Asiedu
    Abstract: We engaged randomized control trial to measure the effects of an agricultural health training intervention among 480 randomly assigned crop farmers from 24 farming communities in Nigeria. Structured questionnaire, interviews and random farm visit were used for data collection. The intervention component includes one-time village level agricultural health training and a three-month farm safety mobile text messaging follow up. We engaged a peer-developed module covering safe ergonomic practices and safe use of agrochemicals for the training. Findings from the study revealed that every one day increase in sickness absence decreases farmers’ labour productivity by 3% (p
    JEL: D03 D6 D9 I1 I12 I15 Q1
    Date: 2019–07
  9. By: Kibrom A. Abay; Leah Bevis; Christopher B. Barrett
    Abstract: The mechanism(s) that generate measurement error matter to inference. Survey measurement error is typically thought to represent simple misreporting correctable through improved measurement. But errors might also or alternatively reflect respondent misperceptions that materially affect the respondent decisions under study. We show analytically that these alternate data generating processes imply different appropriate regression specifications and have distinct effects on the bias in parameter estimates. We introduce a simple empirical technique to generate unbiased estimates under more general conditions and to apportion measurement error between misreporting and misperceptions in measurement error when one has both self-reported and objectively-measured observations of the same explanatory variable. We then apply these techniques to the longstanding question of agricultural intensification: do farmers increase input application rates per unit area as the size of the plots they cultivate decreases? Using nationally representative data from four sub-Saharan African countries, we find strong evidence that measurement error in plot size reflects a mixture of farmer misreporting and misperceptions. The results matter to inference around the intensification hypothesis and call into question whether more objective, precise measures are always preferable when estimating behavioral parameters.
    JEL: C18 O13 O55
    Date: 2019–07
  10. By: Chepeliev, Maksym; Wally Tyner; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
    Abstract: A hallmark of the Trump Administration has been to reverse the post-World War II consensus on lowering of trade barriers and a commitment towards multilateral free trade, towards a more protectionist and perhaps mercantilist position vis-à-vis trade policy. One of the Administration’s first actions in this regard was the decision to leave the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement, followed thereafter by raising tariffs on steel and aluminum imports. President Trump left no doubt where he stood on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which he often stated was the “worst trade deal maybe ever signed anywhere.” The administration’s actions on trade are likely to have significant implications for U.S. farmers as these actions target three of the largest markets for U.S. agricultural exports—Canada, China and Mexico—accounting for some 44% of U.S. agricultural exports representing an average of $63 billion from 2013 to 2015.
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Zhenqian Huang (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP)
    Abstract: The Asia Pacific region, hosting five of ten most vulnerable countries to climate change, contributes to over half of the world’s total greenhouse gas (GHG). During 1990 and 2012, greenhouse gas emissions in the region doubled (figure 1). Climate-induced higher temperatures, sea level rise, and extreme weather events are having a major impact on the region, harming its economies, natural and physical assets, and compounding developmental challenges, including poverty, food and energy security and health. Without climate-oriented development, climate change could push more than 100 million people from the region into extreme poverty by 2030, wiping out poverty reduction gains of past decades (ESCAP, 2016).
    Date: 2019–04
  12. By: Fleming, David A.; Noy, Ilan; Pastor-Paz, Jacob; Owen, Sally
    Abstract: Climate change appears to be increasing the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, negatively affecting communities as well as posing long-term sustainability challenges to insurance (risk transfer) mechanisms. New Zealand’s public natural hazard insurer, the Earthquake Commission (EQC), covers homeowners for damage to land (and in some cases to dwellings and contents) caused by landslip, storm or flood. We comprehensively explore the EQC claims data to investigate these weather-related claims from 2000-2017. We find no clear upward trend yet emerging in the number of claims or their value. We find that the northern regions of both islands are the source of most claims, that only a handful of weather events caused a large proportion of EQC’s weather-related pay-outs, that the average property lodging a weather-related claim is located twice as close to the coast as the national average, and that properties with claims usually are cited on much steeper land than the typical property in New Zealand. We also explore the relationship between claims and socio-economic characteristics, finding that higher income neighbourhoods appear to be those most benefiting from the EQC coverage for weather events.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  13. By: Biswas, Pradip; Verma, Jyotiprakash; Pohit, Sanjib
    Abstract: The biodiesel programme introduced by the Government of India in the beginning of this century represents a unique case of the development of numerous sustainable entrepreneurs, substantial employment generation for the poor and reduction of carbon footprints without compromising food security and thus promote equity and social justice. It is estimated that a 20% biofuel blending through domestic feedstock production would create 6.37 million sustainable entrepreneurs and185.15 million man-days per year by 2020. Given the availability of wasteland in the country this target is achievable. The two most important factors that restrained the success of the programme are the uncertainties in yield and seed prices for the farmers. As the domestic price of petroleum is linked to global crude price, any decline in the price of crude in the world market would reduce the feedstock prices in the local market. It therefore requires fixing minimum support prices for seeds and stabilizing yield at higher level through R&D. Given all this potential benefits and the recent trend of jobless growth in the country the programme deserves to be implemented more vigorously.
    Keywords: Biodiesel, Entrepreneurship, Jatropha, Employment, Marginal farmers
    JEL: Q20 Q21 Q29
    Date: 2018–11
  14. By: Rajshree Vaishnav; Munmun Sinha
    Abstract: The present study investigated B Ed trainee teacher’s ability to learn the course of “Environmental Education in Indian Perspectives” using a mobile learning module which was availed to them through the Edmodo mobile app. The experimental study was conducted on 50 B Ed trainee teacher’s from B Ed college at Nagpur City using the pre-test post-test control group design. Their environmental awareness was also assessed using standardized test which was taken as a covariate. The results obtained showed positive significant difference in their achievement while using mobile learning module for teaching environmental education. The study encourages prospects of using mobile learning modules as independent LMS within higher education in near future. Key Words: mobile, learning, teaching learning, learning module, environmental education Policy
    Date: 2017–09
  15. By: Daniel Jeongdae Lee (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP); Kiatkanid Pongpanich (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP)
    Abstract: Asia-Pacific needs to invest an additional $24 billion annually to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
    Date: 2019–04
  16. By: Oyakhilomen, Oyinbo; Chamberlin, Jordan; Maertens, Miet
    Keywords: Farm Management, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2019–07–01
  17. By: Daniel Jeongdae Lee (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP); Shuvojit Banerjee (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP); Zheng Jian (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP)
    Abstract: Infrastructure is critical to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. It is represented in Goal 9 along with industrialization and innovation, but also implicit in many other Goals including food security, health, decent jobs and cities and human settlements. Among infrastructure sectors, progress on Goal 7 on clean energy would be critical for limiting global warming to well below two degrees Celsius. ESCAP’s Economic and Social Survey 2019 estimates that developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region would have to invest an additional $196 billion per year in transport, ICT and water and sanitation infrastructure, and new investments of $434 billion to achieve Goal 7 on affordable and clean energy for all.
    Date: 2019–04
  18. By: Joel Ntsonde (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The concept of Circular Economy has attracted increasing attention from scholars in the last ten years as a new paradigm to reconcile economic value creation with environmental frugality. Hitherto, researchers have mostly tried to found this concept on scientific grounds or analyzed how organizations are trying to implement it. But few works have studied the reasons why Circular Economy gets such a momentum and fosters collective action within society. The question we raise in this paper is: what mechanisms underpin the collective dynamic currently shaped by Circular Economy? To answer this question, we have analyzed the mechanisms through which organizations commit to Circular Economy. We conducted a qualitative study to explore a group of heterogeneous organizations which are involved in Circular Economy projects in the building and furniture sectors in Paris region. We show that Circular Economy has been built and works as a rational utopia (Metzger, 2001) which has the ability to wield performative effects (Callon, 2007). By performative effects, we analyze how this rational utopia is concretely mobilized in the course of action to provide cognitive resources for collective action, and particularly to materialize idealized visions into projects and commitments. Eventually we propose a framework conceptualizing the organizational processes through which the underlying rational utopia of Circular Economy becomes performative and materializes.
    Date: 2019–07–04
  19. By: Daniel Jeongdae Lee (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP); Zhenqian Huang (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, ESCAP)
    Abstract: Significant levels of additional financing will be required to meet the levels of investment required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, and that this financing will need to come from a variety of both public and private flows and instruments. There are some Goals which are by their nature reliant on public funding, while other offer greater potential for private funding. The ones requiring public funding are education and health, climate change adaptation, and ecosystems/biodiversity.
    Date: 2019–04
  20. By: Emma Watkins; Jean-Pierre Schweitzer; Eeva Leinala; Peter Börkey
    Abstract: Plastics are an important material in the economy but present a challenge for waste management, resource efficiency and the environment. Low rates of recycling and high rates of environmental leakage represent key sustainability challenges for plastics as well as product designers and producers. The chemical composition of plastics, including their additives, create physical and toxicological barriers to ‘closing the loop’ on the material, and creates risks such as low quality secondary materials or ecological exposure to hazardous chemicals. A range of policy instruments can be applied to improve the sustainability of plastics, including regulations, market-based instruments, information and voluntary tools. The report reviews the current use of instruments in each of these categories, provides a number of good practice examples, such as product taxes and charges, eco-design standards, extended producer responsibility and environmental product labels, as well as discussing opportunities for their future applications.
    Keywords: circular economy, plastics, policy instruments, resource efficiency
    JEL: Q55 Q58
    Date: 2019–07–19
  21. By: Nicholas Z. Muller; Caroline A. Hopkins
    Abstract: This study uses hedonic property models to explore how coastal real estate markets subject to heterogeneous information treatments respond to flood risk. We identify reactions to flood risk, distinctly from price effects due to flood damage, by examining non-local flooding events. Utilizing a difference-in-difference methodology, we test whether the coastal real estate market in New Jersey responds to several well-publicized hurricanes and tropical storms that did not strike the Atlantic seaboard. We find that homes in high flood risk zones situated in towns that participate in public flood awareness activities incur a 7 to 16 percent decrease in price after the non-local shock.
    JEL: H41 Q51 Q54 R31
    Date: 2019–06
  22. By: Marisa Cardoso (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)
    Abstract: Brazil is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of meat and animal products. This report compiles information and data on antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals in Brazil. Antimicrobials are used in food producing animals, mainly as a growth promoter. While the use of antibiotics is estimated to be falling, there is concern amongst livestock producers as to the possible rise in production costs resulting from the withdrawal of these antibiotics, and they are currently exploring alternative interventions and their likely economic impact on their incomes. Recent regulatory and policy changes, including the implementation of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture, are aimed at limiting the use of antibiotics in livestock production and containing the rise in antimicrobial resistance.
    Keywords: antibiotics
    JEL: Q1
    Date: 2019–07–10
  23. By: Guillaume Lamé (CAM - University of Cambridge [UK], THIS Institute (The Healthcare Improvement Studies Institute) - Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge - CAM - University of Cambridge [UK]); Oualid Jouini (LGI - Laboratoire Génie Industriel - EA 2606 - CentraleSupélec); Julie Stal-Le Cardinal (LGI - Laboratoire Génie Industriel - EA 2606 - CentraleSupélec)
    Abstract: We describe a project where Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) is combined with Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) and ethnographic observation to support the improvement of patient flows in an outpatient chemotherapy unit and a chemotherapy preparation pharmacy unit. The project combines three interesting characteristics. First, we rely on ethnographic observation to explore the problem situation and frame the problem, a technique rarely reported in operational research (OR). Second, this leads us to define several root definitions, an aspect that remains overlooked in studies combining SSM and DES. Finally, the project stands at the interface between two departments (outpatient oncology unit and chemotherapy preparation pharmacy unit), a situation seldom explored in healthcare OR but where SSM has arguably a lot to offer to help identify and accommodate diverging objectives. We framed the problem, developed a simulation model, explored scenarios and refined a preferred one into a new business process. However, the proposed changes were not implemented. We analyse the outcomes of the project, the contribution of each method and their integration into an intervention. The paper provides insights on how SSM and DES can be combined in practice, and how the potential of ethnographic observation can be leveraged in this context.
    Keywords: Simulation,Soft Systems Methodology,Ethnographic observation,Healthcare OR,Problem Structuring Methods,Soft OR
    Date: 2019
  24. By: Bonjean, Isabelle
    Keywords: Farm Management, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2019–07–13
  25. By: Rute Martins Caeiro
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of social networks in the diffusion of knowledge and adoption of cultivation techniques, from trainees to the wider community, in the context of an extension project in Guinea-Bissau. In order to test for social learning, we exploit a detailed census of households and social connections across different dimensions. More precisely, we make use of a village photo directory in order to obtain a comprehensive and fully mapped social network dataset. We find evidence that agricultural information spreads across networks from project participants to non-participants, with different networks having different importance. The most relevant connection is found to be between the network of people from which individuals would ‘borrow money’. We are also able to disentangle the relative importance of weak and strong ties: in our context, weak ties are as important in the diffusion of agricultural knowledge as strong ties. Despite positive diffusion effects in knowledge, we found limited evidence of network effects in adoption behavior. Finally, using longitudinal network data, we document improvements in the network position of treated farmers over time.
    JEL: O13 O31 O33 Q16
    Date: 2019–07
  26. By: Bernhelm Booss-Bavnbek; Rasmus Kristoffer Pedersen; Ulf R{\o}rb{\ae}k Pedersen
    Abstract: We address dfferences between characteristic times in climate change and show the universal emergence of multiple time scales in material sciences, biomedicine and economics.
    Date: 2019–07
  27. By: Kanat Tireuov (Kazakh National Agrarian University); Salima Mizanbekova (Kazakh National Agrarian University); Bakhyt Kalykova (Kazakh National Agrarian University); Gulmira Nurmanbekova (Kazakh National Agrarian University)
    Abstract: The new situation of Kazakhstan's participation in the world grain market, which requires scientific generalization, is connected with the transformation of the country's trade turnover from interregional to interstate. In this connection, it is objectively necessary to scientifically and methodically substantiate the system of inter-branch cooperation between enterprises for the production and sale of grain and grain processing products in order to ensure stable provision of demand for them in the regions of the country with minimum costs and export it to foreign markets. The problem of increasing the efficiency of the use of grain requires a comprehensive reduction in its consumption across all consumption channels: on seeds, when processed into flour and cereals, for forage purposes. The paramount importance of effective inter-industry cooperation between grain sub-sector organizations is determined by the leading role of grain in the economy of the agro-industrial complex, food security, and the formation of state, interstate and interregional economic ties of the country. In the current situation, the stable functioning of the grain market should be carried out on the basis of a combination of market mechanisms with state regulation tools and targeted support of its subjects.
    Keywords: The Republic of Kazakhstan,tools,mechanism,methodology,food security,sustainable development,interindustry interaction,grain products' sub-complex,grain market,state regulation,economic relations,innovations,grain storage,methods
    Date: 2018–09–30

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