nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2019‒06‒17
48 papers chosen by

  1. Household vulnerability to food insecurity in the face of climate change in Paraguay By Ervin, Paul A.; Gayoso de Ervin, Lyliana
  2. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 38 - Meta-evidence review on the impacts of investments in agricultural and rural development on Sustainable Development Goals 1 and 2 By Jill Bernstein; Nancy Johnson; Aslihan Arslan
  3. How do extreme weather events affect livestock herders' welfare? Evidence from Kyrgyzstan By Conti, Valentina; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Ignaciuk, Ada
  4. The impact of alternative agri-environmental policy instruments on the economic and environmental performance of dairy farms on the island of Ireland By Adenuga, Adewale Henry; Davis, John; Hutchinson, George; Patton, Myles; Donnellan, Trevor
  5. The new delivery model of the Common Agricultural Policy after 2020 - challenges for Poland By Wąs, Adam; Malak-Rawlikowska, Agata; Majewski, Edward
  6. Measuring Irish Agricultural Eciency with undesirable outputs: A Malmquist-Luenberger Index Approach using farm-level data By Kaiser, Alexander; Schaffer, Axel; McCormack, Michele; Buckley, Cathal
  7. How Do Agro-Pastoral Policies Affect the Dietary Intake of Agro-Pastoralists in Niger? By Christophe Muller; Nouréini Sayouti
  8. Climate-change vulnerability in rural Zambia: the impact of an El Nino-induced shock on income and productivity By Alfani, Federica; Arslan, Aslihan; McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Sitko, Nicholas J.
  9. The Law of One Food Price By Kenneth Clements; Jiawei Si; Long H. Vo
  10. Impacts of modifying Malawi's farm input subsidy programme targeting By Asfaw, Solomon; Cattaneo, Andrea; Pallante, Giacomo; Palma, Alessandro
  11. Food security and armed conflict: a cross-country analysis By van Weezel, Stijn
  12. Tenure security, investment and the productivity of agricultural farms in the communal area of Kavango West region of Namibia: Any evidence of causality? By Uchezuba, D.; Amaambo, P.; Mbai, S.
  13. The relationships between food security and violent conflicts: The case of El Salvador By Segovia, Alexander
  14. Seedling choices of perennial crops: The role of subjective belief of yield and risk behaviours By Hasibuan, Abdul Muis; Gregg, Daniel; Stringer, Randy
  15. Who will buy fishy lettuce? Australia and Israel as case studies on the potential consumers of aquaponic produce By Greenfeld, Asael; Becker, Nir; Bornman, Janet F.; Jose dos Santos, Maria; Angel, Dror L.
  16. On the costs of being small: Case evidence from Kenyan family farms By Karfakis, Panagiotis; Ponzini, Giulia; Rapsomanikis, George
  17. U.S. Produce Growers’ Decision making Under Evolving Food Safety Standards By Astill, Gregory; Minor, Travis; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Calvin, Linda
  18. Immigrant Communities and Knowledge Spillovers: Danish-Americans and the Development of the Dairy Industry in the United States By Nina Boberg-Fazlić; Paul Sharp
  19. Grouping of the EU candidate countries and eastern partnership countries according to the degree of self-sufficiency in basic food products By Jankowska, Anna
  20. Household Preferences for Load Restrictions: Is There an Effect of Pro-Environmental Framing? By Broberg, Thomas; Melkamu Daniel , Aemiro; Persson, Lars
  21. Fractional dimensionality of Weather and a New Approach to Climate Risk Financing in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya By Turvey, Calum G.; Shee, Apurba; Marr, Ana
  22. Cropping system diversification in Eastern and Southern Africa: Identifying policy options to enhance productivity and build resilience By Maggio, Giuseppe; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Ignaciuk, Ada
  23. Climate resilience pathways of rural households: evidence from Ethiopia By Asfaw, Solomon; Maggio, Giuseppe; Palma, Alessandro
  24. A Meta Analysis of Farm Efficiency: Evidence from the Production Frontier Literature By Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Lachaud, Michee A.; Moreira, Victor H.
  25. The potential Impact of Changes to Voluntary Coupled Beef Support Payments on EU beef production: A Regional Analysis By Hayden, Anne; Adenaeuer, Lucie; Jansson, Torbjorn; Hoglind, Lisa; Breen, James
  26. Factors stimulating farmers in applying for the measure "setting up of young farmers" in the Wielkopolskie voivodeship" By Kiryluk-Dryjska, Ewa; Beba, Patrycja; Wojcieszak, Monika Małgorzata
  27. Measuring physical vulnerability to climate change: The PVCCI, an index to be used for international development policies By Sosso Feindouno; Patrick Guillaumont
  28. The Effects of Risk and Ambiguity Aversion on Technology Adoption: Evidence from Aquaculture in Ghana By Crentsil, Christian; Gschwandtner, Adelina; Wahhaj, Zaki
  29. Technological eco-innovations related to resopportunities and bariers By Dybikowska, Adrianna; Graczyk, Magdalena
  30. Efficiency of Polish agriculture between 1998 and 2015 By Józwiak, Wojciech
  31. Environmental technical efficiency and phosphorus pollution abatement cost in dairy farms : A parametric hyperbolic distance function approach By Adenuga, Adewale Henry; Davis, John; Hutchinson, George; Patton, Myles; Donnellan, Trevor
  32. Assessing the population-wide exposure to lead pollution in Kabwe, Zambia : blood lead level estimation based on survey data By Hiwatari, Masato; Yamada, Daichi; Hangoma, Peter; Narita, Daiju; Mphuka, Chrispin; Chitah, Bona; Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta MM; Nakata, Hokuto; Choongo, Kennedy; Ishizuka, Mayumi
  33. Rural women's empowerment in nutrition: a proposal for diagnostics linking food, health and institutions By Sudha Narayanan; Marzia Fontana; Erin Lentz; Bharati Kulkarni
  34. Sustainability strategies, investments in industry 4.0 and cicular economy results By Valentina De Marchi; Eleonora Di Maria
  35. Designing a prototype emissions trading system for Colombia By Suzi Kerr; Juan-Pablo Montero; Ruben Lubowski; Angela Cadena; Mario Londoño; Soffia Alarcon; Oscar Rodriguez
  36. Investigating policy options to reduce plastic waste in agriculture: A pilot study in the south of Italy By De Lucia, Caterina; Pazienza, Pasquale
  37. Material and import intensity in the agriculture of the European Union - input-output analysis By Baer-Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mrówczyńska-Kamińska, Aldona
  38. Institutions, economic freedom and structural transformation in 11 sub-Saharan African countries By Carraro, Alessandro; Karfakis, Panagiotis
  39. The relationships between food security and violent conflicts: The case of Colombia By Segovia, Alexander
  40. We conduct a meta-analysis using a comprehensive review of studies that examine the effects of water quality improvements on waterfront and non-waterfront housing values. Rather than conducting the meta-analysis using dollar values, this study estimates mean elasticity responses. We identify 36 studies that result in 656 unique observations. Mean property price elasticities with respect to numerous water quality measures are calculated (e.g., chlorophyll-a, fecal coliform, nitrogen, and phosphorous) for purposes of value transfer. In the context of water clarity, function transfers can be performed. We estimate numerous meta-regressions, and compare transfer performance across models using an out-of-sample transfer error exercise. The results suggest value transfers often perform just as well as more complicated function transfers. In our context, however, a simple function transfer that accounts for baseline water clarity performs best. We discuss the implications of these results for benefit transfer, and outline key limitations in the literature. By Dennis Guignet; Matthew T. Heberling; Michael Papenfus; Olivia Griot; Ben Holland
  41. Assessing the policy environment for cash crops in Malawi: what could hinder the achievement of the National Export Strategy objectives? By Gourichon, Hélène; Cameron, Alethia; Pernechele, Valentina
  42. Competitive position of the Polish farms aimed at pig farming By Mirkowska, Zofia; Ziętara, Wojciech
  43. Cyclical fluctuations in the production of Polish agriculture By Jędruchniewicz, Andrzej
  44. Differentiation of income distribution of farmers’ households in the Polish macro-regions By Jedrzejczak, Alina; Pekasiewicz, Dorota
  45. Contract Farming in Practice: An Overview By Rehber, Erkan
  46. The impact of markets and policy on incentives for rice production in Rwanda By Ghins, Léopold; Pauw, Karl
  47. Impact of Border Carbon Adjustments on Agricultural Emissions – Can Tariffs Reduce Carbon Leakage? By Nordin, Ida; Wilhelmsson, Fredrik; Jansson, Torbjörn; Fellmann, Thomas; Barreiro-Hurle, Jesús; Himics, Mihaly
  48. What characterizes farmers who purchase crop insurance in Poland? By Strupczewski, Grzegorz

  1. By: Ervin, Paul A.; Gayoso de Ervin, Lyliana
    Abstract: This working paper analyses the effect climate change is expected to have on agricultural productivity, caloric consumption, and vulnerability to food insecurity of household agricultural producers in Paraguay. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures and reduced precipitation will reduce agricultural productivity and caloric consumption, and increase vulnerability to food insecurity. Specifically, a 1 percent increase in average maximum temperatures is associated with a 5 percent reduction in agricultural productivity. A 5 percent reduction in agricultural productivity translates into nearly a 1 percent reduction in caloric consumption. Vulnerability to food insecurity in Paraguay is expected to increase by 28 percentage points by 2100 due to climate change, increasing fastest in areas where temperatures are increasing and rainfall is diminishing. We explore a number of interventions that policy makers can pursue to limit the impact of climate change on food insecurity.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–02–20
  2. By: Jill Bernstein; Nancy Johnson; Aslihan Arslan
    Abstract: The interconnected nature of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) forces the development community to look broadly at solutions and outcomes. By drawing on evidence from systematic and comprehensive reviews, this report provides an overview of the evidence on 10 different intervention types related to agriculture and rural development, and how these intervention types have impacted seven different outcomes associated with SDG 1 (“End poverty in all its forms everywhere”) and SDG 2 (“End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture”). The seven outcomes of interest are poverty, income, food security (measured by diet quantity), nutrition security (measured by diet quality and/or nutrition), child stunting, child wasting and agricultural productivity. There is a total of 79 systematic reviews included in this meta-review, including 18 reviews that look at poverty, 33 reviews that look at food security, 36 reviews on nutrition security, 24 reviews on stunting, 18 reviews on child wasting and/or overweight, 31 reviews on productivity and 48 reviews on income. For each intervention/outcome combination, a summary of the evidence is provided, including a designation of the direction of impact and the quality of evidence. We found that cash transfers and agriculture programmes are among the most widely covered intervention types by systematic reviews, but other intervention types showed promising results. The costs and benefits of interventions were rarely studied in a rigorous way, hence the systematic reviews included here repeatedly note the need for more research to support decision-making for policies and programmes aimed at achieving SDGs 1 and 2. Another common message across intervention types is the importance of context in terms of determining the effectiveness of interventions. Given the number and diversity of interventions, outcomes and indicators, the goal is not to synthesize all the findings to say “what we know” about “what has worked”. Rather, by pulling together evidence that is customarily examined by intervention type or by outcome, we hope to encourage reflection on what it means to use evidence to inform agricultural and rural development programming to SDGs 1 and 2 and to identify implications for future impact evaluations and systematic reviews that are conducted with this goal in mind.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Conti, Valentina; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Ignaciuk, Ada
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the harsh 2012 winter on livestock herding households in Kyrgyzstan and identifies policy options to increase household resilience to such shocks. While existing studies mostly focus on rainfall shocks in tropical or dry climate areas, this analysis examines the exceptionally harsh winter that hit Kyrgyzstan in 2012, which resulted in the death of 25 000 animals. Using a unique household panel survey, merged with observed temperature data, the analysis finds that, on average, the negative effects of the winter shock on household welfare are significant and persistent over time, leading to a 5 percent and a 8 percent decrease in households' food consumption expenditure in the short- (2011'2013) and medium-run (2011'2016), respectively. When disaggregating by income quantiles, the evidence shows that negative impact is concentrated in the upper quantiles of the welfare distribution. Several policy options are identified as effective in mitigating the negative welfare impacts of the weather shock. First, supporting households to restock their herds following weather shocks is found to significantly improve medium-term welfare by 10 percent relative to those that did not restock. Restocking efforts can be addressed in a holistic manner that takes into account immediate household needs, while simultaneously building long-term resilience in the livestock sector. This may include mitigating animal losses through the development of local forage markets that increase the availability of winter forage, combined with efforts to improve the genetic pool of livestock species through breeding programmes that select for resiliency traits. Second, results show that households living in regions with higher access to public veterinary services had significantly better welfare outcomes following the winter shock. Improvements of veterinary services and strengthening community-based organizations focusing on livestock and pasture development may help herding households to cope with weather shocks.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–11–29
  4. By: Adenuga, Adewale Henry; Davis, John; Hutchinson, George; Patton, Myles; Donnellan, Trevor
    Abstract: Nitrogen (N) surplus is an important environmental issue on the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland), with dairy farms contributing more compared to other agricultural sectors. As a result, there has been increased demand for efficient policy measures to improve the economic and environmental performance of dairy farms in both countries. In this study, we employed the positive mathematical programming (PMP) optimization modelling framework to simulate the economic and environmental impact of two alternative agri-environmental policy instruments on different dairy farm types. Specifically, the study considers the effects of N surplus tax and agri-environmental nutrient application standard in which farms are not allowed to apply more than 170Kg of livestock N manure per hectare on dairy farms. The results of the analyses showed that the effects agri-environmental policy instruments vary across the two countries and clusters of dairy farms, resulting in clear differential effects on farm structure and N surpluses. The study concluded that in situations where the nutrient surplus is already high, as with the large farms clusters in this study, the use of manure application standards will be more effective in limiting nutrient surplus to soils compared to the use of nutrient surplus tax.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–04–15
  5. By: Wąs, Adam; Malak-Rawlikowska, Agata; Majewski, Edward
    Abstract: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union is the subject of the consecutive reform. The proposal of the CAP after 2020 has been presented in the European Commission’s proposal on 1 June 2018, which defines the proposed forms and scope of the EU agriculture support after 2020. The innovative solutions suggested by the European Commission impose many new obligations on Member States. However, they are associated with significant challenges resulting both from the need to define national strategies as well as obligations to implement policy instruments and measure policy implementation effects. The main objective of this study is to discuss the key implications for Poland resulting from the new delivery model of CAP after 2020 proposed by the EU Commission and to identify the most important “challenges” for policy makers and the entire agricultural sector. In the new perspective of the CAP, no radical changes in the very essence of the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU are foreseen. The basic objectives of the CAP still include supporting agricultural incomes, improving the competitiveness of the EU agriculture or supporting rural development. The main distinguishing feature of the new CAP model, as compared to the existing one, is the fact that individual Member States have a large degree of freedom inshaping national policy in relation to agriculture and rural areas, but they have the obligation to determine measurable effects and selection of instruments, while maintaining the Community nature of the CAP. For Poland, as well as for all Member States, the key challenge is the objective identification of needs of the agriculture and rural areas, and then to select indicators and instruments to effectively achieve the objectives of the CAP. One of the main challenges for Poland is also to include in the strategic plans objectives related to environmental and climate policy, and improvement of the position of farmers in the food supply chain. Another issue that raises the discussion is the policy of supporting agriculture in the form of direct payments and the issue of inequalities in their distribution.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Kaiser, Alexander; Schaffer, Axel; McCormack, Michele; Buckley, Cathal
    Abstract: Increasing agricultural production efficiency is a common economic strategy for dealing with the conflict of growing demands and environmental pressures. The application of Nitrogen is exemplary for this conflict, boosting yields on the one hand, while having negative impacts on soil and surrounding ecosystems, such as eutrophication. An all-things-considered analysis of progress in productivity must therefore account for environmental pressures as well. In this paper we apply the Malmquist-Luenberger index, a non-parametric measure of productivity, which allows for the inclusion of undesirable outputs into efficiency measurement. We then compare it to the standard Malmquist Productivity Index to assess if increasing eco-efficiency is a suitable strategy towards sustainable agriculture. The empirical analysis, based on NFS Irish farm level data from 2006 to 2016, shows an increasing trend both in efficiency and in eco-efficiency, with differences in technological change and among farm types indicating a future potential for dairy farms to increase eco-efficiency.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development
    Date: 2019–04–15
  7. By: Christophe Muller (Aix-Marseille Univ. CNRS, EHESS, Centale Marseille, IRD, AMSE, Marseille, France); Nouréini Sayouti (Projet d’Appui au Secteur de l’Elevage, Niamey, Niger & CERDI, University of Auvergne)
    Abstract: We investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the effect of agricultural policies directed toward pastoralist households in Niger on their dietary intake. To do so, we conduct a causal mediation analysis while referring to theoretical agricultural household models. The presumed mediator of interest is the annual profit from pastoral activities. We decompose the total effect of selected policies on pastoralist dietary intake into an indirect effect, i.e., the effect that operates through profits, and a residual direct effect. Using an agro-pastoral survey conducted in Niger in 2016, the effects of extension services associated with better access to markets are found to be channeled through households’ annual profits from cattle and sheep raising, while this is not the case for private veterinary services and low-cost livestock feed programs. Extension services may foster specialization in cattle and sheep raising, which may incentivize households to move toward a nomadic lifestyle and change their food habits and thereby have detrimental consequences on their calorie intake. Besides, other life choices could be spurred or hampered by policies, such as migrations and radicalization.
    Keywords: agro-pastoral policies, mediation analysis, agricultural household models, Niger
    JEL: Q18 Q12
    Date: 2019–06
  8. By: Alfani, Federica; Arslan, Aslihan; McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Sitko, Nicholas J.
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of the El Nino during the 2015/2016 season on maize productivity and income in rural Zambia. The analysis aims at identifying whether and how sustainable land management (SLM) practices and livelihood diversification strategies have contributed to moderate the impacts of such a weather shock. The analysis was conducted using a specifically designed survey called the El Nino Impact Assessment Survey (ENIAS), which is combined with the 2015 wave of the Rural Agricultural Livelihoods Surveys (RALS), as well as high resolution rainfall data from the Africa Rainfall Climatology version 2 (ARC2). This unique, integrated data set provides an opportunity to understand the impacts of shocks like El Nino that are expected to get more frequent and severe in Zambia, as well as understand the agricultural practices and livelihood strategies that can buffer household production and welfare from the impacts of such shocks to drive policy recommendations. Results show that households affected by the drought experienced a decrease in maize yield by around 20 percent, as well as a reduction in income up to 37 percent, all else equal. Practices that moderated the impact of the drought included livestock diversification, income diversification, and the adoption of agro-forestry. Interestingly, the use of minimum soil disturbance was not effective in moderating the yield and income effects of the drought. Policies to support livestock sector development, agroforestry adoption, and off -farm diversification should be prioritized as effective drought resiliency strategies in Zambia.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–02–16
  9. By: Kenneth Clements (Economics Discipline, Business School, The University of Western Australia); Jiawei Si (Economics Discipline, Business School, The University of Western Australia); Long H. Vo (Economics Discipline, Business School, The University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Are food prices more or less equalised across countries? In view of obvious barriers to trade (both naturally occurring and of a man-made nature) and currency gyrations, the answer would seem to be an unambiguous “No”, but we show this question is worthy of further investigation. In order for the law of one price (LOP) to hold, domestic prices must respond one-for-one to changes in world prices and exchange rates, but this is usually prevented by variations in mark-ups and/or trade barriers. We use data on consumer prices from the International Comparison Program and producer prices from the Food and Agriculture Organization to test for the LOP for food. While not completely conclusive, these tests show the various market wedges appear to be insufficiently important to prevent food prices to equalise over the longer term.
    Keywords: Food and agricultural prices, law of one price, exchange rates, market integration, panel unit root tests
    JEL: F30 F31 Q17
    Date: 2019
  10. By: Asfaw, Solomon; Cattaneo, Andrea; Pallante, Giacomo; Palma, Alessandro
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the impact of this proposed change to the existing FISP design and implementation mechanisms by utilizing two waves of the Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA)survey merged with historical climate data. We estimate how the demand for agricultural inputs varies according to a variation in the targeting criteria and identify more efficient farmers that should be eligible for the FISP.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2017–09–05
  11. By: van Weezel, Stijn
    Abstract: Significant progress has been made in improving global food security, yet some countries still face severe challenges. In some cases, violent armed conflict has potentially contributed t local food insecurity due to disruption of food production and agricultural markets. Despite the relevance of this topic in context of tracking global food security, there is a paucity of empirical work examining this cross-country variation. Therefore, this study uses country level data, covering 106 countries in Africa, Asia, Central and South America between 1961-2011, to estimate the relation between conflict and food security. To proxy food security the dietary energy supply (DES) is used. Results show that conflict is associated with lower food security levels. Specifically conflicts about government power or with large fatality numbers are correlated with a large estimated reduction in the national DES. The results highlight the negative correlation between conflict and food security, illustrating how certain types of conflict could potentially undo years of progress.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2018–08–03
  12. By: Uchezuba, D.; Amaambo, P.; Mbai, S.
    Abstract: The study aims to determine causality amid the decision to apply for leasehold land right, increased farm investment, and total farm productivity on livestock farms in the Kavango West region of Namibia. Various econometric models have been used to model these relationships in the literature. However, there is a growing concern that methods which do not explicitly account for the endogeneity of regressors and which are used to investigate the relationship between property rights and the economic activities on agricultural farms often produce bias estimates that are inefficient and inconsistent. This study applied an instrumental variable (IV) regression using a survey data of 510 farmers to correct for endogeneity. A test of endogeneity of tenure security, investment, and farm productivity in the various models shows that tenure security is exogenous to farm investment decision and farm productivity. On the other hand, farm investment decision was found to be exogenous to farm productivity, which implies that farmers make investment decisions given a secure tenure right that enhances their productivity on the farm. Overall, there was no evidence to support reverse causality in any of the tests. These findings highlight the importance of secure property rights as being a stimulus for increased agricultural investment and productivity.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2019–04–15
  13. By: Segovia, Alexander
    Abstract: El Salvador is a peculiar case in that over three decades it has faced two different types of violence consecutively (the civil war and widespread post-war violence), which have had different impacts on food security. The experience of El Salvador shows that no matter how successful peace processes may be at putting an end to armed confrontation and ensuring a degree of political and social stability, they are not sufficient to prevent new conflicts and new forms of violence if those processes are not linked with and complemented by medium- and long-term public policies aimed at altering structural factors that generate violence and social conflict, including the persistence of food insecurity. It also shows that adverse natural phenomena and external economic shocks play a fundamental role in the relationships between food security and violent conflicts due to their persistent negative impact on agricultural production and urban and rural household income. This paper was elaborated to provide background material for the report The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017. Building resilience for peace and food security (available at
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2017–12–14
  14. By: Hasibuan, Abdul Muis; Gregg, Daniel; Stringer, Randy
    Abstract: Seedling variety choice is one of the most important steps for perennial crop farmers as it is a key component of farm profitability over the long-term. Certified seedling varieties have become more common in recent years in developing country areas as a response to concerns about low-quality seedling and an increasing amount of climate variability for which new certified varieties may provide increased resilience. However, the adoption rate of certified seedling varieties in developing countries is generally low. Given the long-lived nature of such investments and the high level of uncertainty regarding both the climate to which they will be exposed as mature trees and the quality of the seedling there are clear linkages to farmers’ subjective belief regarding yields differential between certified and uncertified seedling, their time and risk preferences. We consider these aspects using a recently developed survey-based toll for measuring risk and time preferences and link those to stated preferences and observations on the adoption of certified seedlings. Results show that there are differences in subjective belief of yield which strongly associated with the non-adopter farmers’ intention to adopt. Time preferences play a role in adopter farmers’ intention, but risk preferences do not significantly related to adoption behaviours.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–04–15
  15. By: Greenfeld, Asael; Becker, Nir; Bornman, Janet F.; Jose dos Santos, Maria; Angel, Dror L.
    Abstract: Aquaponics, the combined rearing of fish and hydroponic horticulture, has great potential for sustainable food production. Despite increasing research and investments in commercial scale systems, aquaponics is not yet a successful industry and most businesses report negative returns. Aquaponic produce is thought to contain added value to the consumer, and the environment. As most consumers are unaware of aquaponics and their benefits, little is known of its potential market. The present study addressed this gap by analysing willingness to consume aquaponic produce at different price levels in Israel and Australia. We used econometric tools to study the effects of pricing and other factors on revenues in each country. Cluster analysis was used to define groups of potential consumers. The results indicate that 17-30% of the population would prefer to consume aquaponic produce once informed of their added value. Revenues at given premiums would be higher in Israel than in Australia, and higher for a leafy green, than for fish. Different segments of the population differed in their willingness to consume aquaponic produce, as well as in their stated motivations when purchasing food. Conclusions highlight the importance of case-specific research on consumer preferences and economic considerations preceding commercial investment in aquaponics.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing
    Date: 2019–04–15
  16. By: Karfakis, Panagiotis; Ponzini, Giulia; Rapsomanikis, George
    Abstract: We analyse allocative efficiency of major input factors for farmers in Kenya.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2017–07–19
  17. By: Astill, Gregory; Minor, Travis; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Calvin, Linda
    Abstract: U.S. produce growers have faced increased demand for implementing additional food safety practices, prompted by a series of high-profile foodborne illness outbreaks. This report summarizes a series of open-ended discussions with produce growers and reveals the nuanced reasoning behind growers’ actions in response to evolving food safety standards in a complex market. Growers of five commodities in six regions reveal the long history of food safety standards in the industry, including voluntarily implemented standards developed by themselves, commodity organizations, and government agencies as well as those required by some commercial buyers and some States. Growers most confident in their ability to adapt to new food safety regulations—like the “Produce Rule” in the Federal 2011 Food Safety Modernization Act—had two key characteristics in common: a background and culture of food safety at their company and a well-developed food safety information network. Growers agreed that the adoption of food safety standards have been driven largely by commercial buyer requirements. Highly competitive markets force growers to weigh the hard-to-quantify benefits of risk-reducing practices against their significant costs.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Production Economics
    Date: 2019–06–06
  18. By: Nina Boberg-Fazlić (University of Southern Denmark); Paul Sharp (University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: Despite the growing literature on the impact of immigration, little is known about the role existing migrant settlements can play for knowledge transmission. We present a case which can illustrate this important mechanism and hypothesize that nineteenth century Danish-American communities helped spread knowledge on modern dairying to rural America. From around 1880, Denmark developed rapidly and by 1890 it was a world-leading dairy producer. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, and data taken from the US census and Danish emigration archives, we find that counties with more Danes in 1880 subsequently both specialized in dairying and used more modern practices.
    Keywords: Dairying, immigration, knowledge spillovers, technology
    JEL: F22 J61 N11 N31 N51 O33 Q16
    Date: 2019–06
  19. By: Jankowska, Anna
    Abstract: The article compares the European Union (EU) candidate countries (CC) and the Eastern Partnership countries (EPC) in terms of their self-sufficiency in basic food products by analysing the average consumption of these products between 1992 and 2013. The countries were grouped according to their self-sufficiency ratios by Ward’s method of cluster analysis. Studies have shown that in the first group of countries in 1992-1999 and 2000-2013 there were primarily Albania, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia and Macedonia, and they had the lowest self-sufficiency ratios for most products compared to the second and the third group of countries. In both periods, in the second group there were Azerbaijan and Turkey, which have the highest self-sufficiency ratio for fruit, and in the third group there were mainly Belarus, Moldova, Serbia and Ukraine. These countries were characterised by surplus in the production of most foods. Research showed that in the second period under consideration, Montenegro moved to a group of countries with a lower level of self-sufficiency. Studies proved that during the period under investigation the increase in the self-sufficiency of these countries resulted from greater production, lesser loss during production and lower consumption of the products under analysis.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2018
  20. By: Broberg, Thomas (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics); Melkamu Daniel , Aemiro (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics); Persson, Lars (CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate if a pro-environmental framing influences households' stated willingness to accept restrictions on their electricity use. We use a split-sample choice experiment (CE) and ask respondents to choose between their current electricity contract and hypothetical contracts featuring various load controls and a monetary compensation. Our results indicate that the pro-environmental framing have little impact on the respondents' choices. We observe a significant framing effect on choices and marginal willingness-to-accept (MWTA) for only a few contract attributes. The results further suggest that there is no significant framing effect among households that engage in different pro-environmental activities.
    Keywords: Choice experiment; Demand response; Electricity contract; Load management; Pro-environmental framing; Willingness to accept
    JEL: C25 D83 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2019–06–12
  21. By: Turvey, Calum G.; Shee, Apurba; Marr, Ana
    Abstract: Climate risk financing programs in agriculture have caught the attention of researchers and policy makers over the last decade. Weather index insurance has emerged as a promising market-based risk financing mechanism. However, to develop a suitable weather index insurance mechanism it is essential to incorporate the distribution of underlying weather and climate risks to a specific event model that can minimize intra-seasonal basis risk. In this paper we investigate the erratic nature of rainfall patterns in Kenya using CHIRPS rainfall data from 1983-2017. We find that the patterns of rainfall are fractional, both erratic and persistent which is consistent with the Noah and Joseph effects well known in mathematics. The erratic nature of rainfall emerges from the breakdown of the convergence to a normal distribution. Instead we find that the distribution about the average is approximately lognormal, with an almost 50% higher chance of deficit rainfall below the mean versus adequate rainfall above the mean. We find that the rainfall patterns obey Hurst law and the measured Hurst coefficients for seasonal rainfall pattern across all years range from a low of 0.137 to a high above 0.685. To incorporate the erratic and persistent nature of seasonal rainfall, we develop a new approach to weather index insurance based upon the accumulated rainfall in any 21-day period falling below 60% of the long-term average for that same 21-day period. We argue that this approach is more satisfactory to matching drought conditions within and between various phenological stages of growth.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–04–15
  22. By: Maggio, Giuseppe; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Ignaciuk, Ada
    Abstract: Crop diversification is an important policy objective to promote climate change adaptation, yet the drivers and impacts of crop diversification vary considerably depending on the specific combinations of crops a farmer grows. This paper examines adoption determinants of seven different cropping systems in Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique, and the impact of their adoption on maize productivity and income volatility ' using a multinomial endogenous treatment effect model. These cropping systems consist in different combinations of four categories of crops: dominate staple (maize), alternative staples, legumes, and cash-crops. The study finds that relative to maize mono-cropping systems, the vast majority of systems have either neutral or positive effects on maize productivity, and either reduce or have neutral effects on crop income volatility. In particular, cropping systems that include legumes produce better outcome in most cases than those that feature cash crops...
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2018–09–28
  23. By: Asfaw, Solomon; Maggio, Giuseppe; Palma, Alessandro
    Abstract: Climate variability and extreme events continue to impose significant challenges to households, particularly to those that are less resilient. By exploring the resilience capacity of rural Ethiopian households after the drought shock occurred in 2011, using panel data, this paper shows important socio-economic and policy determinants of households' resilience capacity. Three policy indications emerge from the analysis. First, government support programmes, such as the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP), appear to sustain households' resilience by helping them to reach the level of pre-shock total consumption, but have no impact on the food-consumption resilience. Secondly, the 'selling out assets strategy' affects positively households' resilience, but only in terms of food consumption ' not total consumption. Finally, the presence of informal institutions, such as social networks providing financial support, sharply increases households' resilience by helping them to reach preshock levels of both food consumption and total consumption.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–11–28
  24. By: Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Lachaud, Michee A.; Moreira, Victor H.
    Abstract: This study updates previous meta-analysis of farm-level frontier function studies in order to provide a detailed systematic and comprehensive analysis of the effects that different studyspecific attributes have on mean technical efficiency (MTE) scores. Before presenting the technical efficiency (TE) analysis, we provide an overview of the evolution of key methodological approaches that have been developed and applied to measure and examine TE. A detailed descriptive analysis is then performed for a meta-dataset that includes 408 farm level TE studies, published between 1981 and mid-2014. Some studies report several MTEs, resulting in 900 observations or cases. A key result from the descriptive analysis is that the Average of the Mean Technical Efficiencies (AMTE) reported for all studies is 74.2%. The AMTE across methodological attributes tend to be quite similar but several significant differences are observed when comparisons are made across geographical regions, income levels, and types of product. The paper goes on to report the results of meta-regressions estimated using the fractional regression procedure, which is well suited for dependent variables that are defined on the unit interval or as a fraction (between 0 and 1), as is the case with TE. In the concluding section, we provide some thoughts concerning recent work that uses stochastic production frontier methodologies to evaluate the impact of developments projects while addressing biases from observable and unobservable variables.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2017–07–07
  25. By: Hayden, Anne; Adenaeuer, Lucie; Jansson, Torbjorn; Hoglind, Lisa; Breen, James
    Abstract: The Luxembourg agreement of 2005 marked a new direction for EU agriculture with the decoupling of direct support payments for production. Under the CAP reform of 2013, Member States had the option to retain an element of coupled support for agriculture. Building on a previous study from Jansson et al. (2018), this study analyses the regional effects for beef production resulting from a redistribution of voluntary coupled supports (VCS) through area payments in the national budgets. The redistribution of VCS payments is projected to result in a modest reduction in the income from beef production, the EU beef herd size as well as the total Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions form EU beef production. However, these impacts vary across EU regions with some regions marginally increasing their beef production levels while other regions are projected to significantly reduce their beef meat activities. Especially Member States which had retained some form of VCS, a reduction in beef herd size and income is likely while those countries that had opted to fully decouple payments in 2005 are projected to show a slight increase in herd size and income. Generally, this leads to a decrease of the total GHG emissions, yet, an increase in GHG emission per livestock unit is seen due to a change in herd composition, production or feed intensity. From the results, it can be inferred that VCS payments for the beef sector have the potential to encourage beef production in regions where it may be less profitable to do so (negative income before the redistribution of VCS in the national budgets). Therefore, the decoupling of the remaining coupled supports within the CAP would likely lead to a minor restructuring of beef production within the EU.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–04–15
  26. By: Kiryluk-Dryjska, Ewa; Beba, Patrycja; Wojcieszak, Monika Małgorzata
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine synthetic indicators of development of agriculture and rural areas diversifying farmers’ activity in applying for support under the measure “Setting up of young farmers” under the RDP 2007-2013 in gminas of Wielkopolskie Voivodeship. The research covered 207 rural and urban-rural gminas. The synthetic indicators characterising agriculture and rural areas were identified for each gmina. The presented research results show that the frequency of application for the EU funds under the analysed measure has higher values on areas dominated by intensive farming and favourable demographic structure. It is lower, though, for gminas with well-developed entrepreneurship and organic farming.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Farm Management
    Date: 2018
  27. By: Sosso Feindouno (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Patrick Guillaumont (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International)
    Abstract: Many donors, international agencies and national policy makers, have called for the development of vulnerability to climate change indices which would make it possible to prioritize the recipients of financial support for adaptation to climate change. Indeed, despite the complexity of the phenomenon, there has been a proliferation of indices of vulnerability to climate change. However, these indices do not break down what is due to exogenous factors and what is due to the factors linked to policy (which mainly have an impact on resilience). What is needed for international policy design is a measure of vulnerability independent of domestic policy.
    Date: 2019–03–30
  28. By: Crentsil, Christian; Gschwandtner, Adelina; Wahhaj, Zaki
    Abstract: We study how aversion to risk and ambiguity aects the adoption of new tech- nologies by Ghanaian smallholder aquafarmers. We conduct a set of eld experiments designed to elicit farmers' risk and ambiguity preferences and combine it with survey- based information on their technology adoption decisions. We nd that aquafarmers who are more risk-averse were quicker to adopt the new technologies: a fast-growing breed of tilapia sh, extruded feed and oating cages. By contrast, ambiguity aversion has no eect on the adoption of the new tilapia breed and extruded feed. Furthermore, it slows down the adoption of oating cages - a technology which entails higher xed costs than the others - and the eect is diminishing in the number of other adopters in the village. We argue that these dierential eects are due to the fact that the technolo- gies are risk-reducing, with potential ambiguity about their payo distributions at the early stages of adoption. The ndings highlight the importance of distinguishing be- tween risk and ambiguity in investigating technology adoption decisions of small-holder farmers in developing countries.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2018–11–27
  29. By: Dybikowska, Adrianna; Graczyk, Magdalena
    Abstract: Functioning of modern agriculture and farms is dominated by increasing demand for energy. Meeting this demand is, however, a strategic problem which affects energy, food and environmental safety as well as operating costs of commercial farms and rural households. This paper discusses the problems of implementation of eco-innovation on the example of renewable energy sources in the Polish farm sector. The paper analyses energy intensity and structure of energy consumption in the Polish agricultural sector. It discusses the structure of energy consumption, taking into account rural areas, in Poland and Europe as well as analyzes energy costs in various types of agricultural production. Moreover, the paper assesses the potential of renewable energy sources in the Polish agriculture and presents barriers connected to their use.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Farm Management, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019
  30. By: Józwiak, Wojciech
    Abstract: In several years leading up to and in the year of the accession, Polish agriculture has seen a rapid growth in the agricultural production efficiency, followed by its slow decline. The article identifies the reasons for this phenomenon. In the first of these subperiods, there was considerable economic freedom and an increase in support for farms, granted mainly by the domestic funds. In the years after 2004, the situation changed. The amounts of aid funds increased, so did the environmental and consumer health and animal welfare requirements to be met by farmers being beneficiaries of subsidies. In addition, larger farms also reduced their economic activity due to the degression in subsidy rates. It is also probable that some agricultural producers have been mainly focused on using subsidies and this phenomenon was accompanied by a decrease in interest in improving the agricultural production efficiency. Some arguments contained in the article were based on estimates. They are rationally substantiated, but according to the author, the article should be considered as preliminary analysis of the topic.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, International Development, Production Economics
    Date: 2018
  31. By: Adenuga, Adewale Henry; Davis, John; Hutchinson, George; Patton, Myles; Donnellan, Trevor
    Abstract: The dairy sector is an important sector in Northern Ireland being the single largest contributor to its agricultural economy. However, the sector contributes more to soil phosphorus (P) surplus compared to other agricultural sectors. Consequently, the goal of this research is to analyse the environmental technical efficiency of dairy farms making use of a novel parametric hyperbolic distance function approach. The model is able to internalise P surplus as undesirable output in the dairy production process by treating desirable and undesirable outputs asymmetrically, thereby allowing for the maximum expansion of the desirable output and an equi-proportionate contraction of the undesirable output. The stochastic production frontier model is analysed simultaneously with an inefficiency model to explain variability in efficiency scores assuming the existence of heteroskedasticity in the idiosyncratic error term. Additionally, we estimated the shadow price and pollution cost ratio of P surplus in dairy farms. Our results showed that the average environmental technical efficiency estimates for dairy farms in Northern Ireland is 0.93. Intensification resulting in increased use of concentrates feed was found to be negatively related to environmental technical efficiency. We also found that age of the farmer and share of milk output have a positive relationship with environmental technical efficiency.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–04–15
  32. By: Hiwatari, Masato; Yamada, Daichi; Hangoma, Peter; Narita, Daiju; Mphuka, Chrispin; Chitah, Bona; Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta MM; Nakata, Hokuto; Choongo, Kennedy; Ishizuka, Mayumi
    Abstract: In this study, we aim to quantitatively assess the population-wide exposure to lead pollution in Kabwe, Zambia. While Kabwe is known as one of the most significant cases of environmental pollution in the world, the available information does not provide a representative figure on residents’ lead poisoning conditions. To obtain a representative figure, we estimate blood lead level (BLL) of the representative sample of Kabwe by combining two datasets: BLL data collected based on residents’ voluntary participation to blood sampling and socioeconomic data collected for approximately 900, randomly chosen households that represent Kabwe population. The results show that the representative mean BLL is slightly lower than the one observed in previous studies but a few times higher than the recent standard BLL of 5μg/dL above which health risks become significant.
    Date: 2019–05
  33. By: Sudha Narayanan (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Marzia Fontana; Erin Lentz (Lyndon B Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas); Bharati Kulkarni (National Institute of Nutrition)
    Abstract: This paper explores the concept of women's nutritional empowerment and develops a framework for operationalizing it. The paper specifically focuses on the nutritional outcomes of women themselves, rather than on their children. The emphasis on nutritional empowerment addresses an important gap in both literature and policy practice relating to gender equality, agriculture and food security. Interventions to enhance agricultural productivity and food production do not always translate into improved nutritional outcomes. Further, agricultural interventions claiming to promote the economic empowerment of women but focusing exclusively on income-generating opportunities may inadvertently increase their work burden (both paid and unpaid) and undermine their health and nutrition. The proposed framework includes the domains of food, health, and institutions and articulates their multiple linkages. Both paid and unpaid work are important mediating factors in these interactions. We aim to identify specific individual constraints as well as broader structural factors that may prevent rural women from achieving adequate nutritional outcomes and to develop tools to assess the relative weight of these factors in different contexts. The analysis draws on quantitative and qualitative data from Bangladesh and India but, with further validation, could have wider applicability. We hope this exercise could provide the basis for a first-cut of a gender and nutrition diagnostic tool to support efforts to promote well-targeted policies for nutritional security, specifically of rural women.
    Keywords: Nutritional empowerment, women, rural, agency, resource, achievements
    JEL: J16 D13 I00 I3
    Date: 2019–02
  34. By: Valentina De Marchi (Department of Economics and Management ‘Marco Fanno’, University of Padova); Eleonora Di Maria (Department of Economics and Management ‘Marco Fanno’, University of Padova)
    Abstract: Environmental sustainability has increased its relevance within business strategies and innovation in particular while circular economy (CE) is receiving growing attention as a new paradigm of production and value creation. Low attention has been given to explore the relationship between digital transformation of business processes via industry 4.0 technologies and CE strategies. On the one hand, digital manufacturing supports efficient use and control of resources. On the other hand, such technologies improve product life cycle management (through IoT or big data) and new business models (product-as-a-service). The paper explores the relationship between environmental sustainability strategies, technological investments in industry 4.0 and green outcomes, based on unique data gathered through an original 2017 survey on a sample of more than 1,100 Italian firms. Results show the positive relationship between green drivers and green outcomes for firms adopting industry 4.0 technologies, both in terms of eco-efficiency and circularity. Investing in digital manufacturing, smart products, and higher variety of 4.0s technologies characterize adopters with green outcomes. Having a clear green strategy, ICT propensity, domestic production, and low customer dependency are factors positively related with green outcomes for adopters.
    Keywords: digital manufacturing, industry 4.0, circular economy, sustainability, eco-efficiency
    Date: 2019–05
  35. By: Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Juan-Pablo Montero (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Ruben Lubowski (Environmental Defense Fund); Angela Cadena (Universidad de los Andes); Mario Londoño (Universidad de los Andes); Soffia Alarcon (Carbon Trust); Oscar Rodriguez (Econometría)
    Abstract: The primary objective of a Colombian ETS would be to support the country to achieve its climate targets as defined in its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC): a 20 - 30% reduction in GHG emissions compared to the business as usual scenario by 2030. An ETS, like a carbon tax (which could be used at the same time), can also raise revenue. Neither of these pricing policies constitutes a complete climate mitigation policy. On 27 July 2018, Colombia adopted a climate law, which outlines provisions for the establishment of a National Program of Greenhouse Gas Tradable Emission Quotas. This makes Colombia the second country in Latin America (joining Mexico) to enact legislation for what is likely to become a national Emissions Trading System (ETS). Colombia also already has a carbon tax that covers many fossil fuels and an offset system that can be used instead of paying this tax. This paper presents a working model for what an ETS could look like in Colombia and was part of a larger project, funded by the World Bank´s Partnership for Market Readiness with support from the Colombian government. While the working model in this paper was designed specifically for Colombia, taking into account its GHG emissions profile and a variety of contextual parameters, many of its design lessons extend to other countries and/or regions. We designed this model with the aim of including all sectors and covering nearly all the country´s emissions.
    Keywords: Emissions trading, climate change, Colombia, global warming, agriculture, forestry, energy
    JEL: Q15 Q28 Q54 Q58 O13
    Date: 2019–06
  36. By: De Lucia, Caterina; Pazienza, Pasquale
    Abstract: The 2018 European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy identifies a set of actions to reduce plastic waste in the EU in the near future. To implement this strategic view appropriate policy tools need to be identified within Member Countries. The present work attempts to understand farmers’ attitudes to traditional policy tools (i.e. subsidies and tax-credits) as well as new initiatives such as pay-back mechanisms under an Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) scheme to abate plastic waste in the agricultural sector. To achieve the above aim we consider a pilot case for the province of Foggia an area which is recognised as the largest plain of southern Italy. We consider a survey returned from 1,783 farmers and a multinomial regression model to infer on the probability to adopt the above policy tools. Key results suggest that the above policy options would be affected by the type of plastic waste generated. In particular, plastic packaging and plastic films would affect the probability to opt for a subsidy. In contrast, other types of plastic waste (e.g. anti-bird, wind-breaking, etc.) and plastic waste from exhausted oil and filters bins would favour the adoption of a tax-credit mechanism; and horticultural productions and the proximity to a collection point for waste disposal would increase the probability for farmers to see more favourable an EPR policy to contribute to plastic waste reduction.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–04–15
  37. By: Baer-Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mrówczyńska-Kamińska, Aldona
    Abstract: The main aim of the paper was to assess the measures of direct material and import intensity in the agriculture of the European Union countries. The analysis took place against the backdrop of the importance of agricultural sector in the national economies of the analyzed countries and the level of their development. The research materials covered the input-output tables for respective European Union countries for 1995, 2005, 2014. The analyses demonstrated that there was an increase in material intensity in all EU-15 countries and in Latvia, Lithuania and the Czech Republic. The remaining EU-13 countries noted a relative stability of the measure or its drop (Slovakia and Bulgaria). At the same time, changes in the structure of material supply were found in the new Member States, mainly due to the increase the role of agriculture-related services and the declining role of agriculture. The groups of these countries also differ in terms of import intensity measures of indirect consumption of agriculture. The conducted analysis allowed to check if well-known tendencies in agricultural economics are still valid, as well as to indicate new processes taking place in agriculture of the most developed EU countries.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, International Development
    Date: 2019
  38. By: Carraro, Alessandro; Karfakis, Panagiotis
    Abstract: Good institutions are a fundamental pre-requisite to successfully achieve structural transformation in growing developing countries (UNECA, 2016). Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a rapid growth but a weak and slow structural transformation process, which is mainly characterized by the reallocation of labour from agriculture to low skilled services. The focus of this paper is to explore how political and economic institutions affect structural transformation in a panel of 11 sub-Saharan African countries. Our empirical analysis reveals a positive and statistically significant effect of quality of institutions and economic freedom measures on structural transformation between sectors, which translates into movement out of agriculture. Better institutions appear to not improve productivity within sectors, however results highlight the important role played by institutions in facilitating reallocation or resources across sectors. Our findings suggest that improving the legal system, providing a stable macroeconomic environment, and improving freedom to exchange across borders will facilitate structural transformation processes in sub-Saharan African countries. We finally recommend that measures undertaken by governments should be included in a set of targeted policies designed according to countries' characteristics.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–01–24
  39. By: Segovia, Alexander
    Abstract: The relationships between food security and violent conflicts are conditioned, mediated and influenced by the specific context in which they take place. In the case of Colombia, the main mechanism whereby the armed conflict has had a negative effect on food security is the mass forced displacement generated by the dispute over and control of rural territories by the armed actors. This analysis shows that the effects of conflict on food security extend beyond the short term. Therefore, we stress the need to supplement immediate action with comprehensive policies aimed at bringing about structural changes that contribute to achieving food security in the medium and long term. This paper was elaborated to provide background material for the report The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017. Building resilience for peace and food security (available at
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2017–12–14
  40. By: Dennis Guignet; Matthew T. Heberling; Michael Papenfus; Olivia Griot; Ben Holland
    Keywords: benefit transfer, hedonic, meta-analysis, property value, water pollution, water quality
    JEL: Q51 Q53
    Date: 2019–05
  41. By: Gourichon, Hélène; Cameron, Alethia; Pernechele, Valentina
    Abstract: This paper examines the main issues affecting producers of export crops in Malawi that could compromise the attainment of the National Export Strategy (NES) 2013-2018 targets. The analysis assesses the level of policy support to the major export crops (cotton, groundnuts, sugar, tea and tobacco) for the period 2005-2013, by calculating the Nominal Rate of Protection (NRP), the Nominal Rate of Assistance (NRA) and the Market Development Gap (MDG) indicators for producers and by analysing public expenditure targeting the aforementioned commodities. The results show that trade and market policies resulted in disincentives of -15 percent on average for cash crop producers mainly due to poor infrastructure, lack of competition, weak enforcement and/or inefficiency of producer price policies, and limited budgetary support to cash crops value chain development. The analysis offers further evidence to guide the prioritization of policies and investments in view of fully attaining the NES objectives, including facilitation of farmers' access to markets, promotion of a more competitive environment for agri-business, and development of a transparent market information system.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2017–06–29
  42. By: Mirkowska, Zofia; Ziętara, Wojciech
    Abstract: The article presents the situation of the Polish farms specialising in pig farming in comparison with analogous ones in Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands and Spain. The assessment covered the production and economic activity of farms targeted at live pig production was assessed and determination of their effectiveness and competitiveness as well as the possibilities of their development. The analysis showed that the main factor determining the production efficiency and competitiveness of pig farms is the production scale, and among large and very large farms only Polish and Spanish farms were fully competitive. The paper also indicates the main reasons for the weakness of the Polish pig production sector, which were identified as low degree of concentration and lack of links between livestock producers and processing plants and the existence of barriers hampering investments in livestock buildings adapted to a larger scale of production. In addition, the paper formulates the methods and directions of possible corrective actions in the field.
    Keywords: International Development, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics
    Date: 2019
  43. By: Jędruchniewicz, Andrzej
    Abstract: The main objective of the study is the quantitative characteristics of the business cycle in agriculture in Poland in 1991-2016. The first part of the article is devoted to the theory of cyclical fluctuations in the agriculture. The second part includes an empirical analysis. The investigation of the agricultural business cycle is based on the year-to-year dynamics of the gross value added and final output. On the basis of the added value it was possible to identify four full cycles: (1) 1996-2000; (2) 2001-2006; (3) 2007-2012; (4) 2013-2015. Using the final output, it was considered that also in this case, four cycles can be determined: (1) up to 2000; (2) 2001-2006; (3) 2007-2010; (4) 2011-2015. The cycles’ duration was usually 3-6 years. However, the phases most frequently lasted from 2 to 4 years. On the basis of the analysis, it was also concluded that the amplitude of the entire cycle of gross value added as well as of its individual phases was always, in absolute terms, higher than the amplitude of the final production cycle and phases. The highest absolute amplitude was observed for the cycle of gross value added in 2013-2015.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Farm Management
    Date: 2018
  44. By: Jedrzejczak, Alina; Pekasiewicz, Dorota
    Abstract: Income distribution analysis can be conducted from the point of view of the comparisons between different geographical regions, family types or socio-economic groups it can also be carried out to assess the effects of an economic policy over time. The paper presents the results of a research on income distribution of Polish farmers which allowed us to formulate several conclusions concerning the differentiation of income inequality, poverty and wealth for the households of farmers in different macro-regions. The analysis uses the Gini inequality index and selected poverty and wealth indicators. The basis for the calculations was micro data coming from the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Central Statistical Office of Poland for 2015. The results of the research showed that the highest income inequality among the farmers’ households was observed in the northern region. Also this region was characterised by the highest percentage of households considered affluent. But the lowest Gini inequality coefficient was observed for the south-western region, where there were no farmers’ households exceeding the richness threshold.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management
    Date: 2018
  45. By: Rehber, Erkan
    Abstract: Impersonal and open-market transactions between actors in traditional agro-food systems based on price signals are replaced by rather controlled impersonal vertical coordination such as contract farming, because of the changes in market structure, consumer preferences and attitudes, technological improvements, and food safety issues. Recent sophisticated ideas like environmentally sound, sustainable agriculture, standards and regulations related to environment and health care are among the forces behind the fast growing of contractual relationship. Contract farming displays great variety in practice. The form it takes, attitudes and approaches of the partners are affected mainly by availability of other alternatives and the political, economic, and social structures at the local and national level, along with the specifications of the product. When evaluating contract farming applications and their outcomes in practice, it will be more illustrative to consider contractual arrangements in two main types as private contract arrangements and contract farming schemes. While the aims and the structure are almost similar, there are some important differences in detail. There are national and regional differences that have to be considered in related analysis and evaluations. Even though contractual relationship of the advanced agro-food system has many advantages, it also has inherent and implementation problems. The main problem is the weak position of the farmers in the contractual arrangements both in developed and developing world that is called as bargaining problem. Contract farming is not a panacea to solve all related problems of agricultural production and marketing systems. However, this way of coordination could be evaluated as a way of providing easier access production inputs and product market for the small-scale farmers. Contract farming also contributes to the development of a sound food industry. It might also be seen as a way toward or as a part of rural development and can be promoted to improve agricultural performance, especially in the Third World Countries. Contractual relationships are not only a distinctive feature of highly industrialized agro-food systems, but also a way of establishing an industrialized and developed structure. But, to obtain the advantages of contract farming, the necessary measures must be taken to trade off those disadvantages, such as the exploitation of small farmers and natural resources by domestic and foreign corporations and multinationals.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Industrial Organization
    Date: 2018
  46. By: Ghins, Léopold; Pauw, Karl
    Abstract: The prioritization of rice as a strategic food and cash crop in Rwanda has paid dividends, with production increasing by one-third during 2010'2015. However, production expansion has failed to keep pace with growing consumption demand. In 2015, around 30 percent of national consumption was met by imported long grain rice. The paper aims to single out the constraints which have been preventing the Rwandan rice sector to fully seize market opportunities in recent years. Looking at Nominal Rates of Protection faced by agents in the rice value chain over 2005'15, we find rice producers enjoy significant price incentives, mostly as a result of protective trade measures. Other factors, however, appear to be hindering investments in land, the adoption of modern inputs, and the production of high quality rice that can more readily substitute imports. This evidence is used along with recent literature and stakeholder interviews to formulate policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Marketing, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–03–07
  47. By: Nordin, Ida; Wilhelmsson, Fredrik; Jansson, Torbjörn; Fellmann, Thomas; Barreiro-Hurle, Jesús; Himics, Mihaly
    Abstract: There is concern that unilateral climate action in the EU agricultural sector may cause higher emissions abroad (i.e. emission leakage) and harm the competitiveness of the EU´s agricultural sector. Applying the CAPRI model, this paper assesses the potential for border carbon adjustments (BCA) in the form of import tariffs to limit the leakage of emissions and preserve the competitiveness of the EU agricultural sector. Our results show that even though BCA reduces emission leakage, 92 % of the emission reduction in the EU is still offset by emission increases outside the EU. What limits the effectiveness of the investigated BCA measures is that these measures are unilateral, and thus they only adjust for the reduced competitiveness at the EU internal market, whereas EU exports are still largely replaced by commodities produced in less GHG-efficient countries. Therefore, BCA alone cannot solve the high risk of emission leakage in the agri-food sector as a consequence of unilateral EU climate action.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2019–05–29
  48. By: Strupczewski, Grzegorz
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to compare population of farmers that bought crop insurance with farmers that are uninsured. Based thereon, the author identified features characterizing the insured farmers. These findings were applied to draw more general conclusions concerning factors influencing the insurance awareness and propensity to buy insurance coverage. Demographic, social and economic criteria, individual perception of risk, the loss ratio, and the willingness to pay the insurance premium were taken into consideration. Empirical research is based upon a sample of 150 Polish farmers that were interviewed using the CATI approach. It was found that farms with greater production volume (annual income) and with a larger crop area present higher willingness to buy insurance. Farmers who experienced damage to crops are more inclined to buy insurance coverage. Moreover, higher insurance penetration rate can be found among farmers who are willing to pay a higher price for a crop insurance policy. Surprisingly, despite frequently formulated assumptions, variables such as age of farmer, level of education or individual perception of risk do not determine the decision on insurance purchase.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management
    Date: 2019

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.