nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2019‒06‒10
23 papers chosen by

  1. Cows, cash and climate: Low stocking rates, high-performing cows, emissions and profitability across New Zealand farms By David Fleming; Suzi Kerr; Edmund Lou
  2. Weather Index Insurance in Sub-Saharan Africa By Ernst Juerg Weber
  3. Civil armed conflicts: the impact of the interaction between climate change and agricultural potential By Jonathan Goyette; Maroua Smaoui
  4. Droughts and farms’ financial performance in New Zealand: A micro farm level study By Pourzand, Farnaz; Noy, Ilan; Sağlam, Yiğit
  5. The production and economic results of dairy farms belonging to the European dairy farmers in 2016 By Kołoszycz, Ewa; Świtłyk, Michał
  6. Agricultural Drought Impacts on Crops Sector and Adaptation Options in Mali: a Macroeconomic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis By Jean-Marc Montaud
  7. Corporate Social Responsibility and the role of Rural Women in Sustainable Agricultural Development in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from the Niger Delta in Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi; Simplice A. Asongu
  8. Les performances économiques de l’élevage européen : de la « compétitivité coût » à la « compétitivité hors coût » By Vincent Chatellier; Pierre Dupraz
  9. Do sustainability standards benefit smallholder farmers also when accounting for cooperative effects? Evidence from Cote d’Ivoire By Sellare, Jorge; Meemken, Eva-Marie; Kouamé, Christophe; Qaim, Matin
  10. Effects of marketing contracts and resource-providing contracts in the African small farm sector: Insights from oil palm production in Ghana By Ruml, Anette; Qaim, Matin
  11. Stepping up from subsistence to commercial intensive farming to enhance welfare of farmer households in Indonesia By Joko Mariyono
  12. An application of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale to assess food security in rural communities of Nepal By Rishikesh Pandey and Douglas K. Bardsley
  13. Poverty and development in Tanzania By Riccardo Pelizzo; Lucas Katera; Stephen Mwombela; Lulu Olan’g
  14. California Climate Change Target Setting: A Workshop Report and Recommendations to the State of California Based on the Third California Climate Policy Modeling Dialogue and Workshop By Brown, Austin; Fulton, Lewis; Dominguez-Faus, Rosa
  15. The economic value of NBS restoration measures and their benefits in a river basin context: A meta-analysis regression By Nabila Arfaoui; Amandine Gnonlonfin
  16. Valuing the loss and damage from climate change: a review of some current issues By Jean-Michel Salles
  17. Experience of shocks and expectation formation –Evidence from smallholder farmers in Kenya By Freudenreich, Hanna; Kebede, Sindu
  18. Demographic change and climate change By Rauscher, Michael
  19. The U.S. water data gap: A survey of state-level water data platforms to inform the development of a national water portal By Josset, Laureline; Allaire, Maura; Hayek, Carolyn; Rising, James; Thomas, Chacko; Lall, Upmanu
  20. Economic valuation of biodiversity in South Asia: The case of Dachigam National Park in Jammu and Kashmir (India) By Mohammad Younus Bhat and Mohammad Sultan Bhatt
  21. Behavioural factors affecting broiler farmers’ decision making with regard to reduction of By de Lauwere, Carolien; Bokma, Martien
  22. Revealed preferences for forest recreational services using the random bidding model By Laetitia Tuffery
  23. The Future of U.S. Carbon-Pricing Policy: Normative Assessment and Positive Prognosis By Stavins, Robert N.

  1. By: David Fleming (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Edmund Lou (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Using the New Zealand Monitor Farm Data (NZMFD), this paper explores the cost-effectiveness of two mitigation options to reduce biological greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on farms: reducing stocking rate (SR; the number of cows per effective hectare of dairy land); and increasing animal performance (AP; measured by production of milk solids (MS) per cow). These mitigation options have been defined as “no cost” because, if applied together, they could reduce the carbon footprint of farms while also maintaining or even improving profits (de Klein & Dynes, 2017). We evaluate the effect of these mitigation options on three main variables: milk profitability of the farm (cash operating surplus (COS)/ton of MS produced); emissions intensity (ton CO2eq/ton of MS produced); and the value of emissions (COS/ton CO2eq). The paper has two main findings: high-AP farms show significantly lower emissions intensities and higher milk profitability; and higher SRs on farms are significantly associated with lower emissions intensities while not being significantly associated with milk profitability or negatively associated with profit per hectare. These results imply that higher levels of AP reduce the GHG intensity of the farm and increase profit – a “no-cost” option – but unless either the SR or the area under dairy farming fall, an increase in AP will lead to an increase in absolute emissions. However, our results cast doubt on the idea that reducing SR is a no-cost way to achieve absolute emission reductions. The two options do seem to constitute a no-cost outcome when combined, but potentially the same mitigation could be achieved with lower loss of profit by reducing the area of dairy land while maintaining high SRs and increasing the performance of the animals.
    Keywords: value of emissions, agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, dairy, methane, nitrous oxide, emissions intensity, mitigation practices, pastoral systems
    JEL: Q10 Q19 Q52 Q54
    Date: 2019–05
  2. By: Ernst Juerg Weber (Economics Discipline, Business School, The University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Food insecurity is a leading cause of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Overcoming food insecurity would improve the health and education of rural populations, increase labour productivity and promote rural economic development. Governments and numerous aid agencies dispense food aid during famines. The recent emergence of weather index insurance offers a promising new risk management tool that enhances economic opportunities and welfare in rural sub-Saharan Africa. In 2004 MicroEnsure launched Africa’s first weather index-based insurance product.1 In 2008 the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP) established the Weather Risk Management Facility (WRMF), which supported pilot projects for weather index insurance. In 2009 Kenya Seed, the Syngenta Foundation, UAP Group, Swiss Re and the World Bank’s Global Index Insurance Facility (GIIF) joined forces to establish Kilimo Salama, which offered index-based microinsurance to Kenyan maize and wheat farmers, with more crops and livestock being added later. In 2011 WFP and Oxfam America founded the R4 Rural Resilience Initiative, building on the Horn of Africa Risk Transfer for Adaptation (HARITA). In 2013 the AXA Group launched index-based agricultural insurance; in 2014 AXA and the South African Sanlam participated in MicroEnsure; and in 2015 AXA entered into partnership with the World Bank’s GIIF. In 2014 Kilimo Salama was succeeded by the Agriculture and Climate Risk Enterprise (ACRE), which assists local insurers in Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda. After a decade of keen experimentation, the focus has now shifted from pilot projects to scaling up index-based insurance as a risk management tool for smallholder farmers.
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Jonathan Goyette (Department of economics, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada); Maroua Smaoui (Department of economics, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of rising world temperatures on the incidence of civil armed conflicts, focusing on a specific mechanism: the interaction between variations in annual temperatures and variations in agricultural potential. We assemble a dataset from various sources for 172 countries from 1946 till 2014. Agricultural potential is based on the Food and Agricultural Organization fs definition of a country land suitability for growing basic crops. Annual temperature data come from the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia. Data on civil armed conflicts is from the Uppsala Conflict Data Project. Using a fixed-effect approach, our identification strategy is akin to a natural experiment where the exogenous interaction between the temporal variation in temperature within a country and the cross-country variation in agricultural potential allows identifying the effect of this interaction on conflict incidence. The findings indicate that temperature and agricultural potential are substitutes and have offsetting effects on conflict incidence. We find that in a country with low agricultural potential a one degree increase in temperature is associated with a 3% increase in conflict incidence. However, when agricultural potential is high, a one degree increase in temperature is associated with a 5% decrease in conflict incidence. The results are tested against various robustness checks.
    Keywords: armed conflict, civil war, climate change, crop suitability, water scarcity, food security
    JEL: I3 O13 P48 Q51 Q54
  4. By: Pourzand, Farnaz; Noy, Ilan; SaÄŸlam, YiÄŸit
    Abstract: We quantify the impacts of droughts in New Zealand on the profitability of dairy, and sheep and beef farms. Using a comprehensive administrative database of all businesses in New Zealand, we investigate the impact of droughts on farm revenue, profits, return on capital, business equity, debt to income ratio, and interest coverage ratio. Over the period we examine (2007-2016) about half of the districts experienced severe droughts, and almost 85% of districts were affected by more moderate droughts at least once. For dairy farms, there is a strong negative relationship between the occurrence of droughts two years earlier and farms’ revenue, profit and consequently their return on capital. More surprisingly, we found that current (same fiscal year) drought events have positive impacts on dairy farms’ revenue and profit; this effect is most likely attributable to drought-induced increases in the price of milk solids (New Zealand is the market maker in this global market). In general, dairy farmers ‘benefit’ more from drought events when compared to sheep/beef farms, whereas the latter sector has less impact on global prices. These findings are useful for shaping climate-change adaptation as there is a clear variation in the future climate-change projections of drought intensities and frequencies for different regions in New Zealand.
    Keywords: Drought, Profitability, Dairy, Sheep/beef farming, New Zealand,
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Kołoszycz, Ewa; Świtłyk, Michał
    Abstract: The objectives of the work were to check the possibility of obtaining data from the FADN system for the EDF survey and to compare the economic results achieved by dairy farms from the selected EU countries in 2016. The additional objective was to determine the profitability threshold for milk production at the level of general and full costs. The average data was used for the analysis within EDF and the Polish group and their tercyl separated due to the total cost of milk production. The average national results within EDF in 2016 were also analyzed. Measures for the evaluation of the results was the level of agricultural income, and income from management and risks in the dairy industry. Two break even points of producing 100 kg of milk expressed by total and full costs were also assessed. The lowest total cost of production was incurred by the farm with large scale production, expressed as the number of cows in the herd and milk yield per cow. In addition, these farms were characterised by greater participation of grassland than arable land in forage area, of which more than half was rented. Polish and Irish farms were characterised by the lowest total costs in milk production out of the analyzed countries. Based on the results relying on opportunity costs of own factors in milk production, it should be noted that the Polish farm obtained the lowest entrepreneur income. Apart from Irish farms, milk production in the analyzed countries in 2016 was unprofitable.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Industrial Organization, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Jean-Marc Montaud (CATT - Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement des données économiques - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour)
    Abstract: In Mali's current context where the crops sector is particularly exposed and vulnerable to agricultural drought, this study assesses the economy-wide impacts of such events and the potential effectiveness of some adaptation strategies. Using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, we conduct counterfactual simulations of various scenarios accounting for different levels of intensity and frequency of droughts over a 15-year period. We first show how mild, moderate, and intense droughts currently experienced by the country affect its economic performances and considerably degrade its households' welfare. We also show how these negative impacts could be aggravated in the future by the likely increased number of intense droughts threatened by global climate change. However, we finally show that there appears to be some room for Mali to manoeuvre in terms of drought-risk management policies, such as fostering the use of drought-tolerant crop varieties, improving drought early warning systems or extending irrigation capacities.
    Keywords: Climate variability,General Equilibrium,Agriculture,Food Security,Mali
    Date: 2019–02
  7. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Low productivity among female farmers when compared with their male counterparts is considered an outcome of limited access to agricultural land and inputs. The objective of this investigation was to assess the impact of multinational oil companies’ (MOCs’) CSR on rural women access to modern agricultural inputs in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. A total of 700 rural female farmers were sampled across the region. Results from the use of a logit model indicated that CSR recorded significant success in agricultural development generally, but has undermined equality. This implies that if a woman’s agricultural productivity is continuously hindered by unequal access to agricultural resources (or opportunities) and widespread inequality will limit poverty reduction efforts in Nigeria. The results also showed that women depended on CSR of MOCs for policy dialogue and advocacy for women’s access to agricultural land and inputs. Supporting agricultural initiatives that focus on empowering women would boost food security in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: gender equality; agriculture; corporate social responsibility
    JEL: J43 O40 O55 Q10
    Date: 2019–01
  8. By: Vincent Chatellier; Pierre Dupraz
    Abstract: [in French] The European Union (EU) has, since a long time, an important role in the international livestock industry chains, both in terms of production and trade. In spite of a strong restructuring movement, mainly due to factor productivity gains, European livestock brings together farms that are still very heterogeneous in terms of productive combinations, size, social structuring, intensification and economic performance. To document this, data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) is used to analyze the diversity of structural and economic situations of farms specializing in the production of milk, beef and pigs/poultry, for the ten most productive EU Member States in animal production. This step is necessary for identifying the main levers for improving the economic performance of European animal productions. Two types of levers are distinguished. The first concerns the « cost competitiveness ». It refers successively to the substitution of production factors, economies of scale, the geographical concentration of production, the structuring of production chains and the impact of agricultural policies. The second concerns the « non-cost competitiveness ». It covers the sanitary quality of animal productions, the differentiation of products and production processes, and the required conditions for farmers to capture some of the generated value-added.
    Keywords: livestock, livestock production, competitiveness, economic performance, FADN
    JEL: Q10 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Sellare, Jorge; Meemken, Eva-Marie; Kouamé, Christophe; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: While many studies analyzed effects of sustainability standards – such as Fairtrade or Rainforest Alliance – on smallholder farmers in developing countries, most did not sufficiently account for systematic differences between certified and non-certified farmers. Certified farmers are typically organized in cooperatives. When sampling only from a small number of cooperatives, as previous studies did, it is not easy to disentangle certification effects from possible cooperative effects. Here, we address this shortcoming by randomly sampling from a large number of cooperatives, thus capturing a wide range of institutional heterogeneity. In particular, we collect and use data from cocoa farmers in Cote d’Ivoire that are organized in Fairtrade-certified and non-certified cooperatives. Regression models with instrumental variables show that Fairtrade has positive and significant effects on cocoa yields, prices, and living standards. These effects remain significant also after controlling for cooperative characteristics, but the magnitude of the estimates changes. We draw two conclusions. First, in Cote d’Ivoire Fairtrade certification benefits farmers economically. Second, and more generally, cooperative characteristics are jointly correlated with certification and relevant outcomes, which needs to be accounted for to avoid bias when evaluating the benefits of sustainability standards in the small farm sector.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, International Development
    Date: 2019–05
  10. By: Ruml, Anette; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers in developing countries often suffer from high risk and limited market access. Contract farming may improve the situation under certain conditions. Several studies analyzed effects of contracts on smallholder productivity and income with mixed results. Most existing studies focused on one particular contract scheme. Contract characteristics rarely differ within one scheme, so little is known about how different contract characteristics may influence the benefits for smallholders. Here, we address this research gap using data from oil palm farmers in Ghana who participate in different contract schemes. Some of the farmers have simple marketing contracts, while others have resource-providing contracts where the buyer also offers inputs and technical services on credit. A comparison group cultivates oil palm without any contract. Regression models that control for selection bias show that resource-providing contracts increase farmers‟ input use and yield. Resourceproviding contracts also incentivize higher levels of specialization and an increase in the scale of production. These effects are especially pronounced for small and medium-sized farms. In contrast, the marketing contracts have no significant effects on input use, productivity, and scale of production. The results suggest that resource-providing contracts alleviate market access constraints, while the marketing contracts do not.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–05
  11. By: Joko Mariyono
    Abstract: This article assesses the welfare impact of intensive chilli farming and determines the factors motivating farmers to engage in commercial farming. This study uses a structural equation model that measures the direct and indirect effects of explanatory variables on intensive chilli production and welfare. This study uses data of field surveys of randomly selected 220 farmers in three regions of Java. The results show that stepping up to intensive and profit†oriented farming improved farmers' welfare. Internal and external factors, directly and indirectly, affected farmers' decision to devote more resources to commercial chilli farming. Farmers' knowledge, as well as access to credit, technology adoption, marketplace, and traders, played significant roles in improving rural welfare. The government needs to reform marketing system of horticultural products and establish market infrastructures to accommodate oversupply during peak season. Easy and flexible credit should be available and accessible to farmers, with technology applicable to such agriculture.
    Keywords: chilli farming, external and internal factors, farming society, structural equation modelling (SEM), welfare impact
    Date: 2019–06–07
  12. By: Rishikesh Pandey and Douglas K. Bardsley
    Abstract: The state of food (in)security in rural communities of different ecological zones of the Kaligandaki Basin, Nepal, is assessed using a Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). The data were collected from 360 households using face†to†face interviews. The results show poor availability of food from subsistence production in the Middle†Mountains and Trans†Himalaya, whereas most households with sufficient purchasing power are able to access additional food from the market. Net food security is poor, with the highest level of insecurity in the Middle†Mountains, followed by the Trans†Himalaya and the Tarai. Although weaknesses were found in application of the HFIAS method due to respondent bias in subjective assessments of food insecurity in producer–consumer rural households, the method was found to be effective for rapidly incorporating utilization and stability elements into appraisals. Although not comprehensive, this approach has the potential to complement other forms of knowledge for designing targeted food policy in Nepal.
    Keywords: food security, HFIAS, Himalaya, Kaligandaki Basin, Nepal
    Date: 2019–06–03
  13. By: Riccardo Pelizzo (Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan); Lucas Katera (Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania); Stephen Mwombela (Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania); Lulu Olan’g (Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the relationship between development, as measured by the GNI per capita and lived poverty in Tanzania which is measured on the basis of whether and how often respondents go, in the course of one year, without food, water, medical care, cooking fuel and cash income. By using the data collected by Afrobarometer in Tanzania, we are able to create one set of indicators that capture the extension of lived poverty, that is what percentage of the respondents, experiences deprivation, but we also develop a series of indicators that capture the severity of lived poverty, that is how frequently respondents experience this problem. Our statistical analyses reveal that while Tanzanian progress along the developmental path did not have a significant impact on the extension of lived poverty, it made a large and significant contribution to reduce its severity.
    Keywords: poverty, lived poverty, Afrobarometer, development, inequality, Tanzania
    JEL: O40 O57 I10 I20 I32
    Date: 2018–01
  14. By: Brown, Austin; Fulton, Lewis; Dominguez-Faus, Rosa
    Abstract: California has a range of existing and proposed targets toward a low carbon future. This paper summarizes an analytical review, focused on modeling approaches and what is known about their feasibility and cost. The findings in this paper are based on the Climate Change Policy Modeling (CCPM) forum, which included modelers, policy makers and stakeholders evaluating targets and pathways to low-carbon futures and identifying required policies to achieve goals. The third forum, CCPM-3, was on May 14th, 2018, at the University of California, Davis and provided critical discussion and a gathering of the key experts in this topic area This report builds on the findings of CCPM and integrates with other literature where possible. It includes a review of the CO2-relevant targets, discussion of studies and modeling efforts to assess meeting such targets, including feasibility and cost. This includes analysis in the transportation and energy sectors, as well as land use and carbon sequestration.
    Keywords: Engineering, Law, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Zero emission vehicles, greenhouse gas emissions, policy, travel demand, mathematical models, climate change
    Date: 2019–04–01
  15. By: Nabila Arfaoui (University Catholic of Lyon, ESDES); Amandine Gnonlonfin (Université de Nice/IMREDD)
    Abstract: The study collects original monetary estimates for Nature Based Solutions (NBS) and benefits, with restoration approach in a basin context. A database of 187 monetary estimates is constructed to perform the first meta-analysis, which will assess how individuals value the NBS restoration measures and their benefits. We find that individuals value, in particular, global climate regulation, local environmental regulation, recreational activities, and habitat and biodiversity benefits. We find also that NBS measures aimed at floodplains and river streams are more highly valued. The results of this study suggest that the Willingness-to-pay (WTP) is weakly influenced by the methodological variables. While the contingent valuation method affects the WTP compared to studies using choice experiments, the payment and econometric method means have only a marginal effect. Survey modes are never significant. Finally, studies on the US and Europe country contexts show higher WTP than those conducted in Asia.
    Keywords: Nature Based Solution (NBS), Meta-Analysis, Ecosystem services, Willingness To Pay
    JEL: Q51 Q57 O13
    Date: 2019–04
  16. By: Jean-Michel Salles (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: From an economic perspective, damage and loss valuation aims first at justifying climate change mitigation efforts. But the difficulties related to the heterogeneity of the damage and the time horizon of the impacts make the results very contingent of the computation hypotheses.The debate thus focused on the social cost of carbon, driven by the idea of basing climate change policies on emission pricing. But damage assessment could also be used as a basis for compensating victims. Although the idea of climate justice is struggling to establish the basis for this compensation, international negotiations have begun to lay the groundwork for it through the Warsaw Mechanism, which remains however far from this goal.
    Abstract: Dans une perspective économique, l'évaluation des pertes et dommages vise d'abord à justifier les efforts d'atténuation du changement climatique. Mais les difficultés liées à l'hétérogénéité des dommages et l'horizon temporel des impacts rendent les résultats très contingents des hypothèses de calcul. Le débat s'est ainsi focalisé sur le coût social du carbone, porté par l'idée de baser les politiques de lutte contre le changement climatique sur une tarification des émissions. Mais l'évaluation des dommages pourrait aussi servir de base à une compensation des victimes. Même si l'idée d'une justice climatique peine à établir les bases de cette compensation, les négociations internationales ont commencé à en poser des jalons à travers le Mécanisme de Varsovie qui reste cependant loin de cet objectif.
    Keywords: eEconomic valuation,Climate change,Compensation,Economic valuation,Loss and damage,Social cost of carbon,coût social du carbone,pertes et préjudices,évaluation économique,changement climatique
    Date: 2019
  17. By: Freudenreich, Hanna; Kebede, Sindu
    Keywords: Institutional and Behavioral Economics
    Date: 2019–06–04
  18. By: Rauscher, Michael
    Abstract: The paper uses a continuous-time overlapping-generations model with endogenous growth and pollution accumulation over time to study the link between longevity and global warming. It is seen that increasing longevity accelerates climate change in a business-as-usual scenario without climate policy. If a binding emission target is set exogenously and implemented via a cap-and-trade system, the price of emission permits is increasing in longevity. Longevity has no effect on the optimal solution of the climate problem if perfect intergenerational transfers are feasible. If these transfers are absent, the impact of longevity is ambiguous.
    Date: 2019
  19. By: Josset, Laureline; Allaire, Maura; Hayek, Carolyn; Rising, James; Thomas, Chacko; Lall, Upmanu
    Abstract: Water data play a crucial role in the development and assessment of sustainable water management strategies. Water resource assessments are needed for the planning, management, and the evaluation of current practices. They require environmental, climatic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, industrial, agricultural, energy, and socioeconomic data to assess and accurately project the supply of and demand for water services. Given this context, we provide a review of the current state of publicly available water data in the United States. While considerable progress has been made in data science and model development in recent years, data limitations continue to hamper analytics. A brief overview of the water data sets available at the federal level is used to highlight the gaps in readily accessible water data in the United States. Then, we present a systematic review of 275 websites that provide water information collected at the state level. Data platforms are evaluated based on content (ground and surface water, water quality, and water use information) along with the analytical and exploratory tools that are offered. Wev discuss the degree to which existing state-level data sets could enrich the data available from federal sources and review some recent technological developments and initiatives that may modernize water data. We argue that a national water data portal, more comprehensive than the U.S. Energy Information Administration, addressing the significant gaps and centralizing water data is critical. It would serve to quantify the risks emerging from growing water stress and aging infrastructure and to better inform water management and investment decisions.
    Keywords: 1360446; 2LAP2_161876; P300P2_171241
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2019–05–09
  20. By: Mohammad Younus Bhat and Mohammad Sultan Bhatt
    Abstract: Biodiversity needs our attention because humans receive a wide range of direct and indirect benefits. Valuation of biodiversity is important to establish the importance of use and non†use values of biological resources and cost of ignoring them. Against this backdrop, the aim of this study is to capture the recreational value of the national park biodiversity while employing travel cost method. To this end, the value of the economic benefits generated by sustainable management of Dachigam National Park in Jammu and Kashmir (India) is estimated using data from 301 visitors from different parts of the country. Data are analysed using count data models, and results reveal that travel cost method is suitable for valuation of various use values generated by environmental resources such as national parks. Estimated results show that consumer surplus per visitor per visit in present study is equal to Rs. 12,470 (US$197), which translates into an annual monetary recreational value of about Rs. 247,614,828 (approximately US$3,930,395). Demand for tourism services is also found to be fairly insensitive to travel cost/price. Therefore, an increase in entry fee and redistribution of proceeds can improve the physical and financial management of the park.
    Keywords: Biodiversity, Consumer Surplus, Dachigam National Park, Economic Valuation, Travel Cost Method
    Date: 2019–01–22
  21. By: de Lauwere, Carolien; Bokma, Martien
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2019–06–04
  22. By: Laetitia Tuffery (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: In this article, we estimate how the willingness to pay (WTP) for forest recreational services affects housing choice location based on the random bidding model. We obtain four major original findings: (i) The WTP for urban park proximity is globally non-significant, in contrast to forest area. (ii) When forests are recreational green spaces (defined by surface area), they positively influence the WTP, which is higher for the wealthiest households and those over the age of 45. (iii) When forests are natural protected areas, their influence on the WTP is negative for the least affluent classes but positive for managers and professionals belonging to the 30-45 age group. (iv) Finally, forest facilities such as hiking and biking paths have a positive impact on the WTP for most socio-professional categories (with the exception of managers and professionals) and especially for households under the age of 30.
    Keywords: Forest proximity,recreational amenity,random bidding model,heterogeneous preference JEL codes: D44
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Stavins, Robert N. (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University)
    Abstract: There is widespread agreement among economists--and a diverse set of other policy analysts--that at least in the long run, an economy-wide carbon pricing system will be an essential element of any national policy that can achieve meaningful reductions of CO2 emissions cost-effectively in the United States. There is less agreement, however, among economists and others in the policy community regarding the choice of specific carbon-pricing policy instrument, with some supporting carbon taxes and others favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms. This prompts two important questions. How do the two major approaches to carbon pricing compare on relevant dimensions, including but not limited to efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity? And which of the two approaches is more likely to be adopted in the future in the United States? This paper addresses these questions by drawing on both normative and positive theories of policy instrument choice as they apply to U.S. climate change policy, and draws extensively on relevant empirical evidence. The paper concludes with a look at the path ahead, including an assessment of how the two carbon-pricing instruments can be made more politically acceptable.
    JEL: Q40 Q48 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2019–05

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