nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒11‒12
98 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Does crop diversification reduce downside risk in maize yield enhancing investments? Evidence from Ethiopia using panel data By Jaleta, M.; Marenya, P.; Beshir, B.
  2. Does the adoption of maize-legume cropping diversification and modern seeds affect nutritional security in Ethiopia? Evidence from panel data analysis By Marenya, P.; Kassie, M.; Teklewold, H.; Erenstein, O.; Qaim, M.; Rahut, D.
  3. A blue revolution in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Ghana’s tilapia value chain By Ragasa, Catherine; Andam, Kwaw S.; Kufoalor, Doreen S.; Amewu, Sena
  4. How important are supermarkets for the diets of the urban poor in Africa? By Wanyama, R.; Godecke, T.; Qaim, M.
  5. Valuing Agricultural Externalities: Nitrogen Surplus in the Dairy Sector on the Island of Ireland By Adenuga, A.; Davis, J.; Hutchinson, G.; Donnellan, T.; Patton, M.
  6. How to Make Farming and Agricultural Extension More Nutrition-Sensitive: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Kenya By Ogutu, S.; Fongar, A.; Godecke, T.; Jackering, L.; Mwololo, H.; Njuguna, M.; Wollni, M.; Qaim, M.
  7. Agricultural Transformation and Food and Nutrition Security: Does Farm Production Diversity (Still) Matter for Dietary Diversity among Ghanaian Farm Households? By Ecker, O.
  8. The Impact of Agricultural Subsidies on Farm Production: A Synthetic Control Method Approach By Matej Opatrny
  9. Economic Efficiency and Sustainable Agricultural Intensification Practices in Smallholder Maize Farming: Evidence from Ethiopia By Oumer, A.; Burton, M.
  10. Landscape Change and Trade in Ancient Greece: Evidence from Pollen Data By Anton Bonnier; Tymon Sloczynski; Grzegorz Koloch; Katerina Kouli; Adam Izdebski
  11. Earthbound Labor and Transitory Exit from Farming in China By Ma, M.
  12. Differential impacts of conservation agriculture technology options on household welfare in sub-Saharan Africa By Tambo, J.; Mockshell, J.
  13. Roles of the social norms on participation in the communal land distribution program in Ethiopia By Oniki, S.; Berhe, M.; Negash, T.
  14. The Role of Risk in the Context of Climate Change, Land Use Choices and Crop Production: Evidence from Zambia. By Smith, V.; De Pinto, A.; Robertson, R.
  15. Dis-incentivizing sustainable intensification? The case of Zambia s fertilizer subsidy program By Mason, N.; Morgan, S.; Levine, N.K.; Zulu-Mbata, O.
  16. The Roles of Agroclimatic Similarity and Returns to Scale in the Demand for Mechanization: Insights from Northern Nigeria By Takeshima, H.
  17. Enhancing resilience in costal agriculture through optimization of farm income: A farming system approach in Sunderbans region of West Bengal, India By Haldar, S.; Rahaman, S.M.; Bera, B.K.; Pal, S.; Nandi, A.K.
  18. Impacts of Agricultural Rehabilitation Program in Bangladesh: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis By Begum, I.A.; Alam, M.J.; Akter, S.; Talukder, R.K.
  19. Quantitative Livelihood Profile Analysis of Rural Households in Zambia By Subakanya, M.; Hichaambwa, M.; Chapoto, A.; Kangasniemi, M.; Knowles, M.
  20. The Global Food Security Safety Dilemma of Fertiliser Technology Use: An Analysis of Policy-Induced Mediation By Xiang, T.; Malik, T.; Nielsen, K.
  21. REQUIREMENTS FOR DECISION ENHANCEMENT FOR POULTRY FARMERS: A CASE OF EAST AFRICA By Rebecca Pearl Tumwebaze; Henk Sol; Doris Kakuru
  22. Is there an economic case for legume-cereal rotation? A Case of Faba-beans in the Moroccan Wheat Based Production Systems By Yigezu, Y.A.; El-Shater, T.; Boughlala, M.; Bishaw, Z.; Niane, A.; Aw-Hassan, A.
  23. The economic effect of genomic technology on the forestry industry By Wang, S.; An, H.; Chang, W.-Y.; Gaston, C.
  24. Environmental Risks between Conceptualization and Action By Grozavu, Adrian; Mihai, Florin-Constantin
  25. Valuation of access to irrigation water in rural Ethiopia: application of choice experiment and contingent valuation methods By Gebreegziabher, Z.; Mekonnen, A.; Beyene, A.D.; Hagos, F.
  26. Perception, Yield Sensitivity and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change: Insights from Wheat Production in India By Ramadas, S.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, A.
  27. The Relationship Between Fuel, Biofuel and Food Prices: Methods and Outcomes By Karel Janda; Ladislav Kristoufek
  28. Communication Networks and the Adoption of Technologies: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment By Jackering, L.; Fongar, A.; Godecke, T.; Mbugua, M.; Njuguna, M.; Ogutu, S.; Wollni, M.
  29. The economic value of climate information for water stress management in crop production: an Austrian case study By Mitter, H.; Schmid, E.
  30. Impact on household food security of promoting sustainable agriculture among farming households in Borno State, Nigeria By Amaza, P.
  31. Are agricultural technologies pro-poor? The case of improved cassava varieties in sub-Saharan Africa By Feleke, S.; Manyong, V.; Abdoulaye, T.; Alene, A.; Wossen, T.; Dontsop, P.
  32. Climate change impacts and vulnerability of fallow-chickpea based farm households in India: Assessment using Integrated modeling approach By Nedumaran, S.; Kadiyala, D.M.; Srigiri, S.R.; Roberto, V.; McDermid, S.
  33. On the role of probability weighting on WTP for crop insurance with and without yield skewness. By Douadia, Bougherara; Laurent, Piet
  34. Does sustainable intensification of maize production enhance child nutrition? Evidence from rural Tanzania By Kim, J.; Mason, N.; Snapp, S.
  35. Nutritional Status and Food Consumption Pattern in India: A Study in Disadvantaged Areas of Madhya Pradesh By Vellaichamy, S.; Singh, P.; Priya, S.; Mahra, G.; Palanisamy, V.; Venu, L.; Singh, A.
  36. Land use spillovers of bioeconomy-driven trade shocks under imperfect environmental law enforcement By Borner, J.; Bruckner, M.; Flach, R.; Soares-Filho, B.; Wunder, S.
  37. Give Someone a Fishpond Modeling the Impacts of Aquaculture in the Rural Economy By Filipski, M.; Belton, B.
  38. Introducing first and second generation biofuels into GTAP data base version 9 By Taheripour, Farzad; Luis Moises Pena Levano; Wally Tyner
  39. Assessing the full distribution of greenhouse gas emissions from crop, livestock and commercial forestry plantations in Brazil's Southern Amazon By Carauta, M.; Guzman-Bustamante, I.; Meurer, K.; Hampf, A.; Troost, C.; Rodrigues, R.; Berger, T.
  40. Soil, striga or subsidies? Determinants of maize productivity in northern Ghana By Scheiterle, L.
  41. Long- and short-term determinants of water user cooperation: experimental evidence from Central Asia By Amirova, I.; Petrick, M.; Djanibekov, N.
  42. Household Welfare and CO2 Emission Impacts of Energy and Carbon Taxes in Mexico By Renner, Sebastian; Lay, Jann; Greve, Hannes
  43. Urban Agricultural Practice in Residential Areas of Pune (India) and the Contribution to Urban Sustainability By Zasada, I.; Weltin, M.; Zoll, F.; Benninger, S.L.
  44. Measuring Skills in Developing Countries By Laajaj, Rachid; Macours, Karen
  45. Conservation Agriculture, Gendered Impacts on Households Livelihood Outcomes in Zambia By Zulu-Mbata, O.
  46. Impact of Improving Seed Quality: Evidence from a Video Information Intervention By Vandevelde, S.; Van Campenhout, B.; Walukano, W.
  47. Exploring the effects of increasing underutilized crops on consumers diets: The case of millet in Uganda By Revoredo-Giha, C.; Akaichi, F.; Toma, L.
  48. Synopsis: Effects of agricultural mechanization on economies of scope in crop production in Nigeria By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Hatzenbuehler, Patrick L.; Edeh, Hyacinth
  49. The Impact of Agricultural Technologies on Poverty and Vulnerability of Smallholders in Ethiopia: Panel Data Analysis By Biru, W.D.; Zeller, M.; Loos, T.
  50. Land Access, Land Rental Markets and Rural Poverty Dynamics in Northern Ethiopian Highlands: Panel Data evidence using Survival Models By Ghebru, H.; Holden, S.
  51. Farmers' participation in Contract Farming: A Case of White Onion and Chipgrade Potato Cultivation in Selected Provinces of Western India By Miglani, V.; Kalamkar, S.; Shah, D.
  52. Paying for Digital Information: Assessing Farmers Willingness to Pay for a Digital Agriculture and Nutrition Service in Ghana By Palloni, G.; Aker, J.; Gilligan, D.; Hidrobo, M.; Ledlie, N.
  53. Adapting Or Chasing Water? Crop Choice And Farmers' Responses To Water Stress In Peri-Urban Bangalore, India By Thomas, B.; Patil, V.; Lele, S.; Srinivasan, V.; Eswar, M.
  54. Risk Attitude, Technical Efficiency and Adoption: An Integrated Approach to Climate-Smart Rice Production in the Jianghan Plain, China By Tong, Q.; Swallow, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, J.
  55. Promoting competition in the fertilizer industry in Africa: A global and local approach By Hernandez, Manuel A.; Torero, Maximo
  56. Effect of agriculture-nutrition education and extension services on early adoption and diffusion of biofortfied crops: The case of orange-fleshed sweetpotato in Kenya By Okello, J.J.; Muoki, P.; Kwikiriza, N.; Wambaya, J.; Heck, S.
  57. Banking on the Boom, Tripped by the Bust: Banks and the World War I Agricultural Price Shock By Matthew S. Jaremski; David C. Wheelock
  58. Fuelwood or Grain? A Conjoint Analysis of Trait Preferences for Pigeonpea among Smallholders in Southern Malawi By Tsusaka, T.; Orr, A.; Msere, H.; Harris, D.; Rao, N. Vpr Ganga
  59. Value chain governance and institutions behind biosecurity along pig value chains in Myanmar By Ebata, A.; Win, K.S.; Loevinsohn, M.; Macgregor, H.
  60. Assessing quality attributes that drive preference and consumption of local rice in Ghana By Ayeduvor, Selorm
  61. Income and welfare effects of input subsidies across representative agricultural households of rural Rwanda By De Frahan, B. Henry; Bali, J.; Tuyishime, C.
  62. Large-Scale Farms and Smallholders: Evidence from Zambia By Lay, Jann; Nolte, Kerstin; Sipangule, Kacana
  63. Investing in land to change your risk exposure? Land transactions in a landslide prone region By Mertens, K.; Vranken, L.
  64. Perceptions of Potato Practices and their Impacts by Farmers in Guatemala using Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping By Chan, C.; Laporte, P.; Chan-Dentoni, J.; Sipes, B.; Melakeberhan, H.; Sanchez-Perez, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Prado, P.
  65. Cost-Effectiveness of Community-Based Gendered Advisory Services to Farmers: Analysis in Mozambique and Tanzania By Mogues, T.; Mueller, V.; Kondylis, F.
  66. Regional and Sectoral Impacts of Water Redline Policy in China: Results from an Integrated Regional CGE Water Model By Zhang, Y.; Chen, K.; Zhu, T.
  67. Trends, transferring, and sources of aquatic products Risks in China: Evidence from the sampling inspections by national and provincial CFDA By Liang, Q.; Zhou, J.; Jin, C.; Zhou, W.; Wang, Y.
  68. Subnational Prioritization for Biofortification Interventions in Nigeria By Herrington, C.; Funes, J.; Lividini, K.; Moursi, M.; Taleon, V.; Asare-Marfo, D.; Birol, E.
  69. Synopsis: Grain storage and marketplace characteristics in Kebbi state, Nigeria By Hatzenbuehler, Patrick L.; Mavrotas, George; Maikasuwa, Mohammed Abubakar; Aliyu, Abdulrahaman; Bashir, Amina
  70. Effect of index-based livestock insurance (IBLI) on herd offtake: Evidence from Borena zone-southern Ethiopia By Jing, W.; Gebrekidan, T.; Sheng, B.; Yixin, G.; Chi, Z.; Qianyue, Z.; Yongchao, D.; Tamura, Y.; Neglo, K.; Lyu, K.
  71. Why some inferior technologies succeed? Examining the diffusion and impacts of rotavator tillage in Nepal Terai By Paudel, G.; Krishna, V.; McDonald, A.
  72. Farmers Preferences for Attributes of Seed Rice in Sierra Leone: A Best-Worst Scaling Approach By Mansaray, B.; Jin, S.; Yuan, R.; Li, H.
  73. Impact of sanctions on bilateral trade of agricultural products between Iran and MENA region and the EU countries By Faraji Dizaji, Sajjad; Jariani, Farzaneh; Najarzadeh, Reza
  74. Supply-side Crowding?out and Crowding?in Effects of Malawi s Farm Input Subsidy Program on Private-Sector Input Marketing: A quasi?experimental field study By Kaiyatsa, S.; Ricker-Gilbert, J.; Jumbe, C.
  75. Synopsis: Cost and policy determinants of features of tractor markets in Nigeria: Case studies of tractor sellers in Kaduna state and tractor owners in Benue state By Hatzenbuehler, Patrick L.; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Edeh, Hyacinth; Lawal, Akeem
  76. Quantifying the cost and benefits of ending hunger and undernutrition: Examining the differences among alternative approaches By Fan, Shenggen; Headey, Derek D.; Laborde Debucquet, David; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Rue, Christopher; Sulser, Timothy B.; Wiebe, Keith D.
  77. Self-sufficiency and International Trade Policy Strategies in Malaysian Rice Sector: Approaches to Food Security Using Spatial Partial Equilibrium Analysis By Ali, R.
  78. Factors Explaining Land Access and Utilization for Agricultural Activities among Households in South Africa By Akinyemi, B.
  79. The value of information for the management of water resources in agriculture: comparing the economic impact of alternative sources of information to schedule irrigation By Galioto, F.
  80. Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector By Muthini, Davis; Nzuma, Jonathan; Qaim, Matin
  81. A farm typology for North Rhine-Westphalia to assess agri-environmental policies By Till Kuhn, David Schäfer
  82. Impact of Integrated Aquaculture-agriculture Value Chain Participation on Welfare of Marginalized Indigenous Households in Bangladesh: A Panel Data Analysis By Islam, A.H.M.S.
  83. Distributed Ledger Technology Systems. A Conceptual Framework By Michel Rauchs; Andrew Glidden; Brian Gordon; Gina Pieters; Martino Recanatini; Francois Rostand; Kathryn Vagneur; Bryan Zhang
  84. Optimal Production Planning for Organic Agriculture Products: A Case Study of Turkey By HASAN AKYER; ZEHRA DURAK
  85. Small producer participation in export vegetable supply chains and poverty: evidence from different export schemes in Tanzania By Benali, M.; Bruemmer, B.; Afari-Sefa, V.
  86. Which factors and incentives influence the intention to adopt precision agricultural technologies? By Soto, I.; Barnes, A.; Eory, V.; Beck, B.; Balafoutis, A.; Sanchez, B.; Vangeyte, J.; Fountas, S.; Van Der Wall, T.; Gomez-Barbero, M.
  87. Food waste due to coercive power in agri-food chains: Evidence from Sweden By Ghosh, R.K.; Eriksson, M.; Istamov, A.
  88. The Economics of African American Slavery: The Cliometrics Debate By Richard C. Sutch
  89. The impact of a farmer business school program on incomes of smallholder farmers: Insights from central Malawi By Chilemba, Joanna; Ragasa, Catherine
  90. An analysis of Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency of Poultry Feed Mills in Bangladesh By Haque, M.A.; Ahamed, T.; Akteruzzaman, M.; Hashem, A.; Haque, S.; Akter, S.; Islam, M.M.; Alamgir, M.S.; Isla, M.M.
  91. Impacts of the 2016/17 food insecurity response program on maize prices in Malawi By Baulch, Bob; Gondwe, Anderson; Chafuwa, Chiyembekezo
  92. Are Urban Consumers in Niger Willing to Pay for Safe and Nutritious Food? By Nakelse, T.; Dalton, T.
  93. Socio-economic, land use and value chain perspectives on vanilla farming in the SAVA Region (north-eastern Madagascar): The Diversity Turn Baseline Study (DTBS) By Hänke, Hendrik; Barkmann, Jan; Blum, Lloyd; Franke, Yvonne; Martin, Dominic A.; Niens, Jasnna; Osen, Kristina; Uruena, Viviana; Witherspoon, S. Annette; Wurz, Annemarie
  94. Impact of PPR control programme (PPR-CP) implementation: A case of Chhattisgarh state, India By Govindaraj, G.N.; Roy, G.; Mohanty, B.; Vinayagamurthy, B.; Pandey, A.K.; Sharma, V.; Patel, A.; Mehra, M.; Pandey, S.K.; Roy, P.
  95. The impact of land degradation on agricultural profits and poverty in Central Asia By Mirzabaev, A.; Strokov, A.; Krasilnikov, P.
  96. Improved Post-Harvest Technology: What Impact on Nigeria s Smallholder Cassava Starch Processors Welfare? By Adejumo, O.; Okoruwa, V.; Abass, A.
  97. Analyzing the Size and Affecting Factors of Household Food Waste in China By Jiang, J.-Q.; Yu, T.; Wang, Z.-H.; Qi, D.-M; Huang, W.-Z
  98. Social Networks and Extent of African Leafy Vegetables Commercialization among Kenyan Smallholders: A Double Hurdle Approach By Mwema, C.; Crewett, W.; Lagat, J.; Bokelmann, W.

  1. By: Jaleta, M.; Marenya, P.; Beshir, B.
    Abstract: Using a unique household level panel data collected from the major maize producing regions of Ethiopia, this study assesses the role of crop diversification in minimizing the downside risks associated with the use of improved seed and chemical fertilizer in maize production. Empirical results show that maize-legume intercropping and rotation increases the average maize yield and reduces downside risk as captured by the estimated yield distribution using Endogenous Switching Regression models and quintile moment approaches. Controlling for plot and household level characteristics that may induce selection bias in technology adoption, maximum yield was obtained on plots with maize-legume rotation or intercropping sequences. The contribution of crop diversification in reducing downside risk in maize yield was higher when diversification was applied to plots that received improved seed and chemical fertilizers. In addition to the technical support provided to smallholder farmers on the use of improved seed and chemical fertilizer in maize production, the existing agricultural extension program in Ethiopia may also need to give due emphasis to both spatial and temporal crop diversification practices to enhance crop productivity further and reduce the potential downside risk hampering smallholder farmers initiatives in investing in purchased agricultural inputs in maize production. Acknowledgement : The authors would like to acknowledge two projects financially supported the collection of panel data used in this study: Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems for food security in Eastern and Southern Africa (SIMLESA) project funded by the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and Diffusion and Impact of Improved Varieties in Africa (DIIVA) project funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) through Bioversity International which collaborated with the Standing Panel for Impact Analysis (SPIA) in the CGIAR and CIMMYT. Views in this paper are of the authors. The usual disclaimer also works here.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277217&r=agr
  2. By: Marenya, P.; Kassie, M.; Teklewold, H.; Erenstein, O.; Qaim, M.; Rahut, D.
    Abstract: This paper examines the ex-post impact of the combination of cropping- system diversification (CSD) and the adoption of improved maize varieties on child stunting and household nutritional security. To control for selection and endogeneity bias, arising from time-variant and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, the study employs a fixed-effects multinomial endogenous switching regression using large, on a panel data set collected in maize-growing areas of Ethiopia between 2010 and 2013. Results highlight the significant effect of adoption of CSD and improved maize varieties on child stunting; per capita consumption of calories, protein, and iron; and dietary diversity. The greatest impact was achieved when farmers adopted CSD and improved maize varieties jointly rather than individually. Our results are a validation of the need to strengthen smallholder diversification in the face of subsistence production and limited access to food markets. In these scenarios, production of a diversified crop portfolio among low-income rural families should be encouraged, given the limited opportunities for specialization and constrained access to diversified diets through local food markets. Howerver, in the long run, market access to diverse food types is likely to provide more sustainable diet diversification and nutrition. Acknowledgement : We would like to acknowledge the Standing Panel on Impact Assessment of the Consulttaive Group on International Agricutural Research (CGIAR) and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) [grant number CSE/2009/024 and FSC/2012/024] through the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT)-led Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems in Eastern and Southern Africa (SIMLESA) and Adoption Pathways Projects. We also wish to thank the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Programs (CRP) on maize (CRP MAIZE).The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any of the organizations that funded this study nor those of CIMMYT.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277170&r=agr
  3. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Andam, Kwaw S.; Kufoalor, Doreen S.; Amewu, Sena
    Abstract: Global growth in aquaculture is underway – a “blue revolution” featuring rapid increases in demand for fish and a corresponding surge in aquaculture production. This paper describes the fast-growing tilapia value chain in Ghana to demonstrate the features of a nascent blue revolution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to illustrate its potential for job creation and reducing poverty and food insecurity there. Tilapia production has been growing at 15 percent annually in SSA, but imports are also surging to satisfy the growing appetite for tilapia. This paper illustrates how aquaculture can grow sustainably in SSA within the context of growing demand and global competition. A value chain analysis is conducted using secondary data analysis, desk reviews of experiences and lessons from other countries, interviews with 95 actors in the tilapia value chain in Ghana, and detailed production and profitability data from Ghanaian tilapia farmers. A profitable farmed tilapia industry has been established in Ghana with the potential to expand supply to satisfy local demand and to export to neighboring countries. Productivity in the industry has grown mainly through reducing the mortality rates of fingerlings and improvements in the supply of locally-produced high-quality fish feed. Feed costs remain high. However, there is potential to reduce those costs by improving the productivity of crops that are used in fish feed, particularly maize and soybean. Reducing local feed costs will have positive spillover effects on both other pond-based aquaculture systems and on the livestock feed sector. Moreover, Ghana can expand it fish feed production to be an important source of feed within SSA. The industry can further increase aquaculture productivity through the adoption of faster-growing fish strains and better management practices. Ghana’s aquaculture sector could grow even faster by adopting lessons from other countries, including on infrastructure provision, fiscal incentives for the production of fish feed ingredients, and sustainable fish farming practices, particularly through paying close attention to water and feed quality and addressing food safety concerns within the sector.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA ; aquaculture; value chain; competitiveness; profitability; quality controls; fishery production; food safety ; tilapila farming; aquaculture growth
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:gsspwp:49&r=agr
  4. By: Wanyama, R.; Godecke, T.; Qaim, M.
    Abstract: Many developing countries are undergoing a profound transformation of food systems. Especially in larger cities, supermarkets have become increasingly popular, affecting consumers food choices and diets. Previous research showed that supermarkets can have both positive and negative effects on dietary quality and nutrition. However, which households actually use supermarkets, and to what extent? While supermarket shopping is positively correlated with income, little is known about how important supermarkets are for the diets of the poor, who are of particular interest from a food policy perspective. The poorest of the urban poor often reside in informal settlements, so they are underrepresented in official surveys. We add to the literature by analyzing food consumption data collected from households in the poorest neighborhoods of Nairobi (Kenya) and Kampala (Uganda). We find high levels of nutritional deficiencies. Despite their ubiquitous presence, supermarkets are not yet very important for the diets of the urban poor. Supermarkets only account for 3% and 0.4% of sample households total food expenditures in Nairobi and Kampala, respectively. Especially unprocessed foods, which make up the largest share of calorie consumption, are primarily purchased in traditional retail outlets. We also show differences by food groups and income strata. Acknowledgement : This research was financially supported by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The authors thank the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), and the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO)-Uganda, for their research cooperation in the project Making Value Chains Work for Food and Nutrition Security for the Vulnerable Populations in East Africa (grant number C-030-16), and the great support during the survey.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277027&r=agr
  5. By: Adenuga, A.; Davis, J.; Hutchinson, G.; Donnellan, T.; Patton, M.
    Abstract: Negative agricultural externalities that accompany dairy production activities are not usually accounted for in the market place since they are not priced. To be able to manage an externality however, it is important that it is measured. Using a hyperbolic environmental technology distance function, we estimate the farm-specific abatement costs (shadow price) of nitrogen pollution in the island of Ireland's (Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland) dairy sector. The methodology, unlike the output/input distance functions, allows for asymmetric treatments of production outputs (desirable and undesirable outputs). We also analyse the farm level nitrogen pollution costs ratio and its determinants. The analyses are based on farm-level panel data from the Teagasc National Farm Survey(NFS) and the Northern Ireland Farm Business Survey (FBS). The results of our estimation showed that it will cost about 93,552 and 28,149 per farm to fully abate nitrogen surplus for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland respectively. We found a reasonable degree of variation in the spectrum of abatement costs across the dairy farms with a relative increase observed over the years. The results will provide quantitative information on farmers costs of reducing nitrogen pollution. This will be of relevance in designing future agri-environmental policies Acknowledgement : This study is funded by Teagasc under the Walsh fellowship programme. The authors thank Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Northern Ireland for providing technical supports. We also thank the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA), Policy and Economics Division, Northern Ireland and Teagasc for providing access to data
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277434&r=agr
  6. By: Ogutu, S.; Fongar, A.; Godecke, T.; Jackering, L.; Mwololo, H.; Njuguna, M.; Wollni, M.; Qaim, M.
    Abstract: We analyze how agricultural extension can be made more effective in terms of increasing smallholder farmers adoption of pro-nutrition technologies, such as biofortified crops. In a randomized controlled trial with farmers in Western Kenya, we implemented several extension treatments and evaluated their effects on the adoption of beans that were biofortified with iron and zinc. Difference-in-difference estimates show that intensive agricultural training tailored to local conditions can increase technology adoption considerably. Within less than one year, adoption of biofortified beans increased from almost zero to more than 20%. Providing additional nutrition training further increased adoption by another 10-12 percentage points, as this has helped farmers to better appreciate the technology s nutritional benefits. These results suggest that effective nutrition training through agricultural extension services is possible. Providing marketing training did not lead to additional adoption effects, although the study period may have been too short to measure these effects properly. This study is a first attempt to analyze how improved designs of agricultural extension can help to make smallholder farming more nutrition-sensitive. More research in this direction is needed. Key words: agricultural extension, technology adoption, biofortification, nutrition-sensitive agriculture, Kenya JEL codes: C93, O33, Q12, Q16, Q18 Acknowledgement : This research was financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) based on a decision of the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (grant number 2813FSNu01). The authors thank Jonathan Nzuma (University of Nairobi) for his research cooperation.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277250&r=agr
  7. By: Ecker, O.
    Abstract: Africa has experienced rapid economic growth based on structural change in recent years. The growth acceleration in some countries, such as Ghana, was accompanied by substantial poverty reduction. Transformation of agriculture appears to have played a key role in this context. However, the implications of agricultural transformation for rural food and nutrition security in Africa are not well understood. This paper studies the case of Ghana a country that may have outlined an Africa-typical path of growth-enhancing structural change. The analysis first describes patterns of agricultural transformation at the farm household level and then estimates the (causal) effects of farm production diversity and household income on household dietary diversity, using data from 2005-06 and 2012-13. The estimation results suggest that farm production diversity does still matter for dietary diversity across rural Ghana. However, the dietary diversity effect of farm production diversity greatly decreases with advancing agricultural transformation especially in the South, while the dietary diversity effect of household income remains fairly constant and is large. This implies that policies and programs promoting farm production diversification are likely to be increasingly less effective in improving food and nutrition security among farm households, particularly compared to those stimulating rural income growth. Acknowledgement : I am very thankful to several of my (former) colleagues at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). I thank Jean-Fran ois Trinh Tan for his assistance in conducting the research for this paper and to Xinshen Diao for commenting on draft versions. I thank Carlo Azzarri and M lanie Bacou of the HarvestChoice program for providing spatial agroecological data. I highly appreciate the support of the Ghana Strategy Support Program. This work was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (grant number: EEM-G-00-04-00013).
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:276999&r=agr
  8. By: Matej Opatrny (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: Czech farmers experienced an enormous exogenous shock when they joined the common agricultural market (CAM) and the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2004. Using the World Bank's dataset, we apply the synthetic control method to establish a counterfactual case of the Czech Republic food production index in the absence of the CAM and CAP. The results show that the Czech Republic would have had a higher food index if it had not entered the CAM and CAP. Moreover, we show that the CAP and CAM had different impacts on farms in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria, which have the most comparable agriculture according to the results of the synthetic control method.
    Keywords: Common Agriculture Policy, Common Agricultural Market, Subsidies, Farms, Synthetic Control Method
    JEL: C10 Q10 Q18
    Date: 2018–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fau:wpaper:wp2018_31&r=agr
  9. By: Oumer, A.; Burton, M.
    Abstract: Sustainable agricultural intensification practices (SAIPs) have been promoted to improve environmental services and farm productivity. However, whether implementations of SAIPs in isolation or in combinations increase economic efficiency of smallholder farmers is unclear. This study investigates the effects of SAIPs on costs and cost efficiency using stochastic frontier modelling techniques with an application to Ethiopian maize production. The econometric approaches account for heterogeneity across farms and heteroscedasticity in the variance of cost inefficiency. The results reveal that combinations of SAIPs appear to reduce cost and cost inefficiency variability but not when they are implemented in isolation. The average cost efficiency of the sample farms was about 80% indicating the presence of considerable room for improvement. Other factors that significantly change economic inefficiency are also discussed. Overall, the results demonstrate the relevance of exploiting synergistic effects of SAIPs in the wake of ever increasing cost of fertilizer, soil degradation and climate variability and enrich the discussion regarding the need to implement a portfolio of these practices rather than in isolation. Policies should support promotion of suites of SAIPs as packages and tackle factors hindering economic efficiency to enhance food security and incomes of smallholder farmers in developing countries. Key words: cost efficiency, sustainable agricultural intensification practices, soil degradation, climate variability, stochastic cost frontier, smallholder farmers, Ethiopia Acknowledgement : We gratefully acknowledge the Australian Government through Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) for funding this research. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) and the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) are acknowledged for access to raw data. The Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency (ENMA) is also greatly acknowledged for access to climate data. We thank farmers, supervisors, enumerators and other technical staff and researchers from various partner institutions who contributed to the data collection process. All remaining errors are ours.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277361&r=agr
  10. By: Anton Bonnier (Uppsala University); Tymon Sloczynski (Brandeis University and IZA); Grzegorz Koloch (Warsaw School of Economics); Katerina Kouli (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens); Adam Izdebski (Jagiellonian University in Krakow and Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History)
    Abstract: In this paper we use pollen data from a number of sites in southern Greece and Macedonia to study long-term vegetation change in these regions from 1000 BCE to 600 CE. Based on insights from environmental history, we interpret our estimated trends in the regional presence of cereal, olive, and vine pollen as proxies for structural changes in agricultural production. We present evidence that there was a market economy in ancient Greece and a major trade expansion several centuries before the Roman conquest. Our results are consistent with auxiliary data on settlement dynamics, shipwrecks, and ancient oil and wine presses.
    Keywords: agricultural production, ancient Greece, environmental history, market integration, pollen data, trade
    JEL: C81 F14 N53 N73 Q17
    Date: 2018–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:brd:wpaper:126&r=agr
  11. By: Ma, M.
    Abstract: Smallholder farming remains predominant in Chinese agricultural production, despite massive outflows of rural labor to nonfarm sectors. Although a large number of agricultural households in China rent out the farmland for which they hold contract use rights, most of them still partially or seasonally cultivate the contract land. I collected survey data from 512 households in Southwest China to examine the arrangements of farmland, including abandonment, as households make transitory reductions in cultivation sizes. I develop a theory to explain why households tend to maximize the expected income by reducing cultivation sizes partially and seasonally. The theory centers upon the value of farmland as a safety net and an appreciable asset for agricultural households under imperfect land tenure and limited access to social benefit programs. The non-productive, use-based value of contract land is characterized by a function of simultaneous choices of the cultivation size and farm labor. Flexible reallocation of land use rights helps maximize the expected income, but the inefficiency in labor allocation remains considerable. Using the survey data, I find on-farm productivity of part-time farmers to be significantly lower than the opportunity nonfarm wage rate, implying $45 billion nonfarm earnings to be forgone by agricultural households per year. Acknowledgement : I am extremely grateful to Lovell Jarvis, Kevin Novan, Richard Sexton, and Jeffrey Williams for critical and insightful comments on earlier drafts. For helpful discussion and feedback, I thank Timothy Beatty, Steve Boucher, Colin Carter, Michael Carter, Xiaomeng Cui, Travis Lybbert, Xinshen Diao, Xiaopeng Luo, Alex McCalla, Heidi Schweizer, Daniel Sumner, Daniel Tregeagle, Yan Xu, and Xiaobo Zhang. I also thank Jianwei Zhao and Xiaomei Shen among other colleagues and government officials in China for their generous support to my field surveys in Sichuan Province. Funding for this research was provided by Henry Jastro Graduate Research Award and Banner Fellowship.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277433&r=agr
  12. By: Tambo, J.; Mockshell, J.
    Abstract: Conservation agriculture (CA), which consists of minimum soil disturbance, crop residue retention and crop rotation, is claimed to generate a number of agronomic, economic and environmental benefits. Recognising these potential benefits, CA is widely promoted in efforts towards sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there has been an intense debate about its suitability in smallholder farming environments, and this has stimulated a growing interest in the adoption and impacts of CA technologies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using survey data from rural households in nine SSA countries, this paper seeks to add to the extant literature by examining the drivers and welfare impacts of individual and combined implementation of the three components of CA. We employ inverse-probability-weighting regression-adjustment and propensity score matching with multiple treatment estimators. Results show that adoption of a CA technology significantly increases household income and income per adult equivalent. Disaggregating the CA components, we find that adoption of the components in combination is associated with larger income gains than when the components are adopted in isolation, and the largest effect is achieved when households implement the three practices jointly. We identify key factors that might spur increased adoption, including education, secure land rights, and access to institutional support services. Acknowledgement : This research was financially supported by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) through the research projects Promoting Food Security in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Agricultural Intensification, Social Security and Results-Oriented Approaches and Program of Accompanying Research for Agricultural Innovation (PARI) . This article draws on data from the Lund University led Afrint II project, which was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency and the Swedish Research Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the team of researchers from Sweden and the nine African countries who were involved in the Afrint II project.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277035&r=agr
  13. By: Oniki, S.; Berhe, M.; Negash, T.
    Abstract: Increasing population pressure in the rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa causes degradation of communal lands, as well as increases in landless farmers. To promote the conservation based utilization of communal lands and increase the incomes of poor farmers, the Ethiopian government introduced a distribution program of the less-utilized communal lands to landless farmers. Although this policy is a novel approach to reducing population pressure while maintaining soil and water conservation, participation is not active enough in some areas. As such, this study shows the social norms for natural resource conservation of the communities affect the participation in the program. Using original farm household data, it estimates models for program participation determinants, especially the effects of social norms for conservation, represented by proportion of area enclosure, amount of activities for soil and water conservation, and evaluation by local government. The results show that the social norms for conservation affect program participation positively. They also show that the norms do not affect the farmers incomes, meaning norms directly influence participation. These results suggest the possibility of norm enhancement by extension works. Therefore, the sustainable utilization of communal lands would be more effective if it accompanies programs that improve social norms of villages. Acknowledgement : We would like to thank the staff of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development of Tigray Region, Natural Resource Office of Woreda Kilte Awelaelo and Woreda Atsbi Wenberta, and Mekelle University for their support in data collection. This study presents part of the results of Forest and Farmland Conservation for Watershed Management in the Ethiopian Highlands (FFCW) Project, a component of Watershed Management in Africa of Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS).
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277070&r=agr
  14. By: Smith, V.; De Pinto, A.; Robertson, R.
    Abstract: This study examines the empirical importance of the effects of the risk environment on the impacts of climate change on farm land allocations and consequent effect on agricultural output in Zambia. We use a discrete-choice model consistent with a mean-variance utility function to model farm-level land allocations among alternative crops. Results indicate that risk-reducing decisions reinforce the trend to shift away from maize production in response to climate change impacts on mean temperatures and precipitation. The opportunity cost of these decisions is explored through a simulation scenario in which yield variability is reduced to zero. Important conclusions can be derived from this analysis. First, when the economic effects of climate change are considered, decision-making under uncertainty and risk should be at the forefront of the problems that issues that need to be addressed. Second, concentrating on farm-level effects of responses to climate change is not sufficient. To understand the economy wide consequences of climate change, the aggregate effects of individual decisions should be assessed. Third, results indicate that increased efforts in risk management and in policies aiming at reducing risk can lead to significant positive outcomes. Acknowledgement : This work was supported by a grant from the Bureau of Food Security at the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). This work was implemented as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), which is carried out with support from CGIAR Fund Donors and through bilateral funding agreements. For details please visit donors. The authors take sole responsibility for the opinions expressed within this study.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277315&r=agr
  15. By: Mason, N.; Morgan, S.; Levine, N.K.; Zulu-Mbata, O.
    Abstract: Poor and declining soil fertility remains a major constraint on increased cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Input subsidy programs (ISPs) for inorganic fertilizer are a popular and expensive tool used by African governments to increase cereal yields; however, far fewer resources are devoted to promoting other soil fertility management (SFM) practices that can improve soil quality, increase cereal yield response to inorganic fertilizer, and support sustainable agricultural intensification. This article uses nationally-representative household panel survey data from Zambia to estimate the effects of the country s ISP on smallholder farm households adoption of several SFM practices: fallowing, intercropping, crop rotation, and the use of animal manure. The results suggest that Zambia s ISP induces reductions in fallowing and intercropping of maize with other crops. We also find some evidence that the program incentivizes an increase in continuous maize cultivation on the same plot in consecutive seasons but little evidence of effects on animal manure use. The changes in SFM practices induced by the ISP are likely to be detrimental to soil fertility, maize yield response to fertilizer, and returns to government expenditures on the ISP over the medium- to long-term. Overall, Zambia s ISP may have dis-incentivized sustainable intensification rather than promoted it. Acknowledgement : This research was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through funding to the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security Policy and the USAID Mission to Zambia, and by the United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture and Michigan AgBioResearch (project number MICL02501).
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277491&r=agr
  16. By: Takeshima, H.
    Abstract: Despite economic transformations and urbanization, declining shares of the workforce employed in the agricultural sector, production costs in the agricultural sector and food prices remain high in Nigeria relative to those in some of the other developing countries. Understanding how the adoption of mechanical technologies is related to agricultural productivity is therefore important for countries like Nigeria. Using farm household data from northern Nigeria as well as various spatial agroclimatic data, this study shows that the adoption of key mechanical technologies in Nigerian agriculture (animal traction, tractors, or both) has been high in areas that are more agroclimatically similar to the locations of agricultural research and development (R&D) stations, and this effect is heterogeneous, being particularly strong among relatively larger farms. Furthermore, such effects are likely to have been driven by the rise in returns on scale in the underlying production function caused by the adoption of these mechanical technologies. Agricultural mechanization, represented here as the switch from manual labor to animal traction and tractors, has been not only raising the average return on scale but also potentially magnifying the effects of productivity-enhancing public-sector R&D on spatial variations in agricultural productivity in countries like Nigeria. Acknowledgement : This work was undertaken as part of and funded by the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM), which is led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and funded by CGIAR Fund donors, the United States Agency for International Development Food Security Policy project, the Syngenta Foundation, and IFPRI s Nigeria Strategy Support Program. This paper has not undergone IFPRI s standard peer-review process. The opinions expressed here belong to the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of PIM, IFPRI, or CGIAR. The authors are solely responsible for all remaining errors.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277457&r=agr
  17. By: Haldar, S.; Rahaman, S.M.; Bera, B.K.; Pal, S.; Nandi, A.K.
    Abstract: The study was conducted in Sundarbans region of West Bengal, India with an objective of identifying and analyzing the economics of major farming systems and to suggest suitable farm plans for the study area. 180 sample farmers were chosen using multi-stage random sampling method from six villages of three from each Basanti and Kultali blocks. Fourteen major farming systems were identified among the various farming systems prevalent in the study area. Majority of the sample farmers were smallholders(84.53 %) who practiced cereal based farming system that is also limited to mono-cropping of kharif paddy (18.89%) followed by Cereal +Fish farming system (13.89 %) and subsequently Cereal + Dairy (12.78 %) farming system. A great transformation in the economic life of the farmers was possible through reallocation of their existing resources base and taking up alternative enterprises like vegetable farming, fishery, poultry farming and rearing dairy animals. At existing resource level, adoption of optimum plan M-I can increase net income by more than 25 per cent. The rearrangement of enterprise at enhanced resource level (optimum plan M-II) would increase the net income by more than 45 per cent than the existing plan with minimal risk. Acknowledgement : I duly acknowledge all the support that I got in Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India-741252 to successfully complete my PhD Thesis and awarding me with the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Agriculture) in Agricultural Economics.
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277042&r=agr
  18. By: Begum, I.A.; Alam, M.J.; Akter, S.; Talukder, R.K.
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to identify the productive outcomes of agricultural rehabilitation program (ARP) at household level in Bangladesh. The study used latest Household Income and Expenditure Survey, 2010 and have applied PSM approach to analyse the impacts. The study has chosen 4286 households to include in probit model as control group from the households other than the treated group of 446 households. Propensity scores ranged from approximately zero to one with a mean of 0.102. Various indicators such as labor allocation, income generating activities, investment and shock`s coping strategies etc. were chosen to identify the productive outcomes. The ATE on the treated was significant for income generating activities (farm and non-farm), labor allocation (farm and non-farm, self-employment) and investment (agricultural assets, inputs). The farm activities increased by 0.40 units but non-farm activities declined by 0.73 units per household due to agriculture rehabilitation program. One of the areas of reduction of labor unit is day laborer in non-farm sector - moved from non-farm to on-farm activities. The results suggest that ARP is a promising means of safety net for the marginal and small farmers in Bangladesh. This type of safety net could contribute more to productive outcomes. Acknowledgement : Acknowledgement: The research was financed under the Research Grants Scheme of the National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme (NFPCSP). The NFPCSP is being implemented by the FAO of the United Nations and the Food Planning and Monitoring Unit, Ministry of Food with the financial support of EU and USAID. Disclaimer: The findings and presentation of material in this paper are those of the author(s). They do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO, nor do they imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO or of the NFPCSP, Government of Bangladesh, EU or USAID.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277428&r=agr
  19. By: Subakanya, M.; Hichaambwa, M.; Chapoto, A.; Kangasniemi, M.; Knowles, M.
    Abstract: The asset base, income and livelihood strategies of rural households in Zambia differ widely. For this reason, a one-size-fits-all strategy will not be effective. Therefore, there is need for empirical evidence of how different policy instruments in agriculture and social protection and combinations of these can be targeted to different population groups. This could also help orient public expenditure into more impactful and cost effective interventions in agriculture and social protection. Using Principal component analysis and Cluster analysis, Zambia s 1.4 million smallholder farming households fall into five broad livelihood groups. While crop and non-crop agriculture plays a dominant role in the livelihoods of most rural households, off-farm activities are also important. Poor rural households need both income and productive support, which can be provided through social protection and smallholder agricultural development programmes. Agricultural development programmes need to be adjusted to different crop and non-crop agricultural activities. Support also needs to be provided to off-farm income-generating activities. For the wealthiest clusters, policy should consider private sector led down and upstream agricultural supply and/or value chain inclusion and development. Acknowledgement : We acknowledge the financial support from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). We particularly appreciate the input in the design and analysis of the study, including review comments by Moses Chibole, Silvio Daidone, Alejandro Grinspun and Maria Angelita Ruvalcaba of FAO and peer reviewing by Fabio Veras. Any views expressed or errors are solely the responsibility of the authors.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277348&r=agr
  20. By: Xiang, T.; Malik, T.; Nielsen, K.
    Abstract: The world s natural population growth has generated a paradoxical challenge between food security and safety (environmental quality). In this paper, we address this question to establish the security safety paradox by examining increased fertiliser use on decreasing land endowment, and we establish how policy inducement reflects on the food security versus safety issue. Based on the generalised method of moment estimations and panel data of 72 countries from 2002 to 2010, we for the first time answer this question and offer insightful developments in this direction. Firstly, we observe that shrinking land endowment has significant direct and indirect impacts (agricultural protection and food trade policies). Our analysis demonstrates that a decrease in the land endowment increases the fertiliser use intensity. Secondly, policy for agricultural protection induces different effects on security and safety issues in development and world economies. Developed countries have introduced policies to reduce fertiliser usage trading food security for safety. By contrast, developing countries have introduced policies to increase food security trading food safety for security. Thus, developed countries tend to import food from developing countries to bridge the gap, and developing countries achieve economic gains. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the fundings sponsered by an agreement between FAO and CSC of China, Humanities and Social Science Fund from Ministry of Education (16YJC790112, 15YJA790093), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71673041) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (N150604006). We would like to thank participants at the 2015 CES conference in Chengdu and at the 2016 sino-Korea regional economics conference in Kyungsung University, Korea for helpful comments.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277296&r=agr
  21. By: Rebecca Pearl Tumwebaze (Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries); Henk Sol (University of Groningen); Doris Kakuru (Uganda Technology and Management University)
    Abstract: Because of agriculture?s direct link to global food security, it is strategically important. This research recognizes the importance of a paradigm shift from subsistence to commercial agriculture for East Africa to advance this strategic importance. This shift has particularly had significant impact on the poultry industry. In East Africa, commercial poultry farming has steadily taken root over the last decade albeit the challenge of inadequate farm management competences among farmers which has been aggravated by lack of systems and approaches to enhance effective and efficient decision making among poultry farmers in the region. The focus of this study therefore is how decision processes of poultry farmers can be enhanced so that they are able to efficiently monitor and manage their operations as they seek to take advantage of the trend of commercialisation of the poultry industry. This paper explores the decision making practices of poultry farmers with an aim of enhancing these decisions for improved productivity of poultry farms in the region. The key research question this study seeks to address is: How can decision making among poultry farmers in East Africa be enhanced?
    Keywords: Decision making, Decision Enhancement, Studio, Design Science
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:6509491&r=agr
  22. By: Yigezu, Y.A.; El-Shater, T.; Boughlala, M.; Bishaw, Z.; Niane, A.; Aw-Hassan, A.
    Abstract: While the impacts of legume-cereal rotations on soil health are well documented, the literature on their economic benefits, especially in dry areas is scanty. By applying the propensity score matching and endogenous switching regression methods to a nationally representative sample of 1,230 farm households from Morocco, this paper provided empirical evidence that the individual and combined adoption of improved varieties of faba-beans and legume-wheat rotations lead to higher yields, farm income and household consumption. Considering a two-year period, the simultaneous adoption of both faba-bean-wheat rotation and improved faba-bean varieties led to $875/ha (136%%) higher net returns relative to wheat mono-cropping. In the face of these very high benefits, high risk of losing faba-bean crops due to pests, diseases or drought explain the low adoption of rotation and improved varieties which are at 26% and 16% respectively. For reaping both the economic and environmental benefits of faba-beans, Morocco and other similar countries in the dry areas will need to invest on the development of varieties with better pest and diseases resistance, introduce crop insurance and different incentive systems, and create better access to extension and certified seed delivery services that induce wider adoption of improved varieties and legume-cereal rotations. Acknowledgement : Funding for this research was obtained from CRP-WHEAT and the EU-IFAD project on Enhanced small holder wheat cropping systems to improve food security under changing climate in the drylands of West Asia and North Africa.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277523&r=agr
  23. By: Wang, S.; An, H.; Chang, W.-Y.; Gaston, C.
    Abstract: In response to threats from climate change, such as an increased likelihood of droughts and insect outbreaks, significant investments in forestry genomics research have been made. The main advantage of genomic technology is that it greatly reduces the amount of R&D time to come up with a new product, and it is much more precise than traditional breeding techniques. However, the technology also comes with higher upfront R&D costs. Thus, whether the research effort would result in a worthwhile use of scarce research resources remains unknown. To help quantify the economic effect, we assess the welfare consequences of the forestry genomic research by estimating a timber supply model and a dynamic global forest products trade model. Using the forest industry of Alberta as our empirical setting, we find that the research program can yield an increase in total economic surplus of 400 million CAD in present value and the benefit-cost ratio of the research program is 43.9, indicating that more resources can be allocated advantageously to genomics-assisted tree breeding programs. The findings provide a justification for adopting genomic technology in the forestry sector and are useful in supporting genomics-enhanced reforestation policies and investment decisions. Acknowledgement : We acknowledge cash funding for this research from Genome Canada, Genome Alberta through Alberta Economic Trade and Development, Genome British Columbia, the University of Alberta and the University of Calgary. Further cash funding has been provided by Alberta Innovates BioSolutions, Forest Resource Improvement Association of Alberta, and the Forest Resource Improvement Program through West Fraser Ltd. and Weyerhaeuser Timberlands. In-kind funding has been provided by Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, Blue Ridge Lumber West Fraser, Weyerhaeuser Timberlands Grande Prairie, and the Thomas, Wishart, and Erbilgin labs in support of the Resilient Forests (RES-FOR): Climate, Pests & Policy Genomic Applications project.
    Keywords: Resource/Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277443&r=agr
  24. By: Grozavu, Adrian; Mihai, Florin-Constantin
    Abstract: Changes in the contemporary world materialized in particular through population growth and mobility, urbanization, and economic expansion also result in an increased exposure of people and assets to extreme events and impose, implicitly, adequate management of induced risks. The occurrence of natural and anthropogenic risk phenomena, known as hazards, puts a heavy tribute on disaster-sensitive human communities regardless of their level of development. The magnitude of the disasters and their increasing frequency and severity imply the need for their approach by the entire world community and for global action. Knowledge of risks becomes a sine qua condition in carrying out impact studies, risk prevention plans, spatial planning plans, and, in general, a condition for effective management of natural resources or sustainable development projects.
    Keywords: risks analysis, natural hazards, pollution, climate change,anthropogenic hazards, vulnerability, exposure
    JEL: H12 K32 L97 O13 O18 O44 O50 Q5 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q56 R41 R58
    Date: 2018–10–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:89631&r=agr
  25. By: Gebreegziabher, Z.; Mekonnen, A.; Beyene, A.D.; Hagos, F.
    Abstract: Water scarcity for various uses constitutes a major global concern affecting millions of people but the problem is more serious especially in Africa. In a situation where farmers do not pay for irrigation water use, this study aims to investigate demand-side issues by eliciting farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for access to irrigation water. We employ choice experiment and contingent valuation methods to valuing access to irrigation water taking Ethiopia as a case in point. Unlike previous studies, the study covers users and non-users of irrigation water using the same baseline (status quo) conditions and compares the preferences of these two groups. Four attributes identified in the choice experiment are number of crop seasons, frequency of watering in a season, crop type and payment. Results show that marginal WTP was Birr 17.7, 261.8 and 87.6 for number of crop seasons, watering frequency in a season and crop type respectively. Our estimate of WTP of farmers for operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes per hectare of irrigated land range from Birr 738 (from the CE) to Birr 784 (from the CVM). We find non-users are willing to pay more in general as well as for the number of crop seasons specifically. Acknowledgement : The authors gratefully acknowledge with thanks financial support for this work from Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) through the Environment for Development (EfD) initiative, Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; and logistical support during the field work from the Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity of Ethiopia. The authors also thank Dale Whittington and participants of the 11th EfD Annual Meeting 2017, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for useful comments on an earlier version of the paper.
    Keywords: Resource/Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277168&r=agr
  26. By: Ramadas, S.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, A.
    Abstract: Climate change is a serious threat to Indian agriculture affecting crop production and livelihood. The study documents the perception of 500 farmers on climate change as well as awareness and extent of adaptation strategies followed at wheat farms captured by survey (2016-17) apart from tracking yield sensitivity by employing two-stage step-wise regression. Findings indicated that perception matched with the climatology. Investigation alerted that a majority (56.6%) have not changed wheat varieties despite climate change belief barring Haryana wherein, 54% seed replacement exists. Yield has increased over time with no significant change in straw yield, grain and straw quality. Mapping of sensitive stages in crop growth indicated that minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were affecting yield at early stage, whereas, maximum temperature influence yield at maturity stage. The survey explicitly alarms that barring a few strategies like application of organic manures, new varieties, crop insurance and irrigation management, the awareness on rest of the adaptation practices is very low among the wheat producers. Further, every technology is embedded with socio-economic constraints in adoption. The study advocates for implementation of region-specific participatory climate-smart farming practices and/or adaptation strategies through targeted extension programs to manage the yield sensitivity against climate change. Acknowledgement : The authors duly thank the Agricultural Extension Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for the financial grant under extramural and the Director, ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal for rendering support and infrastructure facilities to carry out the research work (Project Code: 1007828)
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277737&r=agr
  27. By: Karel Janda (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic; Department of Banking and Insurance, Faculty of Finance and Accounting, University of Economics, Namesti Winstona Churchilla 4, 13067 Prague, Czech Republic); Ladislav Kristoufek (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: We assess the fuel-food price linkage models of the structural and of the time series nature with the main attention devoted to the time series literature. We document shifting focus from a straightforward vector autoregressive and error-correction analysis of fuel-food commodity price level co-movement towards inclusion of biodiesel and ethanol prices directly into analysis, towards consideration of both price levels and price volatilities, and towards growing sophistication of econometric methodologies and integration of econometrics of price co-movement with theoretical considerations. The key insight of biofuels price transmission literature is that the price transmission is time and market specific, evolving with the development of biofuels policies and technologies. The most prominent relationships are coming from oil to agricultural commodities and then towards biofuels. While here are also studies not finding any strong connection between biofuels and their feedstock, the literature finding biofuels driving the prices of agricultural commodities up is negligible.
    Keywords: biofuels, fuels, food, ethanol, biodiesel, oil
    JEL: Q16 Q42 Q56
    Date: 2018–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fau:wpaper:wp2018_32&r=agr
  28. By: Jackering, L.; Fongar, A.; Godecke, T.; Mbugua, M.; Njuguna, M.; Ogutu, S.; Wollni, M.
    Abstract: A growing body of literature focuses on the importance of peer effects for farmers adoption decisions. However, little is known on how interventions affect networks. We are analyzing network changes and the influence of peer effects on the adoption of technologies. Our analysis builds on a unique dataset that combines a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with detailed panel data on communication networks. The RCT was implemented in rural Kenya and consisted of varying combinations of agricultural and nutrition training sessions. The broader purpose of the extension training was the promotion of the black bean variety KK15. Survey data from 48 farmer groups (824 households) was collected before (2015) and after (2016) the intervention. Results suggest that the intervention had a positive impact on the creation of communication links. We find positive effects of adopting peers on individual adoption decisions. Further, peer effects become increasingly important for the adoption decision of farmers attending a higher share of training sessions. Hence, training farmer groups can be very efficient in diffusing new technologies since peer effects can stimulate and drive the adoption process. Acknowledgement : This research was financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) based on the decision of the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany (grant number 2813FSNu01). The authors thank the University of Nairobi and Africa Harvest for their research cooperation. We would like to express our special gratitude to all respondents and enumerators who were part of this survey.
    Keywords: Research and Development/ Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277540&r=agr
  29. By: Mitter, H.; Schmid, E.
    Abstract: Climate information appears to be underutilized in water stress management in agriculture. A systematic analysis of potential impacts related to multi-seasonal dry spells, effective adaptation measures, and the economic value of climate information may inform decision making and facilitate the uptake and use of climate information. Hence, we have developed an integrated modeling framework consisting of a statistical climate model, a crop rotation model, a bio-physical process model, a portfolio optimization model, the computation of the economic value of climate information, and a spatial hot spot analysis and applied it to the context of water stress management in crop production in Austria. Results from the integrated modeling framework show that the average economic value of climate information ranges between 13 and 99 /ha for Austrian cropland, depending on the scenario of multi-seasonal dry spells and the farmers risk aversion level. On average, the value of climate information is highest on flat and productive soils, for root and oil crops, under more extreme dry spells, and if farmers are highly risk averse. Quantifying the value of climate information may guide data provision efforts and highlight agricultural production regions, which would particularly benefit from such information to improve water stress management. Acknowledgement : Research to this article has been supported by the research projects UncertProp Uncertainty propagation in integrated modelling approaches for global change impacts on the bio-economy (KR16AC0K13332) and COMBIRISK Combined weather related risk assessment monitor for tailoring climate change adaptation in Austrian crop production (KR15AC8K12614), both funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund within the Austrian Climate Research Programme.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277099&r=agr
  30. By: Amaza, P.
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of the project Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno (PROSAB) on the livelihoods of farming households in Borno State, Nigeria. Specifically, the paper identifies and provides information on farmers adoption of improved crop varieties introduced by PROSAB, measures their adoption rates and food security levels, and analyses the factors that affect the households food security status. The study used mainly primary data collected from a sample of 693 farming households in the study area. The analysis of data was carried out using descriptive statistics, Cost of Calorie calculations, and Logit regression techniques. The study results suggest that PROSAB has made a significant contribution towards improving the food security of households. In project intervention communities, food insecurity has been reduced from 58% in 2004 to 30% in 2015, indicating a 28% improvement in food security over the 11-year period. The paper clearly demonstrates how the adoption of crop technologies and crop management practices with linkages to markets has significantly contributed in improving households food security. The paper recommends increased promotion of improved crop technologies, trainings delivered to farmers on such technologies, and policies that enhance farmers access to inputs, credit, and output markets. Acknowledgement : The authors acknowledge the following; i) Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) for funding the research (2004-2009); ii) financial assistance from the funded N2Africa project; iii) the contribution of IITA as an institution for providing a conducive environment and various Scientists from IITA that were involved in delivering research for development technologies and farmers training in the PROSAB project area, which had significantly increased crop yields, farmers income and enhanced household food security and iv) the contribution of Scientists from the University of Maiduguri and Borno State Agricultural Development Programmes who are Collaborators in implementing the PROSAB project.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277204&r=agr
  31. By: Feleke, S.; Manyong, V.; Abdoulaye, T.; Alene, A.; Wossen, T.; Dontsop, P.
    Abstract: The paper assesses whether, and if so, to what extent, the adoption of improved cassava varieties are more favourable towards the food insecure (pro-poor) as measured by the share of overall benefits. Data for this study came from a household survey conducted in Tanzania, DR Congo, Sierra Leone and Zambia through multinational-CGIAR support to agricultural research for development of strategic crops project in Africa. Given the observational nature of the data, a parametric approach (endogenous switching and Poisson regression model) was applied, accounting for potential self-selection bias that may arise from unobserved heterogeneities. Results provided consistent findings that adoption of cassava varieties decreased the rate, depth and severity of food insecurity. Decomposition of the overall average gains in calories due to adoption resulted in over four-fifths accruing to food insecure, compared to only one-fifth accruing to the food secure group. This implies that the impacts of cassava varieties are more favourable towards the food insecure than the food secure and thus present important evidence on the effectiveness of the adoption of cassava technology for reducing the rate and depth of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. Acknowledgement : The authors wish to thank the African Development Bank (AfDB) for supporting the multinational-CGIAR support to agricultural research for development of strategic crops (SARD-SC) in Africa project that made possible the collection of the data used in the study. We are also thankful to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture for supporting this study.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277196&r=agr
  32. By: Nedumaran, S.; Kadiyala, D.M.; Srigiri, S.R.; Roberto, V.; McDermid, S.
    Abstract: The rainfed farming in India is characterized by low productivity, frequent weather variability, policy bias, poor market and infrastructure and degraded natural resources, which leads to low farm income and farm households vulnerability. Along with these challenges, changing climate and socio-economic conditions in the future are serious threat to the rainfed farming and household farm profitability. In this paper we use the AgMIP Regional Integrated Assessment (RIA) methods which integrates climate, crop and economic modeling to assess potential impacts of climate change on economic vulnerability of farm households, average farm net returns and poverty in semi-arid region of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study used the socio-economic data from representative household survey, together with down-scaled climate data, site-specific crop model simulations. The simulation results shows that the majority of fallow-chickpea based farm households are vulnerable (68% in warmer climate and 42% in wet climate) to climate change if current production systems are used in the future. Vulnerability is not uniform across the Kurnool district and climate impacts vary across climate scenarios. Therefore, development and promotion of location specific adaptation strategies linking technologies, policies and infrastructure is need to improve the resilience and adaptive capacity of farm rainfed farm households to climate change. Acknowledgement : This research was funded by Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AGMIP, www.agmip.org) and acknowledge for the contribution on the methodology. The opinions expressed here belong to the authors, and do not necessarily reflect those of ICRISAT or CGIAR.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277100&r=agr
  33. By: Douadia, Bougherara; Laurent, Piet
    Abstract: A growing number of studies in finance and economics seek to explain insurance choices us- ing the assumptions advanced by behavioral economics. One recent example in agricultural economics is the use of cumulative prospect theory (CPT) to explain farmer choices regarding crop insurance coverage levels (Babcock, 2015). We build upon this framework by deriving willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance programs under alternative assumptions, thus extend- ing the model to incorporate farmer decisions regarding whether or not to purchase insurance. Our contribution is twofold. First, we study the sensitivity of farmer WTP for crop insurance to the inclusion of CPT parameters. We find that loss aversion and probability distortion in- crease WTP for insurance while risk aversion decreases it. Probability distortion in losses plays a particularly important role. Second, we study the impact of yield distribution skewness on farmer WTP assuming CPT preferences. We find that WTP decreases when the distribution of yields moves from negatively- to positively-skewed and that the combined effect of proba- bility weighting in losses and skewness has a large negative impact on farmer WTP for crop insurance.
    Keywords: crop insurance, cumulative prospect theory, premium subsidy, Skewnes
    JEL: D81 Q10 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rae:wpaper:201808&r=agr
  34. By: Kim, J.; Mason, N.; Snapp, S.
    Abstract: Food insecurity, child malnutrition, and land degradation remain persistent problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Agricultural sustainable intensification (SI) has been proposed as a possible solution to simultaneously address these challenges. Yet there is little empirical evidence on if SI do indeed improve child nutrition. To begin to fill this gap, we use Tanzania National Panel Survey data to analyze the child nutrition effects of rural households adoption of farming practices that contribute to the SI of maize production. We group households into four categories based on their use of three soil fertility management practices on maize plots: Non-adoption ; Intensification (use of inorganic fertilizer); Sustainable (use of organic fertilizer, maize-legume intercropping, or both); and SI (joint use of inorganic fertilizer with organic fertilizer and/or maize-legume intercropping). The full-sample results from multinomial endogenous treatment effects models suggest that adoption of all three categories improves children s height-for-age z-score (HAZ) relative to Non-adoption , while only the SI category enhances children s weight-for-age z-score (WAZ). Since children are largely breastfed until age 2, we re-estimate the models using children age 25-59 months, which suggests that adoption of Sustainable and SI categories increases HAZ by 0.44 and 0.38 units, respectively, and WAZ by 0.29 and 0.52 units, respectively. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) through funding to the Feed the Future Innovation Labs for Collaborative Research on Sustainable Intensification and Food Security Policy, and the USAID Mission to Tanzania. The authors wish to thank Neema Kassim, Jean-Claude Rubyogo, and Felicia Wu for helpful input on this research.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277326&r=agr
  35. By: Vellaichamy, S.; Singh, P.; Priya, S.; Mahra, G.; Palanisamy, V.; Venu, L.; Singh, A.
    Abstract: Diet and diversity gets increased attention because of its impact on nutrition and health. A study was conducted in this line in Dhar and Datia districts of Madhya Pradesh, a nutritionally disadvantaged area in India. A structured interview schedule was the tool for data collection with in-built 24-hour diet recall section. A total of 240 respondents participated in this study. The study registered a slight mark of overweight and obesity in the respondent groups. It was understood that the problem of under nourishment was less with male groups than female groups in both districts. It was also revealed that majorly, the respondent groups had low level of knowledge about nutrition. A sixteen food group model (FAO) was used to evaluate DDS (Diet Diversity Score) ranging from 0 to 7. Overall Individual DDS was medium ranging from 3.9 to 4.7 (Dhar) and 5.0 to 6.4 (Datia). The actual consumption of all the food groups taken by the respondents were quantified and it was found that least consumed food groups were pulses and fruits. The study concludes that dietary diversity is poor and efforts to improve nutritional status must address the issue of nutrition education, dietary diversity and nutrition sensitive agriculture. Acknowledgement : The authors thank the financial support provided by ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, for conducting this study under the project Enhancing Nutrition Security and Gender Empowerment .
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277508&r=agr
  36. By: Borner, J.; Bruckner, M.; Flach, R.; Soares-Filho, B.; Wunder, S.
    Abstract: Green growth strategies and bioeconomic technological innovation affect global demand and supply of agricultural and forestry-based commodities. What trade-mediated impacts has this fledging transformation on land-use change at ecologically sensitive tropical forest margins? Standard global trade models only provide impact assessments at aggregate regional scales, implicitly assuming either perfect or zero environmental enforcement. However, emerging empirical impact evaluations suggest that conservation policies only partially constrain illegal land conversion with highly variable effectiveness in space. We present a spatially explicit cropland allocation tool simulating imperfectly functioning conservation policies. We shock cropland allocation with a land demand scenario derived from a multi-regional input-output model to assess land-use spillovers under two common policy scenarios of imperfect environmental enforcement under spatial heterogeneity: (1) protection of specific flagship biomes through protected area networks or (2) cost-efficient enforcement in accessible zones immediately threatened by illegal agricultural expansion. Both scenarios result in land use spillover effects, but combining the two strategies does not generally perform better than flagship biome protection alone. Outcomes depend on country-specific spatial distributions of returns to cropland expansion, law enforcement costs, and environmental service provision. In closing, we discuss the implications of our findings for land-use governance in a globalized bioeconomy. Acknowledgement : This work was supported by the Robert Bosch Foundation, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, and is part of CIFOR s Global Comparative Study on REDD+
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277223&r=agr
  37. By: Filipski, M.; Belton, B.
    Abstract: The rapid growth of fish farming over the past three decades has generated heated debates over the place of aquaculture in rural development. Central to these debates is the question of whether and how aquaculture impacts local incomes and employment, yet little empirical evidence exists on the issue. To address this question, we propose a Local Economy-wide Impact Evaluation (LEWIE) model which nests fish farm models within a general-equilibrium model of their local economy. The model is calibrated using primary data collected from 1102 households in Myanmar s main aquaculture zone, representative of 60% of the country s aquaculture. Using this model, we examine the impact of aquaculture on the incomes and labor market outcomes of fish farming households, but also crop farms and non-farm households in the cluster. Simulating one-acre increases in pond/plot surface we find that: (1) aquaculture generates much higher incomes per-acre than agriculture; (2) aquaculture generates larger income spillovers than agriculture for non-farm households, by way of retail and labor markets; (3) small commercial fish farms generate greater spillovers than large fish farms. These results bolster the notion that fish-farming, notably small-scale commercial aquaculture, may have a significant role to play in rural development and poverty reduction. Acknowledgement : This research was made possible by the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded Food Security Policy Project (Associate Award No. AID-482-LA-14-00003), and financial assistance from the Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund (LIFT) Grant Support Agreement Number: R 1.4/029/2014 for the project Agrifood Value Chain Development in Myanmar: Implications for Livelihoods of the Rural Poor . We also thank Mekamu Kedir Jamal of the International Food Policy Research Institute for assistance with analysis of satellite imagery and mapping.
    Keywords: Resource/Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277461&r=agr
  38. By: Taheripour, Farzad; Luis Moises Pena Levano; Wally Tyner
    Abstract: The standard GTAP data bases do not explicitly represent production, consumption, and trade of biofuels. In response to the growing demand for biofuels research, biofuels (including ethanol produced from grains, ethanol produced from sugarcane, and biodiesel produced from vegetable oils) were introduced in to the GTAP data base version 6 which represents the global economy in 2001 [1]. In 2001 the global production of biofuels (including ethanol and biodiesel) was about 5 billion gallons. Then the first and second generation of biofuels were introduced into the GTAP data base version 7 for 2004 [2]. In 2004 the global production of all types of first generation of biofuels was about 7.8 billion gallons. In 2004, there was no commercial production of second generation of biofuels (biofuels produced from cellulosic materials). However, several second generation biofuel technologies were introduced into this data base. Several studies have used the first and second versions of the GTAP-BIO data bases to project the economic and land use impacts of biofuel production and policy at the global scale
    Date: 2017
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gta:resmem:5172&r=agr
  39. By: Carauta, M.; Guzman-Bustamante, I.; Meurer, K.; Hampf, A.; Troost, C.; Rodrigues, R.; Berger, T.
    Abstract: This study focuses on evaluating the full distribution of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to agricultural land-use change in Mato Grosso, Brazil, both from a farmer and policy perspective. By combining three simulation models as well as data from field experiments, we present a novel Integrated Assessment approach that evaluates a large set of production systems, management practices, technologies, climatic conditions, and soil types with very high spatial resolution. The main component of our application is a multi-agent mathematical programming simulator that links socio-economic and biophysical constraints at farm-level and, hence, simulates farmer decision-making and policy response. We estimate the GHG emissions related to the full range of farm production systems and sources, such as inputs, machinery production, diesel consumption, soil processes, land use change (soil organic carbon and carbon stock from vegetation) and enteric fermentation. The results of our simulations indicate that GHG emissions in Mato Grosso are very sensitive to alternative land use change scenarios. The largest source of GHG emissions from crop and eucalyptus production is the use of farming inputs, while for cattle production it is the emission from enteric fermentation. Final simulation results regarding farmer policy response will be presented at the ICAE conference. Acknowledgement : This research was financed by the CarBioCial project of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. We thankfully acknowledge the scholarships awarded by the Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) [grant number BEX-10421/14-9]. We are grateful to Embrapa Agrossilvipastoril and IMEA for the technical materials and knowledge provided. Special thanks to Eric B necke and Uwe Franko for their support on the parameterization of CANDY simulations. The simulation experiments were performed using the computational resources of bwUniCluster funded by the Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts and the Universities of the State of Baden-W rttemberg, Germany.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277118&r=agr
  40. By: Scheiterle, L.
    Abstract: High yield gaps persist in sub-Saharan Africa and increased fertilizer use is considered among the crucial measures to increase productivity. Despite high government investment, particularly in fertilizer subsidy programs, evidence has revealed the inefficiency of these programs. This study employs a multidisciplinary approach to identify the determinants of low maize yields in the Guinea savannah zone. We conducted a socio-economic household survey and analyzed plot specific soil samples. Fertilizer samples were analyzed to control for adulterated or fake inputs. Laboratory testing was used to analyze the soil and fertilizer samples. A production function and a Tobit model were estimated based on both socio-economic and soil variables. The models revealed that a common obligated parasitic weed, striga spp., and labile soil structure have cardinal effects on yield variability in the study region. The results, moreover, confirmed problems of targeting, timing, and elite capture. Although there are no signs of fertilizer adulteration, governance challenges persist in the targeting and distribution system of the subsidy program. The study shows that the fertilizer subsidy program has not been an effective standalone measure; promoting soil carbon management, minimum mechanical stress, crop rotation, and permanent soil cover should be further investigated as options for the region. Acknowledgement : The study is the outcome of a collaboration between BiomassWeb and UrbanFoodPlus projects (grant no. 031A258H and no. 031A242-A,B), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research within the GlobE - Research for the Global Food Supply program. We appreciate Ling Yee Khor for his help with the regression model specifications, Bernd Marschner for facilitating the project and the laboratory analyses, Sabine Fr lich and Sebastian Obst for laboratory support. We would also like to express our sincerest thanks to all respondents who made time for us and kindly shared information during the interviews and the focus group discussions.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277405&r=agr
  41. By: Amirova, I.; Petrick, M.; Djanibekov, N.
    Abstract: This study contributes to the understanding of long- and short- term determinants of cooperation among water users. We experimentally investigate the potential of water users self-governance in enhancing their contributions to a common pool as opposed to external regulation. Our focus is on the irrigated areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Due to their Soviet past, these countries have a reputation for low bottom-up cooperation potential. Based on the different pre-Soviet irrigation traditions of the two study sites, we assess the effectiveness of short-term incentives compared to long term cultural factors of cooperation. History might matter, but we find it does not predetermine the success of current water decentralization in ancient as compared to relatively recently established irrigation sites. We find that external regulation, in fact, decreases farmers cooperation, whereas face-to-face communication increases it. This finding calls into question the top-down approach prevalent in current water policies of the region. Moreover, it suggests the viability of endogenous cooperation and hence encourages the implementation of truly self-governed water management policies in Central Asia. However, the substantial heterogeneity in individual contributions apparent at the village level also signals a warning that one-size-fits-all approaches to local cooperation are unlikely to succeed. Acknowledgement : This study was conducted in the framework of a research project Institutional change in land and labour relations of Central Asia s irrigated agriculture . The research project is funded by the VolkswagenStiftung within the funding initiative "Between Europe and the Orient A Focus on Research and Higher Education in/on Central Asia and the Caucasus".
    Keywords: Resource/Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277075&r=agr
  42. By: Renner, Sebastian; Lay, Jann; Greve, Hannes
    Abstract: We analyse the effects of environmental taxes on welfare and carbon emissions at the household level for the case of Mexico. The integrated welfare-environmental analysis, which is based on a censored energy consumer demand system, extends previous work in two ways. First, the estimation of a full matrix of substitution elasticities allows us to test the necessity of incorporating second-order effects into the welfare analysis. Second, the substitution elasticities derived from the demand system are used to estimate the shortrun CO2 emission-reduction potential. We find that first-order approximations of welfare effects provide reasonable estimates, particularly for carbon taxes. Analog to evidence in other low- and middle-income countries, the taxation of all energy items is found to be regressive, with the exception of motor fuels. The inclusion of CH4 and N2O in a carbon tax regime comes with particularly regressive impacts because of its strong effects on food prices. The analysis of the emission implications of different tax scenarios indicates that short-run emission reductions at the household level can be substantial - though the effects depend on how revenue is recycled. This effectiveness combined with moderate and manageable adverse distributional impacts renders the carbon tax a preferred mitigation instrument. Considering the large effect of food price increases on poverty and the limited additional emission-saving potential, the inclusion of CH4 and N2O in a carbon tax regime is not advisable.
    Keywords: climate policy,energy policy,Mexico,poverty,distributional effects
    Date: 2017
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:gigawp:301&r=agr
  43. By: Zasada, I.; Weltin, M.; Zoll, F.; Benninger, S.L.
    Abstract: Urban agriculture (UA) is regarded as an emerging tool and strategy for sustainable urban development as it addresses a wide array of objectives, such as climate change adaptation, social equality, food security or the restauration of environmental and living conditions. This is particularly important in the case of rapidly growing cities and metropolitan regions of developing and transition countries. Therefore it gains increasing attention among the academic and planning community. We have carried out a survey among 120 gardeners in residential neighbourhoods of the city of Pune (India). We investigated prevailing UA cultivation practices, socio-economic situations, motivation, knowledge and networking of individual household and external framework conditions to analyse the contributions to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural dimensions of urban sustainability. An analytical framework using composite indicators with index values was applied to enable comparability between the two UA types of terrace / rooftop and backyard / kitchen gardens. Our results show that both types contribute differently to urban sustainability at indicator level, but rather similarly at the aggregated level of the sustainability dimension. Sustainability benefits can be expected for the environmental and socio-cultural side, especially for urban biodiversity conservation and aesthetic green urban spaces, but less for economic contributions. Acknowledgement : The authors would like to thank FLOW social sciences research organization for their kind support to conduct the survey among urban gardeners. This work was supported by a fellowship within the Postdoc-Program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:276992&r=agr
  44. By: Laajaj, Rachid; Macours, Karen
    Abstract: Measures of cognitive, noncognitive, and technical skills are increasingly used to analyze the determinants of skill formation or the role of skills in economic decisions in developing and developed countries. Yet in most cases, these measures have only been validated in high-income countries. This paper tests the reliability and validity of some of the most commonly used skills measures in a rural developing context. A survey experiment with a series of skills measurements was administered to more than 900 farmers in western Kenya, and the same questions were asked again after three weeks to test the reliability of the measures. To test predictive power, the study also collected information on agricultural practices and production during the four following seasons. The results show the cognitive skills measures are reliable and internally consistent, while technical skills are difficult to capture and very noisy. The evidence further suggests that measurement error in noncognitive skills is non-classical, as correlations between questions are driven in part by the answering patterns of the respondents and the phrasing of the questions. Addressing both random and systematic measurement error using common psychometric practices and repeated measures leads to improvements and clearer predictions, but does not address all concerns. We replicate the main parts of the analysis for farmers in Colombia, and obtain similar results. The paper provides a cautionary tale for naïve interpretations of skill measures. It also points to the importance of addressing measurement challenges to establish the relationship of different skills with economic outcomes. Based on these findings, the paper derives guidelines for skill measurement and interpretation in similar contexts.
    JEL: O12 O13 O15
    Date: 2018–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:13271&r=agr
  45. By: Zulu-Mbata, O.
    Abstract: In light of climate change, new technologies resilient to climatic variability have been promoted along the years among smallholder farmers. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is one such technology, which has been promoted since the 1990 s in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, as with any new technology, various factors affect adoption and ultimately the impact of the technology of which gender is one such factor. Both female and male smallholder farmers are faced with numerous constraints to access productive resources, more so for female farmers, resulting in limited adoption capability, which in turn reduces the impact that these technologies have on their livelihood. Using nationally representative data the study examines the gendered impacts of CA on livelihood outcomes - household income, crop income, crop diversification, and dietary diversity. Results show that CA adoption improves a household s level of dietary diversity and crop diversification. However, the impact of CA on these livelihood outcomes reduces if the household is female headed or the farmer (male or female) is in a female headed household. Therefore, promotion of CA should take into account the gender differences at household level and within the household, as well as female farmer s access to productive resources. Keywords: Conservation Agriculture, Gender, Impact, Zambia Acknowledgement : The Indaba Agricultural Policy Research Institute (IAPRI) is a non-profit company limited by guarantee that collaboratively works with public and private stakeholders. IAPRI exists to carry out agricultural policy research and outreach, serving the agricultural sector in Zambia so as to contribute to sustainable, pro-poor agricultural development. We wish to acknowledge the Financial and Substantive support of the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Union 11th EDF programming in Lusaka.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277261&r=agr
  46. By: Vandevelde, S.; Van Campenhout, B.; Walukano, W.
    Abstract: Pervasive use of poor quality seed remains an important reason for low yields throughout the developing world. We attempt to increase the quality of the local stock of seed tubers among a sample of Irish potato farmers in Uganda. We do this by providing agricultural extension information about (i) how to select the best seed tubers and (ii) how to properly handle and store the seed potatoes until the next planting season. The information is provided through appealing videos, shown to individual farmers on mobile devices. While we find some effects on knowledge immediately after having shown the video, this effect has vanished one year later. We also find no effect of the videos on practices, input use, and final outcomes such as yield and consumption. However, there are signs that spillovers between treatment and control farmers may affect our results. After modeling spillovers among neighboring farmers, we find evidence that especially the video containing information on seed selection translated into adoption of improved practices, higher yields and increased welfare. Acknowledgement : We would like to thank the Embassy of the Netherlands in Uganda for funding this research through the Pasic project. We also thank the Ugandan Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries and Fisheries (MAAIF), Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC), National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) and Kabale Zardi, and the International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC). We would like to thank Marc Charles Wanume for excellent field support. Senne Vandevelde acknowledges funding from the grant Policy Design and Evaluation Research in Developing Countries Initial Training Network (PODER), which is funded under the Marie Curie Actions of the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (Contract Number: 608109).
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277191&r=agr
  47. By: Revoredo-Giha, C.; Akaichi, F.; Toma, L.
    Abstract: Known in the literature as neglected, underutilized or orphan crops, they have been cited as having the potential to improve food security; however, the literature also highlighted that consumers in developing countries are increasingly abandoning their traditional diets, where those crops are part of and replacing them by western diets. In that context, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of expanding the consumption of neglected crops on current diets by considering consumers preferences and uses a modified version of the microeconomic consumer problem, which was augmented with linear constraints using generalized rationing theory. The method was applied to the consumption of millet by three Ugandan socioeconomic groups: rural, urban-poor and urban-affluent. The results indicate that millet can contribute to improve the intake of macronutrients and some micronutrients. However, the results also show that under the current preferences increasing substantially the quantity of millet in the diet will require a significant reduction of its price and the net impact on nutrition, as measure by the mean adequacy ratio, will be only slightly positive for the rural and urban-poor households; this points out the importance of work encouraging consumers appreciation for millet as part of the everyday diet. Acknowledgement : This paper derives from the project 2017-2019 project Formulating Value Chains for Orphan Crops in Africa funded by the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - Global Challenges Research Fund (BBSRC-GCRF), Foundation Awards for Global Agriculture and Food Systems. In addition, part of the methods used derived from work as part of the 2016-2020 Scottish Government Strategic Research Programme, Theme 3: Food and Health.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277447&r=agr
  48. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Hatzenbuehler, Patrick L.; Edeh, Hyacinth
    Abstract: Economies of scope (EOS) refer to the economic benefits of producing multiple types of outputs rather than specializing in producing a specific output. EOS closely relates to the potential for crop diversification. Using panel data from farm households and crop-specific production costs in Nigeria, we estimate how the adoption of animal traction or tractors affects EOS between rice, non-rice grains, legumes/seeds, and other crops, which are the crop groups that are most widely grown with animal traction or tractors in Nigeria.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA ; agricultural mechanization; crop production; rice; diversification; innovation adoption; production economics; tractors; animal resources; economies of scope (EOS); inverse probability weighting
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:nssppn:48&r=agr
  49. By: Biru, W.D.; Zeller, M.; Loos, T.
    Abstract: Abstract Despite large-scale public investment on research and technology adoption, as an effort to improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers, rural poverty and vulnerability remain widespread in Ethiopia. Using three-round panel data between 2012 and 2016, this paper employed fixed effects and multinomial logit models to assess the effect of agricultural technologies and practices on consumption expenditure, poverty and vulnerability. The fixed effects model results indicate that use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, improved seed, terracing and irrigation significantly influenced per capita consumption expenditure. The multinomial logit marginal effect estimates shows likelihood of chronic poverty decreased with the use of improved seed, chemical fertilizer, and contour plough, whereas, the use of irrigation reduced the likelihood of being vulnerable. We therefore conclude that agricultural technology dissemination through government supported programs has substantial dynamic benefits in reducing poverty and vulnerability. We suggest that much more intervention is needed to ensure that poor households exit poverty and protect the vulnerable from falling into poverty over time. It is crucial that smallholder farmer s especially the poor and the vulnerable households access to agricultural technologies and infrastructure (roads and irrigation) be improved. Keywords: vulnerability, poverty, technology adoption, Ethiopia Acknowledgement : Acknowledgment We thank the Deutsche Forschungsgeminschaft (DFG) for funding this research project. We are also grateful the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Addis Ababa for supportive equipments during the initial follow up survey year and providing us the baseline data.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277269&r=agr
  50. By: Ghebru, H.; Holden, S.
    Abstract: There is growing interest in understanding the links between land reforms, land markets and poverty reduction in Africa. The study uses four-wave panel data from Norther highlands of Ethiopia to assess the dynamics of rural poverty taking into account rural households status of participation in the land rental market. Applying both non-parametric (Kaplan-Meier estimator) and semi-parametric survival models that control for duration dependence of poverty transition, results show participation and degree of participation on the supply side of the tenancy market (landlords) have highly significant and positive effect on the chances of escaping poverty while the same cannot be said about the demand side of the tenancy market (tenants). The empirical evidence also confirms that households headed by older and literate people have relatively larger exit rates from poverty as compared to households headed by younger and illiterate ones. Though transacting farmers may engage themselves in win win rental arrangements by the time they join the tenancy market, results indicate that gains are unequal as those tenants who enter the markets from low economic leverage (were poor) are liable to face lower margin of net gains, which may limit their ability to move out of poverty. Acknowledgement : Funding for this research has been received from the Research Council of Norway, the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs,and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) and further finanicial support from the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets, led byIFPRI. None of these funders were directly involved in the design or implementation of the surveys and analytical work. The authors are not aware of any conflicts of interestrelated to the paper. The authors acknowledge valuable cooperation with Mekelle University and the Ethiopia Development Research Institute. All remaining errors are the sole responsibility of the authors.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277440&r=agr
  51. By: Miglani, V.; Kalamkar, S.; Shah, D.
    Abstract: In India, there have been controversies surrounding inclusiveness of contract farming arrangements (CFAs). The present paper contributes to the literature on the adoption of CFAs based on the field evidence of white onion and chipgrade potato cultivation in the selected provinces of Western India. Using the cross-sectional research design, primary data was collected from 378 randomly selected farm households using structured schedules along with the discussions with key informants. Descriptive statistics and logit regression results indicate that CFAs were inclusive, as less experienced farmers and farmers with low agricultural asset resource base preferred to cultivate under contract. However, it was found that the wealthier and more experienced farmers were the first ones to join CFAs. Survey results showed that it is generally the farmers who self-select themselves in CFAs. The participation and non-participation in CFAs is not a permanent feature. Farmers decision to contract in the forthcoming season is based on a number of factors viz. agro-climatic conditions, financial position, farmers expectation of returns in the contract and alternatives, theirs and co-farmers past experience. Imperfections in the input and output agricultural markets are the other reasons why farmers feel the need for the CFAs to grow the contract crop. Acknowledgement : This paper is a part of Ph. D. thesis under the guidance of Prof. S.S. Kalamkar and Prof. Deepak Shah st Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, India. Special thanks to Dr. Sudha Narayanan for valuable inputs in finalizing the study objectives and design. Thanks to Ms. Sushma Nayak for the inputs on the draft of the paper. Special thanks to the library staff of D. R. Gadgil library and Symbiosis Central library for facilitating the access to various research papers.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277562&r=agr
  52. By: Palloni, G.; Aker, J.; Gilligan, D.; Hidrobo, M.; Ledlie, N.
    Abstract: With the widespread growth of mobile phone coverage and adoption over the past decade, there has been considerable enthusiasm over the use the ICTs in agricultural initiatives, primarily to disseminate information to farmers. This paper assesses farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for a newly introduced digital nutrition-sensitive agricultural information service in Ghana, called Vodafone Farmers Club (VFC). Using both an experimental game and administrative data, we find that the share of farmers willing-to-pay for VFC service is high at low prices and then decreases rapidly as the price increases; at 1.0 GHC, 85% would register for the service; at 2.0 GHC 50% would register; and at 3.0 GHC, just 19% would still be willing to participate. We experimentally vary both the framing around the introduction of VFC to emphasize either the platform s nutrition and agriculture information or the agriculture information alone and the gender of the household member invited to play the game and find that women have statistically lower WTP than men, but the framing has no impact on WTP. Acknowledgement : We would like to thank all individuals in Upper West and Central Region who agreed to take part in this research. We are particularly grateful to Lucy Billing for managing the project in Ghana, and to the ISSER team in Ghana, led by Simon Bawakyillenuo and Felix Asante. We would also like to extend our gratitude to Groupe Sp ciale Mobile Association (GSMA), Esoko, Vodafone Ghana, and Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) teams for their cooperation and support. We are also extremely grateful for the ongoing collaborative partnership with The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) and the GAMOS team.
    Keywords: Research and Development/ Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277451&r=agr
  53. By: Thomas, B.; Patil, V.; Lele, S.; Srinivasan, V.; Eswar, M.
    Abstract: Unregulated groundwater extraction has led to declining water tables and increasing water scarcity in the Indian subcontinent. Understanding how farmers respond to this scarcity is important from multiple perspectives - equity in access, livelihoods security and resource sustainability. We present a case from the rapidly urbanizing Arkavathy sub-basin near Bangalore city in Southern India where irrigation is fully groundwater dependent. Using cross-sectional data from a stratified random sample of 333 farmers from 15 villages, we investigated the factors that determine their choice of crops under conditions of water scarcity and urbanization. Binary logit analysis showed that the high land holding farmers respond by tapping deep groundwater using borewells. Multinomial logit analysis revealed that access to groundwater, variation in the proximity to the product market (city) and labour availability influence crop choice decisions. We observe that current responses indicate what has been characterized in literature as chasing strategies. These largely favour the well-off farmers and hence inequitable. While choice of water intensive crops and unregulated pumping have aggravated water stress, the uptake of water saving technologies among irrigated farmers has been low, showing that resource sustainability may not be a concern where non-farm diversification opportunities exist. Acknowledgement : This article is an output of the socio-hydrological research project, 'Adapting to Climate Change in Urbanizing Watersheds' (ACCUWa) supported by International Development Centre (IDRC), Canada (grant number 107086-001). The authors thank Sanjeev D Kenchaigol and Kadambari Anantram for research support, Guruswamy, Kumar, Manjunatha, Nagendra and Sathish for field assistance and Shruthi for data management. Chandra Sekhar Bahinipati and participants in dissemination workshops in Bangalore and New Delhi provided useful comments. Thomas, Lele and Srinivasan designed the study, Thomas and Eswar led the field research, Patil, Lele and Thomas developed the analytical model, and Patil, Eswar and Thomas performed data analysis. Patil is currently affiliated to International Rice Research Institute-India, Bhubaneswar, India and Eswar is affiliated to Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277422&r=agr
  54. By: Tong, Q.; Swallow, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, J.
    Abstract: Rice production in China is under pressure to adapt to changing weather conditions and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This paper explores the possibilities for achieving climate-smart agriculture among rice farmers in the Jianghan Plain of China. Data for 873 rice plots are analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis to simultaneously estimate a production function and factors associated with technical efficiency. The production analysis shows the importance of climate variables to production, while use of climate-smart practices, including insurance, conservation tillage, and crop rotations all have the extra benefit of reducing technical inefficiency. However, risk aversion complicates these relationships. We found that most farmers are risk averse and that risk aversion has a negative effect on technical efficiency and U-shaped effects on the purchase of insurance and use of soil-conserving practices. Soil conserving practices are least likely to be used by risk neutral farmers, while insurance is most likely to be purchased by risk neutral farmers. Crop insurance that appeals to the most risk averse farmers appears to be a high priority for encouraging climate-smart agriculture in this region where climate has such large impacts on crop production. Acknowledgement : The authors gratefully acknowledge ?nancial support from the Natural Sciences Foundation of China (41501213); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2662017PY045); the Key Project for Studies of Philosophy and Social Sciences by Ministry of Education (15JZD014); the program of China Scholarship Council (No. 201706760038).
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277311&r=agr
  55. By: Hernandez, Manuel A.; Torero, Maximo
    Abstract: Given the central role that agriculture plays in the rural economy of Africa, several countries have implemented supply– and demand-driven policies and programs to promote sustainable fertilizer use, with mixed results. However, not much has been said about the market structure or competitive behavior along the supply chain in the highly concentrated fertilizer industry, nor about how this affects fertilizer uptake in the region. Globally, the industry has only a few producers, and African countries are highly and increasingly dependent on imported fertilizer. Locally, fertilizer distribution channels are also characterized by a limited number of market actors, often with a poor dealer network.
    Keywords: AFRICA; fertilizer industry; fertilizers; economic competition; market structure; market concentration
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:issbrf:9780896293410&r=agr
  56. By: Okello, J.J.; Muoki, P.; Kwikiriza, N.; Wambaya, J.; Heck, S.
    Abstract: Biofortification of crops to combat micronutrient deficiencies is gaining global recognition. Projects promoting biofortified crops use intensive agriculture-nutrition education and extension to increase adoption of such crops. This study used discrete choice regression analysis and data collected from households targeted by a project with one of the most intense agriculture-nutrition education and extension program to test the effect of such program on the adoption and diffusion of biofortfied crops. The study was conducted in western Kenya and involved 537 households with children under 5 years, a pregnant or lactating women. The study finds that intensive agriculture-nutrition education and extension programs adopted by some of the biofortification projects indeed increases the likelihood of adoption and diffusion of biofortified crops. It specifically finds that participation in events that offer practical education on the agronomy and preparation of foods from such crops, participation in mother-to-mother nutrition support platforms and nutrition-focused health talks affect adoption and diffusion of biofortified crops, but with varying degrees of importance. Among control factors, ability to conserve the planting material over dry period and household assets-endowments are important in both adoption and diffusion of biofortified crops. The paper discusses the implications of these findings. Acknowledgement : This research was undertaken as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB). Funding for this work provided by the SUSTAIN project under DFID.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277199&r=agr
  57. By: Matthew S. Jaremski; David C. Wheelock
    Abstract: Bank lending booms and asset price booms are often intertwined. Although possibly triggered by a fundamental shock, rising asset prices can stimulate lending that pushes asset prices higher, leading to more lending, and so on. Such a dynamic seems to have characterized the agricultural land boom surrounding World War I. This paper examines i) how banks responded to the boom and were affected by the bust; ii) how various banking regulations and policies influenced those effects; and iii) how bank closures contributed to falling land prices in the bust. We find that rising crop prices encouraged bank entry and balance sheet expansion in agricultural counties (with new banks accounting disproportionately for growth in lending and banking system risk). State deposit insurance systems amplified the impact of rising crop prices on bank portfolios, while higher minimum capital requirements dampened the effects. When farmland prices collapsed, banks that had responded most aggressively to the asset boom had a higher probability of closing, and counties with more bank closures experienced larger declines in land prices.
    JEL: E58 N21 N22
    Date: 2018–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:25159&r=agr
  58. By: Tsusaka, T.; Orr, A.; Msere, H.; Harris, D.; Rao, N. Vpr Ganga
    Abstract: An experimental study was conducted on pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an important grain legume in poverty-stricken Southern Malawi. Crop productivity has remained low primarily because of the stagnant adoption of improved varieties. However, within the last decade the non-improved variety Nthawajuni has been widely and rapidly adopted, with its popularity attributed to its early maturity and alleged higher stem biomass, used as fuelwood. By adapting conjoint design and analysis to producers case, the study attempted to unpack producers preferences for different traits by gender. The ordered probit and other regression models were estimated to identify the marginal effects of the six key traits on varietal scoring: crop yield, grain color, maturity period, stem production, disease resistance, and cooking time. Whilst the descriptive statistics confirmed the heavy reliance on stems for fuelwood, the results showed that the targeted producers valued high-yielding and disease-resistance traits most, with fuelwood the least important trait. The low marginal effect of stem biomass suggests that producers are satisfied with the current quantity of fuelwood they obtain from improved varieties. It is recommended that development of the next generation of pigeonpea varieties focus on yield-enhancing traits including disease resistance, while maintaining the current level of biomass in stems. Acknowledgement : The authors thank the CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Systems for funding the fieldwork. The CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes provided administrative support, where Drs. Moses Siambi and Patrick Okori approved the implementation. The team of field enumerators performed computer assisted personal interviews with women and men respondents from sampled households; namely, Esther Zidana, Dalitso Mpeketula, Ellen Zangewa, Gerald Kangombe, Thokozani Kamwala, James Mbughi, Emmanuel Nsangwa, and Kondwani N gon gola. The outcome of this research fits within the framework of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets led by International Food Policy Research Institute.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277435&r=agr
  59. By: Ebata, A.; Win, K.S.; Loevinsohn, M.; Macgregor, H.
    Abstract: This study contributes to understanding what challenges and opportunities exist in making livestock production more profitable and safer. In particular, consumption of pork in Southeast Asia is increasing in response to rapid urbanization and growing average household income. In order to improve lives of pig farmers while minimizing negative effects of increased pig production, we investigate factors influencing application of biosecurity measures along pig value chains in Myanmar. Based on qualitative research methods, we analyze how the value chains are governed and what institutional arrangements influence biosecurity. We find that value chain transactions are largely governed by market and show little vertical coordination. This indicates that value chain actors do not currently invest in biosecurity in a sufficient manner. Lack of access to low-interest loan encourages farmers to undertake risky behaviors while lack of cash discourages value chain stakeholders to invest in biosecurity. On the other hand, key actors such as large-scale pig farmers informally impose biosecurity measures to pig buyers while informal arrangements to ensure food safety is found to encourage increased biosecurity. Public policies may exploit these existing institutions to improve chain-wide biosecurity. Acknowledgement : This paper was developed based on funding under the Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems (ZELS) scheme by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom. The authors are thankful for the support provided by the Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department of the Government of Myanmar, Myanmar Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Ho Chi Minh City, and the University of Cambridge in conducting the field work in Myanmar.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277082&r=agr
  60. By: Ayeduvor, Selorm
    Abstract: Rice consumption in Ghana has more than quadrupled in the last 60 years, becoming a common staple food. However, this increasing demand is being met by imports. The rise in rice imports has led to a renewed interest in promoting domestic production of rice to substitute for imported rice. However, it is not clear how current rice development policies are informed by the preferences of consumers for specific quality attributes of rice. This study assesses the preferred rice qualities that drive consumption of local rice in Ghana. Through a review of previous studies on consumer preferences of rice complemented with information collected through interviews with local rice traders, millers, and other stakeholders, this paper describes the types of rice and their sources, the types of rice consumers, and the packaging and quality attributes of local rice in key markets in Ghana. We find that the quality of branded local rice types has improved in recent years. However, unbranded local rice in Ghana is still commonly contaminated with foreign materials, is made up of co-mingled varieties, and has a large share of broken and yellowish grain. In addition, local rice continues to be sold at a lower price than imported rice of same quality. This is largely due to the perceived low quality of local rice by consumers that results in low demand. Marketing campaigns and sensitization to advocate for consumption of local rice are recommended policy options to increase consumer awareness and to build demand for quality local rice in Ghana.
    Keywords: GHANA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; rice; quality attributes; consumer behaviour; consumer preferences; agricultural economics
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:gsspwp:48&r=agr
  61. By: De Frahan, B. Henry; Bali, J.; Tuyishime, C.
    Abstract: Subsidies for intermediate inputs represent considerable transfers from governments to farmers and, are implemented on a large scale in many developing countries to primarily achieve objectives of (1) national food security and (2) raising incomes for the poor and technology constrained farmers. Clearly, a trade-off exists between the two objectives whereby targeting beneficiaries for achieving pro-poor growth may lead to equity at the expense of efficiency. Nevertheless, knowing which group of farmers benefit more or less from these budgetary transfers is essential in order to re-allocate scarce budgetary resources more effectively. Taking the case of Rwanda as an example, this study uses an empirical modelling approach to assess the income and welfare effects of subsidies for intermediate inputs (i.e. fertilizers and improved seeds) across a heterogeneous set of agricultural households, under competitive and monopolistic input market structures. The results show positive policy outcomes for all representative households and these outcomes are twice higher when the input market structure is competitive. Although subsidies for inputs eventually help poor households to overcome cost burdens and participate in markets, a large share of the policy transfers is captured by large-scale producers who generally have the liquidity to purchase unsubsidized inputs. Acknowledgement : This paper analyses the income and welfare effects of government subsidies for intermediate inputs across heterogeneous farmers' households in Rwanda. Authors wish to acknowledge that the analysis relies on the Development Policy Evaluation Model (DevPEM) developed by the OECD. The study was conducted as part of the Monitoring and Analysing Food and Agricultural Policy (MAFAP) program implemented in the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID, and the governments of the Netherlands and Germany.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277469&r=agr
  62. By: Lay, Jann; Nolte, Kerstin; Sipangule, Kacana
    Abstract: In light of the surge in large-scale farms in developing countries, concerns have been raised that smallholders may be negatively affected. There is, however, very little evidence beyond case studies to support these claims. Drawing on nationally representative household data sets and an inventory of large-scale farms in Zambia, this study investigates the relationship between large-scale farms and smallholders. First, we analyse the geographical contexts of wards that host large-scale farms and show that large-scale farms are found in wards with good infrastructure and soil quality. Second, we adopt a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the impacts of large-scale farms on smallholders' area cultivated, maize yields, and access to fertiliser. We find that smallholders in wards with large-scale farms increase their area cultivated and maize yields, but have lower fertiliser usage. This hints at positive spillovers at the extensive and intensive margins but not at improved access to agricultural inputs. It is likely that these results are also driven by the emergence of medium-scale farms in these regions.
    Keywords: large-scale farms,yields,smallholders,spillovers,Zambia
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:gigawp:310&r=agr
  63. By: Mertens, K.; Vranken, L.
    Abstract: The poor and vulnerable tend to be increasingly exposed to natural hazards like landslides. This paper investigates the consequences of land transactions for the (un)equal distribution of exposure to landslide risk and of total land holdings in a rural area in Western Uganda. We propose and empirically test a mechanism through which land holdings and exposure to landslide risk evolves over a farmer s lifetime. A structured household survey and detailed information on land transaction as well as georeferenced information on plots was used to construct a panel dataset of land transactions. Regressions with household fixed effects were run to identify how landholdings and exposure to landslide susceptibility evolves over a farmer s lifetime. We find that farmers that are initially more exposed to landslides manage to reduce their average exposure to some extent by acquiring plots outside landslide prone areas. This goes at a cost, as farmers that are initially highly exposed acquire land more slowly than farmers that have a lower exposure on their first plot. Over a lifetime, in our case study, land transactions therefore have a somewhat levelling effect on inequality in exposure to landslide susceptibility, but increase the inequality in land ownership. Acknowledgement : This study would not have been possible without the dedicated effort of all enumerators involved in the data collection, the local chair persons and the farmers that provided us with abovementioned information. We would also like to thank the logistical support provided by the Mountains of the Moon University (MMU). The financial support was received from the AfReSlide project, BR/121/A2/AfReSlide, titled Landslides in Equatorial Africa: Identifying culturally, technically and economically feasible resilience strategies , funded by the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). We would also like to thank the VLIR UOS South Initiative, ZEIN2013Z145.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277235&r=agr
  64. By: Chan, C.; Laporte, P.; Chan-Dentoni, J.; Sipes, B.; Melakeberhan, H.; Sanchez-Perez, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Prado, P.
    Abstract: This study aims to assist in adopting production practices that lead to better soil health, low plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) population density, increased potato yield for farmers in Western Guatemala using fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM). A cognitive map was developed representing farmers current perceptions of the production practices and their impacts. In comparison with agricultural professionals cognitive map provided knowledge gaps which will allow agricultural professionals to customize and design more effective technology transfer activities for greater adoption. Primary data were collected in Paquix, Huehuetenango from farmers and at the University of San Carlos in Guatemala from agricultural professionals. Both cognitive maps aligned in general with contrasting perceptions on the impact of certified seeds and compost practices on plant parasitic population density. Training and demonstration plots were perceived as influential to adoption by farmers. Farmers seemed ambiguous on the impact on yield but knowledgeable on the impact on soil health and plant parasitic population density. Most farmers said they receive their information from their local cooperatives and had actively participated in demonstration plots. Understanding the knowledge gaps and knowing where and how farmers got their information, agricultural professionals can effectively design workshops for effective dissemination and thus higher adoption rates. Acknowledgement : We thank Mr. A. Meji for his assistance with data collection. We thank Mr. I. Viteri and his staff at Popoyan for their assistance at multiple levels. This work was supported in part by the Horticulture Innovation Lab with funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development as part of the U.S. government s global hunger and food security initiative called Feed the Future.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277153&r=agr
  65. By: Mogues, T.; Mueller, V.; Kondylis, F.
    Abstract: Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA), while present in the health and education sectors in international development research, remain rare among agricultural and rural development studies. This study conducts CEAs in a particular type of programmatic work in the sector namely, interventions that bring a gender lens to community-based advisory services in rural areas. Specifically, we consider two such programs one in Mozambique in which such advisory services aim to improve sustainable land management (SLM) practices in agricultural production, and the other in Tanzania to advise farmers on their land rights. We find that the gendered modality is consistently more cost-effective than the basic modality when considering varied outcomes and target groups. However, for any given modality, it is more cost-effective to improve outcomes for men than for women. A simulation of how cost-effectiveness would change if the program were scaled up geographically shows that expansion of the basic modality of the SLM program leads to improvements in cost-effectiveness, while the gendered modality displays nonlinear changes in cost-effectiveness along the expansion path, first worsening with initial scale-up and subsequently improving with further expansion. Acknowledgement : This work was undertaken as a part of, and funded by, the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets, which is led by IFPRI. Amber Peterman and an anonymous reviewer provided helpful remarks during earlier-stage cost-effectiveness computations in the Tanzania case. We thank Ayala Wineman and Jessica Zhu for valuable research assistance with the data, and Lucy Billings for helping to coordinate with the Tanzanian implementing organisation. We are grateful for access to administrative cost data facilitated by Pedro Arlindo, Isabel Cossa, and Theresia Bujiku. Destino Abido Chiar conducted exploratory scoping fieldwork in Mozambique.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:276958&r=agr
  66. By: Zhang, Y.; Chen, K.; Zhu, T.
    Abstract: China has started to implement the most stringent of Three Red Lines water policy since 2012, which sets targets for total water use, water use efficiency, and water quality for a number of benchmark years to 2030 by province and prefecture. This paper aims to develop an integrated regional CGE and water resource model at river basin-provincial level for China and to quantify regional and sectoral economic impacts of three red lines. Five policy scenarios are constructed to assess the impacts of water red lines, including the red line of total water use cap, irrigation efficiency, industrial water use intensity, surface water pollution and all redlines combined. The red line of total water use cap will increase water shortage drastically, leading to considerable negative impacts on the economic growth of East, South Central and Southwest. The sectors with the higher water use intensity such as machinery and equipment, metal and metal products, chemical products and non-metal products are affected most. Other two red lines need to go hand in hand to minimize water shortage and mitigate potentially negative economic impacts. Establishing regional water use right market and promoting economic restructuring are two policy options to cope with water scarcity challenge. Acknowledgement : We would like to acknowledge Winston Yu from the World Bank for the guidance and Shuzhong Gu from Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) for his valuable comments in the early stage of the research. We are grateful to Xinshen Diao and James Thurlow from International Food Policy Research Institute for their guidance on developing regional CGE model. We acknowledge funding support by the World bank through the project Mind the Gap: Balancing Growth and Water Security in China , and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant No.71761147004) ,the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP-IAED-2017-04?
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277509&r=agr
  67. By: Liang, Q.; Zhou, J.; Jin, C.; Zhou, W.; Wang, Y.
    Abstract: This paper maps the risks of aquatic products in different seasons, categorizes risk items, explores the transferring of risk items along the supply chain, and identifies actual risk sources of aquatic products in China, based on the data of regular sampling inspections for aquatic products conducted by national and provincial CFDA. Both descriptive analysis and crossing matrix analysis are used. Some explicit results are derived from the analyses. First, the quality and safety of aquatic products in China exhibit stable improving. Second, economically motivated adulterations by people s behaviors such as the use of drugs and chemical additives are the most important causes of risks for aquatic products. Third, risks at upstream parts transfer along the supply chain to the downstream. Fourth, the two riskiest stages causing food safety problem are manufacture and farming. Specifically, most risks for fresh aquatic products lie in farming, while those for processed products are at manufacture. However, the assignment of regulation strength and resources does not match with the distribution of risks. Stronger regulations such as the adoption of origin certificate at farms and more sampling inspections at manufacture are necessary to control for the risks of aquatic products. Acknowledgement : The work was supported by the the project Systemic Risk Management of Food Supply Chains in China , National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71773109, 71573227, 71633002); and the Project of Humanities and Social Science of the Ministry of Education in China (grant number 14YJC790089); Zhejiang Philosophy and Social Science (Grant No. 17NDJC193YB).
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277056&r=agr
  68. By: Herrington, C.; Funes, J.; Lividini, K.; Moursi, M.; Taleon, V.; Asare-Marfo, D.; Birol, E.
    Abstract: Globally, two billion people suffer from micronutrient malnutrition. Biofortification, the process of breeding staple food crops to have higher micronutrient content, has proven to be efficacious and cost-effective in addressing micronutrient malnutrition. To determine where and in which crop-micronutrient combinations to invest, a global Biofortification Prioritization Index (BPI) was developed (Asare-Marfo et al., 2013). While a country s rank in the global context is useful, it is not granular enough to develop strategies within heterogenous countries. Therefore, this paper utilizes methodology to develop a subnational-level BPI for Nigeria, a country which shows promise for biofortified crops. The subnational BPI is based on three sub-indices: production, consumption, and micronutrient deficiency. In addition, targeted areas are classified as areas of: (1) impact and intervention, (2) impact, or (3) intervention. Sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of BPI results on single sub-index parameters. For vitamin A maize s introduction, the North East and North West zones offer the most promise while the southern zones generate the greatest impact for the introduction of vitamin A cassava. Concentrating vitamin A sweet potato investments in the North Central zone is the most effective while focusing in the North West is the most promising strategy for iron pearl millet. Acknowledgement : The authors would sincerely like to thank Dr. Erick Boy, Head of the HarvestPlus Nutrition Research Unit, and Ms. Amarachi Utah for their consultation and support of this research.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277092&r=agr
  69. By: Hatzenbuehler, Patrick L.; Mavrotas, George; Maikasuwa, Mohammed Abubakar; Aliyu, Abdulrahaman; Bashir, Amina
    Abstract: The focus of this study is on the physical infrastructure of marketplaces in Kebbi state, Nigeria, an agriculture-based state in the northwest. Kebbi state has distinct variation in climate within a crop year, and, hence, there is need for farmers and traders to store produced crops for use during the year. Increased investments in storage facilities in the state could accelerate agricultural development.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; economic competition; infrastructure; local government; investment policies; agricultural development; grain; transaction costs; public investment ; grain markets; market participation
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:nssppn:49&r=agr
  70. By: Jing, W.; Gebrekidan, T.; Sheng, B.; Yixin, G.; Chi, Z.; Qianyue, Z.; Yongchao, D.; Tamura, Y.; Neglo, K.; Lyu, K.
    Abstract: When weather shock strike in agrarian economies, households are often used to offtake, perhaps their productive livestock as major risk coping strategy. However, distressful asset offtake could result difficulties to recover after shock, consequently, the macro economy of a subsistence agriculture dependent country could slows down for longer years. In this paper, we analysed the dynamic effect of the index based livestock insurance on the herd offtake behaviour of herders in Borena zone, southernmost part of Ethiopia using three rounds panel data. Our results using fixed effect model analysis shows that households who purchased index-based livestock insurance coverage are less likely to offtake their herds. Empirically, it is appeared to have positive and significant effect on reducing the herd offtake behaviour of the households. This finding suggests that the coverage can help in reducing fear and worry of the herding households about the possible incidence of covariate herd loss. As a result, distressful herd offtake can be reduced and sustain the household s economic growth. Acknowledgement : We are very thankfull to Index Based Livestock Insurance (IBLI) project consortium members for making available rich panel data which enable us to write this paper. We also like to convey our special esteem to the ILRI for taking the initiative for realising the IBLI project. We gratefully acknowledges the valuable contributions of the financial innovation and rural development program research team members of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GSCAAS). We would like to extend our appreciation to the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) for its continual effort to foster agricultural economics and facilitating information exchanges among scholars.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277002&r=agr
  71. By: Paudel, G.; Krishna, V.; McDonald, A.
    Abstract: We analyze the effects of rotavator tillage adoption on yield and profitability of wheat in the Nepalese small farm sector, using recent survey data and propensity score matching. Rotavator is a tractor-operated cultivating implement for shallow tillage, which operates by pulverizing soil with the help of rotating L or J -shaped blades. Rotavator tillage has been spreading rapidly in many parts of South Asia, despite having a large body of evidence on its negative consequences on soil quality and crop yield from the experimental research trials. A rigorous assessment of impacts of rotavator adoption on farmers fields has been impending. When we compared the mean yield and profit levels between rotavator adopters and non-adopters using propensity score matching algorithms, we found that the technology adoption clearly leads to inferior outcomes. Due to rotavator adoption, farmers lost about 284 309 kg of wheat grain yield and US$93-101 of profits per hectare on average, and the penalties were more pronounced for large farmers. Adoption of rotavator was driven by the cost-savings (US$11 15; 15 20% per hectare) at the time of land preparation, and the farmers with time and labor constraints adopt the technology. Against this backdrop, we suggest dissemination of zero-tillage as a sustainable alternative. Acknowledgement : This research was conducted as part of Cereal System Initiatives for South Asia (CSISA), Project in Nepal, which was funded by United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and conducted at International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Nepal. Part of this research was also supported by Sustainable and Resilient Farming Systems Intensification (SRFSI) in the eastern Gangetic plains project, which was funded by Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID, CIMMYT, CSISA, SRFSI or ACIAR.
    Keywords: Research and Development/ Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277149&r=agr
  72. By: Mansaray, B.; Jin, S.; Yuan, R.; Li, H.
    Abstract: An adoptive measure of improved rice is relevant for increasing food production and minimizing downside effects of rapid population growth. This study seeks to provide an empirical insight on farmers' improved rice adoption decision processes and implicitly on farmers preference for 13 seed rice attributes, using a best-worst experiment and conditional logistic model (to explains the possible effects of the experiment on final choices of the best - worst attributes). The results showed that potential yield, maturity; seed viability, tolerance to pest and disease are respectively the first four important attributes for farmers choice for seed rice varieties. Additionally, we derived important policy implications for seed rice development, breeding priority setting and adoption in Sierra Leone, centred on the inclusion of farmers needs and participation in future seed rice related research to ensure continuous and appropriate adoption for achieving sustainable output in obviously poor and challenging farming conditions. Finally, we suggested that prerequisites for enabling improved rice to increase rice production in Sierra Leone should include farmers having improved access to seed rice and information as well as favourable policies supporting the development of agricultural sector. Acknowledgement : The authors gratefully acknowledge: Milton Kabbia, Edward Ndoko (both of Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute), Mahmoud K. Sesay (of Njala University) for their immense support during data collection; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC-71273233, 71333011), the Major Program of the Key Research Institute of Chinese Ministry of Education (No. 15JJD790032)
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277552&r=agr
  73. By: Faraji Dizaji, Sajjad; Jariani, Farzaneh; Najarzadeh, Reza
    Abstract: This paper uses Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation, gravity model, and dynamic panel data to evaluate the effect of the imposed sanctions against Iran on the value of the bilateral trade of agricultural products between Iran and its trading partners among the MENA and the EU countries during 2000 to 2014. The results show that the sanctions have had no effects on the trade flows between Iran and the MENA countries. However, they have meaningful impact on the Iran’s agricultural export to the EU countries, albeit they have caused a decrease in Iran’s agricultural import from this area. The annual precipitation in Iran, as a control variable, using in this paper has positive effects on the Iran’s agricultural export to the EU countries, nonetheless has negative effects on the Iran’s import from the mentioned countries. The overall country size of two trading partners’ variable has meaningful and direct effects on the mutual trade between Iran and the EU countries. According to the above outcomes, the imposed sanctions should be considered as an opportunity to the Iranian agricultural development and diversification of exports from the agriculture sector to the EU region as a wide range of non-oil products to compensate some of the costs on the Iranian economy caused by sanctions.
    Keywords: Bilateral Trade of Agricultural Products, Gravity Model, Generalized Method of Moments, Dynamic Panel Data, Index of Economic Freedom
    JEL: O13 O44
    Date: 2018–07–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:89438&r=agr
  74. By: Kaiyatsa, S.; Ricker-Gilbert, J.; Jumbe, C.
    Abstract: The present article estimates the extent to which participation in Farm Inputs Subsidy Program (FISP) crowds-out/in fertilizer sales among private sector retailers in Malawi. Malawi implemented FISP reforms during 2015/16 season that allowed certain larger-scale fertilizer distributors to sell FISP fertilizer at their retail outlets in select districts on a pilot basis while smaller-scale agro-dealers were excluded. We use a unique panel dataset of fertilizer retailers collected before and after the policy change to measure supply-side crowding-in/out impacts of the FISP. Using a difference-in-differences estimator we are able to obtain a causal measurement of how the policy change affects fertilizer sales for retailers who participated in the program and those who did not. Results indicate that distributors who sold the FISP fertilizer experienced a 299 Mt increase in the volume of total fertilizer sales, on average. Conversely, agro-dealers who were excluded from participating in the pilot program experienced a 28 Mt decline in their fertilizer sales, on average. This suggests that the reforms have mainly benefited distributors who sell 90% of the fertilizer in Malawi, but caused some harm to the many agro-dealers who sell 10% of Malawi s fertilizer, but also conduct their businesses in more remote areas. Acknowledgement : The research team gratefully acknowledges the Gates Foundation Global Development Programme for the financial support towards research on issues surrounding Malawi s Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) under a project titled Guiding Investments in Sustainable Agricultural Intensification in Africa (GISAIA). This was a collaborative research project involving the Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR-Malawi), Purdue University (USA) and Michigan State University (USA) that has provided useful policy information for the Government of Malawi. Views expressed herein do not represent that of the Gates Foundation and all errors and omissions rests with the authors.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277739&r=agr
  75. By: Hatzenbuehler, Patrick L.; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Edeh, Hyacinth; Lawal, Akeem
    Abstract: There is a need to undertake more thorough assessments of relevant agricultural machinery markets to determine why machine usage by farmers is potentially lower than it would be under ideal market conditions. Our study focuses on four-wheel tractors. Information and data on tractor market structure, conduct, and performance in Africa is sparse. To partly fill this gap, we implemented a qualitative review of two tractor markets in Nigeria – survey-based assessments of the business characteristics of tractor sellers in Kaduna state and of tractor owners in Benue state. Detailed characterizations of the vertical and geographic distribution of these businesses and identification of principal revenue sources and costs were obtained through the surveys.
    Keywords: NIGERIA; WEST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA ; transaction costs; tractors; credit; agricultural mechanization; subsidies; tractor markets
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:nssppn:50&r=agr
  76. By: Fan, Shenggen; Headey, Derek D.; Laborde Debucquet, David; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel; Rue, Christopher; Sulser, Timothy B.; Wiebe, Keith D.
    Abstract: This brief examines estimates produced by several recent model simulations and frameworks that focus on the cost of ending hunger as well as progress toward other development goals—estimates that range from US$7 billion to US$265 billion per year. The differences among these estimates are largely attributable to the different targeted objectives and policy questions of each modeling exercise, different investment strategies considered, and varying assumptions about the role of different sectors in reducing hunger.
    Keywords: hunger; malnutrition; poverty; agricultural policies; mathematical models; agricultural research; food security; strategic development goals (SDGs)
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:issbrf:9780896292994&r=agr
  77. By: Ali, R.
    Abstract: While much evidence shows self-sufficiency is not an efficient policy strategy to address food security concerns as well as poverty alleviation, Malaysia is following a self-sufficiency strategy in its primary staple, rice. This study evaluates and analyzes the impact of two alternative approaches to achieve food security, namely, pursuing rice self-sufficiency, and allowing free trade in rice. The results indicate that even though Malaysia could achieve self-sufficiency in rice, consumers are worse off, since consumer rice prices increase sharply. On the other hand, rice producers are better off due to higher producer prices and domestic production. The government welfare worsens from the self-sufficiency policy due to massive requirements on additional subsidies and the loss of import tariff revenues. Free trade results in lower consumer prices and greater rice consumption, thus favoring consumer welfare. Producer welfare worsens due to higher import competition and lower producer prices. Pursuing self-sufficiency would effectively punish consumers, and even the government loses from the policy. Otherwise, self-sufficiency could also be a political strategy in political economic environment to become an independent region without relying on external food sources. This study provides economic measures on self-sufficiency and free trade of non-distortionary policy options of Malaysian rice sector. Acknowledgement : First and foremost, I am very grateful to the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and the Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas for providing financial and technical supports to conduct this research. I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Eric Wailes and Dr. Alvaro Durand-Morat for their tireless assistance, outstanding knowledge, expertise in methodologies, and insightful comments to improve research and writing. Special thanks go to Ms. Hannah Allen, Mr. Lucas Palmer, and Mr John Mahany for their assistance in reviewing and correcting this writing.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277036&r=agr
  78. By: Akinyemi, B.
    Abstract: Land and water are strategic to agricultural production. Issue of land distribution in South Africa is contentious due to past racial apartheid policy that favored white farmers against the black. To address this, land expropriation without compensation is recently being proposed by policy makers. In order not to go the way of Zimbabwe, South Africa needs empirical evidence on land utilization for agriculture and the drivers of such use. This study therefore investigated household access to and utilization of land for agricultural activities in South Africa using nationally representative South African Living Condition Survey data. The study adopted a bivariate probit regression model to analyze determinants of land access and land utilization. Results reveal that household head age, participation in home garden, income and engagement in own production explains land access and utilization among other variables. The older the household head the greater the probability of access to land whereas older household head are less likely to utilize land. Interestingly, wealthier household have lesser probability of land access. Based on these findings, it was recommended that revision of land reform policy, poverty alleviation, and land utilization awareness creation would enhance productive use of agricultural land in South Africa. Acknowledgement : The author sincerely acknowledges the financial support of the Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre (GMRDC) towards his postdoctoral fellowship at the Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, South Africa, where this study was carried out between June 2017-January 2018. The views in this paper are the author s own and do not necessarily represent those of the GMRDC and University of Fort Hare. The permission granted by Statistics South Africa to use the data set for this study is also gratefully acknowledged.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277464&r=agr
  79. By: Galioto, F.
    Abstract: The present study shows a methodology analysing the role plaid by information in conditioning the criteria used to schedule irrigation by farmers. The method is applied to the problem of comparing advanced instruments (advice services) and prevailing current practices (calendar irrigation) in valuing and predicting soil water content to schedule irrigation. Such assessment approach brought to the formulation of two main hypotheses: a) the message service is valuable if those messages with higher failure consequences are enough accurate to drive decisions; b) The use of information services to plan irrigation is favoured by the increasing frequencies of irrigation intervention because of the relatively lower expected consequences of failing to meet predictions. This methodology was applied to few pilot experiments. Observed impacts substantiate model hypothesis, revealing that the introduction of advanced information systems is favoured in sub-arid climate regions and for drip irrigated crops, where it was recorded a 0% to 20% increase in gross margin and a 10% to 30% water saving. The study concludes addressing the condition justifying the use of advanced information systems to schedule irrigation intervention and offering some policy recommendation to drive the development and the early adoption of such technologies . Acknowledgement : The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. KBBE-2012-311903 (FIGARO). The authors gratefully acknowledge the FIGARO consortium as a whole, with particular reference to representatives of the Canale Emiliano Romagnolo (Italy), Aarhus University (Denmark), the University of Lisbon (Portugal), and the Regional Union of Municipalities of Eastern Macedonia-Thrace (Greece) for having provided data and other technical information.
    Keywords: Research and Development/ Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277384&r=agr
  80. By: Muthini, Davis; Nzuma, Jonathan; Qaim, Matin
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–11–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gadadp:279791&r=agr
  81. By: Till Kuhn, David Schäfer
    Abstract: The use of farm models to analyze agri-environmental policies requires selecting farms which can be hypothetical, typical or observed ones. Farm typologies, understood as a grouping of farms according to relevant farm characteristics, allow selecting most prevailing farm types for a modelling exercise. Thereby, a farm type represents a share of the real-word farm population. We develop a farm typology for the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia based on the Farm Structure Survey 2016. It is designed to assess the revision of the German fertilization regulations in 2017 by applying a combination of a bio-physical crop model and a bio-economic farm model. The derived typology covers 77% of farms in North Rhine-Westphalia and comprises 210 farm types. Farms are grouped according to specialization, size in relation to area, and stocking density. In addition, a typical crop rotation is defined for every specialization in the nine soil-climate regions of North Rhine-Westphalia. We show that the proposed typology provides the necessary information for the selection of farm types as well as for the model initialization and parameterization in the described modelling exercise. Furthermore, we provide the information to adapt and extent the typology to similar research questions and upcoming Farm Structure Surveys. The incorporation of expert knowledge to identify farm structures which are not captured by the official statistic could improve the typology.
    Keywords: Farm Management
    Date: 2018–11–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ubfred:279702&r=agr
  82. By: Islam, A.H.M.S.
    Abstract: In the light of on-going debates about the sustainable agricultural intensification and sustainable development paradigms, this paper examined the linkages between integrated aquaculture-agriculture (IAA) value chain participation dynamics and the welfare of marginalized extremely poor indigenous households using a three-wave household panel dataset from Bangladesh. The distributional effect of IAA participation was also investigated by examining impacts across different value chain actors. We applied pooled Ordinary Least Squares, Random-Effects, and Standard Fixed-Effects, Heckit panel, and control function approaches to control for endogeneity of IAA participation and unobserved heterogeneity. We found that IAA value chain participation is positively correlated with household income, expenditure and the consumption frequency of certain foods, especially fish consumption, and the benefits continue to accrue after discontinuing participation in the value chain. The results reveal that IAA value chain participation has higher impacts on the welfare of relatively wealthier households involved in production related IAA value chain activities than on landless, extremely poor households that were involved in upstream and downstream IAA value chain activities. Acknowledgement : This is part of the author Doctoral dissertation. The author would like to thank particularly his supervisor Prof. Joachim von Braun for his continuous guidance and support. Our gratitude extends to the WorldFish for providing the first two rounds data sets, thereby enabling the construction of a three rounds panel dataset, and to the individual IAA value chain participators who participated in the field survey interviews. The author gratefully acknowledges financial support from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and from the Dr. Hermann Eiselen Doctoral Program of the Foundation fiat panis.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277412&r=agr
  83. By: Michel Rauchs (University of Cambridge); Andrew Glidden (University of California, Berkeley); Brian Gordon (University of Utah); Gina Pieters (University of Chicago); Martino Recanatini (University of Cambridge); Francois Rostand (University of Cambridge); Kathryn Vagneur (University of Cambridge); Bryan Zhang (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: The DLT ecosystem is plagued with the use of incomplete and inconsistent definitions and a lack of standardised terminology, creating a needlessly complicated landscape for everyone from experienced policymakers and developers to individuals venturing into the field for the first time. This study sets out to contribute to international discussions to create a shared, common language around DLT systems to clarify terminology and concepts.
    Keywords: Alternative finance
    Date: 2018–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:jbs:altfin:2018-10-26-conceptualising-dlt-systems&r=agr
  84. By: HASAN AKYER (PAMUKKALE UNIVERSITY); ZEHRA DURAK (PAMUKKALE UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: Agricultural sector that has gained importance in the world. Agriculture field is critically important for the economy of every country. Countries accompany different agricultural production strategies in different regions in accordance with their priorities. The population of the world is rapidly increasing so, the need for food is also increasing. Nowadays, organic planting become a popular topic in the world. Organic agricultural production provide healthier food and more environmentally production system. In this study, a production planning model was developed based on Mean-Variance Model for the production of vegetables in Turkey, which has a significant agricultural production potential for the Aegean region. This study gives as a guide way to the manufacturers for the cultivation plans in future seasons.
    Keywords: Agriculture Economy, Organic Production, Agricultural Planning
    JEL: A10
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sek:iacpro:8209704&r=agr
  85. By: Benali, M.; Bruemmer, B.; Afari-Sefa, V.
    Abstract: With the rise and consolidation of modern supply chains, the welfare effects for participating small producers have been analyzed in the literature. However, these were often assessed through the comparison of participating producers with those not participating. Using endogenous switching regression models, we assess in this paper the effects of small producer participation in export vegetable supply chains in Tanzania on household income and compare the effects of supplying two different types of French beans and snap peas export supply chains, defined as high-value (HVESC) and regular export supply chains (RESC), respectively. We find that participation in export supply chains increases producers household per capita income. Our results also show that these effects vary from one type of export supply chains to the other and are mainly driven by HVESC. Through a disaggregated analysis, we find evidence that richer and larger producers benefit from supplying the HVESC while supplying the RESC can increase the household per capita income of some poorer producers. Acknowledgement : The authors are grateful to Bethelhem Legesse Debela and Dominic Lemken for their helpful comments on a previous version of the paper. The financial support received from the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the GlobalFood Research Training Group (RTG 1666), the Foundation fiat panis and the World Vegetable Center is gratefully acknowledged. Marwan Benali also acknowledges the financial support received from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for his doctoral studies. The data collection process and field survey were implemented in close collaboration with the World Vegetable Center regional office for Eastern and Southern Africa in Arusha, Tanzania.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277131&r=agr
  86. By: Soto, I.; Barnes, A.; Eory, V.; Beck, B.; Balafoutis, A.; Sanchez, B.; Vangeyte, J.; Fountas, S.; Van Der Wall, T.; Gomez-Barbero, M.
    Abstract: Precision agricultural technologies (PAT) promise an approach to agricultural production whichboth enhances productivity and minimises environmental herm. Despite promising economic gains from PAT, uptake within Europe is currently low. We explore the factors behind adoption and non-adoption of PAT using a survey of 971 European farmers, focusing on the role of incentives influencing adoption. We examine current non-adopters' intentions for uptake PAT and current adopters intentions to uptake more PAT. We augment past behavioural models applied to PAT uptake by examining the effect of financial and non-financial incentives and attitudes towards payoffs of the technology. We apply a zero-inflated Poisson regression. Results indicate that non-adopters are distinct from adopters and more favourable to financial and non-financial incentives, whereas adopters support incentives around only a limited set of incentives. Attitudinal differences towards certainty of outcome and belief in the payback also emerge between these two groups. These are further explored qualitatively. The results indicate that a gradient of adoption is occurring with specific groups of farmers identifying particular needs but also responding to differing incentives. Recognition of these differences at policy level could lead to cost-effective interventions which maximise uptake, generate returns to farmers and meet policy desires for sustainable agricultural production. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Research and Development/ Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277470&r=agr
  87. By: Ghosh, R.K.; Eriksson, M.; Istamov, A.
    Abstract: Food produced but not consumed is one the greatest threats to sustainable food systems. While there is evidence in the literature to suggest that food is wasted at all stages of the agri-food chain, the role of take back agreements (TBAs) has not been emphasized. When market conditions are such that TBAs become a tool for the retailers to express coercive power over the supplier, there is an incentive to over-order and hence waste. In this study, a case-based approach was used to explore the existence and implications of coercive power at the retailer-supplier interface due to presence of TBAs in the context of Swedish bread suppliers. Specifically, company data for a medium-sized premium bread supplier in Sweden was analyzed. This supplier faced 30% returns of its total volume produced in the period 2011-15 and had to bear the entire cost of bread rejections, collection and disposal. It was paid only for the bread sold to end customers, and not for the contracted quantity. The findings indicate that TBAs are drivers of food waste at the supplier-retailer interface as it reduces the incentives for retailers to prevent waste. Our study confirms that it is a problem requiring serious policy attention. Acknowledgement : The study was funded by the European Union through the research programme ERA-Net SUSFOOD and the project COnsumers in a SUStainable food supply chain (COSUS). Primary data through interviews were provided by representatives of all major retailers and bread producers in Sweden, while detailed supply data were provided by the bread supplier Salt Kvarn. The company has allowed access to its data for the purposes of research without any anonymity conditions. The authors would like to thank the staff at all the companies involved for their help and cooperation.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277496&r=agr
  88. By: Richard C. Sutch
    Abstract: This working paper explores the significant contributions to the history of African-American slavery made by the application of the tools of cliometrics. As used here “cliometrics” is defined as a method of scientific analysis marked by the explicit use of economic theory and quantitative methods. American slavery of the late antebellum period [1840-1860] was one of the earliest topics that cliometricians focused on and, arguably, the topic upon which they made the largest impact.
    JEL: J0 J43 J61 J81 N11 N21 N31 N51 N92 P10 Q12
    Date: 2018–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:25197&r=agr
  89. By: Chilemba, Joanna; Ragasa, Catherine
    Abstract: Various models and approaches are being implemented to provide technical assistance and support to improve smallholder farmers’ incomes and welfare in Malawi. This study evaluates the impact of farmer business schools (FBS) on crop incomes of smallholder farmers in Dedza district in central Malawi. The FBS approach, which has been implemented nationally by the Government of Malawi since 2011, consists of one year of group training and learning sessions for smallholder farmers focusing on improving market access and establishing profitable agribusiness ventures. This study used a multi-stage sampling procedure to collect data from 455 smallholder farmers: 162 FBS graduates, 84 FBS dropouts, and 209 non-participants. Using propensity score matching and difference-in-difference techniques, crop incomes from two groups of farmers were evaluated; FBS participants and FBS non-participants as well as FBS graduates and FBS dropouts. The study finds a positive yet small impact of FBS participation on crop income and production (US$20 per year on average), and no significant difference in crop income and production for farmers who graduated from FBS versus those who dropped out. Insights from the qualitative research component of this study suggest that this is primarily due to the limited financial resources smallholder farmers have to implement the agricultural techniques and business models taught in FBS.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; smallholders; extension services; market access; incomes; impact assessment; income generation; agricultural policies; capacity building; farmer business schools (FBS)
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masswp:23&r=agr
  90. By: Haque, M.A.; Ahamed, T.; Akteruzzaman, M.; Hashem, A.; Haque, S.; Akter, S.; Islam, M.M.; Alamgir, M.S.; Isla, M.M.
    Abstract: The study examines the profitability and resource use efficiency analysis of poultry feed mills of Bangladesh covering Dhaka, Gazipur, Narsingdi, Kishoreganj and Mymensingh districts. Thirty feed mills which categorized as; high, medium and low quality on the basis of feed conversion ratio (FCR), were purposively selected. The primary and secondary data were collected and analyse on Cobb-Douglas model. Four out of six variables included in the model were explainied significantly. The feed production cost was estimated Tk. 39295, Tk. 38643 and Tk. 37218 per metric tonne (MT) respectively. The cost of high quality feed was more than medium and low quality feed and the gross return was Tk. 43160, Tk. 42330 and Tk. 40500 per MT respectively. It indicates that high quality feed production was more profitable than the medium and low feed production. The results of Cobb-Douglas model indicated that if the supply of quality of raw materials increased, their efficiency would increase for low and medium. It was also found that the ratio of MVP and MFC were less than one which indicated that the resources were over utilized for high quality feed mills and three input out of six underutilized for medium and low quality feeds. Acknowledgement : All praises for the Almighty Allah Whose blessings have enabled the author to complete the task of this paper. I do hereby express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my respected professor Dr. Md. Akteruzzaman, Department of Agricultural Economics, Md. Abul Hashem, Professor, Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh and Associate Professor Tofael Ahamed, Tsukuba University, Japan for their guidance, suggestions and supervision. I am grateful to Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh for providing financial support Special thanks to all of my friends, their encouragement and moral support .
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277163&r=agr
  91. By: Baulch, Bob; Gondwe, Anderson; Chafuwa, Chiyembekezo
    Abstract: In early 2016, Malawi suffered its second consecutive year of harvest failure. An emergency was declared in April 2016 and the resulting humanitarian response, known as the Food Insecurity Response Program (FIRP), was of unprecedented scale: almost 40 percent of the population received in-kind food or cash transfers (or both) at an estimated cost of US$ 287 million. Yet despite the extensive nature of the response, prices for the main food staple, maize, stayed relatively ‘flat’ throughout most of the year and then declined during the pre-harvest lean season. This paper examines this paradox, focusing on why in-kind food distribution did not depress maize prices while cash transfers did not raise them. Using daily information on maize prices, and food and cash transfers from ten major markets during the height of the FIRP, we employ time series methods to analyze the properties of the series and model the formation of maize prices using autoregressive distributed lag models.
    Keywords: MALAWI; SOUTHERN AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; food aid; maize; agricultural prices; market prices; cash transfers; food transfer
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:masswp:22&r=agr
  92. By: Nakelse, T.; Dalton, T.
    Abstract: Nondiversified and poor-quality diets are some of the main causes of hidden hunger and associated illnesses. Yet there is limited research on consumer valuation of food quality attributes especially those related to nutritional quality in low-income countries. Consequently, we assess urban consumers preference for food quality attributes of value-added cereal products in Niamey, Niger. We combine qualitative and quantitative methods to assess 205 randomly sampled consumers preferences and the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for food quality attributes. Multinomial logit models are estimated using Maximum Simulated Likelihood and comparing two alterative specifications of consumer preferences. In addition, we account for taste and preference heterogeneity inherent to consumers responses to a change in quality attributes. We find that consumers are highly sensitive to the nutritional quality attribute as measured by the expiration date, the presence of micronutrients, and the product origin. These results suggest a market demand for quality food products beyond traditional cereals but demand is heterogenous and class-dependent. Food processors and policymakers should better communicate quality attributes of products through a sound promotion strategy marked by quality labeling. Keywords: Food Labeling, Consumer Surplus, Choice Experiment, Niger, Nutrition, WTP THIS PAPER SHOULD BE ENTERED INTO THE T.W. SCHULTZ YOUNG ECONOMIST COMPETITION. Acknowledgement : This study was made possible by the support of the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Sorghum and Millet through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government. Program activities are funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-13-00047.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277459&r=agr
  93. By: Hänke, Hendrik; Barkmann, Jan; Blum, Lloyd; Franke, Yvonne; Martin, Dominic A.; Niens, Jasnna; Osen, Kristina; Uruena, Viviana; Witherspoon, S. Annette; Wurz, Annemarie
    Abstract: The SAVA Region in north-eastern Madagascar is the global centre of vanilla production. Here, around 70,000 farmers are estimated to produce 70-80% of all global bourbon vanilla. Yet, little is known about the farming population, their livelihoods, and the impact of vanilla cultivation on biodiversity. This publication presents the results of the Diversity Turn Baseline Survey (DTBS) that was conducted in 2017. The survey provides baseline data on the socio-economic characteristics and living conditions of the local population, and farming of vanilla as well as the most important other crops (n=1,800 households). As international demand for natural vanilla has increased considerably, special emphasis is placed on the vertical integration of vanilla farmers into the global vanilla value chain. This integration is increasingly accomplished through contract farming arrangements between vanilla farmers, collectors and exporters. After a first rise in vanilla prices in 2015, the current vanilla boom took off in 2016 and was still in full swing in 2017. Consequently, the start of the price boom coincides with this survey and its retrospective questions often address the situation in 2016. The large majority of the surveyed households (HHs) in the study region practice vanilla farming (83%). Of these, only 15% conclude formal contracts while the majority of farmers (63%) sell their vanilla in informal spot markets often depending on several middlemen. Our data show that the socio-economic situation of smallholder vanilla farmers has recently improved when considering vanilla prices received, education, access to electricity and ownership of assets. However, under the high vanilla prices, theft and crime are now key constraints for vanilla farmers. In addition to descriptive statistics, this publication compares selected data between male- and female-headed HHs, poor and non-poor HHs, and HHs with- and without contracts. Members of female-headed HHs have significantly lower education, lower labour availability, smaller fields and lower vanilla harvests than male-headed HHs. HHs with contracts possess more assets, are better educated, have higher labour availability, larger vanilla plots, and larger vanilla harvests than HHs without contracts. The DTBS confirms a number of benefits for smallholders who conclude contracts with vanilla exporters or collectors. Among these benefits are the significantly higher vanilla prices even during market peaks. However, the distribution of HHs with or without contracts is skewed indicating entry barriers for certain groups of smallholders. For example, female-headed HHs were significantly less likely to have a contract than male-headed HHs, and it appears that HHs with a contract had already been less poor than HHs without a contract prior to entering contract arrangements.
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:daredp:1806&r=agr
  94. By: Govindaraj, G.N.; Roy, G.; Mohanty, B.; Vinayagamurthy, B.; Pandey, A.K.; Sharma, V.; Patel, A.; Mehra, M.; Pandey, S.K.; Roy, P.
    Abstract: The study assessed the impact of Peste des petits ruminants Control Programme (PPR-CP) implemented against the contagious transboundary OIE notified disease in sheep and goats in Chhattisgarh, India. Mass Vaccination Campaign like pulse polio vaccination in humans was adopted under PPR-CP. Based on primary and secondary data, the outbreaks trend, vaccination coverage, losses avoidance, financial viability of the PPR-CP, sero-conversion of vaccination and farmers perception on PPR-CP were assessed using appropriate mathematical models. The reported outbreaks, diagnosed and death cases declined in consonance with increased vaccination coverage. The estimated mean mortality loss per animal was USD 45.2 and USD 16.5 in goats and sheep, whereas, the treatment and opportunity cost of labour was USD 1.9 and USD 2.5, respectively. Under low PPR incidence scenario, BCR, NPV and IRR was 4.9:1,48.9 million USD and 146.6%, whereas it was 12.4:1,142.7 million USD and 430.4% and 13.5:1,156.7 million USD and 430.4% under medium and high incidence scenarios. Further, vaccinating 100% risk population followed by 30% vaccination to cover na ve population has maximum benefits than 100% coverage every year. The farmers had positive opinion on overall services provided under PPR-CP and the results provide empirical evidence for its replication in other states. Acknowledgement : Authors would like to thank Chhattisgarh State Animal Husbandry Department and their officials, field veterinarians, para-veterinarians for their assistance during data collection. We thank the sheep and goats rearing farmers in Chhattisgarh state for participating in the survey and for providing necessary information for the study. Authors gratefully acknowledge the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Agricultural Extension Division for funding the project through Extramural project mode. Authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of project staff and other officials of ICAR-NIVEDI for their constant support.
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277047&r=agr
  95. By: Mirzabaev, A.; Strokov, A.; Krasilnikov, P.
    Abstract: Land degradation is a critical challenge to sustainable development in Central Asia. The study found that land degradation over the previous three decades may have been responsible for about 27% losses in agricultural profits in the region during the 2009-2010 cropping season compared with the case without land degradation. Middle- and richer tercile of agricultural households lost a higher share of their farm profits due to land degradation, 30% and 34%, respectively. There was not a significant impact of land degradation on the farm profits of the poorest tercile. The poor agricultural households have a stronger dependence on land for their livelihoods, hence; have a stronger incentive to take a better care of land. The results corroborated this: the poor households applied, on average, 25% more sustainable land management practices than the richest group, and almost twice more than the middle group. The poor have higher incentives to manage their land sustainably if institutional and economic settings allow them to do so. Among such institutional factors, the study found that increasing crop diversification, securing land tenure and providing a better access to markets significantly contributed to higher farm profits among poor agricultural households in Central Asia. Acknowledgement : We thank the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, and Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, for the support in the development of the methodological framework in this paper. The analysis and literature review in the paper were supported by Russian Science Foundation, project ? 14-38-00023. We are highly grateful to the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) for the survey data and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for funding the survey.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277449&r=agr
  96. By: Adejumo, O.; Okoruwa, V.; Abass, A.
    Abstract: This study examined the adoption of improved post-harvest technology for cassava processing and its impacts on welfare of Smallholder cassava starch processors. The study relied mainly on cross-sectional data collected through a survey conducted in the forest and guinea savanna zones of Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting a sample frame of five hundred and seventy (570) cassava starch processors. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, logit model and the propensity score matching method. Smallholder cassava starch processing in Nigeria is mostly a female enterprise. The average age of the processors was 48 years, with an average household size of six. The decision to use improved technology is explained by number of income earners in the household, years of processing experience, cost of acquiring technology and the capacity of technology. This study found a positive and significant impact of improved post-harvest technology on output and income of smallholder cassava starch processors. Therefore, designing mechanisms to help promote use of improved technology among small-scale processors by developing affordable technologies appears to be a rational policy instrument to improve cassava starch processors welfare. Key words: cassava processing, improved technologies, output, income, Nigeria JEL: C21, D13, O33, Q12 Acknowledgement : Acknowledgments The study is an output of the Cassava Web Project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft f r Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. The Research Fellowship offered by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria to the first author is gratefully acknowledged. The research is supported by CGIAR Program on Humidtropics and the Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB).
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277054&r=agr
  97. By: Jiang, J.-Q.; Yu, T.; Wang, Z.-H.; Qi, D.-M; Huang, W.-Z
    Abstract: Although food waste has become an increasingly important issue in China, little attention has been given to its scale and determining factors in the related literature of food waste. This study uses the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data surveyed in 1991, 2000 and 2009 to investigate the food waste behavior of Chinese households over the twenty years. In addition, the factors affecting food waste at home were identified and evaluated using the double hurdle model. The survey results show that the food waste amount at home per household has declined over the study span, likely due to the increase of outside-dining, while the percentage of households incurring food waste was on the rise. Also, among the factors associated with household food waste, the household size and regional differences in dietary habits were found positively correlated with food waste over time. In addition, the high-income families tended to generate more waste than low-income families after 2000. The age, education and employment characteristics of the main female member were also related with household food waste although the impact on food waste varied over time. Acknowledgement : This research uses data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). And we thank the financial support from the Social Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (L16BGL038), Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (WJQ2015026), the Youth Project of the Philosophy and Social Science Research, Ministry of Education of China (13YJC790057, 14YJC90094), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71303161, 71503173).
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277551&r=agr
  98. By: Mwema, C.; Crewett, W.; Lagat, J.; Bokelmann, W.
    Abstract: Access to market information is an important determinant in agricultural commercialisation. However, most econometric analysis have ignored effects of market information networks that necessitate dissemination among smallholders. This paper aims to assess the effects of social networks on commercialisation of African Leafy Vegetables (ALVs). ALVs which were once considered as poor man s crop have increasingly become an important crop due to the increased nutritional awareness especially among urban dwellers. We model its commercialisation using a two stage double hurdle model: participation decision and extent of commercialisation. The paper is based on data collected in 2015 from a household survey on 202 small holder vegetable farmers in Kenya. Econometric analysis were conducted on STATA 13. Social networks were found significant determinants in intensifying ALVs commercialisation. Market information received by people outside the village (bridging social capital) increased the likelihood of intensifying ALVs commercialisation by 52%. Market information received by fellow farmers mainly through farmer groups had a positive likelihood of intensifying commercialisation by 365% compared to information received by extension officers. Other positive determinants of ALVs commercialisation were farm size, household size, ALVs income share while negative determinants were livestock unit, age, and share of off farm income. Acknowledgement : The authors are grateful for research grants from the Horticultural Innovations and Learning for Improved Nutrition and Livelihood in East Africa project (HORTINLEA) funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development of Germany.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae18:277049&r=agr

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