nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒08‒13
thirty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Precision Agriculture in Ontario: 2017 Precision Agriculture Services Dealership Survey By Mitchell, Sean; Weersink, Alfons; Erickson, Bruce
  2. The system-wide impact of healthy eating: assessing emissions and economic impacts at the regional level By Grant Allan; David Comerford; Peter McGregor
  3. Volcanic hazards, land and labor By Johanna Choumert; Pascale Phelinas
  4. Storage infrastructure and agricultural yield: Evidence from a capital investment subsidy scheme By Chatterjee, Somdeep
  5. Economic Research Service: Specialized Agency Functions and Public Goods’ Provision By Smith Evans, Katherine
  6. An Explanation of the Earnings Variation across Bovine Veterinarians in Private Practice during 2014 By Dodge, Lynn E.; Koontz, Stephen R.
  7. Factors affecting farmers’ WTP for innovative fertilizer against soil salinity By Stavroula Tsigou; Stathis Klonaris
  8. Decoupled but not neutral: The effects of stochastic transfers on investment and incomes in rural Thailand By Wagener, Andreas; Zenker, Juliane
  9. Farmer Campaign Finance: Determinants of Contributions to Political Action Committees By Scott Callahan
  10. Macro and Political Stability Essential Condition for Successful Agricultural Transformation By Isabelle Tsakok
  11. Risk attitudes, knowledge, skills and agricultural productivity By Pham, Huong Dien; Waibel, Hermann
  12. Towards incorporating natural capital into a computable general equilibrium model for Scotland By Grant Allan; David Comerford; Peter McGregor
  13. AGREP Arkansas Global Rice Economics Program; International Rice Outlook; International Rice Baseline Projections, 2017-2027 By Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C.; Durand-Morat, Alvaro
  14. Comparing peri-urban versus rural poverty and child malnutrition reduction: Insights from Southeast Asia By Pahlisch, Thi Hoa; Parvathi, Priyanka; Waibel, Hermann
  15. Rice Seed System in Thailand By Orachos Napasintuwong
  16. Agricultural Irrigation’s Responses to Federal Crop Insurance in the United States By Ghosh, Prasenjit; Miao, Ruiqing
  17. Examining an "Experimental" Food Security Status Classification Method for Households with Children By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P.; Gregory, Christian A.
  18. New Technological Knowledge, Rural and Urban Agriculture, and Steady State Economic Growth By Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter
  19. The Impact of Exchange Rate Dynamics on Agricultural Output Performance in Nigeria By Adekunle, Wasiu; Ndukwe, Innocent
  20. An Assessment of Association between Natural Resources Agglomeration and Unemployment in Pakistan By Ali, Amjad; Zulfiqar, Kalsoom
  21. What drives food price volatility? Evidence based on a generalized VAR approach applied to the food, financial and energy markets By Śmiech, Sławomir; Papież, Monika; Dąbrowski, Marek A.; Fijorek, Kamil
  22. Brexit No Deal: The Budgetary Impact on CAP - Greece and the EU27 By Oliver Mas
  23. Farmer Preferences for Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration Schemes By Gramig, Benjamin M.; Widmar, Nicole J.O.
  24. Rainfall shocks and risk aversion: Evidence from Southeast Asia By Liebenehm, Sabine; Degener, Nele; Strobl, Eric
  25. Sustainability and Green Business in Latin America during Globalization Waves By Geoffrey Jones
  26. Citizen Preferences for Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management: The Case of Atlantic Menhaden By Jane L. Harrison; Alexandra Naumenko; John C. Whitehead
  27. Economic contribution of visiting Salmon anglers to the Moy and Corrib fisheries By Grilli, Gianluca; Landgraf, Gavin; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen
  28. CAP and Monetary Policy By Carl Duisberg
  29. The pursuit of industrialization in the EAC region: The role of trade facilitating infrastructure in promoting exports of manufactured goods By Shinyekwa, Isaac; Ntale, Anita
  30. An Analysis of Urban Environmental Kuznets Curve of CO2 Emissions: Empirical Analysis of 276 Global Metropolitan Areas By Fujii, Hidemichi; Iwata, Kazuyuki; Chapman, Andrew; Kagawa, Shigemi; Managi, Shunsuke
  31. Cropland Reflux: Trends In and Locations of Land Use Change in the Dakotas, 2007 to 2012 and 2012 to 2017 By Wang, Tong; Ayesh, Abubakr; Hennessy, David; Feng, Hongli
  32. Economic contribution and management of Sea Bass angling in Ireland By Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen; O’Reilly, Paul
  33. Climate Variability and Theft in Colombia By Rafael Isidro PARRA-PEÑA S; Barry REILLY
  34. Campaign Contributions Made by Farmers: Does Geography Affect Behavior? By Scott Callahan
  35. A global consumer-led strategy to tackle climate change By Anthony J. Webster
  36. Mexican agriculture and policy under NAFTA By George A. Dyer; Alan Hernández-Solano; Pablo Meza-Pale; Héctor Robles-Berlanga; Antonio Yúnez-Naude

  1. By: Mitchell, Sean; Weersink, Alfons; Erickson, Bruce
    Abstract: Agricultural service providers affiliated with the Ontario Agri Business Association (OABA) were surveyed on the extent to which their businesses use precision agricultural technologies for crop inputs purchased by farmers in Ontario. Approximately half of the fertilizers and pesticides sold by these companies are custom applied on land managed by the buyer of the inputs and nearly half of the respondents custom apply crop inputs on over 50,0000 acres. An indication of the wide spread use of precision agriculture in some form for crop production is that only 4% of respondents report not using precision agriculture at all within their business. The most popular use of the technology within the businesses and in their custom application services are GPS autosteer systems and precision spraying technology to minimize overlap and to ensure complete coverage. In addition to guidance systems, other geographic services widely used were the field mapping and soil sampling. Variable rate technologies are not adopted to the same extent as the geographic category of innovations but do hold promise. Many pieces of information ranging from geo-physical to climatic to production to economic are necessary to generate a prescription for the variable application of inputs to reap the benefits. The difficulty of constructing, collecting, maintaining and sharing data limit the opportunity to derive effective decision rules with high information value to producers. Enhancing the adoption of non-GPS precision agriculture technologies will require turning the vast amount of new data collected on crop production into manageable and valuable decisions for the farmer.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2017–10–16
  2. By: Grant Allan (University of Strathclyde); David Comerford (University of Strathclyde); Peter McGregor (University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: Encouraging consumers to shift their diets towards to a lower meat/lower calorie alternative has been the focus of food and health policies across the world. The economic impact on regions has been less widely examined, but is likely to be significant, where agricultural and food activities are important for the host region. In this study we use a multi-sectoral modelling framework to examine the environmental and economic impacts of a dietary change, and illustrate this using a detailed model for Scotland. We find that if household food and drink consumption follows healthy eating guidelines, it would reduce both Scotland’s “footprint†and “territorial†emissions, and yet may be associated with positive economic impacts, generating a “double dividend†for both the environment and the economy. Furthermore, the likely benefits to health suggest the potential for a “triple dividend†. The economic impact however depends critically upon how households use the income previously spent on higher calorie diets.
    Keywords: Diet, emissions, economic impact, Scotland
    JEL: Q11 Q18 R11
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: Johanna Choumert (EDI - Economic Development Initiatives Limited); Pascale Phelinas (CESSMA UMRD 245 - Centre d'études en sciences sociales sur les mondes africains, américains et asiatiques - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Inalco - Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We study the behavior of farmers living under the threat of the Tungurahua Volcano in Ecuador. Recent eruptions have caused significant damage, including crop loss, death of livestock, and destruction of dwellings. We collected a unique data set after a major eruption in 2016. We interviewed 222 farmers in the area affected by the eruption and 260 in a nearby control zone to understand why they choose to remain in the risky zone despite the existence of public programs aimed at relocating them to safe zones. We examine land and labor, which are farmers' primary productive assets. Firstly, we investigate the capitalization of volcanic hazards in farmland values and find a negative price premium of 21% compared to the control zone. Secondly, we explore non-farm labor in response to volcanic risk. Finally, we argue that repeated ash fall events increase the illiquidity of farm household assets, such as farmland, and that agricultural human capital is difficult to convert into non-agricultural capital. Our results convey important information for public policies aimed at supporting adaptation and resilience of people living under the threat of volcanoes and other natural disasters.
    Keywords: Ecuador, Volcano, Agriculture, Labor, Natural disasters
    Date: 2018–07–20
  4. By: Chatterjee, Somdeep
    Abstract: In a developing economy, the availability of storage infrastructure is considered essential for two purposes; the reduction of post-harvest losses resulting in food shortage, and allowing for gains from inter-temporal trade due to potential arbitrage opportunities arising out of volatility in food grain prices. This paper provides empirical evidence on a lesser studied impact of storage infrastructure, viz, agricultural yield. The author exploits potentially exogenous variation generated by the intensity of access to a capital investment subsidy program for construction and renovation of rural godowns in India to identify causal effects of better storage on yield. He finds that the program led to an increase in rice yield by 0.3 tons per hectare, approximately a 20% increase compared to the baseline. A potential mediating channel for such an effect would be reduced storage costs facilitating better investments in productive inputs. As supportive evidence, the author finds that fertilizer consumption increased by 21% in response to the intervention.
    Keywords: storage,yield,fertilizer consumption,Grameen Bhandaran Yojana
    JEL: Q12 Q18 O12 O13
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Smith Evans, Katherine
    Abstract: Through the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service (ERS), the nation invests $87 million to support decision-making in the agriculture, food and related sectors. This capability is critically important to these sectors, which comprise 5.5 percent of U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) and have significant impact on 46 million rural Americans and the more than half of the country’s land and resource base that is used for agriculture. ERS is a research agency with outsized impact that serves the public goals of USDA programs and contributes to the practice of agricultural and applied economics. This report summarizes intramural and extramural research and outlines how results are used to fulfill its role as a designated statistical agency and to provide market situation and outlook information. This report also summarizes the synergies created by current programs.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Dodge, Lynn E.; Koontz, Stephen R.
    Abstract: The ability of society to respond to global protein demand, prevent food animal disease outbreaks, and protect public health will in part rely on the availability of rural, food animal veterinarians. The rising cost and declining net present value of the DVM degree implies that the ability to supply such veterinarians will rely on an understanding of economic incentives these professions face. The objectives of this study are to identify factors that influence bovine veterinarian income and explain variation in earnings across practitioners. Attributes and characteristics of veterinarians and their practices were collected through a 2015 American Association of Bovine Practitioners survey and then used to explain veterinarian income through statistical analysis. Results indicate that the greatest incentives exist for practice owners, specialists, and in regions with large concentrations of livestock. Additionally, establishment of a strong client base and field experience will serve private practitioners better than pursuing additional education beyond the DVM degree. These variations explain nearly half of the variation in income. Human capital measures should inform future research as the remaining variation is attributed to unobserved ability.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2017–07–10
  7. By: Stavroula Tsigou (AUA); Stathis Klonaris (AUA)
    Abstract: Salt stress noxiously shocks agricultural yield all over the world affecting production either it is for subsistence or economic outcomes. However, the market for anti-salinity products is still developing and little is known about the willingness to pay for agricultural supplies, these have been largely focused on using stated preference methods only. This paper applied both Contingent and Inferred Valuation Method for the purpose of examining the determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay for two packages of an innovative anti-salinity fertilizer, which does not yet exist in the market, in the regions of southwest Greece. With the aid of questionnaire, primary data were obtained from 150 farmers. Willingness to pay for the two packages of liquid fertilizer was measured through dichotomous choice. For the econometric analysis, interval regression model was used. The results revealed that farmers’ willingness to pay for the specific anti-salinity product is influenced by a host of factors. Especially, the regression showed that the size of cultivated land, the level of education, the knowledge scale about salinity, the package of liquid fertilizer that farmers usually buy and the consequentiality script have a positive effect on willingness to pay, whilst hypothetical bias and inferred valuation method have a negative effect. Also, we examined a methodological issue concerning the order that the package of fertilizer was appeared in the willingness to pay question which has a positive effect on willingness to pay. The implication is that taking these factors into account while large companies are looking for new and profitable products by investing for research and development enables companies’ managers to come up with projects that win acceptance from the farmers.
    Keywords: salinity; willingness to pay; contingent valuation; inferred valuation; dichotomous choice
    JEL: C21 M31 Q31 Q16
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Wagener, Andreas; Zenker, Juliane
    Abstract: In 2009, the Thai government implemented a price insurance scheme for rice farmers. The program, which was abandoned after only one year, added to the incomes of registered farmers a non-negative but stochastic amount that was decoupled from farmers' agricultural activities. A rich panel data set spanning from 2008 to 2013 enables us to control for self-selection into the program and to study its impact on small-scale rice farmers in relatively poor Northeastern Thailand. Program participation increases rice production but also leads to shifts in the composition of income generating activities away from agriculture, which may be beneficial for rural development. Decreasing risk-aversion and relieved credit constraints may be possible channels for these effects.
    Keywords: Cash transfers, Agricultural subsidies, Farm households, Thailand, Propensity score matching
    JEL: D13 H25 I38 Q12
    Date: 2018–07
  9. By: Scott Callahan
    Abstract: Over the years, farmers have effectively lobbied for advantageous farm policy through organizing effective political action. An extensive literature studies the activities of farming political action committees (PACs), and the effects these activities have on farm programs. This literature treats farming PACs as exogenous entities. However, the origins of their funding support remains unexplored. This research empirically assesses possible determinants of political contributions from farmers to farming PACs, using a correlated random effects Tobit model to assess the impact of farm production characteristics and policy regimes on contributions to farming PACs and political parties. Key Words: Agricultural Policy, Lobbying, Rent Seeking, Campaign Finance
    JEL: Q18 D72
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Isabelle Tsakok
    Abstract: Maintenance of macro and political stability over decades is essential for sustaining an environment where private incentives to invest in higher productivity and profitable agriculture can flourish and bear fruit. It is necessary, but not sufficient. Most countries experience periods of instability either due to price inflation, in terms of trade shocks, and/or political stresses. Those countries that maintain macro and political stability over decades, despite these shocks, are those that are resilient and succeed. They bounce back and are stronger after such stresses. Their stability and resilience are anchored in their economic management, institutional makeup and caliber of their leadership. The maintenance of stability—macro and political—is becoming more challenging in view of the diverse structural factors that threaten to increase the levels and volatility of basic food prices, especially in economies still saddled with low productivity agricultures and extensive poverty.
    Date: 2018–07
  11. By: Pham, Huong Dien; Waibel, Hermann
    Abstract: Agriculture is a risky business contingent on risks and uncertainty. Without strong technical knowledge, farmers tend to rely heavily on heuristics and subjective judgments to deal with their daily business. It is crucial to understand farmers’ practices to provide suitable supports. This study uses a rich data set from a long panel household survey to assess farmers’ agricultural productivity in Hue province of Vietnam that we combine with data collected from special surveys conducted in 2014 and 2015 focusing on farmers’ knowledge, skills and risk attitudes. It aims to provide an overview of the environment in which farmers do business under constraints. Particularly, we investigate the relations among risk attitudes, farmers’ knowledge, management ability and agricultural productivity by using univariate and bivariate analyses. The results indicate a large variation in farmers’ knowledge. Most of them have low degree of technical knowledge, but show higher subjective knowledge. Agricultural performance tends to be more dependent on subjective knowledge than technical knowledge. Accordingly, farmers received limited support from the extension institutions. While risk attitudes are significantly correlated with farmers’ knowledge and decision-making ability in livestock production, it has no direct significant relation with agricultural performance. The previous outcome showed that livestock productivity is prone to fluctuation, risk-taking should be important for farmers to cope with shocks. This study suggests extension services to fill the gap between subjective knowledge and technical knowledge and to build a significant linkage between risk-taking and learning to improve farmers’ abilities and consequently enhance agricultural productivity.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Knowledge, Risk attitudes
    JEL: D81 Q00 Q10
    Date: 2018–04
  12. By: Grant Allan (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); David Comerford (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde); Peter McGregor (Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde)
    Abstract: Natural capital encompasses those assets which are provided by nature and which are valued by economic actors. As such, there is a clear analogy between natural and other assets, such as physical capital, which are routinely included in models of national economies. However, the valuation of natural assets, to the extent that they are included in such economic models, is typically wrapped up in physical capital along with land values or not valued at all. This could be simply a measurement problem - natural capital might be difficult to appropriately disaggregate from other capital - or because they provide non-market goods which are not included within traditional measures of economic output. The purpose of this paper is to set out - both conceptually and practically - how natural capital can be added to a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. We focus on: the conceptual differences that should be reflected in such an extension; the challenges of implementing the extension in practice; and identifying the value added generated by an appropriately augmented model. We explore the empirical implementation of our approach through the addition of carbon emissions and an agricultural biomass ecosystem service flow to our CGE model of the Scottish economy. This working paper specifies this CGE model development, but does not go as far as fully implementing it in the CGE model. When fully implemented in the context of a CGE with a disaggregated agriculture sector, this will allow us simultaneously to track the impact of disturbances, including policy changes, on the economy and the environment and therefore on sustainable development. In the longer-term comprehensive coverage of natural capital stocks and ecosystem services will allow us to track the impact of disturbances, including policy interventions, on Green GDP and Genuine Savings, as well as on aggregate and sectoral economic activity, energy use and emissions.
    Keywords: Natural capital, computable general equilibrium models
    JEL: Q57 Q1 C68
    Date: 2018–07
  13. By: Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C.; Durand-Morat, Alvaro
    Abstract: This outlook contains updated baseline rice projections for U.S. and international rice economies as of January 2018. The purpose of this document is to present the current state and the expected directions of the rice economies in the world by assessing their potential supply and demand paths over the next decade. This set of projections serves as a baseline for evaluating and comparing alternative macroeconomic, policy, weather, and technological scenarios. The estimates are intended for use by government agencies and officials, farmers, consumers, agribusinesses and other stakeholders who conduct medium- and long-term planning. The baseline projections are generated by the Arkansas Global Rice Economics Program (AGREP); and are grounded in a series of assumptions about the general economy, agricultural policies, weather, and technological change. It is assumed that current agricultural policies will be continued in the United States and other countries included in this study. Projections in this outlook are based on the information available as of January 2018. In light of the volatility of the global rice economy, a stochastic analysis is included in this report to provide a better understanding of the probable distribution of future outcomes. The stochastic estimates establish the likely upper and lower bounds for selected variables, which serve as indications of inherent risks associated with the global rice economy. The authors acknowledge and appreciate the collaboration with the team at FAPRI-MU based at the University of Missouri in Columbia; but take full responsibility for any remaining errors in this document.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics
    Date: 2018–03
  14. By: Pahlisch, Thi Hoa; Parvathi, Priyanka; Waibel, Hermann
    Abstract: Success in reducing monetary poverty in Southeast Asia does not fully translate into reduction in malnutrition. Using a three-year panel data from one province each in Thailand, Lao PDR and Vietnam, we study the correlation between monetary poverty and nutritional outcomes of children under five. Furthermore, we analyze differences between nutrition outcomes of children between rural and peri-urban areas. We apply ordinary least squares, two stage least squares and quantile regression models and find that nutrition remains a problem despite achievements in poverty alleviation. Results also show significant differences across countries as well as between peri-urban and rural areas.
    Keywords: Poverty, Child malnutrition, Peri-urban, Rural, Southeast Asia
    JEL: I15 I30 R11
    Date: 2017–12
  15. By: Orachos Napasintuwong (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Economics, Kasetsart University)
    Abstract: Thailand’s rice has set a supreme quality standard in the world market. Seed is one of the important factors contributing to good quality grains. As the competition for quality rice in the world market is becoming intensive, rice seeds play a significant role not only to ensure food and income security but also to retain quality and competitiveness of Thai rice in the world market. This paper reviews policies and regulations related to rice seed industry in Thailand, current situations of rice seed system, the supply and demand of rice seeds, and implications for future rice seed industry development. It is found that some of current regulations and business environment do not create much incentive for investments for the private sector. The imports and exports of rice seeds are practically prohibited. Thus, most of existing rice seeds in the market comprise of mainly public varieties produced by formal seed sector with a few exceptions of privately developed varieties by Thai companies, farmers’ groups and research institutes. None of the foreign stakeholders is in rice seed industry in Thailand presently. As seed producers do not hold exclusive rights to reproduce public varieties, and because all of the varieties are not hybrids, informal seed system is the major source of rice seeds. The systems of rice seed suggest that formal and informal systems can be integrated and linkages between both systems should create incentives for business opportunities.
    Keywords: seed system, rice seed, certified seed
    JEL: Q13 L1
    Date: 2018–08
  16. By: Ghosh, Prasenjit; Miao, Ruiqing
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2018–08–04
  17. By: Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Rabbitt, Matthew P.; Gregory, Christian A.
    Abstract: Food security, which USDA has measured and tracked since 1995, has become a key national measure of well-being; therefore, it is important that the measure is accurate. Since the food security measure was developed, USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS) has conducted ongoing research on the statistical properties of the measure. ERS researchers have developed an alternative “experimental” classification method for classifying food security status in households with children. This alternative approach reduces statistical biases inherent in the current classification approach and improves fit to the Rasch measurement model and its assumptions. Here, ERS evaluates how well the food security-status categories correlate with other food inadequacy and nutritional indicators. The researchers examine whether the experimental classification or the current classification is more consistent with indicators of “food inadequacy,” defined here as food insufficiency, unmet food needs, and use of a food pantry. ERS also examines the association between each of the two food-security-classification methods and dietary quality. Results show that the current classification is more consistent with indicators of food inadequacy. The report includes guidance for researchers using USDA’s food security measure.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2017–09–27
  18. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter
    Abstract: We analyze the growth effects over space arising from the adoption of new agricultural technology in a rural-urban setting. We use a dynamic model to study the impacts of technology and learning on the steady state growth rates of rural and urban regions that produce agricultural goods. New applications of agricultural technologies are tested and adopted in the rural region and they are gradually learned by the urban region. Our analysis leads to four results. First, we determine the steady state growth rate of agricultural output per worker in the rural region. Second, we define an urban to rural region agricultural technology knowledge ratio, analyze its stability properties, and then use this ratio to compute the steady state growth rate of agricultural output per worker in the urban region. Third, for specific parameter values, we study the ratio of agricultural output per worker in the urban to the rural region when both regions have converged to their balanced growth paths. Finally, we discuss the policy implications of our analysis.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Learning, Rural Region, Technology, Urban Region
    JEL: O18 Q16 R11
    Date: 2018–01–20
  19. By: Adekunle, Wasiu; Ndukwe, Innocent
    Abstract: Abstract The study investigated the possible asymmetric effect of real exchange rate dynamics on agricultural output performance in Nigeria over the period of 1981 to 2016 by collecting data from secondary sources. The study employed a combination of stationary and nonstationary variables as was found out through the ADF unit root test. Based on the Bounds test for cointegration, a long-run relationship was absent between real exchange rate and agricultural output, irrespective of specifications. Generally, the result of model estimation showed that the significant drivers of agricultural output are real exchange rate (log-levels), real appreciation and depreciation (after some lags), industrial capacity utilization rate, and government expenditure on agriculture (after some lags). ACGSF loan exerted positive and insignificant influence on agricultural output. In addition, though the effect of real appreciation was larger than that of real depreciation, the present study could not find any evidence in support of the asymmetric effect of real exchange rate dynamics on agricultural output performance in the Nigerian economy. It is therefore suggested that fiscal and monetary authorities in Nigeria should work in unison at ensuring that the full potentials of the agricultural sector are harnessed for the growth and development of the country.
    Keywords: Keywords: Real exchange rate, Agricultural output, and Asymmetry
    JEL: Q1 Q17 Q18 Q19
    Date: 2018–06–02
  20. By: Ali, Amjad; Zulfiqar, Kalsoom
    Abstract: Mostly economists believe that due to nonexistence of agglomeration economies, there are less chances of employment spatial distribution in an economy. Following the strands of previous literature about agglomeration special impacts, this study has uplifted the curtain from some interesting realities. This study has examined the association unemployment between natural resources agglomeration in Pakistan from 1980 to 2016. For measuring natural resources agglomeration, an index has been constructed based on coal production, oil production, forest area and agricultural land as percentage of total land area. The study has utilized autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method of co-integration. The results show that natural resources agglomeration, secondary school enrollment, foreign direct investment and inflation has negative and significant impact on unemployment in Pakistan. The results reveal that population is putting positive impact on unemployment in Pakistan. The study finds that natural resources agglomeration is an important factor for reducing unemployment in Pakistan. There are some other factors for agglomeration economies, i.e. local economic policies, natural resources availability and amount of manpower for employment spatial distribution in Pakistan. So efforts are needed on mega scale for exploration, proper usage and functioning of natural resources in Pakistan.
    Keywords: unemployment, natural resources, inflation, foreign direct investment
    JEL: E24 N50 P24
    Date: 2018–04
  21. By: Śmiech, Sławomir; Papież, Monika; Dąbrowski, Marek A.; Fijorek, Kamil
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate sources of food prices volatility. The analysis uses daily series for volatility of corn, soybean, wheat, rice, US dollar, crude oil, and SP500 futures spanning the period January 4, 2000 to April 1, 2017. The authors employ the generalized vector autoregressive framework in rolling sample approach in order to capture the time-varying nature of volatility spillovers. The results reveal that: volatility spillovers measures change over time; most of the volatility spillovers are observed within the two groups of markets: food markets and 'non-food' markets; corn market is net volatility transmitter.
    Keywords: volatility spillovers,food markets,financial and energy markets,generalized VAR,lasso estimation
    JEL: Q17 G15 C58
    Date: 2018
  22. By: Oliver Mas (Ministry of Rural Development and Food (Greece))
    Abstract: The EU and the UK are currently negotiating the framework of a new bilateral relationship as a result of the UK’s decision to leave the EU. This briefing paper explores the direct consequences of Brexit on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Budget of the European Union for final years (2019-2020) of the current Multi-annual Financial Framework (MFF) and investigates the ramifications for CAP Budgets of all EU Member States with a case study of Greece. Drawing on various recent contributions to the debate on the consequences of Brexit and the future of Europe, such as the research for the EU AGRI Committee and the budgetary research conducted by Alan Matthews. The paper will evaluate the scenario that the UK leaves the EU without a deal on the 29th March 2019 resulting in no transition deal or financial settlement. This scenario would leave an unprecedented funding gap for final year and three quarters of the current MFF period. This paper will also evaluate the options the EU has in order to limit the budgetary impact. The negotiations see both the EU and UK increasing rhetoric of a ‘No Deal’ outcome and both preparing for the consequences of a ‘No Deal’, thus the significance of understanding the potential implications of a ‘No Deal’ is of increasing importance.
    Keywords: Brexit; CAP; Greece; Agricultural Policy
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2018
  23. By: Gramig, Benjamin M.; Widmar, Nicole J.O.
    Abstract: The material contained herein is supplementary to the article named in the title and published in the journal Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy (AEPP).
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2017–09–26
  24. By: Liebenehm, Sabine; Degener, Nele; Strobl, Eric
    Abstract: Empirical studies advocating the temporal variability of risk attitudes suggest that adverse covariate shocks significantly alter risk attitudes over time, but there is no consensus on the direction. In this paper, we investigate whether risk aversion increases or decreases in response to shocks. To do so, we combine individual-level panel data with historical rainfall data for rural Thailand and Vietnam. Our econometric analysis shows that temporal variability in risk attitudes is driven by rainfall shocks. Both severe shortages and excesses appear to increase individuals’ risk aversion. Contrary to expectations, we find that this impact is lower for farmers than for non-farmers. We can explain this result by the heterogeneous composition of non-farmers and by farmers’ ability to mitigate rainfall shocks. Our findings have potentially important implications especially for developing countries in that adverse shocks can increase poor people’s risk aversion and may lead to decisions that perpetuate their lives in poverty.
    Keywords: Rainfall, Risk attitudes, Risk mitigation
    JEL: C23 D9 Q54
    Date: 2018–04
  25. By: Geoffrey Jones (Harvard Business School, General Management Unit)
    Abstract: This working paper examines the impact of modern business enterprise on the natural environment of Latin America during the globalization waves between the nineteenth century and the present day. It argues that although global capitalism created much wealth for the region, this was at the cost of massive ecological destruction in Latin America. During the first global economy considerable wealth was created from the exploitation of natural resources for the land-owning elite in Latin America, at the cost of large-scale ecological destruction. During the Great Reversal in the mid-twentieth century, public policies aimed at "catching up" resulted in the co-proliferation of hydro-electric schemes and resulting co-creation of ecological damage by firms and governments. In the new global economy since 1980, renewed economic growth and consumerism resulted in mountains of waste in increasingly polluted mega-cities. Biodiversity and the natural environment have been challenged across the subcontinent. However there were interesting positives as these ecological horrors also created opportunities for a surprising cohort of green businesses across sectors ranging from beauty and health to eco-tourism. In the twenty first century both business and governments in the region needed to address sustainability issues far more seriously, before a point of no return was reached.
    Date: 2018–08
  26. By: Jane L. Harrison; Alexandra Naumenko; John C. Whitehead
    Abstract: We conducted an internet survey with an opt-in panel of over 2000 respondents from Atlantic Coast states. Respondents were placed in hypothetical situations in which they voted on increased menhaden fishery quotas with varying changes in ecosystem impacts. The motivation for the vote was to better inform the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission about the opinions of the general public in the region. We found that increases in ex-vessel price increased the probability that a respondent would vote in favor of a quota increase. After accounting for both stated and inferred attribute non-attendance we found that increases in menhaden quotas and commercial fishing jobs increased the probability that a respondent would vote in favor of a quota increase. Increased quotas that make water quality worse and negatively affect game fish and shore bird populations led to a decrease in the probability of a vote for increased quotas. Key Words:
    Date: 2018
  27. By: Grilli, Gianluca; Landgraf, Gavin; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen
    Date: 2018
  28. By: Carl Duisberg
    Abstract: Despite the importance of CAP-related agricultural market regulation mechanisms within Europe, the agricultural sectors in European countries retain a degree of sensitivity to macroeconomic activity and policies. This reality now raises the question of the effects to be expected from the implementation of the single monetary policy on these agricultural sectors within the Monetary Union.
    Date: 2018–07
  29. By: Shinyekwa, Isaac; Ntale, Anita
    Abstract: In December 2015, the World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 10th Ministerial Conference (MC10) in Nairobi, Kenya. The meeting adopted the “Nairobi package” of decisions targeting agriculture, cotton and issues related to least-developed countries. This brief examines the implications of the Nairobi package for the development of cotton sector in the East African Community (EAC). The results indicate that the removal of subsidies would reduce cotton production among the top producing countries, reducing their export earnings while increasing both production and export earnings in the EAC. Therefore, the EAC needs to monitor the implementation the agreement and increase cotton production to take advantage of the opportunity.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy
    Date: 2018–06–26
  30. By: Fujii, Hidemichi; Iwata, Kazuyuki; Chapman, Andrew; Kagawa, Shigemi; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This study analyzed the relationship between urban CO2 emissions and economic growth applying the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. The objective of this study is to investigate how urban CO2 emissions and their composition have changed with urban economic growth, depending on city characteristics, using a dataset of metropolitan areas. We obtained data for 276 cities in 26 countries for the years 2000, 2005, and 2008. The dataset includes urban CO2 emissions, GDP, and population. Additionally, data regarding compact city variables are applied to determinants analysis using an econometric approach. The results demonstrate an inverted U-shape relationship between urban CO2 emissions and urban economic growth. Additionally, an inverted U-shape relationship is observed for the transport and residential & industry sectors. However, the turning points of each inverted U-shape curve varies. This result implies that we can better understand urban policies for reducing urban CO2 emissions by considering the characteristics of each sector.
    Keywords: urban CO2 emissions, environmental Kuznets curve, compact city, metropolitan area
    JEL: O18 Q54 Q56 R00
    Date: 2018–07–11
  31. By: Wang, Tong; Ayesh, Abubakr; Hennessy, David; Feng, Hongli
    Abstract: This article analyzed land use trends in South and North Dakota over the 2007-2012 and 2012-2017 periods using USDA NASS cropland data layer (CDL) data. Most grassland to cropland conversions occurred during the 2007-2012 period. In South Dakota, nearly 20% of grassland in 2007 was converted to cropland in 2012. During the 2012 to 2017 period, substantial reversion to grass occurred. Land use change trends in North Dakota were similar to those in South Dakota over the 2007-2012 time frame, with a high grassland to cropland conversion rate during 2007-2012 (19.90%) and a greatly curtailed conversion rate during 2012-2017 period (7.81%). To a large degree, changes in land conversion trends in the Dakotas between 2007-2012 and 2012-2017 can be attributed to changing crop prices. Yet due to the "hysteresis" phenomena, even though crop prices have been overall declining since 2012, grassland acres in the future are not likely to revert to the same level as 2007.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2018–07–11
  32. By: Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen; O’Reilly, Paul
    Date: 2018
  33. By: Rafael Isidro PARRA-PEÑA S; Barry REILLY
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to estimate the causal impact of the most recent extreme weather event (EWE) in Colombia (‘La Niña’ between 2010-2011), labelled as the ‘winter wave’ by the local media, on persons, houses, business and car theft rates in municipalities subject to the treatment of this EWE. Using a novel annual municipal panel dataset (2007-2012, inclusive), and measuring the affected areas according to the number of houses damaged and destroyed, this study relies on a Difference-in-Difference (D-i-D) model to show that the concurrent year of the winter wave brought a decrease in theft rates, especially, theft from persons. This may be perhaps attributable to the emergence of pro-social behaviour in the municipalities most affected. We also find an increase in theft from houses possibly linked to a ‘survival mechanism’, rather than one that one that seeks reward like the type the BECKER (1968) model of crime and punishment. In addition, the D-i-D estimates also reveal that the presence of conflict, in general, discourages theft perhaps due to the establishment of coercive institutions by illegal armed groups.
    Keywords: Natural Disasters, Environmental Economics, Violence, Crime, Weather, Climate Variability, and Climate Change
    JEL: I3 O1 P48 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2018–07–03
  34. By: Scott Callahan
    Abstract: This essay contains a reduced form analysis of campaign contributions made by subsidy receiving farmers, in order to better understand if contribution strategies for campaigns in the House of Representatives by individual farmers differ based on whether or not the candidate represents their local congressional district, a non-local congressional district within the donor?s state, or an out of state congressional district. This is accomplished by applying a Tobit model to a panel of contributions, recording zero values of farmers in a given congressional district contribute nothing to a given legislator. Results indicate that farmers appear to contribute heavily to local campaigns regardless of the power of the legislator to influence agricultural legislation, while the ability of legislators to influence agricultural legislation becomes a more important driver of campaign contributions in more distant elections. Key Words: Agricultural Policy, Lobbying, Rent Seeking, Campaign Finance
    JEL: Q18 D72
    Date: 2018
  35. By: Anthony J. Webster
    Abstract: A successful response to climate change needs vast investments in low-carbon research, energy, and sustainable development. Governments can drive research, provide environmental regulation, and accelerate global development, but the necessary low-carbon investments of 2-3% GDP have yet to materialise. A new strategy to tackle climate change through consumer and government action is outlined. It relies on the tactics of ethical investments for sustainable development and low-carbon energy, and voluntary donations for a low-carbon fund to allow adaption to climate change. Together these enable a global response through individual actions and investments. With OECD household savings worth over 5% GDP, ethical savings alone have considerable potential.
    Date: 2018–07
  36. By: George A. Dyer (Desarrollo y Alimentación Sustentable, A. C.); Alan Hernández-Solano (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México); Pablo Meza-Pale (Desarrollo y Alimentación Sustentable A.C.; Instituto Politécnico Nacional); Héctor Robles-Berlanga (Subsidios al Campo en México); Antonio Yúnez-Naude (Desarrollo y Alimentación Sustentable A.C.; El Colegio de México)
    Abstract: On the eve of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), models predicted the transformation of Mexican agriculture, with imports precipitating the decline of domestic supply of staples, particularly corn, while fruit-and-vegetable exports drove sectoral growth. Trade flows have met expectations, but Mexican agriculture has not: both staple and specialty crops expanded during NAFTA’s first decade, while their gross value declined; just as unexpectedly, their value has risen sharply since 2005. The Ministry of Agriculture (SAGARPA) has been credited with the apparent success of this export-led strategy, upholding the results-based management (RBM) of sectoral policy abetted by the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL). This study offers a critical assessment of Mexican agricultural policy and its management in light of the sector’s performance during the last 25 years. We report trends in the volume and value of agricultural output, land use, yields and prices. Using simple accounting methods, we show that price decreases accounted entirely for the sector’s decline between 1993 and 2005. Since then, 67.0% of staples’ gross value growth has be linked to rising prices, 27.4% to yield gains, and 5.6% to land-use change. For fruits and vegetables, these figures are 27.3, 50.0 and 22.7%. However, there is little evidence linking agricultural performance and policy. Only staple yields fall within policy’s purview; yet yields of irrigated staples other than corn have stagnated this century. Additional evidence calls into question the success of RBM, including the dearth of diagnoses and impact evaluations supporting it. Their absence has not prevented constant reforms that systematically violate the integrity of the policy cycle. Official acknowledgement of drivers of growth will reveal the risks to Mexican agriculture, including its vulnerability to price fluctuations and reliance on select crops for growth. Academic engagement is a prerequisite for RBM’s success.
    Keywords: Results based management, SAGARPA, CONEVAL, corn, Mexico
    JEL: C53
    Date: 2018–06

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