nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒07‒23
24 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Integrating non-timber objectives into bio-economic models of the forest sector: a review of recent innovations and current shortcomings. By Miguel RIVIERE; Sylvain CAURLA
  2. Iowa Farmland Ownership and Tenure Survey 1982–2017: A Thirty-five Year Perspective By Wendong Zhang; Alejandro Plastina; Wendiam Sawadgo
  3. Characteristics of Management of Agricultural Cooperatives in Georgia By Giuli Keshelashvili
  4. Role of Cold Chain in fostering Agribusiness in India: Prospects and Policy Insights By Singhal, Robin; Saksena, Shalini
  5. Short-term migration in rural India: The Impact of nature and extent of partcipation in agriculture By S. Chandrasekhar; Soham Sahoo
  6. Do Walmart Supercenters Improve Food Security? By Courtemanche, Charles; Carden, Art; Zhou, Xilin; Ndirangu, Murugi
  7. The Incidence of Soft-Drink Taxes on Consumer Prices and Welfare: Evidence from the French " Soda Tax" By Fabrice Etilé; Sebastien Lecocq; Christine Boizot-Szantai
  8. The role of demand in land re-development By Carozzi, Felipe
  9. China’s Agricultural Import Potential By Minghao Li; Wendong Zhang; Dermot J. Hayes
  10. Climate change, crop productivity and regional growth disparity in Bangladesh: What does a district-level regional CGE model tell us? By Sudeshna Paul; Athula Naranpanawa; Jay Bandaralage; Tapan Sarker
  11. Critical factors and enablers of food quality and safety compliance risk management in the Vietnamese seafood supply chain By Thi Huong Tran
  12. Linking Cap-and-Trade Systems By Katharina Erdmann; Aleksandar Zaklan
  13. The effect of gender-targeted conditional cash transfers on household expenditures: evidence from a randomized experiment By Alex Armand; Orazio Attanasio; Pedro Carneiro; Valérie Lechene
  14. Policy options to support the Agriculture Sector Growth and Transformation Strategy in Kenya: A CGE analysis By Pierre Boulanger; Hasan Dudu; Emanuele Ferrari; Alfredo Mainar Causape; Jean Balie; Lucia Battaglia
  15. Do Global Financial Markets Capitalise Sustainability? Evidence of a Quick Reversal By Fabio Moliterni
  16. Brexit trade impacts and Mercosur's negotiations with Europe By Nogues, Julio
  17. Design, Sustainability Analysis and Multiobjective Optimisation of Ethanol Production via Syngas Fermentation By Michailos, Stavros; Parker, David; Webb, Colin
  18. Green firm, brown production By Rupayan Pal; A.M. Tanvir Hussain; Prasenjit Banerjee
  19. The Relation between Research Priorities and Societal Demands: The Case of Rice By Tommaso Ciarli; Ismael Ràfols
  20. The evolution of water governance in France from the 1960s: disputes as major drivers for radical changes within a consensual framework By Marine Colon; Sophie Richard; Pierre-Alain Roche
  21. Working Paper 294 - Agricultural Innovations, Production, and Household Welfare in Africa By AfDB AfDB
  22. What’s in the annual database of Global Wine Markets, 1835 to 2016? By Kym Anderson; Vicente Pinilla
  23. Working Paper 306 - Asymmetric Price Transmission of Rice in Togo By AfDB AfDB
  24. The Effectiveness of Sin Food Taxes: Evidence from Mexico By Arturo Aguilar; Emilio Gutierrez; Enrique Seira

  1. By: Miguel RIVIERE; Sylvain CAURLA
    Abstract: This paper gives an overview of non-timber objective modelling in forest sector models (FSM) research through a systematic literature review followed by an in-depth narrative review. Originally conceived to perform projections of timber supply and wood products markets, FSM have been growingly used for forest and climate policy analysis. For this purpose, they have gradually integrated objectives other than timber production, such as habitat conservation, carbon sequestration and bioenergy production. We identify these non-timber objectives and elicit technical innovations that have enabled their integration into FSM. We also discuss their current limits and the new perspectives they bring for a better economic-environmental assessment of forest policies. Results show that the study of non-timber objectives is a growing topic in FSM research, with bioenergy production and climate change mitigation as the most commonly studied. However, there are discrepancies regarding the respective contributions of different families of models, and not all non-timber objectives have been integrated to the same degree. On the one hand, bioenergy production has been thoroughly integrated through marginal modifications of the market component of models. On the other hand, the modelling of carbon sequestration and habitat protection entails deeper changes, such as the addition of new resources to the models, an increase in the complexity of the objective function and associated constraints, or the use of tools and models outside the FSM.
    Keywords: forest sector model, forest, forestry, ecosystem services, non-timber, economic model.
    JEL: C61 L7 Q21 Q23 Q57
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Wendong Zhang (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Alejandro Plastina; Wendiam Sawadgo
    Abstract: Farmland is arguably often a farmer’s single largest investment item, a major source of collateral, and a key component of the farmer’s debt portfolio. At the macro level, the value of land and buildings represent over 80 percent of all U.S. farm assets. As a result, changes in the farmland market and the implications for farmland owners, tenants, and beginning farmers are of perennial interest to policymakers, landowners, producers, and researchers. Using a statistically representative sample of Iowa landowners in July 2017, this study provides a critical update to the Iowa Farmland Ownership and Tenure survey series and a thirty-five year perspective (1982 to present) on many aspects of land ownership, land tenure, land transitions, and characteristics of landowners, including non-operator landowners, farmland rental agreements, the financing of farmland, the acquisition and transfer of land, and demographics of landowners. The 2017 survey also added the use of conservation practices and cooperative services on Iowa farmland. This survey carries out an Iowa legislative mandate, and represents a nationally unique study that has been conducted every five years since the 1980s to better understand agricultural land ownership, tenure, and transfer.
    Date: 2018–06
  3. By: Giuli Keshelashvili (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University)
    Abstract: Work provides overview of the situation and trends in agricultural sector of Georgia. It mentions that Georgia is a country with small land area, where, as a result of improper land reform the lads were excessively fractured, with 75% of population holding up to 1 ha arable land. Working of such small parcels is unreasonable and economically ineffective. Taking this issue into consideration, for the purpose of stimulation of creation of the small farmers? associations, the legislative incentive was prepared on creation of the agricultural cooperatives. As a result of joint work of the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Committee of the Parliament, on 12 July 2013, the Parliament of Georgia adopted the Law on Agricultural Cooperatives. On the basis of this law the LEPL Agricultural Cooperatives Development Agency was established to provide state support to the agricultural cooperatives. The main goal of the Agency is promotion of rehabilitation of the rural areas and agriculture through development of agricultural cooperatives.Of key legislative acts dealing with the activities of agricultural cooperatives, Georgian Law on Agricultural Cooperatives prevails over Georgian Law on Entrepreneurs. Therefore, the legal relations of the agricultural cooperatives are regulated by Georgian Law on Agricultural Cooperatives. According to the mentioned Law, the cooperatives provide regulation of the internal production relations by means of the economic participation, obligatory participation contributions, associated members of the cooperatives and other elements. The labor relations are decisive factors.Work provides analysis of the key operation principles of the agricultural cooperative; characteristics of cooperatives management provided for by the Law on Entrepreneurs and Law on Agricultural Cooperatives; rights and obligations of the cooperative shareholders; conflicts arisen in the course of performing of contracts made between the agricultural cooperative and its shareholder; agricultural cooperative monitoring functions. On the basis of analysis of legal regulations of leading European countries dealing with the cooperatives the recommendations are provided for improvement of cooperatives management in Georgia, for development of the entire cycle of production and sale of agricultural goods allowing generation of the increased incomes from sale of the end products by primary goods producers without any middlemen.The conclusion is made that formation of the cooperation systems of European type would be much more beneficial for the farmers, as well as for the country and its final results will be seen in its socioeconomic effects.
    Keywords: Keywords: agricultural cooperative, economic participation, shareholder, management organizational structure.
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2017–07
  4. By: Singhal, Robin; Saksena, Shalini
    Abstract: The prospects of agribusiness in the context of an emerging economy such as India are primarily subject to the degree of integration between farm activities on the one hand and secondary processing of farm produce in food processing units on the other. The diversification of farm activities and market for processed food items are greatly influenced by several economic and institutional factors. In this context, this study attempts to bring in to focus the critical role of cold chain (CC) which, as an infrastructural pre-requisite, has the potential of enhancing the degree of integration between the agricultural sector and the food processing industry (FPI). The performance of the FPI and cold storage (CS) sector in the Indian context is thus assessed using Annual Survey of Industries data at the four- and five-digit level respectively. Based on the empirical assessment of the performance of FPI over the period 1998-99 to 2014-15 and that of CS sector from 2003-04 to 2013-14, the study argues that one of the crucial factors behind the worsening structural and technical coefficients for the FPI is the existing capacity gaps in the infrastructural components constituting integrated CC and their lopsided development. The study thus highlights the limitations of the prevailing policy perspective that uses scheme-based incentives for securing private sector participation in the CC sector. Further, it underscores the need for a holistic policy framework and a national blueprint for the long-term development of CC sector given its far-reaching implications for the dynamics of a primarily agrarian rural economy in general, and in promising reasonable returns to the small and marginal farmers in particular.
    Keywords: Integrated Cold Chain, Food Processing Industry, lopsided development, farm-to-fork model.
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2018–05
  5. By: S. Chandrasekhar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Soham Sahoo (Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore)
    Abstract: We analyse a nationally representative data set from India for the year 2013 in order to provide evidence on how short term migration is affected by household's ownership of land, and participation in agricultural activities. We estimate a recursive bivariate probit model recognizing the simultaneity between short term migration and decision to operate land. The results of the likelihood ratio test imply that it would be incorrect to ignore this simultaneity. Households with less than 1 hectare of land and those leasing out land are more likely to have a short term migrant (STM). Households leaving their land fallow, a common occurrence in south Asia, are more likely to have a STM. Moreover, choice of crops and livestock farming has a significant role to play in migration decision. Current initiatives to increase coverage of irrigation and facilitating access to formal finance could improve livelihoods of small and marginal farmers thereby reducing the probability of distress short-term migration.
    Keywords: Short term migrants; Small-marginal farmers; Agricultural households; Mobility; Asia; India
    JEL: O1 R2
    Date: 2018–06
  6. By: Courtemanche, Charles (Georgia State University); Carden, Art (Samford University); Zhou, Xilin (Georgia State University); Ndirangu, Murugi (Columbia Global Centers)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of Walmart Supercenters, which lower food prices and expand food availability, on household and child food insecurity. Our food insecurity-related outcomes come from the 2001-2012 waves of the December Current Population Study Food Security Supplement. Using narrow geographic identifiers available in the restricted version of these data, we compute the distance between each household's census tract of residence and the nearest Walmart Supercenter. We estimate instrumental variables models that leverage the predictable geographic expansion patterns of Walmart Supercenters outward from Walmart's corporate headquarters. Results suggest that closer proximity to a Walmart Supercenter improves the food security of households and children, as measured by number of affirmative responses to a food insecurity questionnaire and an indicator for food insecurity. The effects are largest among low-income households and children, but are also sizeable for middle-income children.
    Keywords: Walmart, Wal-Mart, supercenters, big box, food insecurity, hunger
    JEL: I12 I14 Q18
    Date: 2018–06
  7. By: Fabrice Etilé (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Sebastien Lecocq (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Christine Boizot-Szantai (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The behavioural impact and acceptability of soft-drink taxes depend crucially on their incidence on consumer prices and welfare across socio-economic groups and markets. We use KantarWorldpanel homescan data to analyse the incidence of the 2012 French soda tax on Exact Price Indices (EPI) measuring consumer welfare from the availability and consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB) and Non-Calorically Sweetened Beverages (NCSB) at a local geographical level. The soda tax has had significant, similar but small impacts on the EPI of SSB and NCSB (+4%), corresponding to an aggregate pass-through of about 40%. Tax incidence was slightly higher for low-income and high-consuming households. Retailers set higher pass-throughs in low-income, less-competitive and smaller markets. They did not change their product assortments. The lack of horizontal competition in low-income markets had a sizeable effect on tax regressivity. Finally, the negative income gradient in tax incidence was offset by a positive gradient in expected health benefits.
    Keywords: Market structure,Tax incidence,Soft drink,Exact price index,Regressivity
    Date: 2018–06
  8. By: Carozzi, Felipe
    Abstract: Several governments throughout the world apply policies aimed to re-mediate and recover vacant or idle land for other uses. This paper provides estimates of the price sensitivity of redevelopment, a crucial parameter for the success of these policies. My cross-sectional estimates measure how prices affect long-run conversion of unused or underused previously developed land in England. In order to solve the classical problem in the estimation of supply elasticities from market outcomes, I exploit school quality information and school admission boundaries to obtain a demand-shifter that is orthogonal to re-development costs. Estimation is conducted using a boundary discontinuity design based on this instrument. Results show that the probability of re-development is effectively sensitive to housing prices. Estimates indicate that a 1% increase in housing prices leads to a 0.07 percentage point reduction in the fraction of hectares containing brownfield land. Back-of-the envelope calculations using these estimates suggest that a large increase of 21% in prices across locations, or an equivalent subsidy, would be required to eliminate most of these vacant or underused land plots.
    Keywords: re-development; supply elasticity; brownfields
    JEL: R14 R31
    Date: 2018–05–01
  9. By: Minghao Li (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Wendong Zhang (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Dermot J. Hayes (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD))
    Abstract: As part of the current trade negotiations between the United States and China, China has suggested that it may lower trade barriers and increase agricultural imports from the United States. In this policy brief, we provide an overview of China’s tariff and non-tariff trade barriers and estimate China’s import potential if these barriers are removed. We find that China’s importation of major U.S. commodities has the potential to increase significantly. For example, in our medium-growth scenario, China will potentially increase U.S. pork import value by $8.9 billion if all trade barriers are removed.
    Date: 2018–06
  10. By: Sudeshna Paul; Athula Naranpanawa; Jay Bandaralage; Tapan Sarker
    Keywords: Climate change, Crop productivity, Regional disparities, Computable General Equilibrium model, Bangladesh
    JEL: Q54 R11 D58
    Date: 2018–03
  11. By: Thi Huong Tran
    Abstract: Recently, along with the emergence of food scandals, food supply chains have to face with ever-increasing pressure from compliance with food quality and safety regulations and standards. This paper aims to explore critical factors of compliance risk in food supply chain with an illustrated case in Vietnamese seafood industry. To this end, this study takes advantage of both primary and secondary data sources through a comprehensive literature research of industrial and scientific papers, combined with expert interview. Findings showed that there are three main critical factor groups influencing on compliance risk including challenges originating from Vietnamese food supply chain itself, characteristics of regulation and standards, and business environment. Furthermore, author proposed enablers to eliminate compliance risks to food supply chain managers as well as recommendations to government and other influencers and supporters.
    Date: 2018–04
  12. By: Katharina Erdmann; Aleksandar Zaklan
    Abstract: Linking cap-and-trade systems promises gains in cost effectiveness and signals a strong commitment to carbon policy. Linking is also seen as one possible way of converging from regional climate policy initiatives toward a global climate policy architecture. Two linked systems have been established recently, one in Europe and one in North America. However, linking also comes with challenges, such as increased exposure to shocks originating in other parts of the linked system and a greater need for policy coordination. We first consider the benefits and challenges of linking conceptually. We then present some of the main features of the European and North American linked systems and outline the process that led to their establishment. Finally, we consider preliminary evidence on the workings of each linked system.
    Date: 2018
  13. By: Alex Armand (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Navarra (Spain)); Orazio Attanasio (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Pedro Carneiro (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Valérie Lechene (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)
    Abstract: This paper studies the differential effect of targeting cash transfers to men or women on the structure of household expenditures on non-durables. We study a policy intervention in the Republic of Macedonia, offering cash transfers to poor households, conditional on having their children attending secondary school. The recipient of the transfer is randomized across municipalities, with payments targeted to either the mother or the father of the child. We show that the gender of the recipient has an effect on the structure of expenditure shares. Targeting transfers to women increases the expenditure share on food by about 4 to 5 percentage points. At low levels of food expenditure, we observe a shift towards a more nutritious diet as a result of targeting women.
    Keywords: CCT, intra-household, gender, expenditure.
    JEL: D12 D13 E21 O12
    Date: 2018–06–01
  14. By: Pierre Boulanger (European Commission – JRC); Hasan Dudu (European Commission – JRC); Emanuele Ferrari (European Commission – JRC); Alfredo Mainar Causape (European Commission – JRC); Jean Balie (FAO); Lucia Battaglia (FAO)
    Abstract: This report provides scientific evidences supporting the new Agriculture Sector Growth and Transformation Strategy in Kenya. A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model specifically modified for the context of Kenya is used to address the impacts of six policy changes. For the purpose of the study, a desegregated version of a 2014 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) has been developed for Kenya. Multi-sectoral analytical tools are used to describe the Kenyan economy and inform about which agri-food value chains have the greatest impact in terms of output, employment and value added. Then, results of simulated policy changes are presented in this report, considering that a more careful analysis at regional and household type levels is required in order to draw robust policy recommendations.
    Keywords: CGE, Kenya, Agricultural policy
    JEL: C68
    Date: 2018–06
  15. By: Fabio Moliterni (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: This study investigates the growing importance of sustainability in equity markets by estimating whether company commitment to sustainability matters in corporate valuation. The spreading concern for social and environmental issues, and especially for the material risks of climate change, induces policy to encourage companies to prioritise sustainability in their decision making. There is growing evidence that points to a rationale for a profit-driven response to social and environmental problems, uncovering the role of sustainability in investors’ decisions. Exploring a panel of 3,311 listed companies in 58 countries for the period 2010-2016, this study reveals that sustainability contributes to the creation of market value for listed companies, over the considered period. Furthermore, it investigates how this relationship changes according to environmental policy stringency and sector sensitivity to climate policies.
    Keywords: Corporate Sustainability, Sustainable Investing, Climate-change, ESG Disclosures
    JEL: O16 Q54 Q56 G32
    Date: 2018–07
  16. By: Nogues, Julio
    Abstract: We estimate that a hard Brexit would reduce UK imports of agro industrial products from the EU by 50% more than double the contraction in imports of other goods (22%). The UK Government has announced that it will substitute the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) protectionist policies with market-oriented measures and policies that seek to protect the environment. Given Brexit, and given scarce negotiating resources, should Mercosur continue to give the same priority to negotiations with the EU as in recent years? The answer is most likely negative. For a number of reasons discussed in the text we argue that: i) negotiations with the EU are unlikely to deliver market access much in excess of what it has offered so far; ii) unlike these negotiations that have been dragging for around twenty years, there are clear circumstances indicating that an FTA with the UK could be completed in a relatively short period; iii) failing Mercosur to give these talks priority, other countries are more than likely to fill the UK trade gap triggered by Brexit; iv) if other countries do so, it is unlikely that in the future the UK would be willing to offer market access concessions as important as it is likely to do today and, v) the UK is one fifth of the EU GDP so balanced reciprocal concessions should be easier to achieve. What are the stakes at play? We offer back of the envelope estimates indicating that in value terms Mercosur could more than triple its meat exports and close to double its agro industrial exports to the UK within a time horizon that currently appears to be quite concrete and near.
    Keywords: Brexit; Mercosur; agro industry trade
    JEL: F1 F14 F17 Q1
    Date: 2018–06
  17. By: Michailos, Stavros; Parker, David; Webb, Colin
    Abstract: Ethanol production from non-edible feedstock has received significant attention over the past two decades. The utilisation of agricultural residues within the biorefinery concept can positively contribute to the renewable production of fuels. To this end, this study proposes the utilisation of bagasse in a hybrid conversion route for ethanol production. The main steps of the process are the gasification of the raw material followed by syngas fermentation to ethanol. Aspen plus was utilised to rigorously design the biorefinery coupled with Matlab to perform process optimisation. Based on the simulations, ethanol can be produced at a rate of 283 L per dry tonne of bagasse, achieving energy efficiency of 43% and according to the environmental analysis, is associated with low CO2 emissions. The conduction of a typical discounted cash flow analysis resulted in a minimum ethanol selling price of 0.69 $ L−1. The study concludes with multiobjective optimisation setting as objective functions the conflictive concepts of total investment costs and exergy efficiency. The total cost rate of the system is minimised whereas the exergy efficiency is maximised by using a genetic algorithm. This way, various process configurations and trade-offs between the investigated criteria were analysed for the proposed biorefinery system.
    Keywords: Second generation ethanol · Syngas fermentation · Technoeconomic analysis · Sustainability analysis · Process simulation · Multiobjective optimisation
    JEL: Q1 Q16
    Date: 2017–12–27
  18. By: Rupayan Pal (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); A.M. Tanvir Hussain (University of FreiburgGrowth); Prasenjit Banerjee (University of Manchester)
    Abstract: In a theoretical model of an environmentally conscious ("green") monopolist, we show that increasing greenness does not always mean lower output and environmental damages. We assume that a green firm can internalize environmental externalities in its decision making process and/or invest in cleaner production technology and management practices. We also find that our results hold regardless of whether consumers value the firm's pro-environmental actions or not.
    Keywords: monopoly, environmental concern, green technology, internalizing externalities, environmental damage
    JEL: D42 Q50
    Date: 2018–03
  19. By: Tommaso Ciarli (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK); Ismael Ràfols (Ingenio (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politecnica Valencia, Spain; CWTS, University of Leiden, The Netherlands; SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: To what extent is scientific research related to societal needs? To answer this crucial question systematically we need to contrast indicators of research priorities with indicators of societal needs. We focus on rice research and technology between 1983 and 2012. We combine quantitative methods that allow investigation of the relation between `revealed' research priorities and `revealed' societal demands, measured respectively by research output (publications) and national accounts of rice use and farmers' and consumers' rice related needs. We employ new bibliometric data, methods and indicators to identify countries' main rice research topics (priorities) from publications. For a panel of countries, we estimate the relation between revealed research priorities and revealed demands. We nd that, across countries and time, societal demands explain a country's research trajectory to a limited extent. Some research priorities are nicely aligned to societal demands, con rming that science is partly related to societal needs. However, we find a relevant number of misalignments between the focus of rice research and revealed demands, crucially related to human consumption and nutrition. We discuss some implications for research policy.
    Keywords: Research priority; agenda setting; research trajectories; societal needs; scientometrics; rice
    Date: 2018–07
  20. By: Marine Colon (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Sophie Richard (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Pierre-Alain Roche (CGEDD - Conseil Général de l’Environnement et du Développement Durable)
    Abstract: This paper provides a synthetic presentation of French water governance and its evolution since the 1960s. Through this French experience, it discusses the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) water governance cycle showing disputes as the main drivers of change. France has been a pioneer in introducing water river basin management some 50 years ago. It is also noted for its water services management by local authorities, leaving a significant role to private and public companies. But French water governance has not been frozen since the 1960s and continues to change radically within a framework based upon its unique history.
    Keywords: water governance,OECD governance principles,water supply and sanitation
    Date: 2018
  21. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2018–06–26
  22. By: Kym Anderson; Vicente Pinilla
    Abstract: This paper documents a new, unique annual database of global wine markets covering 1835 to 2016. The database expands enormously the opportunities for conducting studies on wine production, consumption and trade from an historical perspective for the world as a whole and for most relevant countries. The combination of this basic information with other economic variables such as real GDP, population, total merchandise trade, total crop area and the consumption of other alcoholic drinks has enabled us to generate myriad derived variables that are helpful for comparative analyses as well as for studying the two waves of globalization.
    Keywords: Wine History, Historical Databases, Economic History, Wine Economics
    JEL: N50 N70 Q13 Q17
    Date: 2018–07
  23. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2018–06–26
  24. By: Arturo Aguilar; Emilio Gutierrez; Enrique Seira
    Abstract: We measure the effects of two federal taxes in Mexico aimed at reducing obesity by taxing sugary drinks (SDs) and high caloric foods (HCFs). We use a weekly scanner panel dataset with more than 58,721 product barcodes. We find 6 percent lower SD consumption but no decrease in HCFs consumption. We find substantial substitution towards non-taxed goods, smaller unit sizes, and in the case of HCFs to higher calorie per gram foods. Overall, sugar consumption decreased 2 percent, saturated fat and cholesterol increased 2 and 6 percent, but total calories remained unchanged. Available evidence shows no effect on BMI.
    Keywords: Obesity, Sin Taxes, High Caloric Foods
    JEL: H20 I18 H31
    Date: 2018–07–12

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