nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒06‒25
27 papers chosen by

  1. The Critical Role of Markets in Climate Change Adaptation By Sarah E. Anderson; Terry L. Anderson; Alice C. Hill; Matthew E. Kahn; Howard Kunreuther; Gary D. Libecap; Hari Mantripragada; Pierre Mérel; Andrew Plantinga; V. Kerry Smith
  2. The Impact of Climate Change on U.S. Agriculture: The Roles of Adaptation Techniques and Emissions Reductions By Timothy Neal; Michael Keane
  3. Institutional food procurement programmes: the case of PAA Africa in Senegal By Rosana Pereira de Miranda; Israel Klug; Abdoulaye Thiam
  4. Development of coopeatives in the Republic of Moldova By Ignat, Anatolie; Stratan, Alexandru; Lucasenco, Eugenia
  5. Analysis of competitiveness on the market of milk and dairy products in Romania By Nica, Maria
  6. Spillovers as a Driver to Reduce Ex-post Inequality Generated by Randomized Experiments: Experiments from an Agricultural Training Intervention By TAKAHASHI, Kazushi; MANO, Yukichi; OTSUKA, Keijiro
  7. On the Drivers of Global Grain Price Volatility : an empirical investigation By Fabio G., Santeramo; Emilia, Lamonaca
  8. Researches about the situation of the import and export of fruits in Romania in the period 2007-2016 By Micu, Marius Mihai; Gimbășanu, Gabriela Florentina; Micu, Ana-Ruxandra
  9. Addendum to "Marx's Analysis of Ground-Rent : Theory, Examples and Applications" By Deepankar Basu
  10. Instrument Choice and Stranded Assets in the Transition to Clean Capital By Julie Rozenberg; Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Stephane Hallegatte
  11. Global Melting? The Economics of Disintegration of the Greenland Ice Sheet By William D. Nordhaus
  12. E-commerce in oligopsonistic and relational markets – An empirical investigation of transaction costs in agricultural e-markets in India from farmers’ perspective By Argade Aashish; Laha, A. K.
  13. PAA Africa targeting in Niger By Rosana Pereira de Miranda; Israel Klug; Amadou Diop
  14. The influence of mineral fertilization upon production and quality of spring barley on agricultural research and development station Turda By Deac, Valeria; Cheţan, Felicia; Cheţan, Cornel; Șimon, Alina; Mureşanu, Felicia
  15. Evolving Practice in Land Demarcation By Benito Arruñada
  16. Building a favourable environment for institutional food procurement programmes: contributions from Mozambique By Luana F.J. Swensson; Israel Klug
  17. Agri-food manufacturing sector in Romania –internal sizes and in the European context By Rusali, Mirela-Adriana
  18. Research on the influence of the soil tillage system on soybean yield at ARDS Turda By Șimon, Alina; Cheţan, Felicia; Cheţan, Cornel; Deac, Valeria
  19. Creating a Multilateral Wealth Fund for a Global Public Good: Proposed Approach to Assessing Performance and Awarding Returns for a Tropical Forest Finance Facility By Michael Wolosin; Michele de Nevers; Kenneth Lay; Patricia Bliss-Guest
  20. Targeting social protection and agricultural interventions: potential for synergies By Cristina Cirillo; Mario Gyori; Fábio Veras Soares
  21. Sustainable rural development through tourism activities in Dobrugdea's rural area By Sima, Elena
  22. Agriculture role in social-economic resilience to major economic crises in Romania By Tudor, Monica Mihaela
  23. Changes in Nutrient Intake at Retirement By Melvin Stephens Jr.; Desmond Toohey
  24. Economic efficiency of investments in fruits processing By Dobre, Iuliana
  25. Models for short fruits’ chain By Ion, Raluca Andreea
  26. Ecolabels and The EconomicRecession By Jibonayan Raychaudhuri; Ada Wossink
  27. Profiles of rural households in the North—East Development region of Romania. case studies By Bruma, Ioan Sebastian; Bohateret, Valentin - Mihai; Tănasă, Lucian

  1. By: Sarah E. Anderson; Terry L. Anderson; Alice C. Hill; Matthew E. Kahn; Howard Kunreuther; Gary D. Libecap; Hari Mantripragada; Pierre Mérel; Andrew Plantinga; V. Kerry Smith
    Abstract: This paper summarizes and synthesizes the role of markets in facilitating climate change adaptation. It explains how market signals encourage adaptation through land markets. It also identifies impediments to critical market signals, provides related policy recommendations, and points to promising new technologies. Urban, coastal, and agricultural land markets provide effective signals of the emerging costs of climate change. These signals encourage adjustments by both private owners and by policy officials in taking preemptive action to reduce costs. In agriculture, they promote consideration of new cropping and tillage practices, seed types, timing, and location of production. They also stimulate use of new irrigation technologies. In urban areas, they motivate new housing construction, elevation, and location away from harm. They channel more efficient use of water and its application to parks and other green areas to make urban settings more desirable with higher temperatures. To be effective, however, land markets must reflect multiple traders and prices must be free to adjust. Where these conditions are not met, land market signals will be inhibited and market-driven adaptation will be reduced. Because public policy is driven by constituent demands, it may not be a remedy. The evidence of the National Flood Insurance Program and federal wildfire response illustrates how politically difficult it may be to adjust programs to be more adaptive.
    JEL: Q1 Q15 Q21 Q22 Q24 Q25 Q28 Q51 Q54 R14
    Date: 2018–05
  2. By: Timothy Neal (UNSW School of Economics); Michael Keane (UNSW School of Economics)
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of climate change on U.S. agricultural productivity using county-level yield and weather data from 1950 to 2015. We present two new methods of modelling how producers adapt agricultural techniques to harsh temperatures, including a new panel data estimator that allows for two-dimensional fixed-effects in slopes. We find evidence of adaptation to geographic and temporal variation in climate, but it has stalled since 1989. We show that adaptation implies fixed-effects slope heterogeneity in the relationship between crop yield and temperature, and ignoring this leads to biased estimates of temperature sensitivity. We use our estimates to project corn yields to 2100 using a variety of climate models and emission scenarios, and find that unmitigated climate change will have severe effects on yields. Our models indicate that adaptation techniques can mitigate 10 to 45% of the damage, but significant emissions reductions can mitigate far more (i.e., 42 to 91%).
    JEL: C23 C54 D24 Q15 Q51 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Rosana Pereira de Miranda (IPC-IG); Israel Klug (IPC-IG); Abdoulaye Thiam (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Senegal has experienced a series of food crises. In 2012, around 739,000 people (6.2 per cent of the population) were affected by severe food insecurity. Most poor people live in rural areas: 57 per cent of the rural population are poor, and of those, 44 per cent are food insecure. Most are engaged in agriculture, raising livestock and fishing; however, the limited size of land plots does not cover their food needs, and producers struggle with access to markets". (...)
    Keywords: Institutional, food, procurement, programmes, case, PAA Africa, Senegal
    Date: 2017–07
  4. By: Ignat, Anatolie; Stratan, Alexandru; Lucasenco, Eugenia
    Abstract: The paper presents the review of the development of cooperatives in the Republic of Moldova during the post independence period. After the massive land privatization a large number of small scale agricultural producers occurred that hardly can compete with large scale producers. This preserves a state of underdevelopment of small farmers and of the rural sector. To identify problems that jeopardize cooperation processes and potential solutions a study on the development of cooperatives in the country was carried out. The major problems and possible solutions were identified through a semi-structured survey that encompassed 150 agricultural producers purposively selected in North, Central and South regions of the country. Addressing this critical situation can be made by coagulating dispersed efforts of small scale farmers to reduce costs of purchasing agricultural inputs and services, improve the access to post harvest, processing, transportation, financing, consulting services. Access to more stable markets and negotiation of better prices and better conditions of delivery can also be achieved through consolidated efforts agricultural producers’ groups.
    Keywords: agriculture, small scale agricultural producers, agricultural cooperatives, marketing groups
    JEL: Q13 Q15
    Date: 2017–11–16
  5. By: Nica, Maria
    Abstract: The dairy sector is indispensable for the overall development of an economy because it provides a vital link between agriculture and industry. This helps diversify and market agricultural products; increases farmer income; creates markets for food exports, and generates more employment opportunities. The purpose of this paper will be to identify consumers' preferences for these products, the reasons for non-consumers, the wishes of consumers, the economic and financial situation of the main milk and dairy producers, the competitive dairy market as well as the information revealed by the consumer profile questionnaire sources of information and brands known to consumers. The stage of the milk and dairy market in Romania will be assessed, and then the competitiveness on the milk and dairy market in Romania will be analysed. Competitiveness requires special attention, each company has to compare products, prices, promotion and have competitive advantages constantly. In order to determine competitiveness, marketing researches on consumer preferences for milk and dairy products will be used; at the same time, the economic and financial performance of the main economic agents on this market will be analysed. The end of this study will be concretized by the comparative analysis of consumer preferences and the order of companies offered by their economic performance.
    Keywords: competitiveness, milk market, economic performance, marketing research
    JEL: Q12 Q13
    Date: 2017–11–16
  6. By: TAKAHASHI, Kazushi; MANO, Yukichi; OTSUKA, Keijiro
    Abstract: Randomized experiments ensure equal opportunities but could generate unequal outcomes by treatment status, which is socially costly. This study demonstrates a sequential intervention to conduct impact evaluation and subsequently to mitigate “experiment-driven” inequality. Specifically, control farmers were initially restricted from exchanging information with treated farmers, who received rice management training, to satisfy the stable unit treatment value assumption. We then encouraged information exchange between farmers one year after the training. We found positive training effects, but performance gaps created by our randomized assignment disappeared over time because of information spillovers and, hence, eventually control farmers also benefitted from our experiment.
    Keywords: Inequality, Program evaluation, Randomised experiment, Spillover
    JEL: O12 O13 O31 Q12
    Date: 2018–05
  7. By: Fabio G., Santeramo; Emilia, Lamonaca
    Abstract: A vast number of studies examined the determinants of price volatility in agricultural markets. It is clear that the joint influence of several causes may generate market instability, but the partial contribution of different factors is still debated. We investigate how market-based drivers influence the global price volatility of three major grains: wheat, corn, barley. We adopt a Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations model, in order to investigate potential common patterns and to control for the influence of external drivers. We compare inter-annual, intra-annual, and global volatility, to conclude on short-run and long-run dynamics of markets instability. We quantify the negative relationship linking (temporal) arbitrage and grain price volatility and conclude on the effects of supply movements on price volatility.
    Keywords: Volatility; Grain; Price; SUREG; Arbitrage
    JEL: Q02 Q11 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Micu, Marius Mihai; Gimbășanu, Gabriela Florentina; Micu, Ana-Ruxandra
    Abstract: Among the main factors that accentuate the decline of the fruit sector are the downward trend in the area of the fruit farms, their aggravated degree of aging, and the existence of many extensive farms. In addition, a generally valid problem at the agricultural level is the weak interest of young people in agricultural activities, as the National Rural Development Program 2014-2020 supports the measures created specifically for the fruit sector, but also to support farm holdings owned by young people.
    Keywords: fruit, import, export
    JEL: Q17
    Date: 2017–11–16
  9. By: Deepankar Basu (Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts - Amherst)
    Abstract: In a recent paper, I had proposed an analytical framework to understand Marx’s theory of ground-rent. An important question had been left unaddressed in the paper : how are the price and output levels (of the agricultural commodity) determined in a way that can both take account of fluctuations in market demand and also embed profit-maximizing behavior of the capitalist-farmers? In this note, I offer a simple way to think about the determination of equilibrium levels of price and output for the agricultural commodity that makes explicit two important dimensions: (a) the role of aggregate demand for the agricultural commodity, and (b) profit maximizing behavior of the capitalist farmers.
    Keywords: ground-rent, surplus value, Marx
    JEL: B51
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Julie Rozenberg; Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Stephane Hallegatte
    Abstract: To mitigate climate change, some governments opt for instruments focused on investment, like performance standards or feebates, instead of carbon prices. We compare these policies in a Ramsey model with clean and polluting capital, irreversible investment and a climate constraint. Alternative instruments imply different transitions to the same balanced growth path. The optimal carbon price minimizes the discounted social cost of the transition to clean capital, but imposes immediate private costs that disproportionately affect the current owners of polluting capital, in particular in the form of stranded assets. A phased-in carbon price can avoid stranded assets but still result in a drop of income for the owners of polluting capital when it is implemented. Second-best standards or feebates on new investment lead to higher total costs but avoid stranded assets, preserve the revenues of vested interests, and smooth abatement costs over individuals and time. These results suggest a trade-off between political feasibility and cost-effectiveness of environmental policies.
    Keywords: Stranded Assets, Energy efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Power plants, Coal, Environmental taxes, Environmental Policy, Climate change mitigation, clean capital, BIDcambioclima, stranded assets
    JEL: L50 O33 O44 Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017–03
  11. By: William D. Nordhaus
    Abstract: Concerns about the impact on large-scale earth systems have taken center stage in the scientific and economic analysis of climate change. The present study analyzes the economic impact of a potential disintegration of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). The method is to combine a small geophysical model of the GIS with the DICE integrated assessment model. The result shows that the GIS is likely to disappear over the next millennium or so without climate policy, but an active climate policy may prevent the GIS from crossing the threshold of irreversibility. Additionally, the study estimates the impact of the GIS on the social cost of carbon (SCC) and finds that adding GIS dynamics would add less than 5% to the SCC under alternative discount rates and estimates of the GIS dynamics. Simulations of geo-engineering options indicate that the dynamics of disintegration and rebuilding are extremely asymmetric, implying that GIS disintegration should be treated as irreversible.
    JEL: H4 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2018–05
  12. By: Argade Aashish; Laha, A. K.
    Date: 2018–06–15
  13. By: Rosana Pereira de Miranda (IPC-IG); Israel Klug (IPC-IG); Amadou Diop (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The PAA Africa programme is a multi-stakeholder initiative aimed at promoting smallholder farmers food security and access to institutional markets, and enhancing the food security of school pupils through the provision of regular school meals. In Niger, PAA Africa is providing inputs to a discussion on a national strategy for local procurement for food assistance. It targets smallholder farmers as the main participants on the supply side, which has highlighted the importance of the availability of key resources (human, institutional, factors of production etc.) to ensure the feasibility of the intervention". (...)
    Keywords: PAA Africa, targeting, Niger
    Date: 2017–07
  14. By: Deac, Valeria; Cheţan, Felicia; Cheţan, Cornel; Șimon, Alina; Mureşanu, Felicia
    Abstract: In order to clarify some aspects of the spring barley reaction on the production and accumulation of the protein in grain, at different levels of fertilization, some estimates of this chemical component were made at 16 levels of fertilization with N: P: K in the period 2016-2017 . The increase in protein content was achieved at the highest levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, even when potassium fertilizers were not used, but the highest protein content in grain accumulating at the level of N60P80K0 was 11.78%. The highest yield can be attributed to the fertilization variant N120P80K40, which confirms the negative relationship between production and protein content.
    Keywords: climacteric conditions, quality,fertilization, spring barley, yeld
    JEL: Q01 Q15 Q16
    Date: 2017–11–16
  15. By: Benito Arruñada
    Abstract: This paper analyzes social choice with respect to the demarcation of land boundaries, distinguishing between physical and legal demarcation. In contrast with the influential “land administration” literature and the World Bank’s policy guidelines, the analysis supports voluntary—instead of mandatory—demarcation as well as non-integrated services for land administration. Consistent with these theoretical arguments, the paper empirically verifies that demarcation conflicts play a lesser role in title-, land- and property-related litigation, which seems to increase in all these areas after physical demarcation is made mandatory. Relying on World Bank data, it also observes that linking and merging cadastres and land registries does not correlate with lower transaction costs.
    Keywords: land, Property, boundaries, surveying, cadastres, land registry, land administration
    JEL: D73 K11 K34 K41 L85 O17 O18 Q15 Q24
    Date: 2018–05
  16. By: Luana F.J. Swensson (IPC-IG); Israel Klug (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The efficiency of institutional food procurement programmes (IFPPs) depends on a series of interconnected conditions to reach their stated goal of linking smallholders with institutional markets and demand (e.g. school meals). These programmes rely on governmental will and the availability of public demand. Furthermore, they require institutional changes and the close coordination of policies and legal frameworks". (?)
    Keywords: Building, favourable, environment, institutional, food, procurement, programmes, contributions, Mozambique
    Date: 2017–09
  17. By: Rusali, Mirela-Adriana
    Abstract: The sustainability of the food supply of the population in all Member States is a priority objective of the current CAP, with important implications both for ensuring food security and for developing the rural economy. In this context, the European sustainable development economic model promotes based on competitiveness, innovation and knowledge, where a key role lies with the small and medium-sized enterprise sector, due to its great flexibility in adapting the business to new market requirements. The research method used the comparison of the relevant economic and financial indicators for the activity of enterprises in the agro-food industry, in order to analyze the structure and level of development of the sector and to identify possible divergences between Romania and EU-28. The statistical material was provided mainly by Eurostat and NIS - The survey on the activity of the manufacturing enterprises data - NACE Rev.2 codes.
    Keywords: agri-food manufacturing, sustainable development; European Union
    JEL: L6 O5 Q1
    Date: 2017–11–16
  18. By: Șimon, Alina; Cheţan, Felicia; Cheţan, Cornel; Deac, Valeria
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the soybean yield obtained from the application of the minimum tillage system compared to the classical tillage system. Conservative tillage systems have become an important part of agriculture, and the need to apply these systems is justified by the growing area of land degraded by the erosion process. Experimental factors: Factor A - the tillage system: classical tillage system and minimum tillage system (chisel variant); Factor B - soybean varieties: Onix, Felix, Mălina TD and Darina TD; Factor C - experimental years: 2015 and 2016. Following the application of the conservative tillage system, there is a slight decrease in yield compared to the classical tillage system, and between the two years studied, in 2016 there are yields with significantly higher differences compared to 2015. The application of conservative tillage systems brings important long-term benefits to both the soil and the environment by reducing soil compaction and fossil fuels used in crop technology.
    Keywords: climatic condition, soybean, tillage systems, yield
    JEL: Q01 Q15 Q16
    Date: 2017–11–16
  19. By: Michael Wolosin (Forest Climate Analytics); Michele de Nevers (Center for Global Development); Kenneth Lay (Priority Transactions Group LLC); Patricia Bliss-Guest (Priority Transactions Group LLC)
    Abstract: The Tropical Forest Finance Facility is a proposal to establish a pay-for-performance mechanism to finance reduced deforestation of tropical forests. The proposal would maximize the efficient use of public credit and builds on major technology breakthroughs for measuring results. This paper proposes a logical framework for understanding the current landscape of international forest finance to explore options for the potential role of the TFFF, and recommends pursuing it as a tropical forest public goods facility to support both development objectives and global public goods objectives. It explains proposed options for assessing performance and allocating returns to the TFFF to achieve these objectives.
    Date: 2018–06–14
  20. By: Cristina Cirillo (IPC-IG); Mario Gyori (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "There is evidence that the impacts of social protection programmes and agricultural interventions can mutually reinforce each other when they are implemented jointly (Tirivayi, Knowles and Davis 2016). Nevertheless, they often operate in isolation. A recent article by Cirillo et al. (2017) discusses how an alignment of their targeting mechanisms can help boost programme coordination and coherence and potentially build synergies to reinforce their impacts". (?)
    Keywords: Targeting, social protection, agricultural, interventions, potential, synergies
    Date: 2017–10
  21. By: Sima, Elena
    Abstract: The sustainable rural development of the Dobrudgean rural area requires reaching a balance between the need to preserve the rural economic, ecological and cultural space and the tendency to modernize the rural economic activity and life. The pleading for the promotion of tourism activities in the Dobrudgean rural area starts from the need for rural economical diversification. In general, no rural development program can be conceived in the absence of an essential role played by agriculture. The rural economy is more developed and more dynamic if it has a more diverse structure, and if the share of non-agricultural economy is higher. In this context, the paper presents the tourism potential of the rural localities from Dobrudgea and the development of a viable network of private small and medium-sized enterprises in the tourism sector. The volume of information in this paper resulted from the investigation of relationships that exist between the environmental and social factors at local level, making it possible to define the necessary mechanisms for the sustainable development of tourism activities.
    Keywords: rural development; rural tourism; tourism activities; tourism infrastructure; Dobrudgea.
    JEL: L83 Q01 R58
    Date: 2017–11–16
  22. By: Tudor, Monica Mihaela
    Abstract: The objective of this analysis is to investigate the capacity of agriculture to actively contribute to reducing vulnerabilities and the degree of exposure of Romania’s economy to shocks caused by major economic crises. The role of agriculture, as economic and social resilience factor, is analyzed from the perspective of primary sector contribution to the attenuation of shock and to the recovery following the economic-financial crisis that started in 2008. The primary sector contribution to counterbalancing the negative effects on GDP and labour employment generated by the recent economic crisis, by increasing the turnover in agriculture and reasserting the role of occupational outlet, in the conditions of shortage on the labour market, represent a few arguments in favour of the assertion that Romania’s agriculture is a system with relatively high resilience to shocks and at the same time a supplier of economic and social resilience for the entire economy.
    Keywords: resilience; agriculture; economic crisis; Romania
    JEL: E24 O11 Q1
    Date: 2017–11–16
  23. By: Melvin Stephens Jr.; Desmond Toohey
    Abstract: While the literature finding a decrease in food expenditures at retirement suggests households do not adequately save for retirement, subsequent evidence that nutrient intake is unaffected by retirement has tempered these concerns. We further examine nutrient intake changes at retirement both by analyzing a much wider range of datasets, including longitudinal data, and by improving upon the empirical methodology used in earlier work. Our analysis yields four main results. First, unlike prior work, we find that caloric and nutrient intake fall at retirement in numerous cross-sectional datasets. We can reconcile these contrasting results as being due to well-documented differences and improvements in methodologies used to measure food intake. Second, using longitudinal data, we also find that intake falls at retirement. Third, we show that a food consumption index used in prior work to capture the relationship between permanent income and foods eaten can severely underestimate the impact of retirement on consumption. We show that a minor methodological revision circumvents this bias and that the revised consumption index falls at retirement. Finally, while unemployment reduces the consumption index, we find, in contrast to prior work, that the impact of retirement on the consumption index is larger. Overall, we consistently find that retirement reduces food intake.
    JEL: E21 J26
    Date: 2018–05
  24. By: Dobre, Iuliana
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to find out the economic efficiency of an associative unit in fruits processing and trading field. In this order a scenario by loan is taken into consideration. Indicators such as production, incomes and expenditures, profit, also investment indicators are studied. The paper consists into the establishment of a processing fruits to prolong their life, and get products with higher value added consumer demand; establishing a network for collecting local fruits, supply of raw materials for the processing; providing storage services and marketing associative members. Technical objectives of the investment are to purchase machineries and equipments for processing apples and plums; the purchase of land for their location, building factory and deposit. The financial objectives refer to investment. The results show the relevance of associative units for producer integrating and investment feasibility.
    Keywords: associative unit, fruits processing, investment, economic efficiency
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2017–11–16
  25. By: Ion, Raluca Andreea
    Abstract: The paper presents models for short chains of fruits, considering integration as the main mechanism of coordination agents’ activities on the chain. The research answer the question how efficient are activities of fruits’ chain in this particular form of integrated activities of collecting fruits, store and process them in juices and jams and sell them to the market, in a single economic unit. The objective of the research is to assess the efficiency of such a business. In achieving this purpose, economic data regarding investment, production, revenues and expenses have been analysed, for an associative form of processing and selling fruits, which develops such a business. The results show that investment is feasible, because revenues are higher than expenses, the rate of return is 5%, and the return of investment is 5.66 years, less than the machineries’ period of operation. The model is useful for farmers owning orchards, who want to apply for structural funds and to develop, as such, their business in the direction of integrating activities down-stream the chain.
    Keywords: short chain, fruits, efficiency, integration
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2017–11–16
  26. By: Jibonayan Raychaudhuri; Ada Wossink
    Date: 2018
  27. By: Bruma, Ioan Sebastian; Bohateret, Valentin - Mihai; Tănasă, Lucian
    Abstract: The rural household epitomizes the central socioeconomic unit of the vernacular village. The territorial resources, livestock and human capital shape the particular features of each place and zone. The present study relies upon field research, namely a questionnaire undertaken in 354 rural households across the counties from the North-east Development Region. The main conclusions highlight visible zonal differences among them, all with clear distinctive features that draw the traditional element of each zone.
    Keywords: rural household, population, agricultural uses, type of land ownership, livestock
    JEL: Q15 Q24
    Date: 2017–11–16

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