nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒06‒18
nineteen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Transport Costs, Comparative Advantage, and Agricultural Development: Evidence from Jamuna Bridge in Bangladesh By Blankespoor, Brian; Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad; Xu, Lu
  2. Periurban Agriculture: do the Current EU Agri-environmental Policy Programmes Fit with it? By Linda Arata; Gianni Guastella; Stefano Pareglio; Riccardo Scarpa; Paolo Sckokai
  3. And Then He Wasnùt a She: Climate Change and Green Transitions in an Agent-Based Integrated Assessment Model By Francesco Lamperti; Giovanni Dosi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Alessandro Sapio
  4. Organic Food Retailing and the Conventionalisation Debate By Marion Desquilbet; Elise Maigne; Sylvette Monier-Dilhan
  5. The Geography of Poverty and Nutrition: Food Deserts and Food Choices across the United States By Allcott, Hunt; Diamond, Rebecca; Dube, Jean-Pierre
  6. Vertical integration and health control measures in the French young beef bull sector By Axelle Poizat; Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Florence Bonnet-Beaugrand
  7. The Incidence of Soft-Drink Taxes on Consumer Prices and Welfare: Evidence from the French " Soda Tax" By Fabrice Etilé; Sebastien Lecocq; Christine Boizot-Szantai
  8. NGOs and Participatory Conservation in Developing Countries: Why Are There Inefficiencies? By Gani Aldashev; Elena Vallino
  9. Food Security and Nutrition By UNCTAD; World Bank
  10. Geographic Environmental Kuznets Curves: The Optimal Growth Linear-Quadratic Case By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  11. Recalculating the Social Cost of Carbon By Soheil Shayegh; Valentina Bosetti; Simon Dietz; Johannes Emmerling; Christoph Hambel; Svenn Jensen; Holger Kraft; Massimo Tavoni; Christian Traeger; Rick Van der Ploeg
  12. Climate Change and Kuznets Curve: Portuguese Experience By Nuno Carlos Leitão
  13. Decomposing the Changes in Water Intensity in a Mediterranean Region By Llop Llop, Maria
  14. The health-taste trade-off in consumer decision making: An experimental approach By Georgia S. Papoutsi; Stathis Klonaris; Andreas C. Drichoutis
  15. An Economic Anatomy of Optimal Climate Policy By Juan Moreno-Cruz; Gernot Wagner; David W. Keith
  16. Tobacco spending in Georgia: Machine learning approach By Maksym Obrizan; Karine Torosyan; Norberto Pignatti
  17. The Effect of Forest Access on the Market for Fuelwood in India By Branko BOSKOVIC; Ujjayant CHAKRAVORTY; Martino PELLI; Anna RISCH
  18. Distinguer sécurité alimentaire urbaine et rurale en Afrique de l'Ouest By Cornelia F.A. van Wesenbeeck
  19. Effects of Stricter Environmental Regulations on Resource Development By Ian A. Lange; Michael Redlinger

  1. By: Blankespoor, Brian; Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad; Xu, Lu
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of a large reduction in transport costs on agricultural development in a developing country with a focus on the interactions among comparative advantage and transport costs of a location, and transport intensity and value of a commodity. We extend the von Thunen model of land allocation to incorporate costly technology adoption and comparative advantage based on land productivity. The theoretical analysis predicts spatial non-linearity in cropland allocation, and produces deviation of observed cropping pattern from the efficient crop choices. A reduction in transport costs leads to adoption of productivity-enhancing inputs in the newly-connected region, and increases the share of land devoted to the high-value transport-intensive crop, with the strongest effect in the areas that are not too near or too far from the center and also have a higher land productivity in that crop. The empirical context of our analysis is the Jamuna bridge in Bangladesh, which opened in 1998, and reduced the transport costs from the poor hinterland in the north-west to the capital city Dhaka by more than 50 percent. Using sub-district level panel data, we implement doubly robust estimators in a difference-in-difference design where the comparison areas come from a region which is supposed to be connected to the capital city by the proposed, but yet to be built, Padma bridge. We find that the construction of Jamuna bridge led to increased adoption of technology (fertilizer, irrigation, green-ness and cropping intensity) and reallocation of land from low-value and non-perishable crop rice to high-value crops, pulses (non-perishable) and vegetables (perishable). The evidence indicates spatial non-linearity in the effects on cropping intensity and on the reallocation of land in areas with comparative advantage in vegetable production. For cropping intensity, the magnitude of the effect is large in the intermediate distance (130-150 km) from the bridge. In areas with relatively higher vegetable productivity, land allocated to rice declined, and in particular, the land was reallocated from HYV rice to vegetables in the intermediate distance (110-150 km). This improved productive efficiency by aligning the cropping pattern more closely with comparative advantage. The bridge thus led to agricultural development through technology adoption, higher cropping intensity, and by reducing the spatial mismatch between land suitability and crop choice.
    Keywords: Bridge, Jamuna River, Bangladesh, Land Reallocation, Technology Adoption, Cropping Intensity, Agricultural Development Agriculture
    JEL: O12 O13 O18
    Date: 2018–05–09
  2. By: Linda Arata (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore); Gianni Guastella (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei); Stefano Pareglio (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei); Riccardo Scarpa (University of Durham, University of Verona and University of Waikato); Paolo Sckokai (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: In the European Union (EU) periurban agriculture is under the same agri-environmental policy regime designed for general agriculture. We argue that the specific needs of periurban agriculture may justify ad hoc agri-environmental policy measures. We present results from a Choice Experiment (CE) performed on a sample of 600 people living in the municipality of Milan, which was designed to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) for ecological benefits generated by four agri-environmental practices implementable in the periurban area and already included in the Rural Development Programmes of the Lombardy region. Results suggest that a large population share is willing to pay to support an increase in the use of the agricultural practices studied with an average WTP ranging between 5.6 to 16.3 euro/person/year, according to the type of practice. These results are in contrast with their current low level of adoption. The sub-optimal uptake rate is likely due to an insufficient per hectare compensating payment, which is too low to cover the income foregone consequent to the adoption of sustainable agriculture measures in this area. The mismatch between the low uptake rate and the high social benefits generated by the four agri-environmental agricultural practices sheds light on the need to design agri-environmental policy programmes specifically targeted to periurban areas, where the costs of compliance with AEMs are high and the social benefits of their adoption are large.
    Keywords: Periurban Agriculture, Agri-environmental Policy, Choice Experiment, Random Parameter Logit Model, Error Component, WTP Space
    JEL: Q18 Q57 C35
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Francesco Lamperti; Giovanni Dosi; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini; Alessandro Sapio
    Abstract: In this work, we employ an agent-based integrated assessment model to study the likelihood of transition to green, sustainable growth in presence of climate damages. The model comprises heterogeneous fossil-fuel and renewable plants, capital- and consumption-good firms and a climate box linking greenhouse gasses emission to temperature dynamics and microeconomic climate shocks affecting labour productivity and energy demand of firms. Simulation results show that the economy possesses two statistical equilibria: a carbon-intensive lock-in and a sustainable growth path characterized by better macroeconomic performances. Once climate damages are accounted for, the likelihood of a green transition depends on the damage function employed. In particular, aggregate and quadratic damage functions overlook the impact of climate change on the transition to sustainability; to the contrary, more realistic micro-level damages are found to deeply influence the chances of a transition. Finally, we run a series of policy experiments on carbon (fossil fuel) taxes and green subsidies. We find that the effectiveness of such market-based instruments depends on the different channels climate change affects the economy through, and complementary policies might be required to avoid carbon-intensive lock-ins.
    Keywords: climate change; agent based models; transitions; energy policy; growth
    Date: 2018–06–07
  4. By: Marion Desquilbet (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - Toulouse School of Economics); Elise Maigne (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Sylvette Monier-Dilhan (US ODR - Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: We propose an empirical study of French sales in conventional food retailing and in specialised organic stores for 2012. We examine the plant or animal origin of food products, as an indicator of the environmental and health impacts of sales, and their degree of processing, as an indicator of their health impact. The results indicate that sales of organic food products are more plant-based and less processed in specialised organic stores than in conventional retail stores, two criteria for a better health and environmental impact. In conventional stores, organic sales are more plant-based and less processed than conventional sales. Organic sales in conventional stores show some specificity, having the highest share of particular product ranges lacking a clear health or environmental impact, such as processed culinary ingredients or unprocessed or minimally processed animal products. Building a typology of buyers in conventional stores, we find that even purchases by buyers with the highest organic purchase intensity in conventional stores are less plant-based and more processed than average purchases in specialised organic stores. Our results characterise to what extent some of the holistic environmental and health impacts of organic agriculture are lower in conventional retail stores than in specialised organic stores in France in 2012.
    Abstract: Cet article présente une analyse empirique des ventes de produits alimentaires conventionnels et bio en France en 2012 dans les grandes et moyennes surfaces conventionnelles et dans les magasins bio spécialisés, selon l’origine animale ou végétale des produits (un indicateur de l’impact environnemental et sanitaire des ventes) et leur degré de transformation (un indicateur de leur impact sanitaire). Les ventes de produits alimentaires issus de l’agriculture biologique, quoique restant relativement faibles, sont en augmentation significative dans les pays développés et notamment en France. Si les cahiers des charges de l’agriculture biologique ont différentes implications favorables en termes d’environnement et de santé, les effets de cette augmentation en termes de durabilité sont toutefois sujets à débat, autour de deux éléments principaux. Le premier élément de débat tient au fait que l’agriculture biologique a des rendements plus faibles que l’agriculture conventionnelle. Produire les mêmes quantités des mêmes aliments avec l’agriculture biologique nécessiterait de mettre en culture plus de terres qu’avec l’agriculture conventionnelle, avec des impacts environnementaux négatifs. Cependant, cet effet négatif est contrebalancé par la différence entre les régimes alimentaires incluant ou non des produits bios, qui peut être due aux différences entre systèmes de production bio et conventionnels, aux motivations différentes des acheteurs de produits bio, et au surcoût des produits bio conduisant à ajuster la composition des achats (Reganold et Watcher, 2016). Le second élément de controverse est la tendance de l’agriculture biologique à développer certaines caractéristiques du système alimentaire conventionnel lorsqu’elle change d’échelle, de manière contraire à son projet initial, et avec des effets négatifs possibles sur différentes dimensions de la durabilité (Guthman, 2004). Pour éclairer ces débats, cette recherche analyse les ventes de produits conventionnels et de produits bio en France en 2012, en distinguant les deux principaux circuits de distribution de produits bio, à savoir les grandes et moyennes surfaces conventionnelles et les magasins bio spécialisés. Pour cela, l’analyse utilise deux bases de données. La première est la base Kantar Worldpanel, qui contient des données détaillées d’achats alimentaires en grandes surfaces conventionnelles par un panel de consommateurs, et distingue notamment l’origine bio ou non bio des produits. La seconde est une base de données de ventes de différents magasins d’un réseau français de magasins vendant exclusivement des produits issus de l’agriculture biologique, à laquelle nous avons eu accès pour cette étude. A notre connaissance, il s’agit de la première étude scientifique combinant de telles données. L’analyse porte sur deux dimensions de la durabilité pouvant être étudiées à partir de ces deux bases de données : l’origine végétale ou animale des produits, qui fournit un indicateur de l’impact environnemental et sanitaire des ventes (Tilman et Clark, 2014) ; leur degré de transformation, qui donne un indicateur de leur impact sanitaire (Monteiro et al, 2016). Les résultats de notre étude, montrent qu’en France, en 2012, les ventes de produits alimentaires bio étaient plus végétales et moins transformées que les ventes de produits alimentaires conventionnels, deux indicateurs d’une meilleure durabilité. De plus, les ventes de produits bio étaient plus végétales et moins transformées en magasins bio spécialisés qu’en grandes surfaces conventionnelles. Ces différences étaient particulièrement importantes concernant l’origine végétale ou animale des produits. Ces résultats illustrent l’importance de ne pas raisonner qu’en termes de rendements culture par culture pour comparer les performances de l’agriculture biologique et de l’agriculture conventionnelle. De plus, ils suggèrent un impact négatif de la conventionnalisation de l’agriculture biologique en France, au sens où les ventes de produits bio dans en grandes et moyennes surfaces conventionnelles (qui représentaient près de la moitié des ventes de bio) avaient un moins bonne structure que les ventes en magasins bio spécialisés (qui représentaient environ un tiers des ventes de bio). Ces résultats peuvent aussi être lus comme montrant un impact positif de « la biologisation » de la grande distribution conventionnelle : leurs ventes de produits bio, plus végétales et moins transformées que leurs ventes de produits conventionnels, rendaient leurs ventes globales plus durables selon ces deux indicateurs. Cependant, cette « biologisation » des grandes surfaces conventionnelles restait limitée, les produits bio représentant moins de 2 % de leurs ventes globales. En différenciant des groupes d’acheteurs en magasins conventionnels selon l’intensité de leurs achats bio (c’est-à-dire la proportion de produits bios dans leurs achats alimentaires), les résultats montrent une tendance (faible) vers des achats (conventionnels et bio) plus végétaux et moins transformés pour les acheteurs avec une forte intensité d’achats bio. Cependant, la différence entre la structure des acheteurs avec la plus forte intensité d’achats bio en magasins conventionnels et la structure moyenne dans les magasins spécialisés bio était beaucoup plus substantielle. Ce résultat souligne la singularité des magasins spécialisés bio selon nos deux indicateurs. Ces différences dans les structures de vente impliquent que les consommateurs font face à un environnement alimentaire plus sain en magasin spécialisé bio qu’en grande surface conventionnelle, ce qui pourrait affecter de manière positive leurs choix alimentaires. Ces résultats suggèrent différentes pistes possibles pour limiter l’effet indésirable de la conventionnalisation des ventes bio observée dans nos données. Une manière serait de renforcer les spécifications des cahiers des charges de l’agriculture biologique pour interdire les additifs, les fractionnements d’aliments et les méthodes de transformation les plus problématiques. Une manière moins radicale serait d’augmenter les connaissances du grand public sur les impacts différentiels en termes de santé et d’environnement de différents types de produits bio et sur la structure différente des ventes dans les principaux circuits de distribution. Un pas possible dans cette direction pourrait être d’associer la communication sur le label bio avec des recommandations sur la composition des régimes alimentaires. Jusqu’ici, au contraire, le plan de développement de l’agriculture biologique (Ambition bio 2017) a consacré des ressources à la communication pour encourager la consommation de produits bio en général, sans mentionner que les impacts des achats de produits alimentaires bio peuvent dépendre des caractéristiques des produits achetés, qui peuvent varier selon les circuits de distribution.
    Keywords: conventionnalisation, produit non ou peu transformé,produit ultra-transformé,environnement alimentaire,organic agriculture,retail channel,conventionalisation,unprocessed or minimally processed food products,plant-based food product,food environment,organic farming,distribution network,agriculture biologique,réseau de distribution,produit d'origine animale,produit d'origine végétale
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Allcott, Hunt (New York University); Diamond, Rebecca (Stanford University); Dube, Jean-Pierre (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: We study the causes of "nutritional inequality": why the wealthy tend to eat more healthfully than the poor in the U.S. Using two event study designs exploiting entry of new supermarkets and households' moves to healthier neighborhoods, we reject that neighborhood environments have economically meaningful effects on healthy eating. Using a structural demand model, we find that exposing low-income households to the same food availability and prices experienced by high-income households would reduce nutritional inequality by only 9%, while the remaining 91% is driven by differences in demand. In turn, these income-related demand differences are partially explained by education, nutrition knowledge, and regional preferences. These findings contrast with discussions of nutritional inequality that emphasize supply-side issues such as food deserts.
    JEL: D12 I12 I14 L81 R20
    Date: 2018–01
  6. By: Axelle Poizat; Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Florence Bonnet-Beaugrand
    Abstract: The French young beef bull sector presents a complex organisation. The more animals are mixed and subjected to long transports, the more likely they will be to develop bovine respiratory disease (BRD). We aimed to understand the vertical integration patterns in the young beef bull sector and how they influence public health issues (BRD and antibiotic use). Transaction costs analyses revealed a diversity of vertical integration patterns, from spot market to vertical integration. The “health issues” parameter is involved in different categories of transaction costs (risk, uncertainty, quality). When vertical integration is strong (weak), the risk of BRD is low (high), which thus have an indirect effect on antibiotic use.
    Keywords: transaction costs, vertical integration, young beef bull sector, animal health control measures, reduction of antibiotics use
    JEL: D23 L14 Q13
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Fabrice Etilé (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Sebastien Lecocq (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Christine Boizot-Szantai (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The behavioural impact and acceptability of soft-drink taxes depend crucially on their incidence on consumer prices and welfare across socio-economic groups and markets. We use KantarWorldpanel homescan data to analyse the incidence of the 2012 French soda tax on Exact Price Indices (EPI) measuring consumer welfare from the availability and consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB) and Non-Calorically Sweetened Beverages (NCSB) at a local geographical level. The soda tax has had significant, similar but small impacts on the EPI of SSB and NCSB (+4%), corresponding to an aggregate pass-through of about 40%. Tax incidence was slightly higher for low-income and high-consuming households. Retailers set higher pass-throughs in low-income, less-competitive and smaller markets. They did not change their product assortments. The lack of horizontal competition in low-income markets had a sizeable effect on tax regressivity. Finally, the negative income gradient in tax incidence was offset by a positive gradient in expected health benefits.
    Keywords: Market structure,Tax incidence,Soft drink,Exact price index,Regressivity
    Date: 2018–06
  8. By: Gani Aldashev; Elena Vallino
    Abstract: Participatory conservation projects run by NGOs in developing countries imply involvement of communities in conservation efforts, to combine economic development with environmental preservation. We build an economic model explaining the emergence of participatory conservation and its contradictions linked to the conflicting incentives of local farmers, NGOs, and donors. The tragedy of the commons in a natural area justifies an NGO intervention. Contractual incompleteness calls for participatory conservation. However, if the revenue from the conservation project is uncertain, the community abstains from conservation unless the NGO allocates resources to agriculture. The NGO must deviate from its narrow mission to reach its broad mission. If the NGO is funded by conservation-oriented donors, it struggles to justify diverting resources to agriculture. Thus, the NGO faces a “size versus efficiency” dilemma: poorly conserving a larger area (non-cooperating local community, satisfied donors) or conserving well a smaller area (local community cooperation, unsatisfied donors).
    Keywords: Participatory conservation, NGOs, local development, land use
    Date: 2018–06
  9. By: UNCTAD; World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agribusiness Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agriculture - Crops & Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Food Security Health, Nutrition and Population - Nutrition Private Sector Development - Corporate Social Responsibility
    Date: 2018–03
  10. By: Raouf Boucekkine (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales, IMéRA - Institute for Advanced Studies - Aix-Marseille University, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche); Giorgio Fabbri (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Salvatore Federico (Università degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Statistica); Fausto Gozzi (Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Luiss - Guido Carli)
    Abstract: We solve a linear-quadratic model of a spatio-temporal economy using a polluting one-input technology. Space is continuous and heterogenous: locations differ in productivity, nature self-cleaning technology and environmental awareness. The unique link between locations is transboundary pollution which is modelled as a PDE diffusion equation. The spatio-temporal functional is quadratic in local consumption and linear in pollution. Using a dynamic programming method adapted to our infinite dimensional setting, we solve the associated optimal control problem in closed-form and identify the asymptotic (optimal) spatial distribution of pollution. We show that optimal emissions will decrease at given location if and only if local productivity is larger than a threshold which depends both on the local pollution absorption capacity and environmental awareness. Furthermore, we numerically explore the relationship between the spatial optimal distributions of production and (asymptotic) pollution in order to uncover possible (geographic) Environmental Kuznets Curve cases.
    Keywords: growth,geography,transboundary pollution,infinite dimensional optimal control problems
    Date: 2018–05
  11. By: Soheil Shayegh (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)); Valentina Bosetti (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Bocconi University); Simon Dietz (London School of Economics); Johannes Emmerling (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)); Christoph Hambel (Goethe University Frankfurt); Svenn Jensen (Oslo Metropolitan University); Holger Kraft (Goethe University Frankfurt); Massimo Tavoni (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Politecnico di Milano); Christian Traeger (University of Oslo and University of California Berkeley); Rick Van der Ploeg (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, integrated assessment models (IAM) have provided insight into the relationship between climate change, economy, and climate policies. The limitations of these models in capturing uncertainty in climate parameters, heterogeneity in damages and policies, have given rise to skepticism about the relevance of these models for policy making. IAM community needs to respond to these critics and to the new challenges posed by developments in the policy arena. New climate targets emerging from the Paris Agreement and the uncertainty about the signatories’ commitment to Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are prime examples of challenges that need to be addressed in the next generation of IAMs. Given these challenges, calculating the social cost of carbon requires a new framework. This can be done by computing marginal abatement cost in cost-effective settings which provides different results than those calculated using constrained cost-benefit analysis. Here we focus on the areas where IAMs can be deployed to asses uncertainty and risk management, learning, and regional heterogeneity in climate change impacts.
    Keywords: Integrated Assessment Models, Climate Policy, Carbon, Uncertainty
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2018–05
  12. By: Nuno Carlos Leitão (Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, ESGTS and CEFAGE-UE, Évora University)
    Abstract: The climate change has inspired the interest of the academic community in the most diverse areas of knowledge. This study tests and revisited the environmental Kuznets curve assumptions for Portugal. The econometric strategy used in this research is time series (ARIMA model, OLS estimator, ARCH regression, VAR model, and Granger causality) for the time period 1980-2013.The econometric results show that the income per capita and squared income per capita are according to the expected signs, i.e. a positive impact of income per capita on carbon dioxide emissions, and a negative effect of squared income per capita on carbon dioxide emissions. The empirical study also demonstrates that Portugal presents a dependence on energy consumption. The openness trade and foreign direct investment are negatively correlated with carbon dioxide emissions.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve, Climate Changes, Time Series and Openness Trade
    JEL: C50 Q43 Q53
    Date: 2018–05
  13. By: Llop Llop, Maria
    Abstract: This paper proposes a simple method for decomposing the temporal changes in water intensity into different driving factors. Specifically, total changes are split into three elements that clarify some of the hidden reasons behind the changes in water use over time. The first element captures the changes in water intensity due to sectoral uses, showing the effects of modifying the water intensity of the different production sectors; the second element shows the changes in sectoral output intensity, showing the influence on water consumption of altering the production structure; finally, the third element quantifies the effects of the changes in residential water intensity, showing the contribution that changing the final water uses makes to changing water intensity. The empirical application, which is for the Spanish region of Catalonia, uses the latest available water consumption data (for 2004 and 2007). The results show a reduction in the regional water intensity resulting from a reduction in the water intensity of agriculture and industrial activities, which was greater than the increase in the water intensity by the services sectors. In addition, the production structure made a mixed contribution to final water intensity, depending on the sector under consideration. In particular, the decrease in the importance of agricultural production had the highest influence on reducing regional water intensity. Finally, the residential uses of water made a negative contribution to the total water intensity. The different directions and magnitudes of the drivers identified in this paper highlight the importance of using detailed and precise methods for studying water issues. Keywords: Sectoral Water Intensity, Sectoral Output Intensity, Residential Water Intensity, Mediterranean Region.
    Keywords: Aigua -- Utilització -- Mediterrània, Regió, 33 - Economia, 504 - Ciències del medi ambient,
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Georgia S. Papoutsi (Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter”); Stathis Klonaris (Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens); Andreas C. Drichoutis (Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens)
    Abstract: Understanding human eating behaviour can highlight avenues for intervention by policy makers and industry. With this goal in mind, we evaluate the claim that consumers are willing to trade-off taste for health benefits, by performing a controlled laboratory experiment where we simultaneously auctioned two different functional snack products: an energy bar and a novel carob-based snack. We varied on a between-subjects basis the order of taste and product information which was communicated to participants through informational labeling. We also investigated in a within-subjects design the effect of expectations for the snacks, blind tasting and product information on sensory evaluations and on willingness to pay. Results indicate that tasting and information have economically and statistically significant effects on overall food assessment with respect to prior product expectations. Provision of information shortly before consumption, makes consumers less strict on their taste evaluation and increases their purchasing intent in order to improve the healthfulness of their diet. When information is provided after taste, it only exerts influence with respect to the carob-based snack. Furthermore, blind tasting has a negative effect on liking, irrespective of the product being evaluated. Finally, the econometric results reveal that older respondents tend to bid higher for functional snacks.
    Keywords: laboratory experiments, sensory evaluations, functional snack, labeling, willingness to pay
    JEL: C91 D12 D44 M31
    Date: 2018
  15. By: Juan Moreno-Cruz; Gernot Wagner; David W. Keith
    Abstract: This paper introduces geoengineering into an optimal control model of climate change economics. Together with mitigation and adaptation, carbon and solar geoengineering span the universe of possible climate policies. Their wildly different characteristics have important implications for climate policy. We show in the context of our model that: (i) the optimal carbon tax equals the marginal cost of carbon geoengineering; (ii) the introduction of either form of geoengineering leads to higher emissions yet lower temperatures; (iii) in a world with above-optimal cumulative emissions, only a complete set of instruments can minimize climate damages.
    Keywords: climate change, climate policy, mitigation, adaptation, carbon geoengineering, carbon dioxide removal, solar geoengineering, solar radiation management
    JEL: D90 O44 Q48 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2018
  16. By: Maksym Obrizan (Kyiv School of Economics); Karine Torosyan (International School of Economics at TSU); Norberto Pignatti (International School of Economics at TSU)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze tobacco spending in Georgia using various machine learning methods applied to a sample of 10,757 households from Integrated Household Survey collected by GeoStat in 2016. Previous research has shown that smoking is the leading cause of death for 35-69 year olds. In addition, tobacco expenditures may constitute as much as 17% of the household budget. Five different algorithms (ordinary least squares, random forest, two gradient boosting methods and deep learning) were applied to 8,173 households (or 76.0%) in the train set. Out-of-sample predictions were then obtained for 2,584 remaining households in the test set. Under the default settings random forest algorithm showed the best performance with more than 10% improvement in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE). Improved accuracy and availability of machine learning tools in R calls for active use of these methods by policy makers and scientists in health economics, public health and related fields.
    Keywords: Tobacco Spending, Household Survey, Georgia, Machine Learning
    JEL: I12 L66 D12
    Date: 2018–05
  17. By: Branko BOSKOVIC; Ujjayant CHAKRAVORTY; Martino PELLI; Anna RISCH
    Abstract: Fuelwood collection is often cited as the most important cause of deforestation in developing countries. Use of fuelwood in cooking is a leading cause of indoor air pollution. Using household data from India, we show that households located farther away from the forest spend more time collecting. Distant households are likely to sell more fuelwood and buy less. That is, lower access to forests increases fuelwood collection and sale. This counter-intuitive behavior is triggered by two factors: lower access to forests (a) increases the fixed costs of collecting, which in turn leads to more collection; and (b) drives up local fuelwood prices, which makes collection and sale more profitable. We quantify both these effects. Using our estimates we show that a fifth of the fuelwood collected is consumed outside of rural areas, in nearby towns and cities. Our results imply that at the margin, fuelwood scarcity may lead to increased collection and sale, and exacerbate forest degradation.
    Keywords: energy access, cooking fuels, deforestation, forest cover, fuelwood collection
    JEL: D10 O13 Q42
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Cornelia F.A. van Wesenbeeck
    Abstract: Les stratégies de lutte contre la faim et les systèmes d'alerte précoce se concentrent souvent sur les zones rurales et l'identification des crises alimentaires, plutôt que sur les tendances à plus long terme. Les données sur la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle des populations urbaines, en forte croissance, sont rares et parcellaires. En utilisant les informations géoréférencées des Enquêtes démographiques et de santé (EDS), cette Note estime le nombre total et la prévalence de la sous-nutrition et de la surnutrition en Afrique de l'Ouest aussi bien en milieu rural qu’urbain. L'analyse révèle que près de 110 millions de personnes en Afrique de l'Ouest n’ont pas une alimentation adéquate à leurs besoins nutritionnels. Plus de 58 millions de personnes souffrent d'insuffisance pondérale, dont 22 millions en ville. Les autres 52 millions sont en surpoids ou obèses, dont la grande majorité sont des citadins de plus de 15 ans. Ces résultats montrent la gravité du «double fardeau» de la sous-nutrition et surnutrition et appellent à renouveler les efforts en matière de développement d’outils de suivi de la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle en milieu urbain.
    Keywords: ménages urbains, nutrition, obésité, systèmes d’alerte précoce, sécurité alimentaire
    JEL: I32 Q18 R28
    Date: 2018–04–16
  19. By: Ian A. Lange; Michael Redlinger
    Abstract: This analysis seeks to understand whether changes in oil regulation brought about by the shale revolution have restricted the pace of drilling and production. This hypothesis is tested using data on North Dakota and Montana both before and after North Dakota increased the level of bonding required. Results generally find that the new regulations had no statistical impact on the pace of drilling and production, however it is found that smaller operators reduced their production and exited. These results are instructive for policymakers who weigh the loss of economic welfare against improved environmental quality when deciding on new regulations.
    Keywords: oil and gas regulation, shale oil, drilling, firm exit
    JEL: L51 L71 Q53
    Date: 2018

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