nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒04‒30
23 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. The value of biodiversity as an insurance device By Augeraud-Véron, E.; Fabbri, G.; Schubert, K.
  2. The demand for global and local environmental protection: Experimental evidence from climate change mitigation in Beijing By Loeschel, Andreas; Pei, Jiansuo; Sturm, Bodo; Wang, Ran; Buchholz, Wolfgang; Zhao, Zhongxiu
  3. Zimbabwe's Harmonized Cash Transfer Programme Improves Food Security and Reduces Reliance on Food Gifts By Garima Bhalla; UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
  4. Forest Degradation and Economic Growth in Nepal, 2003–2010 By Jean-Marie Baland; François Libois; Dilip Mookherjee
  5. Sell Low and Buy High: Arbitrage and Local Price Effects in Kenyan Markets By Marshall Burke; Lauren Falcao Bergquist; Edward Miguel
  6. Note on UK agro industrial trade under a hard Brexit By Nogues, Julio
  7. Institutions and sustainability – insights from Bulgarian agriculture By Bachev, Hrabrin
  8. Best practice document for the coexistence of genetically modified potato with conventional and organic farming By Ivelin Rizov; Gerhard Ruehl; Maren Langhof; Jonas Kathage; Emilio Rodriguez-Cerezo
  9. High-Value Agricultural Exports from Africa By Will Martin
  10. Analysis of the impact of the use or non-use of neonicotinoids in agriculture By Petre, Ionut Laurentiu
  11. Climate Change, Floods, and Municipal Risk Sharing in Canada By Daniel Henstra; Jason Thistlethwaite
  12. How Global Warming Can Affect Where People Live? Evidence from Flood Surprises By Petkov, Ivan
  13. Moving from Extreme Poverty to Sustainable Livelihoods: Evidence from Randomized Controlled Trials in Bangladesh By Jinnat Ara
  14. Spatial Dispersion of Retail Margins: Evidence from Turkish Agricultural Prices By Hakan Yilmazkuday
  15. Traditional agricultural practices and the sex ratio today By Alesina, Alberto; Giuliano, Paola; Nunn, Nathan
  16. Urban Green Space and Obesity in Older Adults By Dempsey, Seraphim; Lyons, Seán; Nolan, Anne
  17. Flood impact on property value: The case of Canada By Philippe Bélanger; Michael Bourdeau-Brien
  18. An Estimation of Production Indices for Industry and Agriculture in Imperial Russia By Suhara, Manabu
  19. Analysis of Food Production and Poverty Reduction of Bangladesh By Mohajan, Haradhan
  20. Cooperation programs regarding the development of turnover in rural area By Dănilă, Daniela Ileana
  21. Estimating Sustainable Development and Social Exclusion in Rural Pakistan By Hameed, Abdul; Qaiser, Zara
  22. Sugar market in the European Union and Romania. Study on price developments By Surca, Daniela - Elena
  23. Early Debates on Quality, Market Coordination and Welfare in the U.S. in the 1930s By Jean-Sébastien Lenfant

  1. By: Augeraud-Véron, E.; Fabbri, G.; Schubert, K.
    Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark stochastic endogenous growth model of an agricultural economy. Producing food requires land, and increasing the share of total land devoted to farming mechanically reduces the share of land devoted to biodiversity conservation. However, safeguarding a greater number of species guarantees, through spatial exchanges, better ecosystem services which, in turn, ensure lower volatility of agricultural productivity. The optimal conversion/conservation rule is explicitly characterized, as well as the total value of biodiversity in terms of the welfare gain from biodiversity conservation, and the marginal value of biodiversity in terms of risk premium reduction, namely its insurance value. The Epstein-Zin-Weil specification of preferences allows us to disentangle the effects of risk aversion and aversion to fluctuations.
    Keywords: BIODIVERSITY;STOCHASTIC ENDOGENOUS GROWTH;INSURANCE VALUE;RECURSIVE PREFERENCES
    JEL: Q56 Q58 Q10 Q15 O13 O20 C73
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gbl:wpaper:2018-05&r=agr
  2. By: Loeschel, Andreas; Pei, Jiansuo; Sturm, Bodo; Wang, Ran; Buchholz, Wolfgang; Zhao, Zhongxiu
    Abstract: In this study, the real demand for global and local environmental protection in Beijing, China, is elicited and investigated. Participants from Beijing were offered the opportunity to contribute to voluntary climate change mitigation by purchasing permits from two Chinese CO2 emissions trading schemes (ETS). Purchased permits were withdrawn from the ETS. Since CO2 emissions mitigation is inevitably linked to other local benefits like the reduction in emissions of air pollutants, the aim of our study is to establish the demand for local and global environmental protection. To this end, Beijing and Shenzhen ETS permits were offered. The result is that at low prices the demand for Beijing ETS permits is significantly higher than for Shenzhen ETS permits indicating that a substantial part of the revealed demand for voluntary climate change mitigation in Beijing is driven by concerns for local co-benefits of CO2 emissions reduction. Our research identifies the important role of private benefits in the voluntary provision of the global public good climate change mitigation and provides first experimental evidence for China.
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:cawmdp:102&r=agr
  3. By: Garima Bhalla; UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
    Abstract: In 2016, approximately 815 million people were chronically undernourished globally. In recent years, food security has worsened in some parts of the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. In Zimbabwe, latest estimates show that about 45% of the total population are undernourished1. To address the challenge of growing food insecurity, effective social protection programmes must be implemented and scaled-up. Cash transfers are one such programme, the primary objectives of which often include poverty alleviation and food insecurity reduction. This research study utilized longitudinal data collected for the impact evaluation of Zimbabwe’s Harmonized Social Cash Transfer Programme (HSCT), an unconditional cash transfer that targets ultra- poor, labour-constrained households. It accomplishes two things: It provides evidence on the relative merits of using an aggregate consumption expenditure measure versus a food security scale, to assess household vulnerability and food insecurity; and it contributes to a growing literature on the effects of state-sponsored unconditional cash transfers in Africa on household behaviour and food security.
    Keywords: cash transfers; food security;
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ucf:inores:inores944&r=agr
  4. By: Jean-Marie Baland (CRED - Centre de Recherche en Economie du Developpement - Facultés Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix (FUNDP) - Namur, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR, BREAD); François Libois (PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, CRED - Centre de Recherche en Economie du Developpement - Facultés Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix (FUNDP) - Namur); Dilip Mookherjee (BU - Boston University [Boston], BREAD)
    Abstract: We investigate the relation between economic growth, household firewood collection and forest conditions in Nepal between 2003 and 2010. Co-movements in these are examined at the household and village levels, combining satellite imagery and household (Nepal Living Standard Measurement Survey) data. Projections of the impact of economic growth based on Engel curves turn out to be highly inaccurate: forest conditions remained stable despite considerable growth in household consumption and income. Firewood collections at the village level remained stable, as effects of demographic growth were offset by substantial reductions in per-household collections. Households substituted firewood by alternative energy sources, particularly when livestock and farm based occupations declined in importance. Engel curve specifications which include household productive assets (a proxy for occupational patterns) provide more accurate predictions. Hence structural changes accompanying economic growth play an important role in offsetting adverse environmental consequences of growth.
    Keywords: Deforestation,Growth,Environmental Kuznets Curve,Nepal
    Date: 2018–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-01713390&r=agr
  5. By: Marshall Burke; Lauren Falcao Bergquist; Edward Miguel
    Abstract: Large and regular seasonal price fluctuations in local grain markets appear to offer African farmers substantial inter-temporal arbitrage opportunities, but these opportunities remain largely unexploited: small-scale farmers are commonly observed to "sell low and buy high" rather than the reverse. In a field experiment in Kenya, we show that credit market imperfections limit farmers' abilities to move grain inter-temporally. Providing timely access to credit allows farmers to buy at lower prices and sell at higher prices, increasing farm revenues and generating a return on investment of 28%. To understand general equilibrium effects of these changes in behavior, we vary the density of loan offers across locations. We document significant effects of the credit intervention on seasonal price fluctuations in local grain markets, and show that these GE effects shape individual level profitability estimates. In contrast to existing experimental work, the results indicate a setting in which microcredit can improve firm profitability, and suggest that GE effects can substantially shape microcredit's effectiveness. In particular, failure to consider these GE effects could lead to underestimates of the social welfare benefits of microcredit interventions.
    JEL: D21 D51 G21 O13 O16 Q12
    Date: 2018–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:24476&r=agr
  6. By: Nogues, Julio
    Abstract: For the United Kingdom and the European Union, the costs from the Brexit policy depends crucially on the ensuing structure of bilateral trade protection that they finally come to agree upon. For the rest of the world, Brexit will open new opportunities and create new challenges. The focus of this note is on the opportunities that would emerge for efficient agro industrial exporters in the UK market in the event of a hard Brexit. This scenario would mark the first time since 1973 that third countries face a level playing field vis a vis the EU as potential suppliers to the UK market. Partial equilibrium estimates indicate that a hard Brexit would reduce UK agro industrial imports from the EU by around 61% (from USD 45,915 million imported in 2015). Because of the relatively high protection provided to these products, this percentage is more than double the number that has been estimated for trade in all goods. The increase in food prices that would accompany adoption Brexit would likely push the UK government to liberalize imports unilaterally and/or to sign FTA’s with efficient agro industrial exporters. Apparently, this will occur within a framework of a radical shift in UK agricultural policy away from the Common Agricultural Policy that targets farm income, towards market based incentives.
    Keywords: Brexit, agro industrial trade, UK trade policues
    JEL: F13 F14 F15
    Date: 2018–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:85643&r=agr
  7. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The specific system of governance is a critical factor, which to a great extent (pre)determines the type and speed of development in different countries, industries, regions, communities, etc. This article tries to fill the gap and assesses the impact of institutional environment on agrarian sustainability in Bulgaria. The interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics framework is applied and assessment made on specific effects of major components of the “external” institutional environment on agrarian sustainability level in different administrative, geographical and ecological regions, subsectors of agriculture, and farms of various juridical type and size. Our study has found out that individual elements of external institutional, market and natural environment affect quite unequally farms of different types, individual subsectors of agriculture, and specific ecological and geographical regions. This type of studies is to be expended and their precision and representation increased. The latter however, requires a close cooperation between all interested parties, and participation of the farmers, agrarian organisations, local and central authorities, interest groups, research institutes and experts, etc.
    Keywords: institutional, market, natural environment, governance, agrarian sustainability, Bulgaria
    JEL: D2 D21 D23 K0 O1 Q12 Q13 Q15 Q18 Q5
    Date: 2018–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:85682&r=agr
  8. By: Ivelin Rizov (Bulgarian Ministry of Agriculture); Gerhard Ruehl (Julius Kühn-Institut); Maren Langhof (Julius Kühn-Institut); Jonas Kathage (European Commission - JRC); Emilio Rodriguez-Cerezo (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The Technical Working Group (TWG) for Potato is the fourth one of the European Coexistence Bureau (ECoB) and is established for elaboration of the coexistence issues between genetically modified (GM) potato cultivation and non-GM potato and honey production in the EU. The present technical report analysed the possible sources for potential cross-pollination with GM potato and adventitious admixture of GM potato material such as seeds and pollen and presents consensually agreed by TWG for Potato best practices for coexistence. The terms of reference for this review are presented in Section 1. The scope of the Best Practice Document is coexistence in potato production in the EU. It includes the coexistence between GM potato cultivation and honey production. The ECoB TWG for Potato held two meetings in November 2015 and May 2016 and examined the state-of-the-art from scientific literature, research projects and empirical evidence provided by existing studies for segregation in potato production looking at the factors determining the cross-pollination rates in potato as well as other sources of admixture of GM material in conventional potato harvests and EU-produced honey. The review of this information (coming from a total of 155 references) is presented in a structured manner in Sections 4-6 of this document. Finally, the TWG for Potato reviewed the up to date approaches for the detection and identification of traces of GM potato material in non-GM potato harvests and honey (Section 7). The TWG for Potato of the ECoB, based on the analysis of the evidence summarised in this document submitted proposals for best management practices, which form the ground for the agreed consensus recommendations presented in Section 8, complemented by an ex-ante view about their economic impact (Section 9).
    Keywords: Genetically modified crops, coexistence, potato
    Date: 2018–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipt:iptwpa:jrc109645&r=agr
  9. By: Will Martin
    Abstract: African exports of high-value agricultural products, such as processed agricultural goods and horticultural products have been growing rapidly. Some observers seem to feel that expanding these exports might be key to generating the new export revenues needed to promote development. While there is a lot of potential for expanding these exports, it seems likely that they constitute only one part of the solution. Agricultural exports, at little more than 10 percent of total exports, are simply too small to provide the base for dramatic future growth in exports. What seems to be needed is policies that allow producers to try new products and processes, and help for them to build on the successes that they identify.
    Date: 2018–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ocp:ppaper:pb1803&r=agr
  10. By: Petre, Ionut Laurentiu
    Abstract: Neonicotinoids are a class of chemical insecticides derived from nicotine. Like nicotine, neonicotinoids act on certain types of receptors in nerve synapses. They are much more toxic to invertebrates, such as insects, than to mammals and birds. The popularity of neonicotinoids for pest control is their water solubility, which allows them to be applied to the soil and taken over by the plants. The present paper will present, analyse and evaluate the impact of the use of these insecticides in the agriculture of Romania. In the first phase of the study, we will present the overall situation of the main cultures for which these neonicotinoids are used, by qualitative and quantitative analysis of data from local, national, European and international databases. In the second phase the effect and effort of the use or non-use of these insecticides in agriculture will be estimated. Thus, the difference in production will be determined in an untreated and treated one, and we will see the value of the neonicotinoids in production, on the other hand, the less positive effects of the use of these types of insecticides, namely pollution, or what they call some "ecological disaster", but also its effect on apiculture and implicitly on bees. This study will be pertinent and objective, without favoring or disfavoring any person or institution in these two areas.
    Keywords: neonicotinoids, effect, effort, agriculture, apiculture
    JEL: Q15 Q52 Q57
    Date: 2017–11–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:85210&r=agr
  11. By: Daniel Henstra; Jason Thistlethwaite (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Canadian municipalities are vulnerable to climate change risks, particularly in the form of extreme weather. Risk management demands public policies that share both the responsibility for risk reduction and the burden of costs with other levels of government and with non-governmental actors. What tools are available to municipalities seeking to share the growing risks associated with a changing climate? To what extent and how have these tools been employed in Canadian cities? With a focus on urban flooding, this paper systematically identifies and explains ways in which governments can share climate-related risks. It then evaluates whether and how these tools have been used in two major Canadian cities – Calgary, Alberta, and Toronto, Ontario – which have recently faced severe flooding, and are likely to experience more in the coming years. From this analysis, conclusions are drawn about the state of local climate risk management and how it might be improved.
    Keywords: Toronto, climate change, flood, risk management, cities
    JEL: H84 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mfg:wpaper:30&r=agr
  12. By: Petkov, Ivan
    Abstract: This paper challenges the notion that changes in flood risk will have a minimal impact on population because of the availability of insurance and that most of the effect, if any, will be borne out by the real estate market. Insurance premiums even when subsidized are a cost that a household will need to pay with the increase in flood risk. The evidence suggests that flood events, historical and contemporaneous, play a role in the determination of the local perceived flood risk. Attractive communities that have positive growth before the flood surprise are hardest hit. They see a persistent 1.4\% dip in population with a 0.7\% decrease in the pre-flood trend. Flooding does not affect population in the rest of the high surprise locations. Instead, they see close to 4\% drop real estate values with the biggest effect among higher tier housing. There is also evidence that flood incidence in these communities is higher among the low-income population as suggested by relief payments by FEMA.
    Keywords: Population, Flood Surprises, Climate Change Real Estate, Natural Disasters
    JEL: J61 Q54 R11 R30
    Date: 2018–03–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:85759&r=agr
  13. By: Jinnat Ara
    Abstract: Do asset transfer programs to the extremely poor enable sustainable livelihoods? The study aims to explore whether transfer of capital and skills helps the ultra-poor to achieve sustainable livelihoods. CFPR-TUP program provides grant-based support services in rural Bangladesh with a view to reducing extreme poverty. Longitudinal data from randomized controlled trials shows significant positive impact of the intervention on educational outcomes of children, occupational transition, income, financial market participation, asset holdings, food security, food consumption, dietary diversity, and consumption expenditure. The trajectory of improvement from extreme poverty to sustainable livelihoods continues in the long-term, seven years after the end of the intervention.
    Keywords: asset transfer, sustainable livelihoods, occupational choices, dietary diversity
    Date: 2018–04–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:qut:qubewp:wp055&r=agr
  14. By: Hakan Yilmazkuday (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: The farmer share of retail prices is shown to be about 16 percent, corresponding to about 84 percent of a distribution share, on average across agricultural products and regions within Turkey. The share of transportation costs in retail prices is only about 7 percent, while the share of retail margins is about 77 percent of retail prices. The dispersion of retail prices across regions is shown to be mostly due to local wages and variable markups, while the contribution of traded-input prices is relatively small. Accordingly, the high dispersion of farmer prices across locations is not reflected in the dispersion of retail prices due to the high contribution of retail margins. These retail margins are also shown to account for about one third of the consumer welfare dispersion across regions and more than half of the consumer welfare dispersion across products.
    Keywords: Agricultural Prices, Farmer Share, Distribution Share, Retail Margins, Consumer Welfare Dispersion
    JEL: L81 Q11 R12
    Date: 2018–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fiu:wpaper:1802&r=agr
  15. By: Alesina, Alberto; Giuliano, Paola; Nunn, Nathan
    Abstract: We study the historical origins of cross-country differences in the male-to-female sex ratio. Our analysis focuses on the use of the plough in traditional agriculture. In societies that did not use the plough, women tended to participate in agriculture as actively as men. By contrast, in societies that used the plough, men specialized in agricultural work, due to the physical strength needed to pull the plough or control the animal that pulls it. We hypothesize that this difference caused plough-using societies to value boys more than girls. Today, this belief is reflected in male-biased sex ratios, which arise due to sex-selective abortion or infanticide, or gender-differences in access to family resources, which results in higher mortality rates for girls. Testing this hypothesis, we show that descendants of societies that traditionally practiced plough agriculture today have higher average male-to-female sex ratios. We find that this effect systematically increases in magnitude and statistical significance as one looks at older cohorts. Estimates using instrumental variables confirm our findings from multivariate OLS analysis.
    Keywords: Cultural Transmission; gender roles; historical persistence; Sex ratio
    JEL: J1 N00 Z1
    Date: 2018–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:12856&r=agr
  16. By: Dempsey, Seraphim; Lyons, Seán; Nolan, Anne
    Date: 2018
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:esr:wpaper:rb201810&r=agr
  17. By: Philippe Bélanger; Michael Bourdeau-Brien
    Abstract: Background – Whether due to climate change or due to bad urban planning, flooding is an important issue around the world. The point about climate change impact on see level and precipitation intensity is well known. Those impact will eventually increase the number of flooding area. Another reason for change in flooding area is the urban development and bad water management planning. Quebec City, in Canada, has been sued in court over the impact of flooding likely due to deficient water management for the city. In the same area, flooding area maps have been updated to take into account new risk. Been in these flooding area is likely to have an impact on real estate value. Purpose – This paper intend to bring a contribution about the value lost in flooding area. The paper present preliminary result using Quebec (Canada) data and include the impact of media coverage of risk in the pricing process. Approach / Methodology / Design – We use transaction databases, geographic information system (GIS) and building characteristics in order to analyze the impact of been in flooding area on the value of a residential building. Since houses near water usually has value added we control for the water shore distance. Literature shows that flooding area usually has impact on real estate value. Nevertheless some study show mitigated results. Uk data has been used to develop a methodology and are presented in a forthcoming paper. Quebec City data are based on transaction prices for the last 5 years as well as official municipality valuation. Results – As of now, results are preliminary but at the time of the conference, we will have the results for Quebec city that we will be able to relate the result to those of UK presented last year at ERES 2016. Limitations / implications – Quebec City data has individual characteristics associate with houses but the historical data are 5 years (compare with 20 for UK) and for a smaller area than what was available for UK. Practical implications – This is relevant to compute the value of mitigation installations (dam) or to assess the compensation to be offered to owner impacted by area that are newly at risk of flooding. Flood related depreciation is also relevant for insurance industry for coverage valuation. Originality / Value – We use GIS data allowing and use original data from Quebec which include a high media profile area and several "normal" areas.
    Keywords: Flood; GIS; Real Estate
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arz:wpaper:eres2017_320&r=agr
  18. By: Suhara, Manabu
    Date: 2018–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hit:rrcwps:73&r=agr
  19. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the food production and poverty reduction of Bangladesh in brief. Although the country faces various problems for the economic progress since the independent in 1971, in the last forty eight years the increase of food production and poverty reduction of the country became remarkably. Bangladesh is a densely populated developing country in the southern Asia. The Government of Bangladesh is trying efficiently to reduce poverty of the country. In Bangladesh about 20% of the populations still live below the poverty line, heavily undernourished with inadequate access to safe and nutritious food for a healthy life. The data of the study were collected through the secondary sources of the country. In Bangladesh, during 2000 to 2005, income poverty reduced from 48.9% to 40.0%, 2010 to 2016 reduced from 31.50% to 20%, and in 2018 it is expected to reduce in 16%. An attempt has been taken here to show the ways to increase more food production and poverty reduction of the country.
    Keywords: Food, poverty reduction, inflation, GDP, subsidies in food, economic development
    JEL: N5 O1
    Date: 2018–01–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:85653&r=agr
  20. By: Dănilă, Daniela Ileana
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the data regarding the cooperation programs supporting the development of agro-tourism of Romania. The data were taken from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and were processed according to the objectives of the paper, namely the allocation of European funds for the period 2007-2013 for Measure 3.1.3. - "Encouraging tourism activities. To achieve this it was necessary to analyze the projects submitted, the projects selected and contracted. The aim of the paper is to develop tourism activities in rural areas that will help to increase the number of jobs and alternative incomes, as well as to increase the attractiveness of the rural area. This measure aimed at investing in rural areas, namely: investing in infrastructure in areas with tourism potential, investing in recreational activities, investing in infrastructure, investing in information centers, investing in tourist marking development, development and marketing of tourist services as a part an integral part of rural tourism.
    Keywords: agritourism, cooperation programs, investments
    JEL: O11 Q13
    Date: 2017–11–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:85372&r=agr
  21. By: Hameed, Abdul; Qaiser, Zara
    Abstract: There are various aspects of sustainable development and social exclusion. Sustainable development commonly refers to the processes that meet the needs of individuals or groups without depleting social, political and economic resources. On the other hand, social exclusion refers to individuals or groups being deprived of participation in these processes. There is a vast body of international literature that defines these processes, but very little detailed empirical analysis available on rural Pakistan. This paper presents a situational analysis of sustainable development and social exclusion in rural Pakistan, using the Pakistan Rural Household Survey (Round 2) data1, set to compute the flexible multidimensional social exclusion index. This social exclusion index is based on various domains including material resources, education, health, living standard, financial hardship and food security, economic shocks, personal safety and societal and political participation. Each domain is defined by several indicators. A simple „sum-score‟ technique is used to estimate the depth of social exclusion at the household level. This social exclusion indicator is then aggregated to measure exclusion at the ethnic, regional and provincial level. These decentralized results can be used to formulate policies to help marginalized societies/ communities at the local and regional levels.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Social Exclusion, Rural Pakistan, Ethnic levels
    JEL: I0 I30 Q01 R20 Z10
    Date: 2017–08–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:84973&r=agr
  22. By: Surca, Daniela - Elena
    Abstract: This paper is based on analysis of the sugar market at national and European level on the development of prices for the sugar market which will analyse the problems leading to stagnation and imbalance national sugar production, try solving the problems identified at national level taking as examples beet farms in Europe for analysing prices. Through sugar market perspectives we have identified the proposed strategy for market development, her objectives and factors affecting the price of sugar in Romania, evolution of prices and consumer price indices.
    Keywords: demand, production cost, supply, consumer price, the sugar market
    JEL: Q10 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2017–11–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:85365&r=agr
  23. By: Jean-Sébastien Lenfant (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The paper proposes an overview of early reflections on the issue of quality in economics in the 20th century, within a context of mass production and rising demands from the consumers about product quality. This context (notably the New Deal era) fostered a number of studies and reflections on the part of agricultural economists, home economists, lawyers and reformers about the best way to account for quality uncertainty and quality variations in the economy. This literature is of interest to help us understand the way quality would be involved in analytical economics after WWII and the various rationale of the pro and con the use of official standards to coordinate economic activities.
    Keywords: Quality, Agricultural economics, New Deal, Consumer movement, Coordination, Standards
    Date: 2017–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-01763828&r=agr

This nep-agr issue is ©2018 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at http://nep.repec.org. For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <director@nep.repec.org>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.