nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒04‒16
twenty-six papers chosen by

  1. Analysing the importance of glyphosate as part of agricultural srategies: A discrete choice experiment By Danne, Michael; Mußhoff, Oliver; Schulte, Michael
  2. Benefits of adapting to sea level rise: the importance of ecosystem services in the French Mediterranean sandy coastline By Cécile Hérivaux; Hélène Rey-Valette; Bénédicte Rulleau; Anne-Laurence Agenais; Marianne Grisel; Laure Kuhfuss; Laure Maton; Charlotte Vinchon
  3. Market Opening, Growth and Employment By Frank van Tongeren; Dorothee Flaig; Jared Greenville
  4. Agriculture in the Danube Delta By Lup, Aurel; Deniz Alim, Indira; Miron, Liliana
  5. Using web and mobile phone technologies to collect food market prices in Africa. Approaching real-time data and use of crowdsourcing, 2013 - 2016 By Ayca Donmez; Gloria Solano-Hermosilla; Vladimir Bougay; Balaji Subbaraman; Robert M'barek; Abdoulaye Adam; Stephen Bahemuka; Oliver J. M. Chinganya; Vladimir Eskin; Koua Louis Kouakou; Charles Lufumpa; Rafik Mahjoubi; Ivo F. Njosa; Fabien Santini
  6. Climate change, agricultural and food challenges By Foued Cheriet
  7. Risk averse policies foster bio-economic sustainability in mixed fisheries By Violaine Tarizzo; Eric Tromeur; Olivier Thébaud; Richard Little; Sarah Jennings; Luc Doyen
  8. Geography and Agricultural Productivity: Cross-Country Evidence from Micro Plot-Level Data By Tasso Adamopoulos; Diego Restuccia
  9. The Impact of Agricultural Trade on Economic Growth in North Africa: Econometric Analysis by Static Gravity Model By Bakari, Sayef; Mabrouki, Mohamed
  10. Agricultural Mobility of Tribes: A Village -Level Study in Kerala By Chacko, Anooja
  11. The Effects of Mandatory Disclosure of Supermarket Prices By Itai Ater; Oren Rigbi
  12. Impact of governing modes on agrarian sustainability in Bulgaria By Bachev, Hrabrin
  13. Estimating the Associations between SNAP and Food Insecurity, Obesity, and Food Purchases with Imperfect Administrative Measures of Participation By Charles Courtemanche; Augustine Denteh; Rusty Tchernis
  14. The growing disconnect between food prices and wages in Europe: cross-national analysis of food deprivation and welfare regimes in twenty-one EU countries, 2004–2012 By Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Stuckler, David
  15. Do farmers follow the herd? The influence of social norms in the participation to agri-environmental schemes By Philippe Le Coent; Raphaële Preget; Sophie Thoyer
  16. Agricultural cooperatives in developing agriculture in Romania and the European Union By Brătulescu, Alexandra - Marina
  17. Are Resettled Oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam Project Better off Today than their Former Neighbors who were not Ousted? By Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar; Neeraj Kaushal
  18. The effect of maize production and consumption on prices in Romania By Petre, Ionut Laurentiu
  19. Mirage on the Horizon: Geoengineering and Carbon Taxation Without Commitment By Daron Acemoglu; Will Rafey
  20. Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC): A Review of Theoretical and Empirical literature By Usenata, Nnyeneime
  21. Simulation Framework for Economic Modeling of Mineral Resources By Bell, Peter
  22. Spatially Structured Deep Uncertainty, Robust Control, and Climate Change Policies By Anastasios Xepapadeas; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
  23. Importance of Creativity of Employees in Adaptation of Food Companies to Innovative Trends in the World By Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
  24. Spatial Patterns of Sanitation in Rural Vietnam: An Application of Small Area Estimation By Nguyen, Cuong
  25. Floods and Exports: An Empirical Study on Natural Disaster Shocks in Southeast Asia By Kaori Tembata; Kenji Takeuchi
  26. A Physical Vulnerability to Climate Change Index: Which are the most vulnerable developing countries? By Mathilde Closset; Sosso Feindouno; Patrick Guillaumont; Catherine Simonet

  1. By: Danne, Michael; Mußhoff, Oliver; Schulte, Michael
    Abstract: The use of glyphosate plays an important role in farmers' strategic decisions for reducing weed pressure and yield losses. In this paper, the use of glyphosate is analysed as part of a complete agronomic strategy in which the farmer has to choose between the use of a combination of mechanical and chemical weed control. A special aim was to analyse the trade-off in the farmers' preferences between a cultivation strategy with or without glyphosate. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 328 German farmers. It was found that after the harvest of rapeseed, farmers have a preference for mulch seeding with glyphosate rather than without it. The preference for glyphosate use is affected by the weed pressure and the presence of specific weeds. While the farmers' risk attitude has no influence on the decision to use glyphosate, we observed an increasing preference for its use on larger farms. Furthermore, our results reveal that farmers prefer mechanical weed control in pre-sowing instead of the use of selective herbicides in pre- or post-emergence. This preference increases if weed resistance is an issue on the farm. Potential yield impacts caused by glyphosate use show that yield losses have a higher impact on the farmers' decision than yield gains. We conclude that farmers prefer the use of glyphosate to other alternatives as it is an im-portant part of their agronomic strategy to prevent weed infestation and save work and labour costs, especially on large farms.
    Keywords: glyphosate,mulch seeding,rapeseed,agronomic strategy,discrete choice experiment,farmer's preference
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Cécile Hérivaux (BRGM, Univ Montpellier); Hélène Rey-Valette (LAMETA, Univ Montpellier); Bénédicte Rulleau (IRSTEA Bordeaux); Anne-Laurence Agenais (BRGM, Univ Montpellier); Marianne Grisel (ARTELIA Water & Environment - Artelia Eau & Environnement [Lyon]); Laure Kuhfuss (LAMETA - Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Laure Maton (BRGM, Univ Montpellier); Charlotte Vinchon (BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM))
    Abstract: 12 This article proposes an innovative approach to assess the benefits of adapting to sea level rise (SLR) in a coastal 13 area on a regional scale. The valuation framework integrates coastal ecosystem services, together with urban and 14 agricultural assets. We simulate the impacts of a progressive 1 m rise in sea level in the 21 st century and an extreme 15 flooding event in 2100 for four contrasted adaptation scenarios (Denial, " Laissez-faire " , Protection and Retreat). 16 The assessment involves coupling the results of hazard-modelling approaches with different economic valuation 17 methods, including direct damage functions and methods used in environmental economics. The framework is 18 applied to the French Mediterranean sandy coastline. SLR will result in major land-use changes at the 2100 time 19 horizon: relocation or densification of urban areas, loss of agricultural land, increase in lagoon areas and 20 modification of wetlands (losses, migration or extension of ecosystems). Total benefits of public adaptation options 21 planned in advance could reach €31.2 billion for the period 2010-2100, i.e. €69,000 per inhabitant (in the study 22 area) in 2010 or €135 million/km of coastline. Our results highlight the importance of (i) raising awareness to 23 ensure that public services and coastal managers can anticipate the consequences of SLR and (ii) incorporating 24 coastal ecosystems into the assessment of the adaptation options. Our findings could provide a basis for 25 participatory foresight approaches to build coastline adaptation pathways. 26 27
    Keywords: sea level rise,ecosystem services,adaptation options,climate change,economic valuation
    Date: 2018–03
  3. By: Frank van Tongeren (OECD); Dorothee Flaig (OECD); Jared Greenville (OECD)
    Abstract: What can further market integration contribute to growth and employment? A series of hypothetical trade reform scenarios explores what countries at different levels of development can expect to gain from reforming tariffs, non-tariff barriers, trade facilitation and domestic support to agriculture. Simulations of multilateral and regional trade agreements with the OECD METRO model show that positive effects are higher when more countries participate in trade integration because it broadens market opportunities, widens the range of products at lower prices, and reduces trade diversion. Smaller economies especially benefit. Firms in these economies can better specialise in international production networks as they have access to larger and more differentiated markets and also benefit from enhanced market access on the products they already produce. While trade integration boosts demand and lifts wages and factor returns, the required production adjustments also leads to reallocation of workers between sectors. The analysis highlights some of the distributional implications and emphasises the need for labour force adjustment policies to accompany trade integration.
    Keywords: agriculture support, Asia, CGE model, income distribution, International trade, market access, regional trade agreements
    JEL: C54 C68 F13 F15 F16 Q17
    Date: 2018–04–11
  4. By: Lup, Aurel; Deniz Alim, Indira; Miron, Liliana
    Abstract: This paper addresses the evolving nature of agriculture in the Danube Delta, since the 1950s and to the present day. The paper makes the inventory of the studies and programs aimed at increasing the share of the agricultural activities in the Delta, of the attempts to transform the Danube Delta into a significant segment of the Romanian agricultural economy. Over time, there has been a great competition between agriculture and the main Delta resources; in this regard, fishing has always been a key component of the Delta's economy. Between 1955 and 1965, particular importance was given to the industrial exploitation of the reed, as raw material for cellulose and paper. To this end, the Delta was divided and embanked, and a special machine system was implemented in order to harvest the reed. By destroying the reed’s biological bases (the rhizomes), the reed yield decreased; thus, by late 1960s, reed cultivation became unprofitable. Then, it was considered that the embanked areas could be drained and turned into agricultural polders. Successive programs assigned to agriculture larger and larger areas, ranging from 100,000 ha to over 200,000 ha; however, these were not materialized. In fact, agriculture was practiced on areas ranging from 60,000 to 70,000 ha, with a tendency to specialize in a biological system according to the requirements for the environmental protection of the reserve.
    Keywords: delta, agriculture, reservation, program, use
    JEL: Q19
    Date: 2017–11–16
  5. By: Ayca Donmez (Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)); Gloria Solano-Hermosilla (European Commission - JRC); Vladimir Bougay (Knoema Corporation); Balaji Subbaraman (Knoema Corporation); Robert M'barek (European Commission - JRC); Abdoulaye Adam (African Development Bank); Stephen Bahemuka (African Development Bank); Oliver J. M. Chinganya (African Development Bank); Vladimir Eskin (Knoema Corporation); Koua Louis Kouakou (African Development Bank); Charles Lufumpa (African Development Bank); Rafik Mahjoubi (African Development Bank); Ivo F. Njosa (African Development Bank); Fabien Santini (European Commission)
    Abstract: Large agricultural commodity price swings observed in recent years have made the importance of accessible, timely, accurate and frequently updated price data more obvious. This study investigates the potential of innovative web and mobile phone technologies and alternative data collection methods such as crowdsourcing in order to collect food price data in Africa. The report summarises these experiences through the lessons learned and provides a detailed overview and assessment of different aspects of the collected data that can be of help for the success of future food price collection exercises.
    Keywords: Innovative data collection methods, crowdsourcing, mobile-based technologies, food prices, Africa
    Date: 2017–08
  6. By: Foued Cheriet (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Date: 2017–11–29
  7. By: Violaine Tarizzo; Eric Tromeur; Olivier Thébaud; Richard Little; Sarah Jennings; Luc Doyen
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of risk aversion on the sustainable management of multispecies fisheries with technical interactions. We consider a bio-economic dynamic model of multiple species harvested by a single fleet with uncertain costs of effort. We assume that the regulatory agency aims at reaching MMEY (Multispecies Maxi-mum Economic Yield) in an uncertain context by maximizing the expected utility of total profits, where utility is a quadratic function capturing risk aversion. We ana-lyze the impact of risk aversion on optimal fishing effort, profit, production, biodiver-sity and conservation. We show analytically that such a risk-averse MMEY promotes bio-economic sustainability as it mitigates the risk of biological and economic over-exploitation of the different species. Risk aversion also enhances biodiversity in the sense of evenness within the portfolio of the fishery. However, by reducing the effort, risk aversion lessens the expected profit and food production. Thus, a trade-off be-tween different bio-economic goals is exhibited through risk aversion. We illustrate the analytical findings with the case study of the Australian South East Fishery, where small risk aversion levels allow for high global bio-economic performances and balanced management objectives, therefore fostering sustainability.
    Keywords: Multispecies fishery, ecosystem-based fisheries management, maximum economic yield, uncertainty, risk aversion, overexploitation
    JEL: Q22 Q57
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Tasso Adamopoulos; Diego Restuccia
    Abstract: Why is agricultural productivity so low in poor countries relative to the rest of the world? Is it due to geography or constrained economic choices? We assess the quantitative role of geography and land quality for agricultural productivity differences across countries using high-resolution micro-geography data and a spatial accounting framework. Our rich spatial data provide in each cell of land covering the entire globe actual yields of cultivated crops and potential yields for 18 crops, which measure the maximum attainable output for each crop given soil quality, climate conditions, terrain topography, and a level of cultivation inputs. While there is considerable heterogeneity in land quality across space, even within narrow geographic regions, we find that low agricultural productivity in poor countries is not due to poor land endowments. If countries produced current crops in each cell according to potential yields, the rich-poor agricultural yield gap would virtually disappear, from more than 200 percent to less than 5 percent. We also find evidence of additional productivity gains attainable through the spatial reallocation of production and changes in crop choices.
    Keywords: agriculture, land quality, productivity, spatial allocation, crop choice, cross-country.
    JEL: O11 O14 O4
    Date: 2018–04–11
  9. By: Bakari, Sayef; Mabrouki, Mohamed
    Abstract: The contribution of this paper is investigating the influence of agricultural exports and agricultural imports on economic growth in North Africa Countries since it’s never been processed before. To endeavor this purpose annual data was collected for the period 1982 – 2016 and was tested by using correlation analysis and the static gravity model. Empirical analyses show that agricultural trade has a positive correlation with gross domestic product, but it appears that agricultural exports and gross domestic product have a weak correlation. The static gravity model estimation shows that agricultural exports have a positive on economic growth. However, agricultural imports have not any effect on economic growth. These results appear that agricultural exports are a fountain of economic growth in North Africa Countries. For this reason, it is very important to refine agricultural investment, and create more dynamic agricultural trade openness policies.
    Keywords: Agricultural Exports, Agricultural Imports, Economic Growth, Correlation Analysis, Static Gravity Model, North Africa.
    JEL: F11 F14 O44 O55 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2018–02
  10. By: Chacko, Anooja
    Abstract: This paper epitomizes the dynamics in agrarian livelihood of a tribal community. The study probes the transformation taking place over the period with a focus on their agricultural patterns. Outcome of the inquiry reveals that a shift in the pattern and practices of cultivation enforced by the outside elements as a direct outcome of the injection of money economy has not fulfilled the targeted benefits in their life. It has disrupted not only their resource base but their livelihood fabric also. The additional risk of irreversible climate changes further erodes the livelihood trajectory of this resource oriented group. If not checked timely, the situation will result in further downward mobility in agricultural as well as livelihood.
    Keywords: "mobility", "livelihood", "climate change", "resource base"
    JEL: Q1 Q10 Q15
    Date: 2017–10–23
  11. By: Itai Ater; Oren Rigbi
    Abstract: We study how mandatory online disclosure of supermarket prices affects prices and price dispersion in brick-and-mortar stores. Using data collected before and after a transparency regulation went into effect in the Israeli food retail market, multiple complementary control groups and relying on a differences-in-differences research design, we document a sharp decline in price dispersion and a 4% to 5% drop in prices following the transparency regulation. The price drop varied across stores and products; it was smaller among private-label products than among branded products, and it was smaller among stores and products that were likely to have been associated with more intense search patterns even before prices became transparent (e.g., products in heavy-discount chains; popular products; products that meet stringent kosher requirements). Finally, we show that prices declined as more consumers used price-comparison websites, and we highlight the role of media coverage in encouraging retailers to set lower prices.
    Keywords: price transparency, information, mandatory disclosure, retail food, supermarkets
    JEL: D83 L81 L66
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The specific system of governance in different countries, regions, subsectors, etc., eventually determines the speed and type of socio-economic development. Despite its big academic and practical importance, in Bulgaria and other countries in East Europe, there are very few empirical studies on dominating governing structures in agriculture, and their impact(s) on agrarian sustainability. In this paper the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics framework is incorporated, and the impact of diverse market, private, collective, public and hybrid modes of governance on agrarian sustainability at the current stage of development in Bulgaria assessed. First, the methodological framework of the study is outlined. After that dominating governing modes in Bulgarian farms of different juridical type, size, specialization, ecological and geographical location are identified, and their impacts on agrarian sustainability and its economic, social, and environmental pillars evaluated. In conclusion implications for further research, public policy improvement, and private managerial strategy formation are presented. Agricultural producers of different use quite unlike mixture of effective market, private, collective and hybrid modes for governance of their activities and relations. Individual factors and modes most contributing to improvement of agrarian sustainability at the current stage of development are: manager’s personal convictions and initiatives, farms resources and innovation potential, near future profit and benefits strategies, market prices levels and dynamics, area-based EU subsidies, and informal agreements. Research on relations between the governing structure and agrarian sustainability is to continue though increasing representation, and the spectrum of specific governing modes used by farms of different type as well as assessments of the impact of institutions on agrarian sustainability and the impact of the governance at different hierarchical levels. The latter however, requires a new kind of micro and macro data, and a close cooperation between all interested parties.
    Keywords: Agrarian Governance, Sustainability, Market, Private, Collective, Hybrid modes, Bulgaria
    JEL: D22 D23 D4 K0 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q18 Q5
    Date: 2018–03
  13. By: Charles Courtemanche (Georgia State University); Augustine Denteh (Georgia State University); Rusty Tchernis (Georgia State University)
    Abstract: Administrative data are considered the “gold standard” when measuring program participation, but little evidence exists on the potential problems with administrative records or their implications for econometric estimates. We explore issues with administrative data using the FoodAPS, a unique dataset that contains two different administrative measures of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation as well as a survey-based measure. We first document substantial ambiguity in the two administrative participation variables and show that they disagree with each other almost as often as they disagree with self-reported participation. Estimated participation and misreporting rates can be meaningfully sensitive to choices made to resolve this ambiguity and disagreement. We then document similar sensitivity in regression estimates of the associations between SNAP and food insecurity, obesity, and the Healthy Eating Index. These results serve as a cautionary tale about uncritically relying on linked administrative records when conducting program evaluation research.
    Keywords: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food stamps, SNAP, food insecurity, obesity, body mass index, food purchases, food expenditures, healthy eating index, misreporting, measurement error
    JEL: C81 H51 I12 I18
    Date: 2018–04
  14. By: Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Stuckler, David
    Abstract: Food insecurity has been rising across Europe following the Great Recession, but to varying degrees across countries and over time. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, nor are what factors might protect people’s access to food. Here we test the hypothesis that an emerging gap between food prices and wages can explain increases in reported inability to afford protein-rich foods and whether welfare regimes can mitigate its impact. We collected data in twenty-one countries from 2004 to 2012 using two databases: (i) on food prices and deprivation related to food (denoted by reported inability to afford to eat meat, chicken, fish or a vegetarian equivalent every second day) from EuroStat 2015 edition; and (ii) on wages from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 edition. After adjusting for macroeconomic factors, we found that each 1 % rise in the price of food over and above wages was associated with greater self-reported food deprivation (β=0·060, 95 % CI 0·030, 0·090), particularly among impoverished groups. However, this association also varied across welfare regimes. In Eastern European welfare regimes, a 1 % rise in the price of food over wages was associated with a 0·076 percentage point rise in food deprivation (95 % CI 0·047, 0·105) while in Social Democratic welfare regimes we found no clear association (P=0·864). Rising prices of food coupled with stagnating wages are a major factor driving food deprivation, especially in deprived groups; however, our evidence indicates that more generous welfare systems can mitigate this impact.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2017–03–20
  15. By: Philippe Le Coent; Raphaële Preget; Sophie Thoyer
    Abstract: This article analyses the role played by social norms in farmers’ decisions to enroll into an agri-environmental scheme (AES). First, it develops a simple theoretical model highlighting the interplay of descriptive and injunctive norms in farmers’ utility functions. Second, an empirical valuation of the effect of social norms is provided based on the results of a stated preference survey conducted with 98 wine-growers in the South of France. Proxies are proposed to capture and measure the weight of social norms in farmers’ decision to sign an agri-environmental contract. Our empirical results indicate that the injunctive norm seems to play a stronger role than the descriptive norm.
    Date: 2018–01
  16. By: Brătulescu, Alexandra - Marina
    Abstract: The Agricultural Cooperative is an autonomous association of natural and / or legal persons, as the case may be, a private legal person established on the basis of the expressed consent of the parties in order to promote the interests of cooperative members in accordance with the principles of cooperation. In the course of the paper we will present the laws of agricultural co-operation, professional associations and the role of cooperatives in the development of agriculture. Also, the types and forms of agricultural cooperation in the European Union will be presented. To create agricultural producers in associative forms new opportunities for economic development are opened by attracting regional, zonal or local advantages and using collective power in order to increase the prosperity of members, their families and the communities they are part of. The cooperative can carry out several types of activities that have various benefits for members and help them achieve these goals.
    Keywords: cooperatives, agricultural development, evolution, agricultural
    JEL: L11 Q11 Q13
    Date: 2017–11–16
  17. By: Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar; Neeraj Kaushal
    Abstract: The Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is arguably the most controversial dam ever built in India, with over a 100,000 displaced people. Most ousted families in Gujarat were resettled in the late 1980s and early 1990s. All oustees were tribals—a term used in India to cover a list of tribes viewed as so backward and historically oppressed that the Indian Constitution in 1950 reserved a quota of seats in education, government jobs, and Parliamentary seats for them. The Gujarat government promised to offer each male adult in the ousted families above the age of 18 five acres of land regardless of their earlier forest holdings. Additional compensation was to be given for loss of houses and livestock. Despite the continuing opposition to the dam from influential NGOs, there is no systematic empirical study of its effects on the long-term wellbeing of the ousted families. Our study investigates: Are resettled oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam project better off in 2017, approximately three decades after resettlement, than their former neighbours who were not ousted? We carried out a survey of a randomly selected sample of outsted families (treatment group) and a randomly selected sample of their former neighbors who lived in high areas that would remain above water when the reservoir rises to its maximum height and therefore were allowed to stay (comparison group). We found that, despite implementation glitches, those displaced were far better off than their former forest neighbours in ownership of a range of assets including TVs, cellphones, vehicles, access to schools and hospitals, and agricultural markets. The gap in asset ownership and other outcomes between the treatment and comparison groups were often statistically larger if the heads of the household were illiterate compared to the gap if they were literate. This finding suggests that resettlement helped vulnerable groups more than the less vulnerable and that fears that resettlement will destroy the lives and life-styles of tribals have been grossly exaggerated. We also found that 54% of displaced folk wished to return to their old habitat, showing that nostalgia for ancestral land can matter more than onweship of assets and economic wellbeing. Nearby undisplaced forest dwellers were asked if they would like to be "forcibly" resettled with the full compensation package. Of two forest groups, 31% and 52% said yes. Clearly many, though not all, tribesfolk yearn to leave the forest.
    JEL: H1 H75 I0
    Date: 2018–03
  18. By: Petre, Ionut Laurentiu
    Abstract: The present study seeks to answer the question: how does corn price influence production, consumption and foreign trade? In order to answer this question we will analyse the areas cultivated with corn, the total production and implicitly the average yield per hectare in the last years. These data, together with the average annual consumption of grain maize and the volume of imports and exports, will lead to the determination of supply and demand for maize on the market. With the help of price data collected on the website of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, which can be found in geographical areas and calendar months, we can observe the monthly differences in prices. Using these data and calculating the correlation coefficient, it will be possible to determine at the end of the project the effects of the demand and the supply on the price of this product.
    Keywords: maize price, consumption, production, demand, supply
    JEL: Q11
    Date: 2017–11–16
  19. By: Daron Acemoglu; Will Rafey
    Abstract: We show that, in a model without commitment to future policies, geoengineering breakthroughs can have adverse environmental and welfare effects because they change the (equilibrium) carbon taxes. In our model, energy producers emit carbon, which creates a negative environmental externality, and may decide to switch to cleaner technology. A benevolent social planner sets carbon taxes without commitment. Higher future carbon taxes both reduce emissions given technology and encourage energy producers to switch to cleaner technology. Geoengineering advances, which reduce the negative environmental effects of the existing stock of carbon, decrease future carbon taxes and thus discourage private investments in conventional clean technology. We characterize the conditions under which these advances diminish - rather than improve - environmental quality and welfare.
    JEL: C65 O30 O31 O33 Q01 Q4 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2018–03
  20. By: Usenata, Nnyeneime
    Abstract: The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) conjecture seeks to establish an inverted U-shaped nexus between income per capita and environmental degradation. It posits that at early stages of economic growth and development, environmental degradation rises or increases at an increasing rate. Nonetheless, after some threshold of economic development, the co-movement tends to reverse at higher levels of economic progress.
    Keywords: pollution, economic growth, GDP per capita
    JEL: Q40
    Date: 2018–02–10
  21. By: Bell, Peter
    Abstract: This paper describes an approach to include uncertainty over the commodity price when modelling the economic attributes of a mine plan for a mineral resource. The approach starts with a method to generate price paths from a broad historical set to establish a set of price paths, where the NPV is calculated for each path to generate a distribution for the NPV. It goes on to describes how to use this distribution to compare different mine plans in a manner that is similar to stress testing.
    Keywords: Mineral Resource, Simulation, Uncertainty, Economics
    JEL: C00 C02 G1
    Date: 2018–03–08
  22. By: Anastasios Xepapadeas; Athanasios Yannacopoulos
    Abstract: In view of the ambiguities and the deep uncertainty associated with climate change, we study the features of climate change policies that account for spatially structured ambiguity. Ambiguity related to the evolution of the damages from climate change is introduced into a coupled economy-climate model with explicit spatial structure due to heat transport across the globe. We seek to answer questions about how spatial robust regulation regarding climate policies can be formulated; what the potential links of this regulation to the weak and strong version of the precautionary principle (PP) are; and how insights about whether it is costly to follow a PP can be obtained. We also study the emergence of hot spots, which are locations where local deep uncertainty may cause robust regulation to break down for the whole spatial domain.
    Keywords: Climate change, ambiguity, robust control, spatial regulation
    JEL: Q54 R11 D81 C61
    Date: 2018–03–27
  23. By: Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify a gap in knowledge and understanding of the need to motivate employees for creative and pro-innovation activities in the organization. Another aim is to provide an overview of innovation in one of the low-tech industries - in the food industry. The concept of innovation and creativity is presented. The characteristics of the concept of creativity have been briefly described. Then examples of ways how food companies are dealing with current trends in the area of innovation in the world are briefly described. Among these trends, the focus on radical innovations has been highlighted, more tightly aligned firm innovation and business strategies, better insight into customers' needs and increased collaboration with other entities. Analyses based on the desk research technique were performed with the inclusion of literature regarding the examples of implementation of innovations in the food sector companies. The conducted analyses allowed us to confirm that exemplary food companies are actively engaged in improving their competitive position, by introducing creative solutions in their products or by new ways of organizing different processes. It has been shown that creativity should be used as the primary source of innovation in the food industry.
    Keywords: creativity, innovations, low-tech sectors, crowdfunding, sharing economy, open innovation
    JEL: M13 O32 Q18
    Date: 2017
  24. By: Nguyen, Cuong
    Abstract: Diarrhea is one of the main causes for mortality of under-five children (Boschi-Pinto et al., 2008), and this disease can be attributed to deficient hygiene, sanitation and water supply (Bartram and Cairncross, 2010). Information on spatial patterns of sanitation is very important for sanitation support programs. In this study, we estimate and construct spatial maps of the proportion of households using sanitary latrines in rural Vietnam using a small area estimation method. It shows that there is a great spatial variation in the sanitary latrine rate. Within the same rural districts, the proportion of households using sanitary latrines varies largely across communes.
    Keywords: Sanitary latrine, poverty mapping, small area estimation, Vietnam
    JEL: I1 O1
    Date: 2017–02–10
  25. By: Kaori Tembata (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Kenji Takeuchi (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of climate-related disasters on international trade in Southeast Asia. We use monthly trade data to examine the relationship between disaster shocks and exports. The empirical analysis shows that natural disasters have a significant negative effect on exports. The estimation results suggest that flooding causes immediate export losses of USD 305–557 million. In addition, we find that the effect persists in the post-disaster period, with floods causing annual export losses of USD 2.54 billion in total. We further investigate the impact of disasters by product group and show that disasters are negatively associated with the exports of agricultural and manufacturing products. The findings suggest that extreme weather events have severe repercussions on Southeast Asia, where exports play an important role in economic development.
    Keywords: Climate change; Exports; Extreme weather; Flood; Natural disaster; Southeast Asia; Storm
    Date: 2018–04
  26. By: Mathilde Closset (Nations Unies); Sosso Feindouno (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Patrick Guillaumont (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Catherine Simonet (ODI - Overseas Development Institute - Overseas Development Institute)
    Date: 2017–12–28

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.