nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2018‒02‒05
fourteen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Food self-sufficiency under the Green-Morocco Plan By Abdelmajid Saidi; Mohammed Diouri
  2. Urban and peri-urban agriculture in Cameroon: Status and perspectives for development By Urcil Papito Kenfack Essougong
  3. From taxing to subsidizing farmers in China Post-1978 By Kym Anderson
  4. Land use, forest preservation and biodiversity in Asia By Halkos, George; Managi, Shunsuke
  5. Environment Case Study: Forestry and Water Management in Thailand: A Win Win Situation By Mamoon, Dawood
  6. Developing Green GDP Accounting for Thai Agricultural Sector Using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment to Assess Green Growth By Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr
  7. The Modern Agricultural Cooperative: A Cognitive-Knowledge-Based Approach By Eddi Fontanari
  8. The Effect of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth in South-Eastern Europe: An Empirical Investigation Using Panel Data. By Bakari, Sayef; Mabrouki, Mohamed
  9. Planning and Construction of Canop-E Networks for Inclusive, Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries (E.g.- India) By Hegadekatti, Kartik
  10. Threshold Policy Effects and Directed Technical Change in Energy Innovation By Lionel Nesta; Elena Verdolini; Francesco Vona
  11. The Trade-Enhancing Effects of Non-Tariff Measures on Virgin Olive Oil By Ronen, Eyal
  12. Unit roots in real primary commodity prices? A meta-analysis of the Grilli and Yang data set By Winkelried, Diego
  13. The Impact of Olive Oil Exports on Economic Growth: Empirical Analysis from Tunisia By Bakari, Sayef
  14. Internalizing Global Value Chains: A Firm-Level Analysis By Laura Alfaro; Pol Antras; Davin Chor; Paola Conconi

  1. By: Abdelmajid Saidi (UMI - Université de Moulay Ismail); Mohammed Diouri (UMI - Université de Moulay Ismail)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to know whether the Green-Morocco Plan (GMP), the new Moroccan agricultural strategy launched in 2008, improves food self-sufficiency. In view of the importance of cereals in Moroccans’ diet, the volatility of foods price in the international market, the population increase and the competition that is not always fair, long-term availability and physical access of people to food should be ensured. Self-sufficiency, which is one of the indicators of food safety, must therefore become a priority again. GMP is so far showing some positive results. Morocco reduced the poverty rate. The Agricultural Gross Domestic Product improved as well as agricultural employment and agricultural export of some products. However, one of the policies adopted by GMP is the conversion of cereal farming to arboriculture. Under this policy, cereal imports increased, without being covered by an adequate food export increase. The Green-Morocco Plan makes Morocco increasingly dependent on the world market either to export its agricultural products or to import its needs for cereals. From an environmental point of view, fruits require more water than do cereals for their production. Therefore, we believe that grain crops must be encouraged to ensure food security. As for fruit trees cultivation, it should be encouraged on lands that are not suitable for cereals, such as mountains and rugged terrains.
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Urcil Papito Kenfack Essougong (UGENT - Ghent University [Belgium])
    Abstract: Like elsewhere in the world, Cameroon is experiencing rapid and unplanned urbanisation. Simultaneously, there is a growing number of urban and peri-urban farmers. This paper analyses the status of urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in Cameroon. We found that UPA is widely practised by urban dwellers of all social category and provides multiple benefits ranging from employment creation, revenues, food security and environmental services. However, due to an improper planning, its non-official recognition, insufficient access to productive resources especially land and water; in some cases, UPA can negatively impact human health and environment because of an uncontrolled intensification of production systems and the questionable quality of the food supplied by urban farmers. Therefore, to build sustainable urban production systems, we recommend an official recognition of UPA, its inclusion in urban master plans; the demarcation and development of agricultural zones in cities, the design and implementation of programmes and projects to support urban farmers; intensive farmers capacity building and the promotion of urban waste valorisation through composting. Furthermore, more empirical researches are needed to provide up to date quantifiable information on UPA contribution to urban livelihoods, food security and environmental protection, and the types of relationships existing among the various stakeholders involved in UPA.
    Keywords: Cameroon,Sustainability,Urban planning,Food security,Livelihoods,Environment,Moyens de subsistance,Environnement,Durabilité,Planification Urbaine,Sécurité alimentaire,Cameroun
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Kym Anderson
    Abstract: This paper has three purposes: to document the pace and extent to which China’s policy regime has transitioned over the past four decades from taxing to subsidizing its farmers relative to its producers of other tradable goods; to present projections of the world economy to 2030 that suggest China will continue to become more food import-dependent under current policies and productivity growth rates; and to explore alternative policy instruments for remaining food secure and ensuring that farmers are not losers from economic growth. The data used to estimate the extent of distortions to producer incentives come from freely available World Bank and OECD sources that allow direct comparisons of China’s policy developments with those of more- and less-advanced economies. The estimates reveal that China has made the transition from negative to positive assistance to farmers far faster than the average developing country, and almost as fast as its Northeast Asian neighbours did in earlier decades at similar levels of real per capita incomes. That has helped to ensure China remained food self-sufficient during the first two decades of reform. However, food self-sufficiency is now declining and is projected to continue to do so over the next decade under current policies. Preventing food self-sufficiency from declining further by increasing agricultural protection is now unnecessary thanks to the information and communication technology revolution that enables the government to use conditional cash transfers to directly support the adjustment and well-being of poor farm households.
    Keywords: agricultural support policies, China’s economic growth, food security, multiple exchange rates
    JEL: F13 F14 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Halkos, George; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: Continuous increase in one side of human populations and on the other side on the number of extinct and endangered species in Asia requires appropriate land use and forest preservation. Forests provide a number of benefits such as regulation of global climate and ecosystems, provision of raw materials and wild foods for local communities, watershed protection for a region, national income from ecotourism, carbon sequestration, being a landscape and habitat of rare species. This introduction provides summary for land use, forest preservation and biodiversity policy in Asia.
    Keywords: Asia; Land use; Ecosystem Service; Biodiversity.
    JEL: Q10 Q23 Q56
    Date: 2017–11
  5. By: Mamoon, Dawood
    Abstract: The article offers a critique for the argument that forest clearing by the people in the upper areas of the watershed is the main reason for decrease in water supply. Instead he considers increased demand of water for agricultural activity especially during dry season by both upstream and downstream areas as the main cause of water shortage. Thus unlike previous studies, who blame people from upper lands for water shortage, he talks about the fair share of scare resources and rights protection for upstream farmers.
    Keywords: Natural Resource Management, Forest Preservation, Farmer Livelihoods
    JEL: Q2 Q23 Q25 Q28 Q57
    Date: 2017–12–21
  6. By: Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr
    Abstract: There is no indicator measuring Thailand’s green growth by valuing the resource degradation and environmental damage costs. This article aims to estimate Thailand’s green gross domestic (GDP) that takes into account environmental damage costs with the detailed analysis on the agricultural sector using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) approach. The representative product in each sector was selected based on the available life cycle inventory data, economic values and their magnitude of impacts. Here we find that oil palm cultivation (Sector 011 in the economic input-output table), fibre crops (Sector 013), rice cultivation using chemicals (Sector 001), coffee-tea-cocao (Sector 015), and coconut growing (Sector 010), respectively, generated the highest environmental damage value. This study revealed that the total environmental damage costs of agricultural products was $22.05 million per year accounting for only 0.1003 percent of total GDP in agricultural sector while the total environmental damage cost from all sectors is equal to $36,950.79 million accounting for 14.58 of total GDP.
    Keywords: Green GDP, EIO-LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, Economic Input Output, Agricultural Sector, Green Growth
    JEL: O1 O13 Q51 Q56
    Date: 2016–11
  7. By: Eddi Fontanari
    Abstract: The new agri-food market scenario is considered a detrimental factor for the competitiveness and financial equilibria of the agricultural cooperatives. According to this vision, as a result of the saturation and globalization process, the shift of the specific investment at the forward level of the supply chain (i.e., for the brand development, or for R&D activities) would be a serious threat for the cooperative model. These assumptions come from a transaction cost and property rights-based framework. The results of these studies are surely insightful and valuable, but they should be integrated with the strengths in terms of knowledge integration (and coordination) assured by the agricultural cooperative model. This work is aimed at updating the function/justification of modern agricultural cooperatives. Firstly, a theoretical contribution mingling the knowledge-based theory of the firm with the social innovation approach in agriculture will be defined. Secondly, two case studies will be discussed.
    Keywords: Agricultural cooperatives, Agri-food, Innovation
    JEL: Q13 O31
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Bakari, Sayef; Mabrouki, Mohamed
    Abstract: The contribution of this paper is investigating the effect of agricultural exports on economic growth in South Eastern Europe Countries since it’s never been treated before. To attempt this aim annual data was collected from the World Bank for the period 2006 – 2016 and was tested by using correlation analysis and the static gravity model. Empirical analyses show that agricultural exports have a positive strong correlation with gross domestic product and have a positive effect on economic growth. These results appear that agricultural exports are a provenance of economic growth in South Eastern Europe Countries. For this reason, it is very important to refine investment in agricultural sector, and create more effective agricultural trade openness policies.
    Keywords: Agricultural Exports, Economic Growth, Correlation Analysis, Static Gravity Model, South Eastern Europe.
    JEL: F1 F11 F14 O47 O52 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2017–11
  9. By: Hegadekatti, Kartik
    Abstract: In the next few years, India will be the most populous nation on earth. This large population will need a huge increase in agricultural productivity. At the same time, agricultural activity is highly energy and resource intensive. Moreover, many places in India are facing water crisis. Therefore an integrated solution to cultivate food for the people by using water and resources in a sustainable manner is needed. A Canop-E is a large structure that has integrated harnessing of water, energy and food. I propose an idea to build a network of structures called Canop-E Network which will harness solar and wind power in an integrated manner in developing nations. Additionally it will provide water harvesting facilities also. Using the renewable energy and harvested water, we can grow food. The energy generated can also be used to desalinate water and used in arid areas. At the same time it will also protect the inhabitants of settlements in the structure from rain, sunlight and inclement weather. Thus an integrated solution to food, water and energy security can be obtained. This can be extrapolated to other developing nations to provide the people with inexpensive, inclusive and sustainable living.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind, Water, Hydroponics, Water Harvesting
    JEL: O18 P28 P48 Q01 Q18 Q25 Q42 Q43 Q48 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2017–03–31
  10. By: Lionel Nesta (Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS; OFCE Sciences Po. Paris; SKEMA Business School); Elena Verdolini (Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei (FEEM)); Francesco Vona (OFCE Sciences Po. Paris; SKEMA Business School)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of environmental policies on the direction of energy innovation across countries over the period 1990-2012. Our novelty is to use threshold regression models to allow for discontinuities in policy effectiveness depending on a country's relative competencies in renewable and fossil fuel technologies. We show that the dynamic incentives of environmental policies become effective just above the median level of relative competencies. In this critical second regime, market-based policies are moderately effective in promoting renewable innovation, while command-and-control policies depress fossil based innovation. Finally, market-based policies are more effective to consolidate a green comparative advantage in the last regime. We illustrate how our approach can be used for policy design in laggard countries.
    Keywords: Directed technical change, threshold models, environmental policies, policy mix
    JEL: Q58 Q55 Q42 Q48 O34
    Date: 2018–01
  11. By: Ronen, Eyal
    Abstract: Over the last 15 years, the global trade of virgin olive oil (VOO) seems to face a stringent regulatory regime, mainly through the imposition of TBT and SPS measures. Such a development should have adversely impacted global levels of VOO trade. However, evidence shows that the world's imports of VOO have more than quadrupled in value since 2000. Alongside this trend, the share of VOO imports gradually shifts from traditional sources (mainly EU) to New World producing countries, such as Argentina, Australia, the USA, and Chile. By extracting data from hundreds of NTM regulations, as well as all possible registered bilateral trade flows between 2002 to 2014, this paper aims to empirically explore to what extent particular NTMs impact imports of VOO. The results indicate that while tariffs remain a stringent barrier, most NTMs have a positive impact on imports, rather than enhancing restrictiveness. The paper asserts that the majority of NTMs respond to consumers' demand for higher food safety standards and protection of human health, while increasing available information and transparency. That, in turn, leads to an expansion in the magnitude of imports of VOO products.
    Keywords: Non-Tariff Measures, Sanitary and phytosanitary, Technical Barriers to Trade, Virgin Olive Oil
    JEL: F13 F14 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2017–07
  12. By: Winkelried, Diego (Universidad del Pacífico)
    Abstract: The long-run behavior of real primary commodity prices, especially whether these series are trend stationary or contain a unit root, has been a topic of major debate in applied economics. In this paper, we perform a meta-analysis and combine the evidence of twelve representative studies on the subject, published in the last 25 years, in order to reach a unified conclusion about the presence of unit roots in these prices. The studies use different testing procedures, but share the common null hypothesis of a difference stationary process. Also, they use the individual price indices from the Grilli and Yang data set, arguably one the most popular source of long-term commodity price data. The combined evidence against unit roots in real primary commodity prices is strong: out of 24 cases, the unit root cannot be rejected in at most four. This implies that real primary commodity prices tend to be mean reverting and thus, to some degree, forecastable.
    Keywords: Primary commodity prices, unit roots, Grilli and Yang data, meta-analysis
    JEL: C12 C22 O13
    Date: 2017–12
  13. By: Bakari, Sayef
    Abstract: The contribution of this paper is investigating the influence of olive oil exports on Tunisian economic growth since it's never been treated before. With a view to fulfill this aim, annual data were compiled from the reports of Tunisian Central Bank for the periods between 1970 and 2016, was put to the proof by using Co integration analysis of Error Correction Model. According to the outcome of the analysis, olive oil exports have a positive incidence of economic growth in the long term and in the short run. These results appear that olive oil exports are a provenance of economic growth in Tunisia and emphasize the application of policies and strategies to encourage better exploitation in this strip.
    Keywords: Olive Oil Exports, Economic Growth, Cointegration, ECM, Tunisia.
    JEL: F0 F1 F11 F13 F14 O47 O55 Q17
    Date: 2017–10
  14. By: Laura Alfaro; Pol Antras; Davin Chor; Paola Conconi
    Date: 2018

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