nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒10‒08
thirteen papers chosen by

  1. Enhancing Pulses Production in Bihar: Constraints and Strategies for Sustainable Growth By Singh, Pushpa; Shahi, Brajesh; Singh, K.M.
  2. Environmental sustainability of Bulgarian agricultural Farms – assessment, state, factors By Bachev, Hrabrin
  3. "Impact of Surplus Labor Existence on Land Lease Market in Rural Central Java" By Ernoiz Antriyandarti
  4. "Dryland Farmers’ Access to Productive Resources (A Case Study of Wonogiri)" By Dwi Prasetyani
  5. Food security, food safety and pesticides: China and the EU compared By Maria Bruna Zolin; Matilde Cassin; Ilda Mannino
  6. Agriculture or Industry: Rice or Garments: Ex-post and Ex- Ante Analysis of Pakistan’s falling Competitiveness in Its Main Export Items By Mamoon, Dawood
  7. Do government transfers reduce poverty in China?: Micro evidence from five regions By Ben Westmore
  8. Risk as Impediment to Privatization? The Role of Collective Fields in Extended Agricultural Households By Delpierre, Matthieu; Guirkinger, Catherine; Platteau, Jean-Philippe
  9. Agricultural crisis in Spain (19th and 20th centuries) By Vicente Pinilla
  10. "Vulnerability and Willingness to Pay for Coping with Flood in Klaten Regency, Central Java, Indonesia" By Suryanto
  11. Carbon emission effect of urbanization at regional level: Empirical evidence from China By Niu, Honglei; Lekse, William
  12. Why Is Non-Economic Information Important to Carbon Disclosure? By Eka Siskawati
  13. Norwegian and Romanian green cluster experiences for a digital era By Raluca-Ioana Iorgulescu; Carmen Beatrice Păuna; Marioara Iordan; Tiberiu Diaconescu; Gabriela Bilevski; Thomas Brekke; Ole Henrik Gusland; Lasse Berntzen

  1. By: Singh, Pushpa; Shahi, Brajesh; Singh, K.M.
    Abstract: Food grains are the major agricultural commodity, produced on about 93 percent of cropped area, of which pulses share merely 7.06 per cent and the productivity of pulses ranges between 819 kg/ha in 2000-01 to 897 kg/ha in 2013-14. Bihar ranks 9th in terms of pulses production with a contribution of 0.52 million tons to the national pulse pool. Traditionally pulses have been considered important elements of cropping systems in the Bihar, but with the introduction of irrigation and high profitability of alternative sources of soil nutrients in the form of inorganic fertilizers in 1960s, pulses were replaced or relegated to marginal lands and were substituted by high- yielding varieties of rice and wheat. There has been an incessant decline in pulses area, production and productivity during last three and half decades accounting for about 437.24 thousand hectares, 428.93 thousand tons and 981 kg ha-1 respectively in 2014 - 15 against the corresponding figures of 717.2 thousand hectares, 620.7 thousand tons and 865 kg ha-1 in 2000-01 registering a compound annual decline of -2.5 percent in area and -0.41 percent in production but productivity increased by 2.15 percent per annum. Lentil is only crop which has performed well in Bihar whereas area and production of most of the major pulses have gone down. In Bihar 2.2 million ha rice fallow land is there which are most suitable for pulses cultivation where medium and long duration paddy is cultivated and after field vacating due to lack of irrigation facility and delay normally the field remains vacant. Pulse production is also adversely affected by a number of biotic and abiotic stresses which can be overcome by assembling the available components of integrated pest management like host plant resistance, cultural practices to disrupt the life cycles of pests, and need-based use of pesticides and to validate them in farmers' participatory on-farm trial and demonstration in farmers field, to deliver management components effectively to stabilize and increase the productivity of pulses. There is also need to strengthen extension efforts to disseminate available pulse technologies through on-farm demonstrations and farmers' participatory research.
    Keywords: Pulses production, Abiotic constraints, Biotic constraints, Bihar
    JEL: Q01 Q11 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2017–05–05
  2. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The issue of assessment of diverse aspects of sustainability of agricultural farms is among the most topical in the last decades. In Bulgaria there are no comprehensive studies on environmental sustainability of farms in general or different types. This article applies a holistic framework for assessing environmental sustainability of Bulgarian farms. Initially the multiprinciple, multictiteria and mulriindicator framework for assessing environmental sustainability of farm in the country is outlined. After that a level of environmental sustainability of Bulgarian farms is evaluated in general and of farms different juridical type, size, production specialization, and ecological and administrative location. Sustainability assessment is based on a first large-scale survey on environmental aspects of sustainability of agricultural farms in the country carried out in 2016. Third, relations between environmental and socio-economic and integral sustainability of Bulgarian farms are specified. Finally, factors for improving environmental and overall sustainability of agricultural farms in the country are identified. Our study has found out that environmental sustainability of Bulgarian farms is at a good level. Nevertheless due to an inferior level of governance and economic sustainability the integral sustainability of Bulgarian farms is lower and the improvement of the latter two is critical for maintaining overall sustainability of Bulgarian farms at current stage of development.
    Keywords: environmental sustainability, assessment, factors, agricultural farms, Bulgaria
    JEL: Q0 Q01 Q1 Q12 Q13 Q15 Q16 Q18 Q5 Q51 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2017–09
  3. By: Ernoiz Antriyandarti (Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia. Author-2-Name: Susi Wuri Ani Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: "Objective – The Indonesian rice sector seems to lose global competitiveness, and the government intervenes in the market to achieve food self-sufficiency. Particularly, in the main rice producing areas of Central Java, the rice sector does not have a comparative and competitive advantage due to small farm size. Then, we need to investigate the reasons why the farm sizes of rice producers are still small. Methodology/Technique – We hypothesize that the existence of surplus labor in rural areas restrains farm size enlargement. Therefore, we need to examine the existence of surplus labor in study area. By using the empirical model of the Cobb Douglas production function, we test the hypothesis of surplus labor. The estimation result shows that there is a surplus of labor in the study area. Findings – In addition, we examine the impact of surplus labor on land lease market in rural area. This study proves empirically that there is surplus labor in rural areas; therefore, farmers have difficulty finding job opportunities in sectors other than farming. In such a case, they prefer to cultivate rather than lease their land. Novelty – This result implies that the existence of surplus labor restricts the number of land lease contract. As a result, the land lease supply in the land lease market has become very limited. Thus, the existence of surplus labor in rural areas would be a constraint of farm size enlargement. This is the first study which explores the relationship between surplus labor and land lease market in the main rice producer area in Central Java."
    Keywords: Impact; Existence; Surplus Labour; Land Lease Market; Farm Size Enlargement.
    JEL: E24 H83
    Date: 2017–04–17
  4. By: Dwi Prasetyani (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Akhmad Daerobi Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – This research is built on the argument that providing farmers with more access to natural resources can reduce poverty and so increase production in farming, particularly in the case of Wonogiri. Methodology/Technique – The method of analysis used for this research is the IRAP (Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning) method which was developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the government agencies of Africa and Asia. Findings – Based on the calculation of access, it is noted that priority problems of access to productive resources can be resolved by focusing on four factors. First is Education - Strategies that can be implemented is the construction of new schools, particularly junior and senior high schools. Second is Health - Strategies that can be implemented is to increase farmers’ access to water resources and to increase the number of general practitioners available such as specialists and dentists. Third is Agriculture - Strategies that can be done is to improve existing markets, add new markets, and develop new farmer groups. Fourth is Support - Strategies that can be done is by building layers of foundation and paving stones and casting roads on the remaining land. Of utmost importance is Education. Novelty – New found strategies that can be implemented include the construction of new schools for poor farmers."
    Keywords: "Dryland Farmers; Productive Resources; Wonogiri; IRAP; Access; Strategy. "
    JEL: Q13 Q18
    Date: 2016–12–24
  5. By: Maria Bruna Zolin (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Matilde Cassin (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Ilda Mannino (Venice International University)
    Abstract: To control pests that may damage crops during production, storage or transportation, chemical pesticides are usually used. On the one hand, the use of pesticides can help to reduce yield losses caused by pests, pathogens, and weeds and thereby help feed the world’s population; on the other hand, such agricultural practices can profoundly affect limited natural resources. Starting from these premises, the main objective of this paper is to explore the relationship between food security and food safety, while pointing out the role played in this relationship by pesticides, focusing on the case studies of the EU and China. To this purpose, the paper outlines the international framework on pesticides and the legal framework in the EU and China, analyzes pesticide markets, and considers the concerns related to their use. The overview of the situation in the EU and China allows us to identify challenges and opportunities for future developments in terms of food security and safety and food trade relationships between Europe and China. Tension and mutual disputes have occurred in the past due to increasing risks for consumers and workers handling pesticides, food scandals and difficulties in the mutual recognition of food quality certification schemes, which call for sustainable production methods.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Sustainability, Pesticides, Integrated Pest Management, Food security, Food safety, EU, China
    JEL: I18 N65 O13 O53 Q15 Q18 Q24 Q25
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Mamoon, Dawood
    Abstract: The paper undertakes an evolutionary analysis of Pakistan’s national competitiveness with special reference to exports from 1950-2010. The analysis suggests that post 1980s trade liberalization, some visible improvements can be seen in production efficiencies in Pakistan but they were not translated into improved agriculture or industry competitiveness. The major export items like garments and rice have seen a steady decline in value over the years.
    Keywords: Trade, Competitiveness, Agriculture, Industry
    JEL: F1 F15
    Date: 2017–10–05
  7. By: Ben Westmore (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper estimates urban and rural poverty rates across five Chinese administrative regions (Shanghai, Liaoning, Guangdong, Henan and Gansu) in 2014 using representative household level data from the China Family Panel Studies survey. The types of government transfer payments that households in poverty received and the ability for such payments to lift households from poverty are also assessed. Consistent with official estimates, the results highlight substantial disparities in poverty rates between administrative regions. Smaller differences exist between urban and rural locations within the same administrative region. In 2014, the most common types of government transfer received by households in poverty were agricultural subsidies or social assistance - principally the dibao. Regarding the latter, the results suggest some improvement in payment targeting in rural areas, but most dibao recipients had income above the poverty line (as defined in this paper) in 2014. Furthermore, across all administrative regions, the vast majority of households living below the defined poverty line did not receive social assistance at that time.
    Keywords: China, development, poverty, social assistance policies
    JEL: I30 I32 I38 O53 R20 R28
    Date: 2017–10–04
  8. By: Delpierre, Matthieu; Guirkinger, Catherine; Platteau, Jean-Philippe
    Abstract: As in the case of cooperatives, collective fields in extended agricultural households act as an insurance device, but entail inefficiencies arising from the incentives to free ride on co-workers efforts. Privatization provides good incentives but decreases the level of risk-sharing. The classical analysis of this tradeoff rules out another major risk-sharing mechanism, namely income transfers. This paper is a first attempt to merge the two insurance mechanisms: collective production, which is plagued by free riding and income transfers, which are hampered by limited commitment. Privatization of land is shown to interact with incentives to abide by the insurance agreement, so that the tradeoff between risk-sharing and production may or may not be maintained with income transfers. We show that an increase in the value of the household members' exit option or a decrease in patience decreases the optimal rate of privatization, while larger households are more likely to privatize land.
    Keywords: Privatization; Risk-Sharing; Land Tenure; Mixed Farms
    Date: 2017–10
  9. By: Vicente Pinilla
    Abstract: Spanish agriculture over the last two centuries has been mostly analysed from the perspective of its evolution, on many occasions over the long term, and with respect to its contribution to Spain's economic development (or, on the contrary, its possible “responsibility” for the relative backwardness of Spain). Here, however, the emphasis is placed on the opposite case, on the difficulties or crises which have affected it. Agricultural crises are not only important for explaining difficult periods during which the population and the agricultural sector have faced problematic circumstances. They have also generated a sufficiently large impact so as to provoke a reorganisation of the agricultural sector and significant changes within it. The crisis of the Ancien Régime brought about a complete transformation of the predominant agrarian institutions. On occasions, technological change was fostered by crisis situations. The depression at the end of the nineteenth century gave rise to the introduction of new technologies which profoundly modernised the sector to maintain its feasibility. In the same way, international integration affected agriculture and profound changes were required in order to maintain leading positions in international markets. Therefore, without a clear understanding of the agricultural crises, it is difficult to obtain a clear and precise perspective of the profound transformations experienced by Spanish agriculture throughout history.
    Keywords: Spanish economic history, Spanish agricultural history, agricultural crises
    JEL: N13 N14 N53 N54 Q11
    Date: 2017–09
  10. By: Suryanto (The Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia. Author-2-Name: Sutrisno Author-2-Workplace-Name: The Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia. Author-3-Name: Evi Gravitiani Author-3-Workplace-Name: The Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia. Author-4-Name: Fitri Susilowati Author-4-Workplace-Name: The Faculty of Economics, Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – The focus of this research is the analysis of vulnerability and factors that influence willingness to pay (WTP) to cope with flood. Other result of this research is economic valuation of flood impact on paddy field in particular. Methodology/Technique – This research used the descriptive and quantitative method. Its data were collected through direct interviews with 380 respondents. Its samples were scattered in 11 sub-districts and 94 villages. The representatives of each village were 4 respondents, by adding two respondents from Wedi Sub-district and 2 respondents from Cawas Sub-district. Proportional sampling technique was employed to determine the research samples with criteria: very close ( 100 m) from the river. Its data were analyzed by using contingent valuation methods (CVM). Findings – The results of the research are as follows. Many activities have been implemented to mitigate flood in Klaten Regency, but many problems have been encountered due to the limitations of Government Budget (APBD). The variables of income of family/household, water level, distance, and loss have a significant effect on the WTP. In majority, the respondents (72.27%) have the WTP for flood mitigation activities with the average WTP of 15,391 IDR. Novelty – Economic valuation of flood mitigation programs and activities is required as to further enhance the role of the community, taking into account factors affecting the WTP. The local government should take advantage of the public's WTP to support flood mitigation activities among neighbourhood, village, sub-district and regency."
    Keywords: Vulnerability; Flood Mitigation; Contingent Valuation; Willingness to Pay (WTP).
    JEL: D12 H84
    Date: 2017–03–16
  11. By: Niu, Honglei; Lekse, William
    Abstract: Historically, global urbanization has been an essential ingredient for national economic growth and beneficial social transformation. However, with the global urban population currently generating two-thirds of all carbon emissions, global policymakers are urging mayors and regional leaders to make difficult decisions to reduce the negative impacts of urbanization on the environment. The authors begin their examination of the implications of local and regional factors by applying the Dynamic Spatial Durbin Panel Model to empirically examine aspects of developing low-carbon strategies for the rapidly expanding size and number of the world's urban areas. Their results indicate that the contribution of urbanization to carbon emissions can be positively affected when regional policy makers collaborate to focus on spillover effects to simultaneously manage the scope, diversity, and complexity of economic and environmental issues from the perspective of creating a balance between rapid urbanization and relevant regional factors. Regional leaders can make a difference by creating both short-term goals and long-term strategies for maintaining low-carbon urbanization, nurturing regional coordination, monitoring and managing eco-friendly regional spillover effects, supporting low-carbon technology innovations, and maintaining optimal city size.
    Keywords: carbon emission effect,urbanization,local and regional focus,STIRPAT,dynamic spatial Durbin error model,panel data
    JEL: Q51 R11
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Eka Siskawati (Economic and Business Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, 65142, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Eko Ganis Sukoharsono Author-2-Workplace-Name: Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Rosidi Author-3-Workplace-Name: Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Abdul Ghofar Author-4-Workplace-Name: Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – The purpose of this study is to provide the argument that carbon disclosure must not only provide economic but also non-economic information. The more comprehensive disclosure of carbon emission is expected to change the behavior of industries in realizing a more environmentally friendly production process. Methodology/Technique – Data were collected through interviews and observation of documentations from three parties the BOWL company, the Ministry of Forest and Environment and the Ministry of Industry. Findings – Results show that the rating program of the industry’s performance in environmental management (PROPER) from the government’s perspective is an instrument which can encourage and establish the industry’s compliance and awareness of environmental management regulations. Novelty – This paper also focused on analysing how the government applies regulation approaches in changing the industry’s paradigm to undertake ethical businesses."
    Keywords: "Greenhouse Gases Emissions, Carbon Emissions Disclosure, Environmental Accountability, Non-Economic Information, Environmental Impact Assessment."
    JEL: D82 M14
    Date: 2016–12–23
  13. By: Raluca-Ioana Iorgulescu (Institute for Economic Forecasting, Romanian Academy); Carmen Beatrice Păuna (Institute for Economic Forecasting, Romanian Academy); Marioara Iordan (Institute for Economic Forecasting, Romanian Academy); Tiberiu Diaconescu (Institute for Economic Forecasting, Romanian Academy); Gabriela Bilevski (Institute for Economic Forecasting, Romanian Academy); Thomas Brekke (University College of Southeast Norway, Norway); Ole Henrik Gusland (University College of Southeast Norway, Norway); Lasse Berntzen (University College of Southeast Norway, Norway)
    Abstract: Addressing climate change through the reduction of fossil resources dependency requires the transition from fossil-based industrial production to a bio-based (green) industrial structure. The development of bio-based industry clusters might be part of the solution. This paper introduces the ‘bioeconomy’ concept and the Triple Helix model that are useful when examining the development of green industries clusters in the emerging digital era; the Smart City model might promote new ways to create profitable and sustainable businesses. Examples of good practices and clusters for green industries from Norway are provided and some success stories including Romanian firms are presented.
    Keywords: green industry, bioeconomy, bio-based industry cluster, triple helix model, smart cities, Romania
    JEL: L86 Q55 Q57
    Date: 2017–07

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