nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒10‒01
twenty-two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Agricultural Trade Reform, Reallocation and Technical Change: Evidence from the Canadian Prairies By Mark Brown; Shon M. Ferguson; Crina Viju
  2. Major food companies, PES and combating deforestation. Using PES to achieve “zero deforestation” agriculture By Alain Karsenty
  3. Farm input subsidy program in Malawi: the rationale behind the policy By Schiesari, Carolina; Mockshell, Jonathan; Zeller, Manfred
  4. Spatial Differences in Stunting and Household Agricultural Production in South Africa: (Re-)Examining the Links Using National Panel Survey Data By Otterbach, Steffen; Rogan, Michael
  5. A historical database on European agriculture, food and policies By Jo Swinnen
  6. Climate change and Bangladesh fisheries and aquaculture: Evidences from the household income and expenditure survey (HIES)2010 data By Azad, Abul Kalam; Wadood, Syed Naimul
  7. Wheat Agriculture and Family Ties By James B. Ang; Per G. Fredriksson
  8. "The Impact of Earthquake/Tsunami Threat on Land Prices in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia" By Budi Eko Soetjipto
  9. The Nutrition Services Program Outcomes Evaluation (Fact Sheet) By James Mabli; Liz Gearan
  10. Estimating mixture models for environmental noise assessment By Gordon Hughes
  11. "A Policy Framework to Support Household-Based Snack Food Industry in East Sumba Regency for Poverty Alleviation" By Ratih Dyah Kusumastuti
  12. Climatic variation as a determinant of rural-to-rural migration destination choice: Evidence from Tanzania By Zaneta Kubik
  13. Policy Reforms & Analysis of Wheat Procurement System in Punjab, Pakistan. By Muhammad Aamir, Shahzad
  14. Agricultural market activity and Boko Haram attacks in northeastern Nigeria By Jamon Van Den Hoek
  15. Proposal COSUST Special Issue « Co-designing Research on Social Transformations to Sustainability » Title: The DIALAQ project on sustainable groundwater management: a transdisciplinary and transcultural approachtoparticipatory foresight By Richard-Ferroudji Audrey; Nicolas Faysse; Zhour Bouzidi; Menon Ragunath; Jean-Daniel Rinaudo
  16. Who Benefits from Fairtrade? Evidence from the Swedish Coffee Market By Durevall, Dick
  17. Price Forecasting Model for Perishable Commodities: A Case of Tomatoes in Punjab, Pakistan. By Muhammad Aamir, Shahzad
  18. The Impact of Healthy Harlem on the Prevalence of Child Overweight and Obesity and Contributing Factors: Interim Evaluation Report By James Mabli; Martha Bleeker; Mary Kay Fox
  19. Women, Climate Change and Economic Problems in the Family By Mientje Ratoe Oedjoe
  20. Emergency Food Pantry Use Among SNAP Households with Children (Issue Brief) By Julie Worthington; James Mabli
  21. "Big Fish": Valuation of the world's largest salmon farming companies , By Misund, Bard; Nygard, Rune
  22. Marine biotechnology: Definitions, infrastructures and directions for innovation By OECD

  1. By: Mark Brown; Shon M. Ferguson; Crina Viju
    Abstract: We decompose the impact of trade reform on technology adoption and land use to study how aggregate changes were driven by reallocation versus within-farm adaptation. Using detailed census data covering over 30,000 farms in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada we find a range of new results. We find that the reform-induced shift from producing low-value to high-value crops for export, the adoption of new seeding technologies and reduction in summerfallow observed at the aggregate level between 1991 and 2001 were driven mainly by the within-farm effect. In the longer run, however, reallocation of land from shrinking and exiting farms to growing and new farms explains more than half of the aggregate changes in technology adoption and land use between 1991 and 2011.
    JEL: F14 O13 Q16 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2017–09
  2. By: Alain Karsenty (GREEN - Gestion des ressources renouvelables et environnement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Strategies to tackle deforestation are evolving. Under pressure from environmental NGOs and consumers, the major food companies are voluntarily committing to apply the “zero deforestation” principle, especially for their production of the key agricultural commodities (palm oil, cocoa, soy, etc.), which are responsible for around 70% of deforestation throughout the world. This concept is nevertheless ambiguous and difficult to implement. Payments for environmental services (PES) can help to achieve these ambitions. PES geared towards individual investment would be proposed to producers to enable them to modify their practices; these would be financed by zero deforestation companies. In addition, collective PES for forest conservation at the local level would be proposed to communities; these would be partly financed by a broad-based, low-level fee.
    Abstract: Les stratégies de lutte contre la déforestation évoluent. Sous la pression d'ONG environnementales et de consommateurs, des grandes entreprises agroalimentaires s'engagent volontairement à appliquer le principe « zéro déforestation », notamment pour leur production de grandes commodités agricoles (huile de palme, cacao, soja…), responsable d'environ 70 % de la déforestation mondiale. Le concept est toutefois ambigu et sa mise en oeuvre difficile. Les paiements pour services environnementaux (PSE) peuvent contribuer à rendre ces filières effectives. Des PSE tournés vers l'investissement individuel seraient proposés aux producteurs pour les aider à modifier leurs pratiques ; ils seraient financés par les entreprises zéro déforestation. En complément, des PSE collectifs rémunérant la conservation des forêts à l'échelle locale seraient proposés aux communautés ; ils seraient financés en partie par une redevance à assiette large et à faible taux.
    Keywords: Financement,Législation,services écosystémiques,protection de la forêt,Agro-industrie,Conservation de la nature,forêt tropicale,Déboisement,Utilisation des terres,Forêt,Communauté rurale,Développement régional,Développement agricole,Gouvernance,Approches participatives,coopérative agricole
    Date: 2015–11
  3. By: Schiesari, Carolina; Mockshell, Jonathan; Zeller, Manfred
    Abstract: There is a general agreement that agricultural growth in developing countries is needed in order to increase income and guarantee food security. Many authors agree that to achieve these goals, an increase in agricultural yield and production is necessary. However, the literature has shown a diverging discussion about which policy governments should apply for pro-poor agricultural growth. While some authors state that input subsidy policies (ISPs) are the principal tool to increase agricultural productivity for smallholders, many others say that these policies are highly costly and have not yet improved the development of rural areas. This article aims to show, from a theoretical perspective, that input subsidy policies can impact economic growth and food security. The method explores the welfare effects of a fertilizer subsidy policy on producers, consumers, government and society as a whole. The paper also examines, based on empirical data, the outcomes of the well-known Malawi farm input subsidy program (FISP). The results indicate that, as expected from theory, the FISP has raised productivity, households ’income and rural wages. However, it has not improved access to food at national level. The high cost and targeting inefficiency are also a constraint for maintaining the input subsidy program.
    Keywords: food security, agricultural productivity, input subsidy policies, fertilizer, welfare effects, rural development
    JEL: Q12 Q18
    Date: 2016–05–22
  4. By: Otterbach, Steffen (University of Hohenheim); Rogan, Michael (Rhodes University)
    Abstract: South Africa is one of only a handful of countries in which the prevalence of child stunting has increased over the period during which progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been monitored. One explanation for this reversal is that Big Food retail chains have been contributing to a low quality diet across the country, particularly in poor urban households. To examine this claim, we use nationally representative longitudinal data (2008–2014) to trace 6 years of stunting's evolution among South African children and adolescents aged 0–19, with particular attention to how the prevalence of stunting differs between urban (14.9%) and rural (19.6%) areas and how the drivers of poor nutrition vary spatially. The results suggest that, conditional on household income, subsistence farming is associated with a lower probability of stunting. Even more important, although under-nutrition retains a strong spatial component, once observable differences in living standards are controlled for, the higher tendency for children in deep rural households to suffer from (severe) stunting reverses.
    Keywords: stunting, height for age, malnutrition, anthropometric measures, subsistence farming, nutritional inequality, South Africa
    JEL: I14 I15 O15 O18 O55
    Date: 2017–09
  5. By: Jo Swinnen
    Abstract: This dataset includes annual data on agricultural production, prices, trade and derived policy indicators for various commodities and nine European countries since the second half of the 19th century until the countries joined the EU. The countries are Belgium, France, UK, Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Sweden, Spain and Italy. The data was collected from a variety of sources, mostly national statistics, and the commodity and time coverage varies between countries.
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Azad, Abul Kalam; Wadood, Syed Naimul
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of climate change on the fisheries and aquaculture sector of Bangladesh by employing appropriate econometric models. The Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010 (HIES,2010) data have been used to estimate the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regressions for examining the impact. Since “climate change” is a long run phenomenon, its impacts may not be discernable in the short run, cross sections data. Our econometric results find some negative impacts of climate change on the household fisheries production,though estimated coefficients are not statistically significant.Climate change therefore does not have any impact on the fisheries and aquaculture sector at the household level at least in the short run. Within HIES 2010 data, regarding geographical locations, respondent households associated with fisheries from Dhaka and Rangpur divisions (and also to a lesser extent, Khulna) have been found to be disproportionately more vulnerable to climate change-related shocks as well as having lower yearly mean household incomes, compared to their counterparts in other divisions.
    Keywords: fisheries, aquaculture, climate change, Bangladesh
    JEL: D1 Q22 Q54
    Date: 2017–07–01
  7. By: James B. Ang (Department of Economics, Nanyang Technological University, 14 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637332.); Per G. Fredriksson (Department of Economics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.)
    Abstract: Several recent contributions to the literature have suggested that the strength of family ties is related to various economic and social outcomes. For example, Alesina and Giuliano (2014) highlight that the strength of family ties is strongly correlated with lower GDP and lower quality of institutions. However, the forces shaping family ties remain relatively unexplored in the literature. This paper proposes and tests the hypothesis that the agricultural legacy of a country matters for shaping the strength of its family ties. Using data from the World Values Survey and the European Values Study, the results show that societies with a legacy in cultivating wheat tend to have weaker family ties. Analysis at the sub-national level (US data) and the country level corroborate these ?ndings. The estimations allow for alternative hypotheses which propose that pathogen stress and climatic variation can potentially also give rise to the formation of family ties. The results suggest that the suitability of land for wheat production is the most influential factor in explaining the variation in the strength of family ties across societies and countries.
    Keywords: Family ties; agriculture; long-run comparative development
    JEL: O1 Q1 Z1
    Date: 2017–05
  8. By: Budi Eko Soetjipto (Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Author-2-Name: Indra Maipita Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics, State University of Medan, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Idris Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics, State University of Padang, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Haikal Rahman Author-4-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics, State University of Medan, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – In this study, the impact of earthquake/tsunami threat on land prices is measured using the Hedonic Price Method (HPM). The location of the research is in Padang, West Sumatra. The subject of study is land owners who purchased their land later than September 30, 2009. Methodology/Technique – The linear model and Double-log model with Ordinary Least Square (OLS) are used to estimate variable. Findings – The findings reveal that the Linear model have five variables with a significant effect. Those variables are: (1) Environmental quality, (2) Distance to the seafront, (3) Distance to educational facilities, (4) Availability of clean water and (5) Position of the land, whereas the double-log model also have 5 variables: (1) Distance to the seafront, (2) Distance to educational facilities, (3) Access to evacuation routes, (4) Availability of clean water and (5) Position of the land. Novelty – The possibility of earthquake and tsunami threat in the future has raised a new parameter associated with the environment in the city of Padang, namely land distance towards the seafront. The findings of the study contribute the understanding in land pricing."
    Keywords: Earthquake/Tsunami; Environmental Quality; Land Prices; Padang.
    JEL: Q24 Q54
    Date: 2017–06–29
  9. By: James Mabli; Liz Gearan
    Abstract: This fact sheet summarizes Nutrition Services Program participants’ characteristics and impressions of the program and the program’s impact on participants’ food security, socialization, and diet quality.
    Keywords: Nutrition Services Program, home-delivered meals, congregate meals, senior nutrition
    JEL: I0 I1
  10. By: Gordon Hughes (School of Economics, University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: Environmental noise - linked to traffic, industrial activities, wind farms, etc. - is a matter of increasing concern as its association with sleep deprivation and a variety of health conditions has been studied in more detail. The framework used for noise assessments assumes that there is a basic level of background noise, which will often vary with time of day and spatially across monitoring locations, plus additional noise components from random sources such as vehicles, machinery or wind affecting trees. The question that has to be investigated is whether, and by how much, the noise at each location will be increased by the addition of one or more new sources of noise such as a road, a factory or a wind farm. The paper adopts a mixtures specification to identify heterogeneity in the sources and levels of background noise. In particular, it is important to distinguish between sources of background noise that may be associated with covariates of noise from a new source and other sources that are independent of these covariates. A further consideration is that noise levels are not additive, though sound pressures are. The analysis uses an extended version of Partha Deb’s Stata command (fmm) for estimating finite mixture models. The extended command allows for the imposition of restrictions such as that not all components are affected by the covariates or that the probabilities that particular components are observed depend upon exogenous factors. These extensions allow for a richer specification of the determinants of observed noise levels. The extended command is supplemented by post-estimation commands which use Monte Carlo methods to estimate how a new source will affect the noise exposure at different locations and how outcomes may be affected by noise control measures. The goal is to produce results that can be understood by decision-makers with little or no statistical background.
    Date: 2017–09–14
  11. By: Ratih Dyah Kusumastuti (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia. Author-2-Name: Viverita Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia. Author-3-Name: Riani Rachmawati Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: "Objective – This research aims to develop a policy framework to support household-based snack food industry in the East Sumba regency for poverty alleviation. Methodology/Technique – A qualitative method is applied to enable exploration. A benchmarking analysis with the snack food industry in Garut, West Java, also is conducted to gain insights of the success factors and challenges faced by the industry there. Findings – Most informants say that the East Sumba regency has a high production of food crops and fruit; thus, it has potential to develop a household-based food industry to improve the local economy, i.e., a food and snacks industry based on raw materials such as maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, peanuts, and bananas. The regency also has a long coastline; therefore, coconut, fish, and seaweed-based food industries also are a potential for development in the area. Novelty – This study findings propose a policy framework for poverty alleviation through the creation of new entrepreneurs producing local snack foods. The creation of new entrepreneurs will increase employment and it should be done by the local government by implementing policies that develop the management skills of people in four functional management aspects, which must be supported by specific policies in community leadership, community culture and mindset, public–private partnerships, government support, and infrastructures."
    Keywords: Poverty Alleviation; Household-Based Industry; Food industry; East Sumba; Indonesia.
    JEL: L26 P46
    Date: 2017–06–25
  12. By: Zaneta Kubik (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to establish if climate acts as the determinant of destination choice in case of rural-to-rural migration. In the context of climate change where the link between climate and rural income has been well established, it is argued that migrants who move within rural areas choose destinations with more favourable climate conditions allowing for higher incomes. Employing the alternative-specific conditional logit model, this paper shows that such indirect effect of climate on migration destination choice is non-negligible, since one per cent increase in the expected income differentials between origin and destination, attributable to climate, increases the probability of choosing a given destination by at least nine percentage points. On the other hand, distance acts as a constraint for migration, in particular for the poorest individuals who might be inhibited from reaping full benefits of mobility
    Keywords: climate change; regional migration; rural economics; agriculture; regional economics
    JEL: R11 R23 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2017–08
  13. By: Muhammad Aamir, Shahzad
    Abstract: The current policy of minimum price prevailing in the country should be abandoned as although this policy encourages the farmers to produce greater amounts of wheat but it is unfavorable for the government. Instead of minimum price policy, input costs need to be reduced to compete in the international markets as higher domestic prices leave a country internationally uncompetitive and increase the costs to the economy. The objective of this study was to find suitable price policy reforms. Extensive analysis revealed that higher cost of production is the main reason for higher domestic prices. Therefore, the study proposes that controlling and reducing input costs will benefit the farmers as well as the economy. Subsidies on inputs, especially fertilizers, should be given by the government as this will reduce the cost of production significantly. Moreover, reduced input cost for wheat will be the appropriate policy intervention which will lead to achieve international competitiveness. Thus, the policy recommendation on the basis of the analysis carried out in the previous sections is that subsidy should be given on inputs of wheat, especially fertilizers, to reduce the cost of production, as reduction in the production cost will proportionately reduce the support price.
    Keywords: Wheat, Food, Fertilizer, Farmers, Cost of Production
    JEL: Q18 R53
    Date: 2017–02–01
  14. By: Jamon Van Den Hoek (Oregon State University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the linkages between Boko Haram activities in northeastern Nigeria and declined activities in regional agricultural markets. Building on data from both the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) and the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), the paper first considers the geographic distribution of Boko Haram events with respect to market towns and discusses whether there is evidence of Boko Haram activities near markets having influence on declined market operations. Next, it examines the temporal character of market operations and the timing of their changes in their operational status, including market closures, with respect to the seasonality of agricultural production and land use in northeastern Nigeria. The paper measures the frequency of changes in regional market activities and considers spatial relationships and temporal correlations with Boko Haram activities in the region over twelve periods from late 2014 through the end of 2016. Finally, the paper formulates policy recommendations for assessing and mitigating coupled challenges of human and environmental security.
    Keywords: Boko Haram, Lake Chad, markets, northeastern Nigeria, political violence
    JEL: D74 H56 N47 N57 R11
    Date: 2017–09–27
  15. By: Richard-Ferroudji Audrey (IFP - French Institute of Pondicherry); Nicolas Faysse (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs et Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - Irstea - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); Zhour Bouzidi (Université Moulay Ismail Meknès); Menon Ragunath (Pondicherry Science Forum); Jean-Daniel Rinaudo (IBLI - Institut de biologie de Lille - IBL - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies - Institut Pasteur de Lille - Université de Lille, Droit et Santé - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Abstract: In the past decades, groundwater over-exploitation has increased the vulnerability of users, social inequalities and environmental degradation. In this context, the DIALAQ project aimed to experiment and disseminate a participatory approach intended to strengthen stakeholders’ capacity to implement more sustainable agricultural and groundwater management. DIALAQ’s network encompasses 8 regions in 4 countries (India, Morocco, France and the United States) including groups of farmers, administration’s representatives, NGOs, elected representatives and researchers from several disciplines. A seed funding enabled cooperation between academics and non-academic partners that led to the consolidation of the network and enabled the design of the project. Firstly, a focused review of literature on participatory foresight exercises in the field of groundwater management is presented. Secondly, the challenges and pathways taken in designing the research is described. This process resulted in a common methodological and ethical framework presented in conclusion.
    Keywords: "sustainable groundwater management","Research on Social Transformations to Sustainability"
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Durevall, Dick (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This paper analyses how the premium customers pay for Fairtrade-labelled coffee is distributed in the Swedish market, using information on costs of production and scanner data on almost all roasted and ground coffee products sold by retailers. A key finding is that roasters and retailers get 43–70%, while producer countries, in this paper comprising coffee farmers, cooperatives, middlemen, exporters and Fairtrade International, get 24–51%. Fairtrade Sweden gets 5–8%. These values are upper and lower bounds that reflect assumptions made about the additional costs of producing roasted and ground Fairtrade coffee, given the cost of beans and the Fairtrade license, and whether conventional coffee is compared with organic or non-organic Fairtrade coffees. Since roasters’ and retailers’ margins are higher for Fairtrade than conventional coffee, there is evidence that Fairtrade retail prices are higher than the level attributable to costs. However, producer countries receive a significantly larger share of the premium paid than reported in earlier studies, which are either dated or analyse very small samples of coffees.
    Keywords: coffee supply chain; ethic labels; Fair Trade; extra price; Fairtrade; market power; organic coffee
    JEL: D43 O19 P46
    Date: 2017–09
  17. By: Muhammad Aamir, Shahzad
    Abstract: This study focused on developing forecasting model for perishable commodities and tomato is taken as a case to study. The model is developed on in-depth analysis of market dynamics and structure. An estimable theoretically founded model is the major output of this study which is based on true structure of the market. Complete model is comprised of inverted demand equation, Plantation and yield equations and the role of price expectations. The study reveals the fact that the farmers’ production decisions are affected by the expected profitability which is based on the expected output prices. However, due to the involvement of certain intermediaries the farmers couldn’t get the proper prices of its output whereas the domestic production meets 31.5% to its total demand only and the deficit is imported from other provinces of the country and from India. Low per acre yield and inefficient management practices, non-availability of hybrid seed, weather conditions and less profit margins and declining area of production causes the production to fall short of its potential maximum. Moreover, the increased reliance on imports and the increased demand due to increase in population causes the domestic prices to becomes more volatile. The majority of the small farmers sell their product through commission agents and wholesaler that cause imperfections in the market. Tomatoes value chain have certain problems like there exists a disparity between the small and large farmers in cost of production, yield and profitability. The model may forecast the prices on monthly or weekly basis depending upon the data availability.
    Keywords: Forecasting, Tomato, Market, Price
    JEL: E17 E31 Q11
    Date: 2017–03–01
  18. By: James Mabli; Martha Bleeker; Mary Kay Fox
    Abstract: The Healthy Harlem program, which is focused on improving health, nutrition, and physical fitness among children enrolled in the Harlem Children’s Zone, had positive impacts on students’ nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, fitness, and body mass index (BMI).
    Keywords: childhood obesity, Harlem Children's Zone, body mass index, nutrition, physical fitness, afterschool program
    JEL: I0 I1 I
  19. By: Mientje Ratoe Oedjoe (Faculty of Teacher & Scien Education, Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Rolland Epafras Fanggidae Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Teacher & Scien Education, Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: "Objective – The role of women in Indonesia, particularly in East Nusa Tenggara in domestic activity very dominant. This study focuses on the efforts made by women cope with the impacts of climate change. Methodology/Technique – Methods used are mixture of quantitative and qualitative research. While the location of the research conducted in Kupang regency, East Nusa Tenggara. Findings – The study of the results showed that, women are still playing a dominant role in getting a sufficient supply of staple foods and meal replacements basic needs and outside work done in the event of extreme climatic impacts on the ocean. Novelty – This research looks at the optimal empowerment of women's role in addressing climate change and learn to know how the role of women in the economic field in the face of climate change impacts."
    JEL: J16 Q10 Q50
    Date: 2017–07–17
  20. By: Julie Worthington; James Mabli
    Abstract: This issue brief examines the association between SNAP participation and pantry use for households with children recently enrolled in SNAP.
    Keywords: SNAP, pantry, nutrition, children, emergency food
    JEL: I0 I1
  21. By: Misund, Bard (UiS); Nygard, Rune (University College of South East Norway)
    Abstract: The recent five years have seen a nearly tenfold increase the salmon stock price index at the Oslo Stock Exchange. This paper tries to shed some light on the reasons why this substantial stock price appreciation has occurred. The primary aim is to ascertain if the market valuation of salmon farming companies can be explained by rational factors, or there is an element of irrational exuberance behind current all-time high salmon stock prices. In particular, we examine the impact of both fundamental and operational value drivers. The results suggest that a structural shift has occurred, leading to a stronger association between fundamentals and market valuations after 2012, suggesting that at least some of the stock price increase is linked to fundamental factors.
    Keywords: salmon company valuation; price-to-book ratio; valuation multiples; salmon price; salmon aquaculture; salmon farming
    JEL: G10 G20
    Date: 2017–09–19
  22. By: OECD
    Abstract: Several countries have been setting up strategic roadmaps to support marine biotechnologies that could drive innovation and help address the global sustainability goals of food, energy, and health. The report identifies and begins to address challenges facing cooperation on marine biotechnology across countries. First, the report provides on an international definition of marine biotechnology that was developed through a multi-year process. Second, the report reviews the international infrastructure in marine biotechnology and identifies the lack of standardisation as a critical issue.
    Date: 2017–09–26

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