nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒09‒10
27 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Evaluating dynamics, sources and drivers of productivity growth at the farm level By Raushan Bokusheva; Lukáš Čechura
  2. Agriculture, development, and the global trading system: 2000-2015: Synopsis By Bouët, Antoine; Laborde Debucquet, David
  3. Can Land Fragmentation Reduce the Exposure of Rural Households to Weather Variability? By Stefanija Veljanoska
  4. Optimal rice land protection in a command economy By Long Chu; Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Tom Kompas; Khoi Dang; Trinh Bui
  5. Inefficiency in Rice Production and Land Use: A Panel Study of Japanese Rice Farmers By Ogawa, Kazuo
  6. Buy As You Need: Nutrition and Food Storage Imperfections By Gross, Jeremie; Guirkinger, Catherine; Platteau, Jean-Philippe
  7. Eco-certified contract choice among coffee farmers in Brazil By Sylvaine Lemeilleur; Julie Subervie; Anderson Edilson Presoto; Roberta De Castro Souza; Maria Sylvia Macchione Saes
  8. Building Responsible Innovation Ecosystem, a new approach for inter-organizational cooperation By Joël Ntsondé; Franck Aggeri
  9. Agricultural household effects of fertilizer price changes for smallholder farmers in central Malawi By Adam M. Komarek; Sophie Drogue; Roza Chenoune; James Hawkins; Siwa Msangi; Hatem Belhouchette; Guillermo Flichman
  10. Up in Smoke: The Influence of Household Behavior on the Long-Run Impact of Improved Cooking Stoves By Esther Duflo; Michael Greenstone; Rema Hanna
  11. Can household food security predict individual undernutrition? Evidence from Cambodia and Lao PDR By Bühler, Dorothee; Hartje, Rebecca; Ulrike Grote
  12. L’impegno della UE per l’ambiente e il clima: l’esperienza del programma LIFE By Suppa, Alberto
  13. The value of tourist angling: a travel cost method estimation of demand for two destination salmon rivers in Ireland By Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen; Landgraf, Gavin
  14. Are free land arrangement really free? An exploration into land arrangements made by rural-urban migrants in the Northeast of Thailand By Gwendoline Promsopha
  15. Impact du changement climatique sur lÕagriculture : dŽtermination de lÕexistence dÕun biais de prix dans les Žtudes ricardiennes By EssŽ Fabrice Ochou; Philippe Quirion
  16. SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE ACTORS OF A FOOD VALUE CHAIN: HOW TO COOPERATE? By Gaelle Petit; Gwenola Yannou-Le Bris; Gilles Trystram; Amrine Lallmahomed
  17. Study on rural migration and return migration in Kosovo By Möllers, Judith; Traikova, Diana; Herzfeld, Thomas; Bajrami, Egzon
  18. Waste collection in rural communities: challenges under EU regulations. A Case study of Neamt County, Romania By Florin Mihai
  19. Strategic Environmental Scanning: an Approach for Crises Management By Youssef M. Abu Amuna; Mazen J. Al Shobaki; Samy S. Abu Naser
  20. Building on a PDO food product in order to innovate in tourism: a case study on Beaufort cheese By Agnès Durrande-Moreau
  21. Agriculture, dèveloppment et système commercial international: 2000-2015: Synopsis By Bouët, Antoine; Laborde Debucquet, David
  22. The Biofuel-Development Nexus: A Meta-Analysis By Johanna Choumert; Pascale Combes Motel; Charlain Guegang
  23. Going Fast or Going Green? Evidence from Environmental Speed Limits in Norway. By Folgerø, Ingrid Kristine; Harding, Torfinn; Westby, Benjamin
  24. How consumers of plastic water bottles are responding to environmental policies? By Caroline Orset; Nicolas Barret; Aurélien Lemaire
  25. Environmental expenditure disclosure strategies in a regulated context By Florence Depoers; Tiphaine Jérôme
  27. Why are Private Forest Owners not Adopting Natura 2000 ? A Survey of Motivations By Philippe Polomé; Claude Michel

  1. By: Raushan Bokusheva (OECD); Lukáš Čechura
    Abstract: This report measures and evaluates total factor productivity (TFP) of crop farms in the European Union (EU) in the period after the implementation of a series of important reforms of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The analysis covers six EU Member states: the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland and the United Kingdom. The data used in the analysis are based on the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) data provided by the European Commission. To investigate sources of productivity growth, TFP is decomposed into three components – technical change, scale effect and technical efficiency. Technical change was found to be major source of productivity growth for most country samples for the two analysed periods. Technologies currently applied on crop farms were estimated to exhibit substantial economies of scale and therefore favour large-scale operations. However, economies of scale are not fully exploited which suggests the presence of some institutional constraints on farm growth. Large farms appear to be in a better position to exploit economies of scale; for West European countries covered in the report they were also found to exhibit larger persistent technical inefficiencies. Farm support payments were found to negatively influence crop farm productivity and efficiency of input use. More decoupled payments appear to be less distorting than other forms of support. A meta-level analysis of allocative efficiency shows that farms tend to be overcapitalised but to show relatively low allocative inefficiencies in their variable input use decisions. Substantial allocative inefficiencies appear also to exist in land and labour use. No significant economies of scope were found for the analysed crop production systems and levels of output aggregation. Farm flexibility was revealed to be determined mainly by the scale and convexity effects enabling cost efficient adjustments in the size of farm operations.
    Keywords: agriculture, economies of scope, European Union, farm flexibility, Total Factor Productivity
    JEL: D24 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2017–09–05
  2. By: Bouët, Antoine; Laborde Debucquet, David
    Abstract: Although food security has long been recognized as a universal human right, 795 million people worldwide remain undernourished. International trade can contribute to reducing such food insecurity, but the precise role that international trade policy should play in improving food and nutrition security remains the subject of a long-standing and intense debate. Many argue that countries must pursue the goal of food self-sufficiency to secure local production of agricultural items and local populations’ access to food. Food self-sufficiency implies import restrictions to support local production. Others argue that the best way to secure populations’ access to food is to remove all barriers to trade. In this line of thinking, free trade will more effectively increase the global production of agricultural and food products and secure the cheapest access to these items. Agriculture, Development, and the Global Trading System: 2000–2015 is devoted to the complex relationship between the global trading system and food security. The contributors focus on two important elements of the relationship between the trading system and food security: (1) the Doha Development Agenda of the World Trade Organization (WTO); and (2) whether food price volatility can be managed through trade instruments. They then offer policy recommendations for how the global trading system can foster food security in the future.
    Keywords: food security, volatility, international trade, agricultural policies, trade policies, World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Stefanija Veljanoska (Paris School of Economics, UniversitŽ de Paris 1 PanthŽon-Sorbonne, UniversitŽ Paris-Sud)
    Abstract: Climate change continuously affects African farmers that operate in rain-fed environments. Coping with weather risk through credit and insurance markets is almost inexistent as these markets are imperfect in the African economies. Even though land fragmentation is often considered as a barrier to agricultural productivity, this article aims at analyzing whether land fragmentation, as an insurance alternative, is able to reduce farmers' exposure to weather variability. In order to address this research question, I use the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) data on Uganda. After dealing with the endogeneity of land fragmentation, I find that higher land fragmentation decreases the loss of crop yield when households experience rain deviations. Therefore, policy makers should be cautious with land consolidation programs.
    Keywords: climate change, land fragmentation, rainfall, yield, insurance
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: Long Chu; Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Tom Kompas; Khoi Dang; Trinh Bui
    Abstract: Agricultural land protection (ALP) is a standard policy response to growing food security concerns driven by urbanisation, population growth and uncertainty over climate change. However, if not supported by rigorous analysis, at least in terms of the correct scale of protection, ALP may result in a misallocation of resources, hampering economic efficiency and prosperity. Examining rice land policy in Vietnam, this paper aims to determine the optimal level of rice land protected against other crops and evaluates the impact of adopting the optimal policy. With a stochastic optimization model built on top of a computable general equilibrium framework and microsimulation techniques, applied to Vietnam's social accounting matrix and household survey data, we find that converting part of protected rice land into other crops enhances economic efficiency. While the efficiency gain could amount to billions of dollars, income inequality only improves slightly. Overall, the policy is relatively pro-rich, implying a trade-off between poverty reduction and economic efficiency for Vietnam, making some households in already poor areas worse off. Though calibrated to a specific case, our approach can be applied in land-use planning generally, highlighting the relevant tradeoffs and the search for needed optimal land-use policies.
    Keywords: farmland preservation; general equilibrium; inequality; rice; Vietnam; welfare
    JEL: Q18 Q15 Q24
    Date: 2017–08
  5. By: Ogawa, Kazuo
    Abstract: In this study, an empirical analysis was conducted on the behavior of Japanese rice producers from the standpoint of efficiency in production by using the panel data from the Rice Production Cost Statistics by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The stochastic frontier production function, which comprises four production factors (land, labor, capital stock, and materials), was estimated and the inefficiency indices of production were calculated. Based on this information, the efficient and inefficient rice producers were identified, and the factor demand behavior and characteristics of the arable land utilization for rice production were compared. It was found that inefficient rice producers do not make any adjustments in employment in the short or long run, even if there is a change in the wages. In addition, it was observed that efficient rice producers who hold a large amount of the farms partitioned into small plots reduced the arable land utilization for rice production and increased productivity. However, it was noted that the certified farmers, who should be aiming at an expansion of the scale of operation and efficiency of agricultural operations, tend to reduce arable land utilization for rice cultivation and switch to other crops; moreover, the more efficient the certified farmers are, the larger the effects of such activities.
    Keywords: stochastic frontier production function, productivity, factor demand, land use, rice production adjustment
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2017–08
  6. By: Gross, Jeremie; Guirkinger, Catherine; Platteau, Jean-Philippe
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how the activation of local food markets impacts the nutritional status of both children and adults, in a context characterized by large seasonal fluctuations in the price and availability of foodgrain. Taking advantage of the random scaling-up of a program of Food Security Granaries (FSGs) in Burkina Faso, we make three contributions. First, especially in remote areas where local markets are thin, food market activation considerably dampens nutritional stress. The effect is strongest among children, and young children in particular, for whom deficient nutrition has devastating long-term consequences. Second, and surprisingly, this beneficial effect is obtained despite the fact that total food consumption does not increase as a result of the external intervention. Third, it is a change in the timing of food purchase, translated into a change in the timing of consumption, that drives the nutritional improvement. A simple two-period model shows that an increase in consumption needs not take place when the price of foodgrain declines during the lean season if storage losses are taken into account. More than from the waste of the foodgrain stored, storage costs mainly arise from a self-control problem: foodgrain purchased anticipatorily results in immediate consumption and body mass accumulation, which is less efficient than nutrition-smoothing consumption flows.
    Keywords: food security; market activation; nutrition; Self-Control
    JEL: D10 O12 O13
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: Sylvaine Lemeilleur (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Julie Subervie (LAMETA - Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Anderson Edilson Presoto (USP - University of São Paulo); Roberta De Castro Souza (USP - University of São Paulo); Maria Sylvia Macchione Saes (USP - University of São Paulo)
    Abstract: We survey Brazilian coffee farmers’ preferences for attributes of voluntary sustainabilitystandards using a choice experiment. We collected original data from 250 coffee farmers wholive in the state of Minas Gerais who were asked to choose from several hypothetical buyingcontracts for eco-certified coffee. Our results suggest that both cash and non-cash paymentsmay motivate farmers to participate in sustainability standard certification schemes that re-quire improved agricultural practices. Preferences for non-cash rewards such as long-termformal contracts or technical assistance, however, appear highly heterogeneous. Results more-over show that the minimum willingness-to-accept for the adoption of composting is twiceas high as the average price premium for certified coffee in the current context, which maypartly explain why most coffee farmers continue to be reluctant to enter the most stringenteco-certification schemes such as the organic standard.
    Keywords: erosion,compost, voluntary sustainability standards,coffee,choice experiment,pesticides,Brazil,pesticide,brésil,café,certification
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Joël Ntsondé (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In order to develop more sustainable projects and deal with the current global environmental crisis, an increasing number of actors are willing to set up models of circular economy and need to develop cooperative approaches to handle the complexity inherent to these models. However, in management literature, the field of collective strategies and inter-organizational cooperation is relatively emerging and still need to be expanded, especially regarding sustainable development issues. So the underlying question we address in this paper is to determine which processes socio-economic actors rely on to build up these collective strategies and inter-organizational cooperation. Empirically, our research focuses on food waste reduction initiatives, using a qualitative method to study several projects which aimed at applying models of circular economy to the food production and distribution chain in Paris Region in France. This research led us to identify a new form of collective action that we outline by introducing the concept of responsible innovation ecosystem. This concept can be used in management to understand how heterogeneous actors can cooperate to develop innovative and sustainable projects.
    Keywords: heterogeneous actors,innovation ecosystem, inter-organizational cooperation, responsible innovation, collective innovation, circular economy, food waste
    Date: 2017–06–21
  9. By: Adam M. Komarek (International Food Policy Research Institute); Sophie Drogue (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRA Montpellier - Institut national de la recherche agronomique [Montpellier] - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Roza Chenoune (IAMM - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); James Hawkins (International Food Policy Research Institute); Siwa Msangi (International Food Policy Research Institute); Hatem Belhouchette (IAMM - CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); Guillermo Flichman (International Food Policy Research Institute)
    Abstract: This simulation study explored the agricultural household effects of changes in the price of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer for farmers in central Malawi. We selected the Dedza district to conduct this study, which is a district reliant on maize production for household livelihoods. This study used data from a household survey to develop and calibrate an agricultural household model for a representative household. The survey focused on socio-economic and agronomic factors. This included plot-level agronomic details for crop inputs and yields. Using our dynamic model, we found a negative association between fertilizer prices and fertilizer use, maize area, and income. Removing fertilizer prices led to an increased use of nitrogen fertilizer at the household scale from 16.8 kg to 49.6 kg and this helped increase household income by 52%. We calculated an average own-price elasticity of fertilizer demand of − 0.92. Although higher fertilizer prices increased legume acreage, which had potential environmental benefits, household income fell. Our benefit-cost ratio calculations suggest that government actions that deliver changes in fertilizer prices are relatively cost effective. Our study highlights the reliance of households on maize production and consumption for their livelihood, and the effects that changes in fertilizer prices can have upon them.
    Keywords: benefit-cost ratio,bioeconomic model,cropping systems,economics,land use,simulation models,fertilizer,agricultural price,subsistence farming,cropping system,land equivalent ratio,republic of Malawi,modèle de simulation,engrais,ménage agricole,revenu des ménages,prix agricole,agriculture de subsistance,système de culture,utilisation des terres,malawi
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Esther Duflo; Michael Greenstone; Rema Hanna (Center for International Development at Harvard University)
    Abstract: It is conventional wisdom that it is possible to reduce exposure to indoor air pollution, improve health outcomes, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions in rural areas of developing countries through the adoption of improved cooking stoves. This is largely supported by observational field studies and engineering or laboratory experiments. However, we provide new evidence, from a randomized control trial conducted in rural Orissa, India (one of the poorest places in India) on the benefits of a commonly used improved stove that laboratory tests showed to reduce indoor air pollution and require less fuel. We track households for up to four years after they received the stove. While we find a meaningful reduction in smoke inhalation in the first year, there is no effect over longer time horizons. We find no evidence of improvements in lung functioning or health and there is no change in fuel consumption (and presumably greenhouse gas emissions). The difference between the laboratory and field findings appears to result from households’ revealed low valuation of the stoves. Households failed to use the stoves regularly or appropriately, did not make the necessary investments to maintain them properly, and usage rates ultimately declined further over time. More broadly, this study underscores the need to test environmental and health technologies in real-world settings where behavior may temper impacts, and to test them over a long enough horizon to understand how this behavioral effect evolves over time.
    Keywords: indoor air pollution, human health, climate change, technology adoption
    JEL: O10 O13 O12 Q0 Q23 Q3 Q51 Q53 Q56 I15 I18
    Date: 2017–08
  11. By: Bühler, Dorothee; Hartje, Rebecca; Ulrike Grote
    Abstract: This paper uses a novel data set of marginalized households from Cambodia and Lao PDR to better understand different food security concepts. The multitude of indicators available raises the question how these indicators relate to each other and whether they are suitable to detect undernutrition of individuals. In the analysis we identify the causes of food insecurity in relation to a number of different food security concepts and examine the links between the food security status of households and individuals using anthropometric data of children under five. The regression results show that the different indicators of food security at the household level capture fundamentally different aspects of food security. In addition, household food insecurity only explains a small share of child undernutrition. We call for more research on intra-household allocation of food and stress the implications of our research for the design and targeting of food and nutrition support programs.
    Keywords: Food Security, Undernutrition, Human Development, Poverty, Southeast Asia
    JEL: Q18 I15 O15
    Date: 2017–05
  12. By: Suppa, Alberto
    Abstract: European Union addresses environmental and climatic issues through different instruments (research and innovation programs, various categories of structural funds, etc. Among them, LIFE (L'Instrument Financier pour l'Environnement) is the EU’s financial instrument supporting environmental, nature conservation and climate action projects in EU countries. Since 1992, LIFE has co-financed 4306 projects and in 25 years contributed to ensuring environmental protection all over Europe.
    Keywords: Unione Europea, Ambiente, Cambiamento Climatico, LIFE, Biodiversità, Mobilità Sostenibile, Climate Change, Environment, European Union,
    JEL: Q50 Q53 Q54 Q56 Q57 Q58 Q59
    Date: 2017–03
  13. By: Grilli, Gianluca; Curtis, John; Hynes, Stephen; Landgraf, Gavin
    Abstract: In this paper we use the travel cost method to estimate the demand function for two of western Ireland’s destination salmon fisheries: the River Moy in County Mayo and the River Corrib in County Galway. Data were collected by an on-site survey questionnaire and demand was estimated using count data models. In the study sites commercial fishing was banned to avoid unsustainable harvesting of salmon, which removed an important source of income for the local communities. Therefore, the study is important to highlight whether recreational fishing presents an opportunity for further development of the local economy. Welfare estimates from our models indicate that anglers are willing to pay €867 for a day of angling on the Galway and Moy fisheries, approximately double the costs incurred. Differently from previous research, tourists anglers were found to be price sensitive, with a price elasticity close to unity. This means that escalating costs likely result in declining demand among tourist anglers. Corrib and Moy fisheries support local economic activity with visiting anglers’ expenditure contributing €22-€31 per angler per day to local incomes, which is an indication of the potential of the fishery resource for economic development.
    Date: 2017–08
  14. By: Gwendoline Promsopha (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to an emerging literature on free land arrangements in developing countries. We argue that in-depth empirical analysis is crucial to understand the specific terms of land arrangements. Using mixed quantitative and qualitative data collected among rural-urban migrants in Thailand, we categorize land arrangements along four dimensions: self-reported categories by the actors, the nature of the relationship between the parties involved, the nature of the payment made, and how explicit or binding are the contractual terms. The economic motivations in each of the consequent categories of land arrangement are then analyzed with simple econometrics. Our main results suggest that while free land arrangements are allegedly common practice in Thailand, only a small number of these free arrangements are really free. Many appear to be a `disguised form of rental contract', similar to sharecropping except for the fact that they are reported as free arrangements. Disguised rental is often found among households who rely heavily on the safety net function of land. Or results also suggest that the arrangements which do not involve any direct repayment or compensation are often parts of complex inter-vivo bequests, and involve incomplete transfers of property rights.
    Keywords: Land arrangement, property rights, migration, Thailand, land markets, land title
    Date: 2017
  15. By: EssŽ Fabrice Ochou (CIRED-UniversitŽ Felix Houphou‘t Boigny ( Abidjan-Cocody)); Philippe Quirion (CIRED-CNRS)
    Abstract: This study shows the existence of a price bias in the so-called ÒRicardianÓ studies inspired by Mendelsohn et al. (AER, 1994) and quantifies this bias. To do this, we use panel data on the 45 provinces of Burkina Faso over 12 years. The crops studied are maize, millet and sorghum. The analysis shows that the effects of climate variables on the yield and value of production per hectare of maize and millet are not the same, reflecting the presence of a price bias. In the case of Sorghum, the effects of climatic variables on yields and the value of production per hectare are practically the same, indicating the absence of statistically significant price bias. Quantifying the price bias in cases where it exists, ie for maize and millet shows that the more unfavorable the climate change, the greater the price bias will be. In the worst case, it reaches a gap of 2.05 percentage point for millet and 0.92 percentage point for maize. From this analysis, Ricardian in cross sectional or even panel studies assuming constant prices underestimate the impact of climate change by using income or value.
    Keywords: Biais de prix, Mod le ricardien, Changement climatique, Agriculture, DonnŽes de panel
    JEL: Q22 Q15 Q11
    Date: 2017–06
  16. By: Gaelle Petit (GENIAL - Ingénierie Procédés Aliments - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Gwenola Yannou-Le Bris (LGI - Laboratoire Génie Industriel - EA 2606 - CentraleSupélec, AgroParisTech); Gilles Trystram (GENIAL - Ingénierie Procédés Aliments - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Amrine Lallmahomed (AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: To tackle sustainability issues, food value chain actors have to study the nature and objectives of the sustainable performance they want to achieve, both individually and also for the value chain as a whole. But they have different interests, goals and strategies. Consequently if they want to cooperate on a shared device because this represents a possible solution to improve the value chain sustainability, they need to find a way to meet a minimum level of each actor expectations. This case study is about possibilities for actors of a pork value chain representative of one type of French production to cooperate in sharing sustainability improvement solutions. The sustainable impacts of the value chain comprising a shared methanation plant with externalization of 3% of heat and 1% of electricity produced are described and analyzed. The multicriteria evaluation of the value chain is based on a life cycle analysis model with associated environmental and social indicators. The behavior of the methanation plant is simulated using Methasim tool and the input/output flows of the software are bridged to the LCA model. A focus is made on comparing the sustainable performance of two scenarios (standard i.e. without methanation plant and with shared methanation plant) and on confronting results with respective expectations of various players of the value chain in terms of sustainable performance. Is sharing a methanation plant a good solution for the economic actors of the value chain? How to create cooperation between the actors of a value chain in order to increase sustainability of their products and practices? The results and analysis will focus on each actor's contribution to the sustainable footprint and values destroyed or created. New intermediate solutions can be then proposed. The discussion is about methodological ways to facilitate the cooperation and the data flows to be exchanged between value chain actors.
    Keywords: Food,Actors,Sustainability,Indicators,Assessment,Cooperation,Value chain
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Möllers, Judith; Traikova, Diana; Herzfeld, Thomas; Bajrami, Egzon
    Abstract: [Objectives] The overall objective of the study is to address the causes of migration and its consequences for rural areas of Kosovo. More specifically, we focus on the motives of migrants, the impact of migration on households left behind and the socio-economic situation of returning migrants. In the first part of this study, we will discuss the motivation behind migration. A specific focus is on drivers of the recent out-migration wave which started in 2014. We will furthermore shed some light on (positive and negative) migration impacts in the second part of the study: for some households, remittances received from migrated family members may alleviate poverty, while for others migration is linked to significant psychological burdens or lack of labour force in family businesses. In the third part, the study will focus on the consequences of return migration by identifying important attributes of the recently returned migrants and their specific needs and potentials for successful reintegration. We will look at the skill sets (education and experience) of the returnees, as well as their personal well-being and intentions to stay. Vulnerable groups such as women and ethnic minorities will be analysed separately. The study will provide recommendations on how the needs of returnees can be addressed and how they may contribute to a positive rural development in their communities. It will furthermore be used as a source of information for other ongoing projects dealing with return migration. The study was closely coordinated with a number of stakeholders in the Republic of Kosovo. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) provided funds for this project in the framework of its project "Competitiveness of the Private Sector in Rural Areas". The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development (MAFRD) provided technical support. The study was carried out by the Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO). Other programme partners include: municipalities, the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA), the Ministry of Diaspora (MD), the Ministry of Finance (MF), the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST), the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (MLSW), NGOs, farmers’ and forest owners’ associations, women’s groups and ethnic communities, the Kosovo Forestry Agency (KFA), and the Association of Municipalities in Kosovo (AMK).
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Florin Mihai ("Alexandru Ioan Cuza " University)
    Abstract: The paper aims to examine the changes in the rural waste management sector at regional scale since the Romania adhesion to the EU in 2007. Traditional waste management based on the mixed waste collection and waste disposal often on improper sites prevailed in municipal waste management options of transitional economies across the globe. The lack of formal waste collection services in rural areas has encouraged the open dumping or backyard burning. The paper analyses the improvements and challenges of local authorities in order to fulfill the new EU requirements in this sector supported by data analysis at local administrative unit levels and field observations. Geographical analysis is compulsory in order to reveal the local disparities. The paper performs an assessment of waste collection issues across 78 rural municipalities within Neamt County. This sector is emerging in rural areas of Eastern Europe, but is far from an efficient municipal waste management system based on the waste hierarchy concept.
    Keywords: waste collection,waste management,municipal waste,rural areas,EU
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Youssef M. Abu Amuna (Department of Information Technology - Al-Azhar University); Mazen J. Al Shobaki (Department of Information Technology - Al-Azhar University); Samy S. Abu Naser (Department of Information Technology - Al-Azhar University)
    Abstract: The study aims to analyze the relation between strategic Environmental Scanning and crisis management in UNRWA-Gaza Strip field-Palestine. Several descriptive analytical method used for this purpose, and a survey as a tool for data collection. Community population was (881), and the study sample was stratified random (268). The overall findings of the current study show that strategic Environmental Scanning is conducted in UNRWA and has a stoical relation with crises management. This relation is weak and need to be strengthen especially during and after the crisis. The study suggest that strategic Environmental Scanning must be conducted permanently for external and internal environment to help UNRWA developing its strategic planning and to be to prepared to deal with potential crises in the future.
    Keywords: Strategic Environmental Scanning,Crises Management,UNRWA
    Date: 2017–07–24
  20. By: Agnès Durrande-Moreau (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: This article examines the links that may exist between a PDO agrofood product and tourism. Through a case study – the "Beaufort" mountain cheese – we observe that many recreational activities in relation with the PDO are offered to tourists. These activities form a real range of agritourist products. The links between the "DPO food" and the "PDO tourism" can be observed since long but, interestingly, are strengthening over time. A sort of virtuous circle amplifies these links and creates new resources. This case study may inspire other PDO territories that would like to innovate in tourism, whatever their current degree of agritourism implementation, because among the identified success factors, many are transferable. The PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) is a European model that interests many countries.
    Abstract: Les liens qui peuvent se tisser entre un produit agro-alimentaire AOP et le tourisme sont mis en évidence à partir d'une étude de cas. Le fromage AOP "beaufort", pris comme sujet d'étude, donne actuellement lieu à une véritable gamme de produits agritouristiques très diversifiée. Les liens entre la "denrée AOP" et le "tourisme AOP" existent très tôt et se renforcent au fil du temps. Une sorte de cercle vertueux amplifie ces liens et créent de nouvelles ressources. Ce cas peut inspirer d'autres territoires AOP qui souhaiteraient innover en tourisme, qu'ils aient ou non déjà commencé à jouer cette carte, car parmi les facteurs de succès identifiés beaucoup semblent transférables. L'AOP (appellation d'origine protégée) est un modèle européen qui intéresse de nombreux pays.
    Keywords: tourism, agriculture, cheese, PDO, innovation,tourisme, fromage, AOP appellation d'origine protégée
    Date: 2017–04
  21. By: Bouët, Antoine; Laborde Debucquet, David
    Abstract: Alors que la sécurité alimentaire est depuis longtemps reconnue comme un droit humain universel, on déplore toujours 795 millions de personnes sous-alimentées dans le monde. Le commerce international peut aider à réduire l’insécurité alimentaire, mais le rôle précis que la politique commerciale internationale devrait jouer dans ce domaine fait l’objet d’un débat intense amorcé de longue date. D’aucuns estiment qu’il appartient aux pays de se fixer l’objectif d’autosuffisance alimentaire afin de garantir la production locale de produits agricoles et l’accès de leurs populations à l’alimentation. L’autosuffisance alimentaire implique des restrictions à l’importation à l’appui de la production locale. D’autres estiment à l’inverse que le meilleur moyen de garantir l’accès des populations à l’alimentation est de supprimer tous les obstacles aux échanges. Selon cette ligne de pensée, le libre échange permettrait d’augmenter plus efficacement la production mondiale de produits agricoles et alimentaires et de garantir l’accès à des produits meilleur marché.
    Keywords: food security, volatility, international trade, agricultural policies, trade policies, World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Johanna Choumert (Economic Development Initiatives (EDI)); Pascale Combes Motel (CERDI); Charlain Guegang
    Abstract: Although the production of biofuels has expended in recent years, the literature on its impact on growth and development finds contradictory findings. This paper presents a meta-analysis of computable general equilibrium studies published between 2006 and 2014. Using 26 studies, we shed light on why results differ. We investigate factors such as the type of biofuels, the geographic area and the characteristics of models. Our results indicate that the outcomes of CGE simulations are sensitive to models parameters. They also suggest a divide between developed / emerging countries versus Sub-Saharan African countries.
    Keywords: Biofuel, Computable General Equilibrium Model, Development, Bioethanol, Biodiesel
    JEL: Q16 O13 C68
    Date: 2017–02
  23. By: Folgerø, Ingrid Kristine (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Harding, Torfinn (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Westby, Benjamin (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of speed limits on local air pollution, using a series of datespecific speed limit reductions in Oslo over the 2004-2015 period. We find that lowering the speed limit from 80 to 60 km/h reduces travel speed by 5.8 km/h, but we find no effect on local air pollution. A conservative cost–benefit calculation suggests a net social loss from the speed limit reductions of 0.52 billion USD each year. Our findings imply that policy makers need to consider other actions than speed limit reductions to improve local air quality.
    Keywords: Temporary speed limit; air pollution; travel time; cost-benefit; regression discontinuity design
    JEL: H23 Q53 Q58 R41
    Date: 2017–09–07
  24. By: Caroline Orset (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroParisTech); Nicolas Barret (AgroParisTech); Aurélien Lemaire (AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic and the consumption never stops increasing. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to participants allowing explaining the influence of information on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a manifest effect on WTP. We show there is a significant premium associated with recycled plastic packaging and organic and biodegradable plastic packaging. As there is no consensus on the plastic which is the most or the least dangerous for the environment, we propose different policies for protecting the environment. We discuss about the impact of these policies on consumer's purchasing decisions: switching one plastic packaging for another, or leaving water plastic bottles' market. We see that from the standpoint of consumer surplus, regulation is effective with certain environmental policies. Choosing between them then depend on the priorities of the regulator and pressure of lobbies.
    Keywords: Regulatory instruments,Bioplastic bottles,Consumer's willingness to pay,Biodegradable plastic bottles,Information campaign,Recycling plastic bottles
    Date: 2017
  25. By: Florence Depoers (CEROS - Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Organisations et la Stratégie - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre); Tiphaine Jérôme (University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland)
    Abstract: Environmental expenditures (EE) are used to assess and monitor corporate environmental performance. Legislators are aware of the informative potential of this indicator, and listed firms are required to disclose their EE. Our research draws on legitimacy theory to identify and explain the strategic responses of a sample of French listed companies to the requirement to disclose this item. A content analysis identifies three different strategies: no response, a “facade” response, and a substantive response. Tests reveal several determinants of these strategies: environmental criticism, the existence of SRI shareholders, and the business sector. Our research contributes to both academic and regulatory debates on standardization of environmental disclosures, by revealing and explaining how firms behave in response to the law.
    Date: 2017
  26. By: François Facchini (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Max Falque (ICREI - Centre International de Recherche sur les Problèmes Environnementaux)
    Abstract: This article aims to defend the idea that the Mediterranean countries could unite around a common project that would remove, in one hand, the threat of conventional or radical interpretation of the Prophet for individual freedoms and ultimately the economic development and environmental quality of the southern Mediterranean countries and revive, on the other hand, what has made the greatness of the West, namely the recognition of freedoms individual through the protection of private property.
    Abstract: Cet article souhaite défendre l'idée que les pays de la Méditerranée pourraient se fédérer autour d'un projet commun qui permettrait d'écarter, d'une part, la menace que constitue l'interprétation classique ou radicale de la parole du Prophète pour les libertés individuelles et in fine le développement économiques et la qualité de l'environnement des pays du sud de la Méditerranée et de redonner vie, d'autre part, à ce qui a fait la grandeur de l'occident, à savoir la reconnaissance des libertés individuelles à travers la protection de la propriété privée.
    Keywords: Property rights,Economic development,Environmental management,Mediterranean,Droits de propriété,Développement économique,Gestion environnementale,Méditerranée
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Philippe Polomé (Univ Lyon, Université Lumière Lyon 2, GATE L-SE UMR 5824, F-69130 Ecully, France); Claude Michel (Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges, Munster, France)
    Abstract: A survey of private forest owners on adoption of the Natura 2000 charter has been designed to allow respondents to state motives for non-adoption. These motives fall into five main categories: Economic, Compatibility with own practices, Control over one’s property, Information and “no motive”. Using a mixed logit model, we can show that owners of properties at least in part in N2000, significantly evoke the Control motive more often than the other owners; that is not the case of the other motives. Owners who are convinced their properties have a remarkable feature are significantly less likely to evoke the Control motive. We argue that these findings might be appropriated by environmental managers to induce adoption of the N2000 Charter.
    Keywords: Non-indutrial private forest owner, Natura 2000 program, Motivation
    JEL: D64 H41 Q23 Q28 Z13
    Date: 2017

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