nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒07‒30
fourteen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Pulses for Sustainable Livelihood and Food Security By Singh, Pushpa; Singh, K.M.; Shahi, Brajesh
  2. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal on Poverty Eradication By Alain de JANVRY; Elisabeth SADOULET
  3. Attentuation of Free Riding in Environmental Valuation : Evidence from Field Experiment: Contingent Valuation Method By Kitessa, Rahel Jigi
  4. An Investigation of Factors for Changing Land Use Pattern in Bihar with a Piercing Insight on Current Fallow Lands By Sinha, D.K.; Ahmad, Nasim; Singh, K.M.
  6. Pre and Post Recession Input Allocation Decisions of Farm Credit System Lending Units By Cesar Escalante; Minrong Song
  7. Prices of Biofuels and Related Commodities: An Example of Combined Economics and Graph Theory Approach By Ondrej Filip; Karel Janda; Ladislav Kristoufek
  8. Productivity Change Analysis of Polish Dairy Farms After Poland’s Accession to the EU – An Output Growth Decomposition Approach By Makieła, Kamil; Marzec, Jerzy; Pisulewski, Andrzej
  9. Frequency-Domain Estimation as an Alternative to Pre-Filtering External Cycles in Structural VAR Analysis By Lovcha, Yuliya; Pérez Laborda, Alejandro
  10. How Valuable are National Parks? Evidence from a Proposed National Park Expansion in Alaska By Michael Spanbauer; Lindsay Johnson; Patrick Button
  11. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants' Employment Characteristics and Barriers to Work By James Mabli; Irina Cheban
  12. Strategic delegation and international permit markets: Why linking may fail By Habla, Wolfgang; Winkler, Ralph
  13. Effects of qualification in expert markets with price competition and endogenous verifiability By Schneider, Tim; Bizer, Kilian
  14. Growth Performance and Resource Use Efficiency of Maize in Bihar: An Economic Perspectives By Ahmad, Nasim; Sinha, D.K.; Singh, K.M.; Mishra, R.R.

  1. By: Singh, Pushpa; Singh, K.M.; Shahi, Brajesh
    Abstract: Pulses has important role in contributing to food and nutritional security and replenishing soil nutrients having a huge potential in addressing needs like future global food security, nutrition and environmental sustainability needs. They also play an important role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture production by lowering GHG emissions. Farmers in grain and oilseed production have found economic benefits from lower input costs and increased profits by including a pulse crop in their rotation. In the face of shrinking natural resources and high population growths, enhancing production of pulses is now a major concern for Bihar in particular and nation as whole . The current shortfall in pulse availability is mainly due to less seed replacement rate of improved varieties, poor adoption of improved technologies by the farmers, abrupt climatic changes, complex disease pest syndrome, and emergence of new bio-types and races of key pests and pathogens and declining total factor productivity. The possibility of improving pulse productivity two to three times through existing varieties and available package of technologies has been demonstrated in FLDs by adoption of entirely new but simple and farmer-friendly technologies and tools. Considering that the frontiers of expansion of cultivated area are negligent, high demand of pulses must come from increase in yield by strengthening adaptive research and technology assessment, refinement and transfer capabilities, so that the existing technology transfer gaps can be bridged. For this, an appropriate network of extension service needs to be created to stimulate and encourage both top-down and bottom-up flows of information between farmers, extension workers, and research scientists to promote generation, adoption, and evaluation of location-specific farm technologies.
    Keywords: Pulses, Constraints in pulses production, Area Expansion under pulses, Bihar
    JEL: O13 O33 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2016–05–14
  2. By: Alain de JANVRY (Université de Californie Berkeley); Elisabeth SADOULET (Université de Californie Berkeley)
    Abstract: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal on poverty eradication requires focusing on agriculture and rural areas. Increasing technology adoption in staple food agriculture—the Green Revolution—will however not suffice. Key is to manage an agricultural and a rural transformation whereby farming systems become more diversified and a rural non-farm economy emerges to complement agricultural sources of income and smooth labor calendars for the rural labor force.
    Keywords: SDG, Sustainable development goals
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Kitessa, Rahel Jigi (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: Standard economic theory suggests that agents make decision based on the outcomes. Subsequently, environmental valuation using contingent valuation method (CVM) assumes the agent’s valuation of a given environmental good is based on the (expected) results. However, Bulte et al. (2005) found that causes in addition to outcomes matter in valuation. I extended this notion to contribute to design of CVM that attenuate free riding, thus remove the downward bias of method. I used field experiment and tested if designing a scenario that reinforce responsibility in decision making (valuation), attenuates free riding. I do so by eliciting contributions to a reforestation program among farmers in an environmentally valuable area, the Bale eco-Region in Ethiopia, by including or omitting explicit information that one of the main forest related activities the respondents engage in, logging, is among the most important causes of local forest degradation. I find that explicitly stating that logging is one of the main causes of deforestation increases our respondents’ willingness to pay. More interestingly, I find that this “responsibility effect” is sufficiently strong to eliminate free rider behavior. When the information about the cause of deforestation is in place, the respondents’ willingness to pay for the reforestation project is not significantly different if they are informed of other forest protection projects, or not.
    Keywords: valuation of environment; incentive compatible valuation techniques; conservation; field experiment; forestry; public goods
    JEL: C93 D04 H41 O13 Q51 Q23
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Sinha, D.K.; Ahmad, Nasim; Singh, K.M.
    Abstract: In the present study, an effort has been made to analyze the factors responsible for changes in land use pattern especially increasing current fallow lands, shrinking net sown area and shifting of lands for non-agricultural purposes in the state. The categories of land such as barren land, culturable waste land and permanent pastures and grazing land have shown declining trend. Further, declining trend in net sown area and other fallow lands has been noticed. Current fallows reduced over the period till 2000s but it began to rise since 2000s afterwards. The rainfall and road length did have significant impact on the level of current fallows. Erratic monsoon and scarcity of labour during the study period of present century resulted/led to accumulation of current fallow lands. It was further observed that the non-agricultural use of land was identified as the dominant factor for changes in common lands as it affected the current fallows negatively. It is a challenging task for policy makers to maximize the income of farming community from continuous decline in net sown area, deteriorating climatic condition (erratic monsoon) as well as labour scarce conditions thus finally resulting in aggregation of current fallows. In order to discourage/ arrest the rising tendency in current fallows or put the current fallows under profitable cultivation, cheap source of irrigation is needed to be made available to cultivators.
    Keywords: Land use, Current fallows, Compound growth rate, Bihar
    JEL: Q01 Q15 Q19
    Date: 2017–02–14
  5. By: JAREE PHROMMANA (Suratthani Rajabhat University); Chuleewan Praneetham (Suratthani Rajabhat University); Pornapaktra Sakda (Suratthani Rajabhat University); Jutarat Laophram (Suratthani Rajabhat University); JITTREE SAITHONG (Suratthani Rajabhat University); Sutthipan Chitintorn (Suratthani Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study consumption behavior and self-sufficiency economy practice of students from Suratthani Rajabhat University. The sample of this study consisted of 391 students selected by stratified sampling technique. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The four dimensions of food security, namely; food availability, food access, food utilization, and food stability, and the three pillars and two conditions of the philosophy of sufficiency economy were investigated. Statistical tools employed for data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test. The results revealed that: 1) the students had good behavior on food security management, and 2) the students? self-sufficiency economy practice was at good level.
    Keywords: food security, self-sufficiency economy, practice
    JEL: Q56
    Date: 2017–07
  6. By: Cesar Escalante (University of Georgia); Minrong Song (University of Georgia)
    Abstract: This article estimates and analyzes the technical efficiencies and input allocation decisions of lending associations and their own banks under the U.S. Farm Credit System (FCS) during the period 2005-2011. The sample time period allows for the analysis of the operating decisions of FCS lending units under pre- and post-economic recession conditions. Results indicate that even while FCS lending units were plagued with higher funding costs during the recession, their input allocation decisions revealed fund sourcing strategies that leaned towards using more of the cheaper inputs. Moreover, smaller lending associations were found to have maintained relatively higher levels of technical efficiency.
    Keywords: Farm Credit System, allocative efficiency, input allocation, technical efficiency, financial inputs, deposits
    JEL: G20 E39 Q14
    Date: 2017–07
  7. By: Ondrej Filip (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic); Karel Janda (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic; Department of Banking and Insurance, Faculty of Finance and Accounting, University of Economics, Namesti Winstona Churchilla 4, 13067 Prague, Czech Republic); Ladislav Kristoufek (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: The article investigates the connections between the prices of biofuels and many traded commodities and other relevant assets in Europe, USA and Brazil. The analysis uses a comprehensive dataset covering price data for 32 relevant traded titles over the period 2003-2015. Main contribution of this article is a combination of minimum spanning tree and hierarchical tree approaches with expert economic understanding of biofuels market leading to identification of price connections in a complex trading system. Our analysis of mutual price connections discovers the major defining features of world leading biofuels markest over the last decade. We provide characteristics of main bioethanol and biodiesel markets with respect to technical and local features of the production and consumption of particular biofuels.
    Keywords: biofuels, networks, minimal spanning tree, hierarchical tree
    JEL: C38 Q16 Q42
    Date: 2017–03
  8. By: Makieła, Kamil; Marzec, Jerzy; Pisulewski, Andrzej
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess changes in productivity of Polish dairy farms after Poland’s accession to the EU. In order to do so a new decomposition of output growth is proposed in a stochastic frontier framework. We show how changes in economies of scale can be isolated, which leads to redefined components of output growth and a better measure of productivity growth. The productivity component is now disaggregated to its three generic sources: total scale change, real technical change and efficiency change. The analysis of 1,191 Polish dairy farms between 2004-2011 has revealed that production growth (3.91%) is mostly due to inputs accumulation (3.4%) rather than productivity growth (0.51%.) Further decomposition indicates that productivity component is driven by real technical growth (1%) and changes in scale elasticity, which have had a negative effect on productivity (-0.81%). Technical efficiency growth (0.36%) played a rather minor role.
    Keywords: productivity analysis, Polish dairy farms, output growth decomposition, stochastic frontier analysis, FADN
    JEL: C01 C11 D24 Q12
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: Lovcha, Yuliya; Pérez Laborda, Alejandro
    Abstract: This paper shows that the frequency domain estimation of VAR models over a frequency band can be a good alternative to pre-filtering the data when a low-frequency cycle contaminates some of the variables. As stressed in the econometric literature, pre-filtering destroys the low-frequency range of the spectrum, leading to substantial bias in the responses of the variables to structural shocks. Our analysis shows that if the estimation is carried out in the frequency domain, but employing a sensible band to exclude (enough) contaminated frequencies from the likelihood, the resulting VAR estimates and the impulse responses to structural shocks do not present significant bias. This result is robust to several specifications of the external cycle and data lengths. An empirical application studying the effect of technology shocks on hours worked is provided to illustrate the results. Keywords: Impulse-response, filtering, identification, technology shocks. JEL Classification: C32, C51, E32, E37
    Keywords: Previsió econòmica, Models economètrics, Cicles econòmics, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Michael Spanbauer (Department of Economics, Tulane University); Lindsay Johnson (KIPP McDonogh 15 School for the Creative Arts); Patrick Button (Department of Economics, Tulane University)
    Abstract: We estimate the national average passive use value for Alaskan National Parks. Passive use refers to the value that individuals get from the existence of a public good without actually using it. We field a questionnaire asking respondents, using the contingent valuation method, how much they would pay for a 5% expansion of Denali National Park. We find that respondents are willing to pay $115 to $409 for this expansion, according our preferred specifications. Respondents answers to questions about what motivated their support and questions about their connections to Alaska indicate that support for the expansion is driven by passive use values.
    Keywords: National Parks; willingness-to-pay; nature conservation; contingent valuation; biodiversity; environmental policy
    JEL: Q24 Q28 Q51 Q57 Q58 R52
    Date: 2017–07
  11. By: James Mabli; Irina Cheban
    Abstract: This report examines the labor force participation and employment decisions of SNAP participants, job characteristics among employed participants, and barriers to work among participants who are not working, using the most recently available national longitudinal survey data.
    Keywords: SNAP, employment, barriers, SIPP, food stamp program
    JEL: I0 I1
  12. By: Habla, Wolfgang; Winkler, Ralph
    Abstract: We analyse a principal-agent relationship in the context of international climate policy. Principals in two countries first decide whether to merge domestic emission permit markets to an international market, then delegate the domestic permit supply to an agent. We find that principals select agents caring less for environmental damages than they do themselves in case of an international market regime, while they opt for self-representation in case of domestic markets. This strategic delegation incentive renders the linking of permit markets less attractive and constitutes a novel explanation for the reluctance to establish non-cooperative international permit markets.
    Keywords: non-cooperative climate policy,political economy,emissions trading,linking of permit markets,strategic delegation
    JEL: D72 H23 H41 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Schneider, Tim; Bizer, Kilian
    Abstract: We investigate a market in which experts have a moral hazard problem because they need to invest in costly but unobservable effort to identify consumer problems. Experts have either high or low qualification and can invest either high or low effort in their diagnosis. High skilled experts are able to identify problems with some probability even with low effort while low skilled experts here always give false recommendations. Experts compete for consumers by setting prices for diagnosis and service. Consumers can visit multiple experts, which enables an endogenous verifiability of diagnosis. We show that with a sufficient number of high skilled experts, stable second-best and perfectly non-degenerate equilibria are possible even with flexible prices, although they depend on transactions costs being relatively low. By contrast, with a small share of high skilled experts in the market, setting fixed prices can be beneficial for society.
    Keywords: credence goods,expert market,moral hazard,qualification,competition,second opinions,diagnostic effort
    JEL: L10 D82 D40
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Ahmad, Nasim; Sinha, D.K.; Singh, K.M.; Mishra, R.R.
    Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the growth in area, production and productivity and resource use efficiency of maize in various agro-climatic zones of Bihar. The growth pattern in production and productivity were also observed to be positive and statistically significant. The trends in area, production and productivity were also observed positive for both the growth models, linear and compound.The resource use efficiency was evaluated zone-wise and for state as whole levels using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique for the block period 2008-09 to 2010-11. Technical efficiencies at state level in maize production were found to be 64% for kharif maize and 71% in rabi maize. Allocative mean efficiencies for kharif and rabi maize were calculated 68% and 65%, indicating that farmers could reduce costs by 32% and 35% by using optimum proportions of inputs considering it’s prices while selecting it’s quantities. Farmers of zone-II of Bihar are well known for large scale production of rabi maize, but still there exist technical inefficiency by 24% and AE by 9%. The value of cost efficiency (CE) emphasizes the reduction of cost by 30% to produce exiting level of output at least cost. The farmers of zone-III are more technically sound as compared to zone-I, zone-II and thus, even at state level too, the TE was observed 88% and 87% for kharif and rabi maize, respectively but AE is very less as compared to other zones i.e. 52% for rabi maize
    Keywords: Maize, Resource Use Efficiency, Compound Growth Rate, Cost Efficiency, Technical Efficiency, Bihar
    JEL: O13 Q10 Q12 Q13 Q15
    Date: 2017

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