nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒07‒16
thirteen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Effectiveness of Obesity Prevention and Control By Thavorncharoensap, Montarat
  2. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional diet in Vietnam from 2004 to 2014: new insights using compositional data analysis By Morais, Joanna; Thi, Huong Trinh
  3. Technology Adoption, Capital Deepening, and International Productivity Differences By Chaoran Chen
  4. Irrigation Practices, Water Effectiveness and Productivity Measurement By Konstantinos Chatzimichael; Dimitris Christopoulos; Spiro Stefanou; Vangelis Tzouvelekas
  5. Beyond Water Stress: Structural Adjustment and Macroeconomic Consequences of the Emerging Water Scarcity By Roberto Roson
  6. Market participation, innovation adoption and poverty in rural Ghana By Pacillo, Grazia
  7. Spatial assessment of construction waste generated by residential buildings in rural areas. By Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Grozavu, Adrian
  8. Animal welfare and human ethics: A personality study By Albrecht, Konstanze; Krämer, Florentin; Szech, Nora
  9. How do fishery policies affect Hawaii's longline fishing industry? Calibrating a positive mathematical programming model By Jonathan R. Sweeney; Richard E. Howitt; Hing Ling Chan; Minling Pan; PingSun Leung
  10. The Goose that laid the golden eggs? Agricultural development in Latin America in the 20yh century By Miguel Martín-Retortillo; Vicente Pinilla; Jackeline Velazco; Henry Willebald
  11. Three essays on agriculture and economic development in Tanzania By Silwal, Ani Rudra
  12. Economics and Marketing of Rose Flowers: A case Study of Islamabad and Rawalpindi Districts By Rasheed, Muhammad Taseer; Aujla, Khalid Mehmood; Hussain, Abid; Qureshi, Abdul Hayee; Hasan, Tariq
  13. Les échanges de bovins vivants et de viande bovine dans le monde et dans l’UE : trajectoires productives et commerciales des principaux pays impliqués By Vincent Chatellier

  1. By: Thavorncharoensap, Montarat (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Implementation of evidence-based interventions to control obesity is regarded as a public health priority. In this working paper, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes, nutrition labeling, advertising bans on unhealthy food, and school-based interventions are reviewed. The review indicates that SSB taxes may be an effective and cost-effective intervention for obesity prevention and control. Regarding nutrition labeling, current evidence indicates that this has a significant impact on food selection. Although there is limited evidence on its impact on body mass index (BMI) and obesity prevalence, nutrition labeling is considered a cost-effective intervention in many settings. Further, while current evidence indicates that unhealthy food and beverage advertisements may increase dietary intake and the preference for unhealthy foods, especially in children, limited evidence demonstrates the impact of restricted unhealthy food advertising on BMI and obesity prevalence. However, such an intervention is considered to be cost-effective in many settings. Concerning school-based interventions, due to the limited number of good-quality studies as well as high variation across studies, the effectiveness of these interventions is inconclusive. Current evidence also suggests that school-based interventions are less likely to be cost-effective.
    Keywords: health; obesity; nutrition; nutrition labeling; sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes
    JEL: I12 I18
    Date: 2017–01–31
  2. By: Morais, Joanna; Thi, Huong Trinh
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of socioeconomic factors, like food expenditure level and urbanization, on diet patterns in Vietnam, from 2004 to 2014. Contrary to the existing literature, we focus on the diet balance in terms of macronutrients consumption (protein, fat and carbohydrate) and we take into account the fact that the volumes of each macronutrient are not independent. In other words, we are interested in the shares of each macronutrient in the total calorie intake. We use the compositional data analysis (CODA) to describe the evolution of diet patterns over time, and to model the impact of household characteristics on the macronutrient shares vector. We compute food expenditure elasticities of macronutrient shares, and we compare them to classical elasticities for macronutrient volumes and total calorie intake. The compositional model highlights the important role of food expenditure, size of the household and dwelling region in the determination of diet choices. Our results are consistent with the rest of the literature, but they have the advantage to highlight the substitution effects between macronutrients in the context of nutrition transition.
    Keywords: Macronutrient shares; diet pattern; compositional regression models; expenditure elasticity; Vietnam.
    JEL: C02 C21 C51 P46
    Date: 2017–06
  3. By: Chaoran Chen (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Cross-country differences in capital intensity are larger in the agricultural sector than in the non-agricultural sector, indicating that rich and poor countries differ in agricultural technology adoption. I build a two-sector general equilibrium model featuring technology adoption in agriculture. As the economy develops, farmers gradually adopt a modern capital-intensive technology to replace the traditional labour-intensive technology, as is observed in the U.S. historical data. Using this model, I find that the technology adoption channel is key to accounting for low agricultural capital intensity and labour productivity in poor countries. In the model, measured aggregate factors – land endowment, economy-wide productivity, and barriers to investment – can explain 1.56-fold more in rich-poor agricultural productivity differences compared to a model without technology adoption. I further show that land market frictions in agriculture impede technology adoption and magnify productivity differences.
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Konstantinos Chatzimichael; Dimitris Christopoulos; Spiro Stefanou; Vangelis Tzouvelekas (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece)
    Abstract: This paper develops a consistent theoretical framework for measuring irrigation water effectiveness and its impact on productivity growth rates by assuming a smooth transition process from traditional to modern irrigation technologies among individual farmers.
    Keywords: irrigation technology adoption and diffusion, irrigation effectiveness, productivity growth, translog-transition model, greenhouse farms
    JEL: C41 O16 O33 Q25
    Date: 2017–07–08
  5. By: Roberto Roson (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari and IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan)
    Abstract: This work analyzes some system-wide macroeconomic consequences of lower (sustainable) water availability, when global economic growth is postulated according to the Shared Socio-Economic Pathway 1 (SSP1), for the reference year 2050. After finding that the rather optimistic forecasts of economic development cannot be met in most water scarce macro-regions, we assess what consequences for the structure of the economy, welfare and the terms of trade, the insufficiency of water resources would imply. The analysis is undertaken by means of numerical simulations with a global computable general equilibrium model, under a set of alternative hypotheses. In particular, we consider whether (or not) the regional economic systems have a differentiated capability of adaptation (by means of innovation and modification of economic processes), and whether (or not) the scarce water resources can be allocated among industries, such that more water is assigned where its economic value is greater.
    Keywords: Water, Economic Growth, Shared Socio-economic Pathways, Computable General Equilibrium, Virtual Water Trade
    JEL: C68 F18 F43 O11 Q01 Q25 Q32 Q56
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Pacillo, Grazia
    Abstract: Agricultural commercialisation via increased market participation and innovation adoption has been widely argued to reduce poverty. However, empirical evidence suggests that both of these are persistently low in developing countries. Recent analyses suggest that different types of transaction costs and social capital may influence both market access and innovation adoption decisions. This thesis investigates these two factors in agricultural commercialisation and poverty reduction. Using data from three GLSS survey rounds, Chapter 1 investigates the determinants of the decision to sell as well as the decision of how much to sell, focusing on the role of transaction costs. The empirical analysis is carried out at household level and for a specific crop (maize). A Heckman two-step model is used to control for self-selection into market participation, using measures of fixed transaction costs as identifier variables. The overall results, although generally consistent with previous literature, show an unexpected positive relationship between remoteness and market participation, which might reflect peculiarities of Ghanaian crop marketing systems. Chapter 3 investigates the relationship between social capital and innovation using primary data on 305 Ghanaian farmers collected during field work in 2012 (described in Chapter 2). The chapter analyses innovation (the decision to adopt, its timing and intensity) at crop level, focusing on a non-traditional cash crop, exotic varieties of mango. The analysis investigates the role of different types of social capital, both in disaggregated and aggregated forms. The results suggest that social capital should not be overlooked in the innovation process, supporting recent evidence that there exists a positive relationship between the “know-who” and adoption dynamics. Finally, Chapter 4 investigates the impact of innovation adoption on objective and subjective measures of poverty. Matching techniques are used to estimate the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated, using primary data. The results show that adoption does not impact objective poverty but it does have a significant positive impact on self-perceived poverty status.
    Date: 2016–06
  7. By: Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Grozavu, Adrian
    Abstract: The management of construction waste it is at an early stage in urban areas and lacking in rural areas where this fraction is frequently uncontrolled disposed on public lands. Despite the fact some items of construction waste are considered inert for the environment (soil, concrete) it also contains hazardous items (paint additives, cans, and containers) or recyclables (plastics, metals, wood). Potential recovery of this waste stream is high if it is properly managed. The paper estimates the potential amounts of waste resulted from residential constructions across rural municipalities of Neamț County between 2002 and 2010. These statistical values are calculated at commune level (rural territorial administrative unit) in order to outline the disparities between various geographical areas using thematic cartography. This approach is correlated with demographic features in order to reflect such spatial patterns. The map of population density within built-up areas reveals where the construction sector is emerging at the county scale. Field observations highlight the existence of illegal disposal practices of construction waste in the proximity of settlements or water bodies. This waste stream should receive proper attention in following years in order to achieve recycling and recovery targets imposed by EU regulations.
    Keywords: construction waste, spatial assessment, Neamț County, Romania
    JEL: Q52 Q53 Q56 R11 R51 R52 R53
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Albrecht, Konstanze; Krämer, Florentin; Szech, Nora
    Abstract: We elicit concern for animal welfare in an incentivized, direct and real setup that allows us to separate genuine interest in animal welfare from confounding factors like advertisement, replacement arguments or image concerns. Subjects choose between intensive farming and organic living conditions for a laying hen. Opting for better living conditions is costly, but guarantees better food, daylight, and more space to the hen. Hence subjects have to trade off a selfish benefit (money) against the welfare of a hen. Our data shed light on a long-standing philosophical debate about the relationship between animal welfare and human ethics. We confirm that subjects with higher interests in the hen's well-being exhibit higher moral standards towards humans. Supporters of intensive farming are significantly less prosocial and open-minded, and more Machiavellian than others.
    Keywords: Animal welfare,human ethics,experiment,sustainability
    JEL: D01 D62 D69
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Jonathan R. Sweeney; Richard E. Howitt; Hing Ling Chan; Minling Pan; PingSun Leung
    Abstract: We present a vessel and target-specific positive mathematical programming model (PMP) for Hawaii's longline fishing fleet. Although common in agricultural economics, PMP modeling is rarely attempted in fisheries. To demonstrate the flexibility of the PMP framework, we separate tuna and swordfish production technologies into three policy relevant fishing targets. We find the model most accurately predicts vessel-specific annual bigeye catch in the WCPO, with an accuracy of 12% to 35%, and a correlation between 0.30 and 0.53. To demonstrate the model's usefulness to policy makers, we simulate the economic impact to individual vessels from increasing and decreasing the bigeye catch limit in the WCPO by 10%. Our results suggest that such policy changes will have moderate impacts on most vessels, but large impacts on a few generating a fat tailed distribution. These results offer insights into the range of winners and losers resulting from changes in fishery policies, and therefore, which policies are more likely to gain widespread industry support. As a tool for fishery management, the calibrated PMP model offers a flexible and easy-to-use framework, capable of capturing the heterogeneous response of fishing vessels to evaluate policy changes.
    Date: 2017–07
  10. By: Miguel Martín-Retortillo; Vicente Pinilla; Jackeline Velazco; Henry Willebald
    Abstract: In the last third of the nineteenth century, a large majority of Latin America adopted export-led models of growth, mostly based on agricultural exports. In some countries, this strategy produced significant results in terms of economic development but in most of the countries, the strategy was not successful, either because of too slow growth in exports or because linkages with the rest of the economy were very weak and there was no significant growth-spreading effect. After WWII, Latin America turned to a new model of economic development: the import substitution industrialisation (ISI). The ISI policies penalised export-led agriculture. The 1980s and 1990s were characterised by an expansion of adjustment policies and structural reforms. The new strategy consisted of mobilising resources in competitive export sectors, including agriculture.
    Keywords: Latin American agriculture, agricultural development, export-led growth model, import substitution industrialization, agricultural growth, Latin American economic history
    JEL: N16 N56 Q10 Q17
    Date: 2017–07
  11. By: Silwal, Ani Rudra
    Abstract: One cannot study poverty in Tanzania without understanding the agricultural sector, which employs more than two-thirds of the population and accounts for nearly a quarter of national GDP. This thesis examines three themes that focus on the difficulties that rural Tanzanians face in achieving a reasonable livelihood: the adverse legacy of a failed historical policy, a difficult climate, and market failures. The first empirical chapter examines the legacy of the villagization program that attempted to transform the predominantly agricultural and rural Tanzania. Between 1971 and 1973, the majority of rural residents were moved to villages planned by the government. This essay examines if the programs effects are persistent and have had a long-run legacy. It analyzes the impact of exposure to the program on various outcome measures from recent household surveys. The primary finding of this study is that households living in districts heavily exposed to the program have worse measures of various current outcomes. The second empirical chapter examines the role of reliability of rainfall, which is important in Tanzania as agriculture is predominantly rain-fed and a small fraction of plots are irrigated. This chapter investigates if households cope with this major risk to income by re-allocating their labor supply between agriculture, wage labor, and self-employment activities. This chapter combines data on labor allocation of households within and outside of agriculture from the National Panel Survey with high-resolution satellite-based rainfall data not previously used in this literature. The primary finding of this study is that households allocate more family labor to agriculture in years of good rainfall and more labor to self-employment activities in years of poor rainfall. Market failures are often cited as a rationale for policy recommendations and government interventions. The third chapter implements four tests of market failures suggested in the literature, all of which rely on the agricultural household model but differ in how market failures are manifested. The common finding of these tests is that market failures exist in agricultural factor markets in Tanzania, although significant heterogeneity exists. Markets are more likely to fail in rural areas, remote locations, and are more likely to affect female-headed households. Households are also more likely to face market failure when they try to supply labor to the market than when they try to hire labor from the market.
    Date: 2016–03
  12. By: Rasheed, Muhammad Taseer; Aujla, Khalid Mehmood; Hussain, Abid; Qureshi, Abdul Hayee; Hasan, Tariq
    Abstract: Roses have reasonable demand in Pakistan. The study was conducted in rose growing pockets of Islamabad and Rawalpindi districts. The objective of the study was to determine costs and returns of rose producers and marketing intermediaries. Random sampling technique was used to collect the data from thirty farmers and ten retailers. In the study area, per acre yield of roses was 1010 kg per annum. Average establishment cost of rose gardens was Rs. 0.17 million per acre. Total cost of production was calculated to be Rs. 0.26 million per acre per annum. Gross and net returns of rose farmers were calculated to be Rs. 0.32 million and Rs. 0.06 million per acre, respectively. Benefit cost ratio of roses production was 1.24, thus returns from roses’ production are high enough, and it is an attractive farming activity in the study area. Marketing channel for roses was identified as producers, retailers, and consumers. Marketing costs of producers and retailers were Rs. 54.1 and Rs. 17.3 per kg, respectively. Shares of producers and retailers in consumer rupee were 77.4% and 22.6%, respectively. Farmers in the study area obtain low yield of roses than their counterparts in irrigated areas of the country, mainly to due to traditional non-recommended production practices. Thus, farmers should be trained to use recommended production technology for production of roses.
    Keywords: Benefit cost ratio, Consumer’s rupee, Establishment cost, Islamabad, Maintenance cost, Net margins, Rawalpindi, Roses,
    JEL: Q12
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Vincent Chatellier
    Abstract: The increase in beef consumption in several Asian countries is helping to strengthen competitive games between the world's leading beef exporters, including Australia, India, Brazil and the United States. The main importers of beef and veal, including the United States, China (with Hong-Kong), Japan and Russia, have some differentiated trajectories according to changes in domestic demand for beef and veal, sanitary conditions in supplier countries and sometimes geopolitical issues. The European Union, which is experiencing both a decline in its production and consumption of beef, is not a major player in international trade in this sector. Domestic demand is largely satisfied by European products and significant flows of live cattle and beef take place between Member States. Using the available customs databases both on a global scale (Comtrade and Baci) and the European Union (Comext), this article proposes an analysis on the evolution of the productive and commercial situation of the main players in the beef cattle sector for the period 2000 to 2015.
    Keywords: international trade, exchange, exports, imports, beef, live cattle
    JEL: Q13 Q17
    Date: 2017

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