nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒06‒25
27 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Evaluation of farm programmes in the 2014 US farm bill: A review of the literature By OECD
  2. Can Land Fragmentation Reduce the Exposure of Rural Households to Weather Variability? By Stefanija Veljanoska
  3. Can money always talk? : implication for environmental compensation by international agribusiness By Zhou, Li; Lei, Lei
  4. A case for institutional demand as effective social protection: supporting smallholders through procurement and food assistance programmes By Ryan Nehring; Ana Carla Miranda; Andrew Howe
  5. Do Agricultural Marketing Laws Matter for Rural Growth? Evidence from the Indian States By Purnima Purohit; Katsushi S. Imai; Kunal Sen
  6. Growth factors in the agriculture of Russia By Uzun Vasily; Shagaida Natalia
  7. Agriculture in the NAFTA Renegotiation By Cullen S. Hendrix
  8. Heterogeneous Yield Impacts from Adoption of Genetically Engineered Corn and the Importance of Controlling for Weather By Jayson L. Lusk; Jesse Tack; Nathan P. Hendricks
  9. A viable and cost-effective weather index insurance for rice in Indonesia By Kusuma, Aditya; Noy, Ilan; Jackson, Bethanna
  10. Phase II of the PAA Africa programme: results and lessons learned By Ana Carla Miranda; Mario Gyori; Fábio Veras Soares
  11. Effects of standards on tea exports from developing countries : comparison of China and Sri Lanka By Lei, Lei
  12. Cost of controlling water pollution and its impact on industrial efficiancy By Asha Gunawardena
  13. Family farming in the Near East and North Africa By Ray Bush
  14. Credit Rationing and Pass-Through in Supply Chains: Theory and Evidence from Bangladesh By Emran, M.Shahe; Mookherjee, Dilip; Shilpi, Forhad; Uddin, M. Helal
  15. Crop Disease and Agricultural Productivity By Christine L. Carroll; Colin A. Carter; Rachael E. Goodhue; C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell
  16. Avian influenza, nontariff measures, and the poultry exports in the global value chain By Lei, Lei; Zhou, Li
  17. Human development and land tenure in Brazil By Fernando Gaiger Silveira; Alexandre Arbex Valadares; Nikolas de Camargo Pirani
  18. Microfinance and Vulnerability to Seasonal Famine in a Rural Economy: Evidence from Monga in Bangladesh By Berg, Claudia; Emran, M. Shahe
  19. Family farms of North America By John Ikerd
  20. Public Expenditures and the Performance of Latin American and Caribbean Agriculture By Gustavo Anríquez; William Foster; Jorge Ortega; César Falconi; Carmine Paolo De Salvo
  21. Agricultural Transformation in Senegal: Impacts of an integrated program By Abdoulaye Diagne Author-Name: Fran ois J. Cabral
  22. From policy commitments to the effective implementation of gender-sensitive social protection programmes By Charlotte Bilo; Raquel Tebaldi; Maja Gavrilovic
  23. The cost of being under the weather: Droughts, floods, and health care costs in Sri Lanka By De Alwis, Diana; Noy, Ilan
  24. Social protection and the financial inclusion of rural women in family farming in Latin America By Bettina Gatt
  25. Price elasticities for disaggregated expenditures By François Gardes
  26. Regulating Water an Sanitation Network Services. Accounting for Institutional and Informational Constraints By Daniel Camos-Daurella; Antonio Estache
  27. Family farming in Europe and Central Asia: history, characteristics, threats and potentials By Jan Douwe van der Ploeg

  1. By: OECD
    Abstract: Main changes to US farm programmes under the 2014 Farm Bill aim to strengthen instruments for risk management, both in commodity and in crop insurance programmes. In addition, the 2014 Farm Bill consolidated voluntary conservation programmes supporting agricultural land preservation and the adoption of environmentally friendly production practices. In the literature reviewed, analysts generally acknowledge the reinforced capacity of farm programmes to reduce farm revenue losses and the diversity of options offered to farmers to manage risk. They also discuss farmers' choices of participation in programmes and coverage level in terms of optimisation of their benefits. They also outline the scope for higher budget costs if prices keep falling, but note that some provisions limit the increase. Regarding the impact of programmes on land and markets, the consensus is that by design, the two new crop commodity programmes do not influence current planting decisions, but they could generate small wealth and risk effects. Similarly the new dairy programme could affect the decisions of risk adverse farmers. Support to crop insurance on the other hand is based on current parameters, and unlimited, thus it is expected to encourage higher input use to maximise profit, in addition to the wealth and risk effects. Empirical analyses find very small effects of crop insurance subsidies on total land use, but some suggest a non-negligible impact on crop rotation, and variable input use. Overall, the literature finds that conservation payments seem to have had a positive impact on the environment. In particular, they have encouraged farmers to adopt more environmentally-friendly practices and address a broader set of environmental objectives. Some experts note, however, that some programmes may not necessarily bring additional benefits. Experts consider that cross-compliance mechanisms have partly contributed to reduce soil erosion by encouraging farmers to use less erosive cropping practices (e.g. conservation tillage, conservation crop rotations) and to retire particularly erodible land.
    Keywords: Agricultural policy, conservation programmes, crop insurance, risk management
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2017–06–21
  2. By: Stefanija Veljanoska (Paris School of Economics, UniversitŽ de Paris 1 PanthŽon-Sorbonne, UniversitŽ Paris-Sud)
    Abstract: Climate change continuously affects African farmers that operate in rain-fed environments. Coping with weather risk through credit and insurance markets is almost inexistent as these markets are imperfect in the African economies. Even though land fragmentation is often considered as a barrier to agricultural productivity, this article aims at analyzing whether land fragmentation, as an insurance alternative, is able to reduce farmers' exposure to weather variability. In order to address this research question, I use the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) data on Uganda. After dealing with the endogeneity of land fragmentation, I find that higher land fragmentation decreases the loss of crop yield when households experience rain deviations. Therefore, policy makers should be cautious with land consolidation programs.
    Keywords: climate change, land fragmentation, rainfall, yield, insurance
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q54
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Zhou, Li; Lei, Lei
    Abstract: With the development of agricultural industrialization, the environmental issues of intensive animal farming are attracting increasing attention. Using survey data from 313 Chinese households living near the large-scale broiler farms of an international food company, this paper employs a contingent valuation method and discrete choice experiment to quantify the willingness to accept an air pollution compensation scheme. We find the following. (1) 42% of respondents have a nonmonetary preference for compensation; thus, the conventional contingent valuation method is unsuitable for application to them. (2) The results of a probit and tobit model show that in addition to income, “trust and perception” dominate decision-making based on willingness to accept; however, the effect of actual distance is weak. (3) Because of the positive externalities of roads, schools, and job opportunities, the combination of nonmonetary options is feasible and beneficial for both sides (the company and households) in the long term. Thus, from the perspective of the global value chain, it is worth studying nonmonetary compensation strategies in order to explore the sustainable development strategies of multinational corporations.
    Keywords: Agricultural economics,Poultry,Agriculture,Globalization,Willingness to accept,CVM,Choice experiment,Global value chain,Pollution,China
    JEL: F23 Q12 Q51
    Date: 2017–04
  4. By: Ryan Nehring (IPC-IG); Ana Carla Miranda (IPC-IG); Andrew Howe (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "This paper focuses on the rationale for state-based market interventions to support smallholder production along with some case studies that follow the evolution and impact of what we call 'institutional demand' policies. Institutional demand is an intervention that aims to improve regional markets by establishing coordinated purchases for regional distribution, primarily through local and regional food procurement (LRP). We also address the question of smallholder farmers dependency on state-based market interventions, and review existing evidence of how institutional purchase programmes have supported income generation and increased agricultural production. The paper outlines the two direct forms of social protection offered through institutional demand: reliable income generation for targeted smallholders and expanded food availability for vulnerable populations. Our hope is that this paper will outline areas for future research to analyse the impact of institutional demand policies".
    Keywords: case, institutional, demand, effective, social protection, supporting, smallholders, procurement, food assistance, programmes
    Date: 2017–06
  5. By: Purnima Purohit (The Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow, UK); Katsushi S. Imai (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan, and Department of Economics, The University of Manchester, UK); Kunal Sen (The Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, UK)
    Abstract: This article examines effects of the regulatory framework of post-harvest agricultural markets on agricultural growth across Indian states over the period 1970-2008. We propose a new measure that captures various legislative dimensions of a key ‘Act’ - the Agricultural Produce Markets Commission (APMC) Act & Rules - governing the agricultural markets, evolved from the dismal colonial history of India, and use this measure to estimate growth models using panel methods. We have applied Fixed-Effects, Feasible Generalized Least Squares, and Fixed-Effects Instrumental Variable models to the panel data to address the endogeneity associated with the regulatory framework. Our results show that the Act significantly promotes not only agricultural growth but the use and the adoption of agricultural technology. Evidence presented suggests that a policy to remove market regulation rather than advancing effective ones would fail consequentially to draw investments and improve agriculture growth.
    Keywords: Law, Regulation, Agricultural markets, Colonial institution, Technology, Economic growth, Panel data, Indian states
    JEL: C23 D02 K23 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2017–06
  6. By: Uzun Vasily (RANEPA); Shagaida Natalia (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2016, record-high yields of grain, including wheat, maize, sunflower, soya and sugar-beet were received. A new record in poultry meat production was set. Despite economic recession, gross agricultural output has been growing in the past few years. Such results are attributed by many experts to the effect of the embargo on imports of food from some countries and import substitution measures. However, neither the embargo nor import substitution was a decisive factor behind growth in agriculture. The most important factors were the interest of the business in developing agriculture, depreciation of the ruble and favorable weather conditions of the past few years.
    Keywords: Russian economy, agricultural production
    JEL: Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Cullen S. Hendrix (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: Despite agriculture’s modest contribution to GDP in all three partner countries, agricultural issues will be a thorny aspect of the NAFTA renegotiation—just as they are in other trade agreement negotiations. US and Canadian agricultural producers like NAFTA and will fight hard to preserve it. Aside from some wrangling over market access issues for dairy, poultry, and eggs and recent spats over Canadian soft lumber, farm organizations in both countries view NAFTA positively. Public opinion in Mexico is more ambivalent, but NAFTA has created strong export-oriented agricultural interests in the country’s north that balance more protectionist interests in the south. NAFTA has created complex cross-border agricultural supply chains that create value added for the US economy, particularly in GOP-leaning states. Disrupting NAFTA could create big problems for Trump-voting states and states with GOP and split Senate delegations, especially those that rely heavily on agricultural exports and intra-NAFTA trade.
    Date: 2017–06
  8. By: Jayson L. Lusk; Jesse Tack; Nathan P. Hendricks
    Abstract: Concern about declining growth in crop yields has renewed debates about the ability of biotechnology to promote food security. While numerous experimental and farm-level studies have found that adoption of genetically engineered crops has been associated with yield gains, aggregate and cross-country comparisons often seem to show little effect, raising questions about the size and generalizability of the effect. This paper attempts to resolve this conundrum using a panel of United States county-level corn yields from 1980 to 2015 in conjunction with data on adoption of genetically engineered crops, weather, and soil characteristics. Our panel data contain just over 28,000 observations spanning roughly 800 counties. We show that changing weather patterns confound simple analyses of trend yield, and only after controlling for weather do we find that genetically engineered crops have increased yields above trend. There is marked heterogeneity in the effect of adoption of genetically engineered crops across location partially explained by differential soil characteristics which may be related to insect pressure. While adoption of genetically engineered crops has the potential to mitigate downside risks from weeds and insects, we find no effects of adoption on yield variability nor do we find that adoption of presently available genetically engineered crops has led to increased resilience to heat or water stress. On average, across all counties, we find adoption of GE corn was associated with a 17 percent increase in corn yield.
    JEL: C23 O47 Q16
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Kusuma, Aditya; Noy, Ilan; Jackson, Bethanna
    Abstract: The potentially adverse effects of droughts on agricultural output are obvious. Indonesian rice farmers have no financial protection from climate risk via catastrophic weather risk transfer tools. Done well, a weather index insurance (WII) program can not only provide resources that enable recovery, but can also facilitate the adoption of prevention and adaptation measures and incentivise risk reduction. Here, we quantify the applicability, viability, and likely cost of introducing a WII for droughts for rice production in Indonesia. To reduce basis risk, we construct district specific indices that are based on the estimation of Panel Geographically Weighted Regressions models. With these spatial tools, and detailed district level data on past agricultural productivity and weather conditions, we present an algorithm that generates an effective and actuarially sound WII, and measure its effectiveness in reducing income volatility for farmers. We use data on annual paddy production in 428 Indonesian districts, reported over the period 1990-2013, and climate data from 1950-2015. We use the monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index and identify district-specific trigger and exit points for the insurance plan. We quantify the impact of this hypothetical insurance product using past production data to calculate an actuarially-robust and welfare-enhancing price for this scheme.
    Keywords: Indonesia, Weather index insurance, Droughts,
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Ana Carla Miranda (IPC-IG); Mario Gyori (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The Purchase from Africans for Africa (PAA Africa) programme is an innovative development cooperation initiative that seeks to promote food security and income generation among vulnerable populations through institutional purchases from smallholder farmers for school feeding programmes. A key innovation of PAA Africa is the combination of providing access to institutional markets and support to agricultural production, such as access to inputs, training and machinery". (?)
    Keywords: Phase II, PAA Africa, programme, results, lessons learned
    Date: 2017–02
  11. By: Lei, Lei
    Abstract: Food safety standards have become stricter and are currently major barriers in the international agri-food trade. These standards negatively affect developing countries exports to markets in developed countries. We use tea exports from two major tea exporting developing countries, China and Sri Lanka, as an example to discuss the effects of standards on their tea supply chains. China and Sri Lanka share some similar characteristics in tea production and exports. First, we conduct a general comparison between the two countries’ tea exports based on port rejection data from UNIDO, and then we provide a detailed supply chain analysis. Finally, we summarize our work and discuss the policy implications.
    Keywords: International trade,Standards,Tea,Exports,Supply Chain
    JEL: O10 Q13 Q17
    Date: 2017–04
  12. By: Asha Gunawardena
    Abstract: This paper estimates the cost of effluent discharge regulations for firms located in the lower Kelani River catchment in Sri Lanka. The river provides water for many economic purposes including drinking water and avariety of ecosystem services. Employing multi-input and multi-output translog production technology, we estimate shadow prices of effluents and technical efficiency of firms belonging to eight industries. We also compute total abatement cost for firms under different policy scenarios related to simultaneous reduction in concentration of three water pollutants including current regulatory standards. Wide variations in firm and industry shadow prices (marginal abatement costs) provide a strong case for a comprehensive redesign of environmental policy to control water pollution by industries in Sri Lanka.
    Keywords: Shadow prices, Technical efficiency, environmental regulation, water pollution, distance functions
  13. By: Ray Bush (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The United Nations International Year of Family Farming 2014 came at an important time for the region of the Near East and North Africa (NENA).1 This is because the political turmoil and uprisings that have structured politics and social policy in the region since 2010 (and as we will also see, from before this year too) demanded 'bread, freedom, social justice' (Aish, horreya, 'adala igtema'yyia). This slogan of protesters was heard in varied forms across the region. While most attention focused on urban rebellions in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, where Western military intervention accelerated the removal from power of Muammar al-Gaddafi and the subsequent continued chaos, rural dissent and protest was also present across the region. Protests by small farmers across NENA had been very evident since the food price hikes of 2008 that had intensified rural malnutrition, poverty and inequality (Bush 2010). But the causes of protest had been long in the making and can be traced back to the onset of economic liberalisation in the mid-1980s, if not earlier. NENA is the world's largest food importer, relying on world markets for more than 50 per cent of its food. Price rises, particularly for wheat and rice, have given a stronger rationale to the strategic importance of boosting local production. The need to reduce the impact of the vagaries of volatile international markets for grain is?rhetorically at least?central to all countries in the region. Yet the strategy to reduce that dependence is shaped by intense local and international political pressures. The largely non-food-producing countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have intensified their search for land to purchase outside their national boundaries, while others, such as Egypt, have suggested the need to reinvigorate historical practices of land reclamation. All countries in the region are intent on increasing incentives to agribusiness investors". (?)
    Keywords: Family farming, Near East, North Africa
    Date: 2016–12
  14. By: Emran, M.Shahe; Mookherjee, Dilip; Shilpi, Forhad; Uddin, M. Helal
    Abstract: We extend standard models of price pass-through across multiple layers of intermediaries in a supply chain with imperfect competition to incorporate credit rationing. To test against a standard model without credit rationing, we study the effects of a policy reform in Bangladesh's edible oils supply chain during 2011-12 which banned a layer of financing intermediaries. The standard model predicts higher pass-through of international prices to wholesale prices after the reform, while the credit rationing model predicts the opposite if the resulting credit contraction is strong enough. Evidence from a difference-in-difference estimation rejects the standard model. Our estimates imply that the regulatory effort to reduce market power of financing intermediaries ended up raising consumer prices by restricting access to credit of downstream traders.
    Keywords: Intermediary, Supply Chain, Market Power, Credit Rationing, Pass-through, Edible Oils, Bangladesh
    JEL: D4 L1 O1
    Date: 2017–06–20
  15. By: Christine L. Carroll; Colin A. Carter; Rachael E. Goodhue; C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell
    Abstract: Crop diseases and how they are managed can have a large impact on agricultural productivity. This paper discusses the effects on agricultural productivity of Verticillium dahliae, a soil borne fungus that is introduced to the soil via infested spinach seeds and that causes subsequent lettuce crops to be afflicted with Verticillium wilt. We use a dynamic structural econometric model of Verticillium wilt management for lettuce crops in Monterey County, California to examine the effects of Verticillium wilt on crop-fumigation decisions and on grower welfare. We also discuss our research on the externalities that arise with renters, and between seed companies and growers due to Verticillium wilt, as these disease-related externalities have important implications for agricultural productivity.
    JEL: Q00 Q10 Q12
    Date: 2017–06
  16. By: Lei, Lei; Zhou, Li
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the direct impact of avian influenza outbreaks and the impact of the consequent nontariff measures on the international poultry trade in the Global Value Chain Context. Using monthly export data regarding China and its 122 poultry importing countries, a random-effect gravity model is adopted. The research analysis distinguishes between “agri-food goods” (mostly uncooked poultry products) and “processed goods” (mostly cooked poultry products) to understand the trade in global value chain. The results show that domestic avian influenza outbreaks have a large and significant negative impact on a country’s poultry imports compared with such outbreaks in exporting countries. Moreover, nontariff measures induced by avian influenza reduce the uncooked poultry trade but increase the cooked poultry trade temporarily. The results also imply that developing countries that attempt to participate in the global agri-food value chain to access developed countries’ markets should increase and enhance processed food production for more-value adding and competiveness.
    Keywords: Poultry,International trade,Trade policy,Poultry trade,Non-tariff measures,Processing trade
    JEL: F14 O24 Q17
    Date: 2017–04
  17. By: Fernando Gaiger Silveira (IPC-IG); Alexandre Arbex Valadares (IPC-IG); Nikolas de Camargo Pirani (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "This study proposes to investigate how living conditions and human development in the rural environment might be linked to a structural characteristic of the Brazilian countryside: the high concentration of land ownership. It offers statistical evidence that highlights how the markedly unequal land tenure structures in Brazil can affect the indicators of human development, especially of the rural population. It joins other studies that, with similar technical and methodological approaches, have analysed the relationship between the geographic distribution of well-being indicators and distinct patterns of land occupation". (?)
    Keywords: Human development, land tenure, Brazil
    Date: 2017–02
  18. By: Berg, Claudia; Emran, M. Shahe
    Abstract: This paper takes advantage of a unique data set on 143,000 poor households from northern Bangladesh to analyze the effects of microfinance membership on a household’s ability to cope with seasonal famine known as Monga. We develop an instrumental variables strategy that exploits a jump and a kink at the 10 decimal (0.1 acre) land ownership threshold driven by MFI screening process to ensure repayment by excluding the ultra-poor. Evidence from the local 2SLS estimator (Dong, 2017) shows that microfinance membership improves food security during the hungry season, especially for the poorest households who struggle to survive at the margin of 1 and 2 meals a day. Microfinance membership also reduces the probability of short-term migration for work during Monga, but is ineffective in reducing the incidence of advance sale of labor at low wages. These conclusions are also supported by estimates from minimum-biased IPW estimator of Millimet and Tchernis (2013) that reduces bias without imposing exclusion restrictions.
    Keywords: Microfinance, Ultra-Poor, Aggregate Anticipated Shock, Seasonal Famine, Monga, Coping Mechanisms, Food Security, Distress Sale of Labor, Short-term Migration, Local 2SLS.
    JEL: I3 O1
    Date: 2017–06–20
  19. By: John Ikerd (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Historically, family farms held positions of respect and high esteem in the dominant cultures of North America and in much of the rest of the world. The first family farmers in North America were the indigenous peoples who had lived on the continent for centuries before the arrival of Europeans. Most depended primarily on hunting and gathering, but farming was common among many of the tribes of North America. These indigenous family farmers, like the early family farmers of Europe, usually included extended families. The families agreed on informal divisions of labour and divided the resulting production among kin groups within larger communities that farmed particular areas (Albritton 2012). An extended family might tend a specific land area, giving it some sense of ownership or rights; however, there was no real sense of private property. Most farming areas were considered 'common property' where all families could graze animals or farm cooperatively". (?)
    Keywords: Family farms, North America
    Date: 2016–12
  20. By: Gustavo Anríquez; William Foster; Jorge Ortega; César Falconi; Carmine Paolo De Salvo
    Abstract: Economic theory and econometric evidence support the thesis that the displacement of government expenditures on public goods by subsidies to private goods inhibits the performance of the farm sector. This paper presents an analysis of the influence of the mix of expenditures related to agriculture on net income generation, using data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean countries during 1985-2012. The econometric results demonstrate that total government spending on the farm sector positively impacts agriculture's performance. More importantly, and of greater practical economic significance, increasing the share of expenditures committed to public goods, ceteris paribus, would significantly raise rural income as measured by sector value added per capita of the rural population.
    Keywords: Agricultural policy, Public expenditure, Agricultural research & extension, Agricultural productivity, Rural Infrastructure, government agricultural policy, government spending, agricultural spending
    JEL: Q18 Q17 Q16 O13 H50
    Date: 2016–09
  21. By: Abdoulaye Diagne Author-Name: Fran ois J. Cabral
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of an agriculture transformation program on poverty, migration, food security and agricultural revenue. We used Inverse Propensity Score Matching (IPSM) techniques, to correct the selection bias arising from the non-randomness of the allocation of farmers to the treatment. The results find that ANIDA farms are better equipped with irrigation technologies, and so, appear more resilient to climatic events such as droughts. They spent $2,905 USD per hectare on inputs and produced 10,526 kg per worker more than traditional farmers. The intention to migrate, the depth and severity of poverty are significantly below those of beneficiariesÕ households. The ANIDA program is a model that should be promoted in all municipalities of the country, in order to modernize the agricultural sector. The analysis is limited by the fact that the non-compliance rate of the program is high and needs more investigation to better understand the underlying factors.
    Keywords: Agricultural Economics, Impact Evaluation, Agriculture policy, Inverse propensity Score Matching.
    JEL: Q12 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Charlotte Bilo (IPC-IG); Raquel Tebaldi (IPC-IG); Maja Gavrilovic (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The sixth and final webinar in the gender-sensitive social protection series looked at the different factors that need to be considered while designing and implementing gender-sensitive social protection programmes. Maxine Molyneux's presentation focused mainly on experiences from Latin America, considering the region's particular political and policy scenarios. Maja Gavrilovic presented a new capacity tool developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to guide policy practitioners on integrating gender into cash transfers and public works programmes. Pamela Pozarny presented some of the lessons learned from in-depth qualitative research conducted by the FAO on the productive impacts of social cash transfers in sub-Saharan Africa". (...)
    Keywords: policy, commitments, effective, implementation, gender-sensitive, social protection, programmes
    Date: 2017–06
  23. By: De Alwis, Diana; Noy, Ilan
    Abstract: We measure to cost of extreme weather events (droughts and floods) on health care in Sri Lanka. We find that frequently occurring local floods and droughts impose a significant risk to health when individuals are exposed directly to these hazards, and when their communities are exposed, even if they themselves are unaffected. Those impacts, and especially the indirect spillover effects to households that are not directly affected, are associated with the land-use in the affected regions and with access to sanitation and hygiene. Finally, both direct and indirect risks associated with flood and drought on health have an economic cost; our estimates suggest Sri Lanka spends 52.8 million USD per year directly on the health care costs associated with floods and droughts, divided almost equally between the public and household sectors, and 22% vs. 78% between floods and droughts, respectively. In Sri Lanka, both the frequency and the intensity of droughts and floods are likely to increase because of climatic change. Consequently, the health burden associated with these events is only likely to increase, demanding precious resources that are required elsewhere.
    Keywords: Sri Lanka, Flood, Drought, Health impact,
    Date: 2017
  24. By: Bettina Gatt (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The fourth webinar in the 'Gender-Sensitive Social Protection' series explored the potential of social protection to contribute to the empowerment of rural women, focusing on financial inclusion programmes in Latin America. It was held on 30 November 2016, in Spanish, for a Latin American audience and featured contributions from Paola Bustamante Suárez (former Minister of Development and Social Inclusion from Peru), Magdalena Mayorga (Advisor to the Chairman of the Board of BanEcuador BP) and Soledad Parada (FAO)". (...)
    Keywords: Social protection, financial, inclusion, rural, women, family farming, Latin America
    Date: 2017–04
  25. By: François Gardes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: The relation between price elasticities computed at different levels of aggregation is a prominent question in the evaluation of price effects in the empirical literature on households' consumption, production or international trade. We propose to model it under a strong separability assumption in order to estimate price elasticities at a disaggregated level when only price aggregates are available in the dataset. The estimation of price elasticities for aggregates consumptions uses an original domestic production model combining monetary expenditures and time uses for aggregate activities in order to calculate full prices of these aggregates. The method is applied for food expenditures on surveys of two different countries, France and Burkina Faso.
    Abstract: Il est difficile d'estimer les élasticités-prix directes et croisées de consommations très spécifiques, telle la consommation de lait, dans la mesure où les systèmes de demande pour un tel niveau de désagrégation contiennent un trop grand nombre de paramètres à estimer et parce que les informations sur les prix désagrégés sont peu robustes étant biaisés par des effets de qualité, ou n'existent pas. Cet article propose d'estimer des élasticités-prix sur un nombre limité de postes agrégés puis de désagréger ces élasticités en utilisant l'hypothèse de séparabilité additive du modèle de Frisch. L'application opérée sur des données d'enquête du Burkina Faso et de France à partir d'un modèle original de production domestique donne des résultats concordant avec des estimations antérieures de la littérature.
    Keywords: domestic production,full price,price elasticity,Pigou law,production domestique,prix complet,élasticité-prix,loi de Pigou
    Date: 2017–05
  26. By: Daniel Camos-Daurella; Antonio Estache
    Abstract: The main purpose of this chapter is to argue that the optimal design of regulation of water and sanitation monopolies should be the outcome of a detailed diagnostic of the institutional constraints impacting the ability of the operator - whether public or private - to deliver the services.Tailoring the regulatory processes and instruments to account for institutional and informational weaknesses stands a better chance of improving the performance of the sector than the adoption of imported standardized or pre-packaged regulatory tools.
    Date: 2017–06
  27. By: Jan Douwe van der Ploeg (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Most people have a clear understanding of what the term 'family farm' means. This is especially true in Europe. The term refers, in a seemingly straightforward and unambiguous way, to well-known and self-evident realities. It is solidly internalised in the memory of most people, even those with an urban background. People may like or dislike family farming, and scientists may dispute its virtues or shortcomings (Osaba 2014), but there is hardly any confusion or debate over the concept itself". (?)
    Keywords: Family farming, Europe, Central Asia, history, characteristics, threats, potentials
    Date: 2016–12

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