nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒05‒07
27 papers chosen by

  1. An Analysis on Problems of Vegetables Marketing in Farmers’ Market of Jharkhand - A Case Study in Ranchi District By Shankar, Tara; Singh, K.M.
  2. Modelling the potential impact of New Zealand’s freshwater reforms on land-based Greenhouse Gas emissions By Adam Daigneault; Suzie Greenhalgh; Suzi Kerr
  3. Evaluation of the Impact of Agricultural Insurance Program of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation on Agricultural Producers in Region IV-A (CALABARZON) By Lansigan, Felino P.; Reano, Consorcia E.; Comia, Liza N.; Tandang, Nancy A.; Collado, Roselle V.; Reyes, James Roldan S.; Arana, Rachelyn S.; Roldan, Ronald Jr. R.; Marcelino, Rocky T.; Mendoza, Jared Jorim O.; Talento, Mara Sherlin D.; Gayosa, Edrun R.; Almero, Leonard Alan F.
  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Agricultural Insurance Program of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation on Agricultural Producers in Region 02 (Cagayan Valley), Philippines By Conrado, Vilma; Tuscano, Jocelyn; Oñate, Beatriz; Torio, Erwin; Umengan, Jane; Paat, Nina Klare
  5. Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990-2015: Report on methods and data (RMD) submission 2017 By Rösemann, Claus; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Freibauer, Annette; Döring, Ulrike; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Osterburg, Bernhard
  6. Can a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder remove hypothetical bias in discrete choice experiments? An application to consumer valuation of novel food products By Mohammed H. Alemu; Søren B. Olsen
  7. The effect of gender-targeted conditional cash transfers on household expenditures: Evidence from a randomized experiment By Alex Armand; Orazio Attanasio; Pedro Carneiro; Valérie Lechene
  8. The Impact of Climate Change on U.S. Agriculture: New Evidence on the Role of Heterogeneity and Adaptation By Michael Keane; Timothy Neal
  9. Citrus Fruit Industry of Azerbaijan after Manat’s Devaluation By Abasov, Muzaffar
  10. Spillovers of community based health interventions on consumption smoothing By Emla Fitzsimons; Bansi Malde; Marcos Vera-Hernandez
  11. The Southern African poultry value chain: Regional development versus national imperatives By Phumzile Ncube; Simon Roberts; Tatenda Zengeni
  12. Reducing Unnecessary Regulatory Burden: The Philippine Tuna Industry By Llanto, Gilberto M.; Ortiz, Ma. Kristina P.; Madriaga, Cherry Ann D.
  13. The Rise and Demise of J.H. Todd and Sons, British Columbia’s Enduring Independent Salmon Canners By Mickey Fitzgerald
  14. Review of Intra-ASEAN Nontariff Measures on Trade in Goods By Medalla, Erlinda M.; Mantaring, Melalyn C.
  15. The Policy Challenge of Creating Forest Offset Credits: A Case Study from the Interior of British Columbia By G. Cornelis van Kooten
  16. Enhancing transparency of climate change mitigation under the Paris Agreement: Lessons from experience By Gregory Briner; Sara Moarif
  17. The Effect of Food Price Changes on Child Labor: Evidence from Uganda By Raymond B. Frempong; David Stadelmann
  18. Governance, vulnerability to climate change, and green growth: International evidence By Le, Thai-Ha; Chang, Youngho; Park, Donghyun
  19. Synthetic data. A proposed method for applied risk management By Carbajal De Nova, Carolina
  20. What Does ASEAN Mean to ASEAN Peoples? (The Philippine Case) By Siar, Sheila V.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Albert, Jose Ramon G.
  21. Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species By de Rigo, Daniele; Caudullo, Giovanni; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Barredo, José I.
  22. Multi-objective local environmental simulator (MOLES 1.0): Model specification, algorithm design and policy applications By Ioannis Tikoudis; Walid Oueslati
  23. International trade consequences of climate change By Rob Dellink; Hyunjeong Hwang; Elisa Lanzi; Jean Chateau
  24. Corporate Governance and its Impact on Firm Performance and Risk in Food and Beverages Industry: Empirical Analysis on Dutch Lady Berhad By Erizal, Nurulhidayu
  25. Tropical Forests, Tipping Points, and the Social Cost of Deforestation By Sergio L. Franklin, Jr.; Robert S. Pindyck
  26. The introduction process of the environmental taxes in the Netherlands By Reo Shimamura
  27. Managing Water: Rights, Markets, and Welfare By Zaeske, Andrew L.; Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran

  1. By: Shankar, Tara; Singh, K.M.
    Abstract: The green revolution is one of the greatest successes that the country has observed and resultantly achieved self-sufficiency and a good degree of stability in food grain production. However, the country still faces the challenges of comprehensive food security and malnutrition, Thus, vegetables will play an important role by contributing adequate vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals, fibres etc. but it is a known fact that horticulture sector in India is constrained by low crop productivity, limited irrigation facilities and underdeveloped infrastructure support like cold storages, markets, roads, transportation facilities etc. There are heavy post-harvest and handling losses, resulting in low productivity per unit area and high cost of production. Analysis shows, there is an inverse relation between the farm size of the respondents and their overall problems of marketing vegetables in farmers’ market. It could be noted that higher their farm size, lower their overall problems of marketing vegetables in farmers’ market and the vice versa. It is noted that there is an inverse relation between the caste status of the respondents and their overall problems of marketing vegetables in farmers’ market.
    Keywords: Vegetables productivity, farm size, marketing costs, marketing problems
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Adam Daigneault (Landcare Research); Suzie Greenhalgh (Landcare Research); Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: The National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management (NPS-FM) establishes the need to set and manage water resources within limits. This report is the first national assessment of the indirect impacts of the NPS-FM on New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). The water quality improvement aspect of New Zealand’s freshwater reforms are expected to drive significant changes in land and water management across the country. Emissions benefits through the freshwater reforms could potentially result in significant savings for New Zealand by starting the transition to low emissions in the agricultural sector and helping to achieve New Zealand’s overall climate goals. For farmers, changes in land use and management to meet water quality targets will reduce their potential future exposure to needs to reduce GHG emissions. GHG emissions reductions are a combination of reduced emissions through changes in management and de-stocking and increased carbon sequestration associated with planting riparian buffers or afforesting part of the farm. Key results are that without land use change, agricultural GHGs (primarily methane and nitrous oxide) could be reduced by 2.4% or 0.82 million metric tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent per annum (MtCO2e/yr) along with an additional 0.11 MtCO2e of forest carbon sequestration as a result of planting riparian buffers and pole planting for erosion control (for a net reduction of 0.92 MtCO2e/yr or 13%). If afforestation is perceived to be a feasible freshwater mitigation option, up to 800 000 ha of additional trees could be planted, thereby increasing carbon sequestration by 5.4 MtCO2-e/yr. In this case gross (net) GHGs could be reduced by 2.9 (8.2) MtCO2e/yr, primarily through reduction in stock numbers and increases in forest carbon sequestration. This option could reduce net emissions by nearly 80%. The majority of the emissions impact occurs in the sheep and beef sector, with a gross (net) reduction of 0.61 (0.72) MtCO2e/yr. Nitrogen targets most strongly drive on-farm GHG reductions for all the modelled scenarios that limit mitigation to on-farm changes. This is primarily because actions to mitigate N are most closely related to practices that can also mitigate GHGs (e.g. stock management).
    Keywords: Water quality, climate change, agriculture, emissions, New Zealand
    JEL: Q15 Q53 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Lansigan, Felino P.; Reano, Consorcia E.; Comia, Liza N.; Tandang, Nancy A.; Collado, Roselle V.; Reyes, James Roldan S.; Arana, Rachelyn S.; Roldan, Ronald Jr. R.; Marcelino, Rocky T.; Mendoza, Jared Jorim O.; Talento, Mara Sherlin D.; Gayosa, Edrun R.; Almero, Leonard Alan F.
    Abstract: The evaluation of the impact of agricultural insurance program of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation on coconut farmers in Region IV-A (CALABARZON) was conducted from October 2015 to July 2016. The main instrument for conducting impact evaluation was the Coconut Farmers Survey which covered the provinces of Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, and Quezon with a random sample of 500 coconut farmers. The 500 samples comprised the random sample of 250 matched pairs of coconut farmers. Each pair was composed of a farmer with insurance and a farmer without insurance. Farmers with insurance were classified further into two groups, namely, those with claims and those without claims. A proportional allocation scheme with groups and farm size as stratification variables was used. For each of the two insurance groups, three strata were formed defined according to farm size: Stratum 1 - 0.5 ha and below; Stratum 2 – greater than 0.5 to 1 ha; and Stratum 3 - greater than 1 ha. Farmer, farm, and household characteristics were obtained by interviewing the farmers using a structured survey questionnaire. The farmers cited the following: 1) adverse weather conditions, 2) low farm gate prices, and 3) pests and diseases as the three most important problems. Although the study was conducted to assess the impact of agricultural insurance, it was worth noting that a significant proportion of coconut farmers were not aware of existing programs such as crop insurance. The study revealed that lack of awareness among coconut farmers on the availability of insurance products was a big problem. Some of the farmers who have been granted free insurance were not aware that they were insured. Among the most common and important reasons for non-availment of crop insurance were the lack of awareness on the availability of crop insurance products, lack of information on how to process insurance documents, and the belief that there was no need for insurance. No significant differences in mean income from coconut production were observed between the two groups with insurance, with claims and without claims, across farm sizes 0.5 ha and below and greater than 0.5 to 1 ha. Significant differences were detected only for farmers with farm sizes greater than 1 ha. The results were consistent across 2014 and 2015. When pooled, no differences were obtained between the group with insurance and the group without insurance. Results showed that the only characteristic associated with whether or not the farmer is insured is if the farmer is keen on joining farmers' organizations. Although the farmers think that having insurance is advantageous, most farmers were not willing to pay any premium.
    Keywords: Philippines, impact evaluation, , Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation, crop insurance, agricultural insurance, coconut, PCIC, CALABARZON, coconut farmers
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Conrado, Vilma; Tuscano, Jocelyn; Oñate, Beatriz; Torio, Erwin; Umengan, Jane; Paat, Nina Klare
    Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the impact of agricultural insurance of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC) on corn farmers in the Cagayan Valley Region, Philippines. A total of 500 corn farmers were classified into the following treatments: 250 corn farmers with insurance (118 with indemnity claims and 132 without indemnity claims) randomly taken from PCIC agricultural insurance subscribers for 2014 and 2015 matched with 250 without insurance from the Registry System for Basic Sectors in Agriculture list. These treatment groups were further divided according to farm size groups. Regression analysis was used to determine the demand on agricultural insurance and the t-test was used to test the difference on net farm income on corn production between treatment groups. The results show that the factors affecting the probability of PCIC insurance availment by corn farmers are farm size, government transfer income, adoption of hybrid variety, land tenure, and the distance of farmer to PCIC office. Farmers with crop insurance tend to have significantly higher adoption rate of hybrid variety than farmers without crop insurance. The larger the farm size, the higher the probability of getting insurance for their corn farms. Corn farmers who do not own the land they farm and those who received higher government transfers tend to have higher probability of getting agricultural insurance. Farmers with insurance with claim have significantly higher net incomes per hectare than those without insurance. When farmers were not grouped by farm size, farmers with insurance with claims have higher net incomes than farmers with insurance but without indemnity claims in 2014 and 2015. Similar result was found in large farms (greater than 1.0 ha) when farmers were grouped according to farm size. Therefore, there is significant impact of receiving indemnity claims on the net farm income of farmers in corn production. Hence, it is recommended that policies, programs, and efforts of the government and the PCIC be directed toward enhancing the factors that increase the availment of and review of indemnity coverage of agricultural insurance.
    Keywords: Philippines, impact evaluation, Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation, crop insurance, agricultural insurance, corn, PCIC, corn production, Cagayan Valley, Registry System for Basic Sectors in Agriculture
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Rösemann, Claus; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Freibauer, Annette; Döring, Ulrike; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Osterburg, Bernhard
    Abstract: The report at hand (including a comprehensive annex of data) serves as additional document to the National Inventory Report (NIR) on the German green house gas emissions and the Informative Inventory Report (IIR) on the German emissions of air pollutants (especially ammonia). The report documents the calculation methods used in the German agricultural inventory model GAS-EM as well as input data, emission results and uncertainties of the emission reporting submission 2017 for the years 1990 - 2015. In this context the sector Agriculture comprises the emissions from animal husbandry, the use of agricultural soils and anaerobic digestion of energy crops. As required by the guidelines, emissions from activities preceding agriculture, from the use of energy and from land use change are reported elsewhere in the national inventories. The calculation methods are based in principle on the international guidelines for emission reporting and have been continuingly improved during the past years by the Thünen Institute working group on agricultural emission inventories, partly in cooperation with KTBL. In particular, these improvements concern the calculation of energy requirements, feeding and the N balance of the most important animal categories. In addition, technical measures such as air scrubbing (mitigation of ammonia emissions) and digestion of animal manures (mitigation of emissions of methane and loughing gas) have been taken into account. For the calculation of emissions from anaerobic digestion of animal manures and energy crops (including spreading of the digestate), the aforementioned working group developed, in cooperation with KTBL, a national methodology. [...]
    Keywords: emission inventory,agriculture,animal husbandry,agricultural soils,anaerobic digestion,energy crops,renewable primary products,greenhouse gases,air pollutants,methane,loughing gas,ammonia,particulate matter,Emissionsinventar,Landwirtschaft,Tierhaltung,landwirtschaftliche Böden,anaerobe Vergärung,Energiepflanzen,nachwachsende Rohstoffe,Treibhausgase,Luftschadstoffe,Methan,Lachgas,Ammoniak,luftgetragene Partikel
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Mohammed H. Alemu (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Søren B. Olsen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Recent papers have suggested that use of a so-called Repeated Opt-Out Reminder (ROOR) might mitigate hypothetical bias in stated Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE), but evidence so far has only been circumstantial. We provide the first comprehensive test of whether a ROOR can actually mitigate hypothetical bias in stated DCE. The data originates from a field experiment concerning consumer preferences for a novel food product made from cricket flour. Utilizing a between-subject design with three treatments, we find significantly higher marginal willingness to pay values in hypothetical than in nonhypothetical settings, confirming the usual presence of hypothetical bias. Comparing this to a hypothetical setting where the ROOR is introduced, we find that the ROOR effectively eliminates hypothetical bias for one attribute and significantly reduces it for the rest of the attributes. Our results further suggest that these reductions of hypothetical bias are brought about by a decrease in the tendency to ignore the price attribute.
    Keywords: Hypothetical bias, novel food, repeated opt-out reminder, willingness to pay
    JEL: C12 C13 C83 C93 D12 Q01 Q11 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2017–04
  7. By: Alex Armand (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Navarra (Spain)); Orazio Attanasio (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Pedro Carneiro (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London); Valérie Lechene (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)
    Abstract: This paper studies the differential effect of targeting cash transfers to men or women on the structure of household expenditures on non-durables. We study a policy intervention in the Republic of Macedonia, offering cash transfers to poor households, conditional on having their children attending secondary school. The recipient of the transfer is randomized across municipalities to be either the household head or the mother. Using data collected to evaluate the conditional cash transfer program, we show that the gender of the recipient has an effect on the structure of expenditure shares. Targeting transfers to women increases the expenditure share on food by about 4 to 5%. To study the allocation of expenditures within the food basket, we estimate a demand system for food and we find that targeting payments to mothers induces, for different food categories, not only a significant intercept shift, but also a change in the slope of the Engel curve.
    Keywords: CCT, intra-household, gender, expenditure
    Date: 2016–08–19
  8. By: Michael Keane (Oxford University and UNSW Australia Business School); Timothy Neal (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of climate change on the productivity of crop production using U.S. county-level yield and weather data between 1950 and 2015. It finds that the pooled estimators used in previous studies underestimate the sensitivity of crops to high temperatures by ignoring slope heterogeneity, and underestimate the damage of future climate change on yield. Furthermore, explicitly modelling this heterogeneity provides a natural approach to measuring the degree of adaptation to climate change in the data. It concludes with evidence that further adaptation may mitigate up to half of the substantial losses to crop productivity forecast by 2050
    Date: 2017–04–28
  9. By: Abasov, Muzaffar
    Abstract: Azerbaijan implemented two significant devaluations in 2015 decreasing AZN’s rate against USD from 0.78 to 1.55. Considering the favorable situation after AZN’s devaluation, it is now cheaper to increase local production, especially agricultural products. Additionally, as a result of tensions between Russia and Turkey, there is a huge vacant market for agricultural goods in Russia which is a good opportunity for Azerbaijan to export. Citrus fruits are one of them. Considering possible options we recommend government to take policy decisions offered in paper.
    Keywords: citruc fruits, azerbaijan, manat's devaluation, azerbaijan economy
    JEL: F13 Q02
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Emla Fitzsimons (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute of Education, University of London); Bansi Malde (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Marcos Vera-Hernandez (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London)
    Abstract: Community-based interventions, particularly group-based ones, are considered to be a cost-effective way of delivering interventions in low-income settings. However, design features of these programs could also influence dimensions of household and community behaviour beyond those targeted by the intervention. This paper studies spillover effects of a participatory community health intervention in rural Malawi, implemented through a cluster randomised control trial, on an outcome not directly targeted by the intervention: household consumption smoothing after crop losses. We find that while crop losses reduce consumption growth in the absence of the intervention, households in treated areas are able to compensate for this loss and perfectly insure their consumption. Asset decumulation also falls in treated areas. We provide suggestive evidence that these effects are driven by increased social interactions, which could have alleviated contracting frictions; and rule out that they are driven by improved health or reductions in the incidence of crop losses.
    Keywords: participatory community interventions, spillovers, consumption smoothing, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: E21 G22 O12 O13
    Date: 2016–10–18
  11. By: Phumzile Ncube; Simon Roberts; Tatenda Zengeni
    Abstract: This paper highlights the key strategies, both regional and domestic, that have led to the current structure of the poultry value chain in Southern Africa. While large firm strategies in poultry have been found to be regional in nature, and important regional developments in soybean production, processing, and trade have emerged, the regional poultry value chain has remained largely underdeveloped. This underdevelopment is linked to a discord between national and regional policies, with non-trade barriers such as import limits and complete bans on some products playing a key role in some of the countries.
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Llanto, Gilberto M.; Ortiz, Ma. Kristina P.; Madriaga, Cherry Ann D.
    Abstract: The Philippine fishing industry is considered as one of the major industries in the agriculture and fisheries sector. The marine resources available to the country indicate its vast potential in employment creation and output growth. It is in this light that the research team conducted this study with special focus on the tuna industry. The study objectives are to (a) provide regulatory mapping imposed on the local tuna industry; (b) identify those regulations considered as unnecessary or too burdensome to the industry; and (c) provide some recommendations on removing unnecessary regulations. An important inclusion in this project is the Informed Regulatory Conversation which allows the regulators and the private sector to discuss the identified issues and come up with unified recommendations to ease the regulatory burden on different tuna industry stakeholders. The result of the regulatory mapping shows the extent and number of regulations affecting the industry. Overall, the regulations imposed on the industry, especially those concerned with food safety standards, make sense and are necessary. However, there is a case for improving the regulatory framework of the tuna industry, especially the procedures for registration, licensing, and inspection as discussed in detail in the report. The regulatory issues that were identified by the team basically focused on a) acquiring business permit; b) acquiring registration and licenses for all types of fishing vessels from MARINA, BFAR, and the local government unit; c) acquiring License to Operate from the FDA and the possible case of duplication of inspection process by the BFAR and FDA; d) acquiring Certificate of Product Registration from the FDA; e) the Qualified Person in Industry Regulatory Affairs of FDA; and f) presence of BFAR signatories for the regulatory instruments, among others. Agreements to solve the regulatory burden to address the issues are detailed in the report.
    Keywords: Philippines, fisheries, regulatory burden, regulatory impact analysis, cost of doing business, agriculture, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, regulations, registration licensing, tuna industry, Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points, license to operate, business permit, Maritime Industry Authority, Food and Drug Administration
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Mickey Fitzgerald
    Abstract: This paper examines J.H. Todd & Sons Ltd., a British Columbia family-owned and run fish packing company during the years 1881 through 1954. The research presented in this paper outlines the contribution of individual Todd members to both the success and eventual demise of the company. Also examined is the history of the B. C. salmon canning industry, the evolution of J.H. Todd & Sons Ltd., the role of the company in the broader context of the B. C. fishing industry; and the factors that led to the demise of the company. The research relies on documentary primary sources as well as extensive oral history collection obtained from Todd family members and employees.
    Keywords: salmon canning; British Columbia fish packers; history of BC fishing industry
    JEL: N52 N92 Q22
    Date: 2017–01
  14. By: Medalla, Erlinda M.; Mantaring, Melalyn C.
    Abstract: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been working toward the free movement of goods in the region. Although significant progress has been made in the opening up of markets through tariff elimination, addressing the issues on nontariff measures (NTMs) remain. With the reduction in tariffs across the globe, increasing attention has thus shifted to the effects of these NTMs that become simply nontariff barriers (NTBs) to trade. NTMs could be justified for different reasons, such as health, security, environment, and consumer protection. However, they could adversely affect the global and regional production chains by unnecessarily increasing the cost of doing business.This paper reviews existing studies on NTMs for better understanding of NTM implications to international trade, as well as to local business, and to propose some ways forward. For additional insights, it presents the results of the small sample survey (perception) among exporters on the types of NTMs encountered within and outside ASEAN, and the perceived operating cost impact of NTMs. The survey identifies three main NTBs affecting operations of their businesses either within or outside ASEAN: (1) Custom formalities, (2) rules of origin, and (3) technical barriers to trade (TBTs). These are consistent with the findings of an International Trade Center Business Survey on NTMs in the Philippines in 2015-2016. Some of the policy recommendations of the paper are creating a comprehensive and updated database of NTMs, intensive reforms to streamline NTM procedures, improvements in testing laboratories and facilities, accreditation and certification process, and capacity building on what and how to comply with applicable sanitary and phytosanitary measures, and TBTs.
    Keywords: Philippines, nontariff measures, ASEAN, nontariff barriers, trade in goods, NTMs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, rules of origin, international trade, accreditation, capacity building
    Date: 2017
  15. By: G. Cornelis van Kooten
    Keywords: climate change mitigation and forestry; carbon offsets and taxes; carbon life-cycle analysis; biomass energy; wood products versus cement and steel; forest rotation age
    JEL: H23 Q23 Q42 Q54 G15
    Date: 2017–03
  16. By: Gregory Briner; Sara Moarif
    Abstract: An enhanced transparency framework will be a central component of the post-2020 international climate policy regime under the Paris Agreement, underpinning the dynamic process of updating nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and providing input to the global stocktakes of progress towards the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement. The enhanced transparency framework will apply to all Parties, with flexibility in light of capacities. This paper highlights lessons learned from the existing transparency framework for mitigation that can help inform the development of modalities, procedures and guidelines for the enhanced transparency framework under the Paris Agreement. It outlines how clearer and more detailed reporting guidelines could be developed for communication of the mitigation components of NDCs and reporting on progress in their implementation and achievement, based on NDC type.
    Keywords: climate change, mitigation, transparency, UNFCCC
    JEL: F53 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2017–05–03
  17. By: Raymond B. Frempong; David Stadelmann
    Abstract: A majority of people in developing countries spend about 60 percent of their income on food, even though most of them are farmers. Hence, a change in food prices affects both their revenue as well as expenditure, and thereby their labor market decisions. Using the Uganda National Panel Survey and monthly regional food prices, this paper examines the effect of exogenous changes in food prices on child labor. The econometric evidence shows that an increase in food prices leads to an increase in the probability and intensity of child labor. We find the effect of food price increases to be smaller among landowning households, which is consistent with the view that landowning households can better compensate for price shocks. The results suggest that periodic shocks in food prices may have longer lasting effects on human capital development and poverty in developing countries.
    Keywords: Development; Child labor; Exogenous shock; Food prices
    JEL: O12 Q18 J20
    Date: 2017–04
  18. By: Le, Thai-Ha; Chang, Youngho; Park, Donghyun
    Abstract: The authors examine the role of governance and vulnerability to climate change in green growth using a global panel dataset. They find that governance has a positive effect on environmental performance and vulnerability to climate change has a negative effect. Promoting good governance and reducing climate change vulnerability can thus contribute to a cleaner environment. They find qualitatively similar results for the sub-sample of high-income countries, but governance has an insignificant effect for the sub-samples of upper-middle-income, and lower-middle-and-low-income countries. High-income countries have strong environmental policies to protect the environment whereas other countries need to strengthen their relatively weak environmental policies. This suggests a need for substantial economic, technological and financial support from the international community for strengthening the environmental institutional capacity of developing countries.
    Keywords: governance,vulnerability to climate change,air quality,PM2.5,green growth
    JEL: Q56
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Carbajal De Nova, Carolina
    Abstract: The proposed method attempts to contribute towards the econometric and simulation applied risk management literature. It consists on an algorithm to construct synthetic data and risk simulation econometric models, supported by a set of behavioral assumptions. This algorithm has the advantage of replicating natural phenomena and uncertainty events in a short period of time. These features convey economically low costs besides computational efficiency. An application for wheat farmers is developed. The efficiency of this method is confirmed when its results and statistical inference converge with those generated from experimental data. Convergence is demonstrated specifically by means of information convergence and diminishing scaling variance. Modifications on the proposed algorithm regarding risk distribution parameters are not onerous. These modifications can generate diverse risk scenarios seeking to minimize and manage risk. Hence, risk sources could be anticipated, identified as well as quantified. The algorithm flexibility makes risk testing accessible to an ample variety of entrepreneurial problems i.e., public health systems, farmers associations, hedge funds, insurance companies; etcetera. This method could provide grounded criteria for decision-making in order to improve management practices.
    Keywords: behavioral assumptions, risk scenarios, simulation econometric models, synthetic data
    JEL: G02
    Date: 2017–03–28
  20. By: Siar, Sheila V.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Albert, Jose Ramon G.
    Abstract: Using a purposive online and paper-based survey and focus group discussions with select target groups, this study makes inferences about the level of awareness of the Filipino people on ASEAN; their perceived problems confronting the Philippines and ASEAN; and their aspirations, concerns, and hopes for the association. It reveals moderate familiarity about ASEAN, as well as modest identification as ASEAN citizens, which improves with age and experience. There is also a general sentiment that Philippine membership in the association is beneficial for the country, albeit only moderate as well. Media coverage on ASEAN is also perceived to be inadequate. The study validates the most immediate concerns being faced by the Philippines today, notably affordable internet connection, poverty, corruption, agriculture and food security, and energy provision and price. Most pressing regional-level concerns are climate change and natural disasters, territorial/maritime disputes, trade and investment issues, agriculture and food security, and income disparity and social inequality. These reflect the priorities that ASEAN leaders should focus on in the immediate future to remain relevant and responsive to the needs of ASEAN peoples. Aspirations are high for ASEAN to realize its integration agenda and to play an active role in global negotiations and forums and for its member-states to achieve inclusive economic prosperity. How to realize these aspirations rests in part on the ability of its member-states to work harmoniously with one another and contribute actively toward the realization of the ASEAN Community Vision. For its part, ASEAN has to provide a strong leadership role in integrating its member-states, which individually are also confronted by a host of problems. As ASEAN's coordinating body, its Secretariat needs to strengthen its capability so it can provide more effective technical support to the association in meeting its goals and aspirations.
    Keywords: Philippines, food security, regional integration, ASEAN, climate change, agriculture, ASEAN Secretariat, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, internet connection, poverty, corruption, international relations
    Date: 2017
  21. By: de Rigo, Daniele; Caudullo, Giovanni; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Barredo, José I.
    Abstract: In Europe, forests play a strategic multifunctional role, serving economic, social and environmental purposes. However, forests are among the most complex systems and their interaction with the ongoing climate change – and the multifaceted chain of potential cascading consequences for European biodiversity, environment, society and economy – is not yet well understood. The JRC PESETA project series proposes a consistent multi-sectoral assessment of the impacts of climate change in Europe. Within the PESETA II project, a robust methodology is introduced for modelling the habitat suitability of forest tree species (2071-2100 time horizon). Abies alba (the silver fir) is selected as a case study: a main European tree species often distributed in bioclimatically complex areas, spanning over various forest types and with multiple populations adapted to different conditions. The modular modelling architecture is based on relative distance similarity (RDS) estimates which link field observations with bioclimatic patterns, projecting their change under climate scenarios into the expected potential change of suitable habitat for tree species. Robust management of uncertainty is also examined. Both technical and interpretation core aspects are presented in an integrated overview. The semantics of the array of quantities under focus and the uneven sources of uncertainty at the continental scale are discussed (following the semantic array programming paradigm), with an effort to offer some minimal guidance on terminology, meaning and methodological limitations not only of the proposed approach, but also of the broad available literature – whose heterogeneity and partial ambiguity might potentially reverberate at the science-policy interface. ► How to cite: ◄ de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J, Barredo, J.I., 2017. Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 58 pp. ISBN:978-92-79-66704-6 ,
    Keywords: Abies alba; array of factors; artificial neural networks; bioclimatic predictors; climate change; climate change impacts and adaptation assessment; change factor; data-transformation modelling; data uncertainty; diversity; environmental modelling; Europe; extrapolation uncertainty; forest resources; free scientific software; free software; fuzzy; GDAL; genetic diversity; geospatial; Geospatial Semantic Array Programming; GNU bash; GNU/Linux; GNU Octave; habitat suitability; integrated modelling; integration techniques; Mastrave modelling library; Maximum Habitat Suitability; modelling uncertainty; multiplicity; PESETA series; Python; regional climate models; Relative Distance Similarity; robust modelling; Semantic Array Programming; semantic constraints; semantics; spatial disaggregation; SRES-A1b; tree species habitat suitability;
    JEL: C02 C31 C45 C6 Q2 Q23 Q5 Q54 Q57
    Date: 2017–03
  22. By: Ioannis Tikoudis; Walid Oueslati (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper describes MOLES 1.0, an integrated land-use and transport model developed with Object-Oriented Programming principles in order to combine selected characteristics from Spatial Computable General Equilibrium and microsimulation models.
    Keywords: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, land-use model, microsimulation, spatial general equilibrium, transport model
    JEL: C60 C68 D58 D62 H70 R00 R13 R14 R40 R52
    Date: 2017–05–04
  23. By: Rob Dellink; Hyunjeong Hwang (OECD); Elisa Lanzi; Jean Chateau
    Abstract: This report provides an analysis of how climate change damages may affect international trade in the coming decades and how international trade can help limit the costs of climate change. It analyses the impacts of climate change on trade considering both direct effects on infrastructure and transport routes and the indirect economic impacts resulting from changes in endowments and production. A qualitative analysis with a literature review is used to present the direct effects of climate change. The indirect impacts of climate change damages on trade are analysed with the OECD’s ENV-Linkages model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with global coverage and sector-specific international trade flows. By building on the analysis in the OECD (2015) report "The Economic Consequences of Climate Change", the modelling analysis presents a plausible scenario of future socioeconomic developments and climate damages, to shed light on the mechanisms at work in explaining how climate change will affect trade.
    Keywords: CGE model, Trade and climate change, Trade and environment
    JEL: C68 F17 F18 O44 Q56
    Date: 2017–04–29
  24. By: Erizal, Nurulhidayu
    Abstract: The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Corporate Governance and its impaction firm performance and risk in food and beverage industry. Specifically, this study examined liquidity risk, credit risk and leverage and how they affect to the Corporate Governance. For the firm performance was measured with using Return on Asset (ROA). In this study it found that a strong relationship exists between the Corporate Governance practices under study and the firm’s financial performance. The result of this study indicate that consideration firms’ in Corporate Governance can give a good impact to the firm performance and risk in company.
    Keywords: credit risk, liquidity risk, leverage and profitability risk.
    JEL: G3
    Date: 2017–04–16
  25. By: Sergio L. Franklin, Jr.; Robert S. Pindyck
    Abstract: Recent work has suggested that tropical forest and savanna represent alternative stable states, which are subject to drastic switches at tipping points, in response to changes in rainfall patterns and other drivers. Deforestation cost studies have ignored the likelihood and possible economic impact of a forest-savanna critical transition, therefore underestimating the true social cost of deforestation. We explore the implications of a forest-savanna critical transition and propose an alternative framework for calculating the economic value of a standing tropical forest. Our framework is based on an average incremental cost method, as opposed to currently used marginal cost methods, for the design of optimal land-use policy or payments for ecosystem services. We apply this framework to the calculation of the social cost of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest.
    JEL: C6 Q5 Q57
    Date: 2017–03
  26. By: Reo Shimamura (Office of Research Development and Sponsored Projects, Mita Campus, Keio University)
    Abstract: This paper shows the introduction process and the historical development of the environmental tax in the Netherlands. Why was the environmental taxes introduced in the Netherlands? The environmental taxes have replaced environmental charges and developed. As the citizen's environmental awareness increased in the late 1980s, the introduction of environmental taxes had been boosted by political situation. The turning point was the election and the National Environmental Policy Plan in 1989. In addition, it was also an important point that the increase of environmental taxes was consistent with tax reform of the Lubbers administration and the Kok administration.
    Keywords: Netherlands, environmental tax, political process, polder model
    JEL: H23 Q58
    Date: 2017–03–31
  27. By: Zaeske, Andrew L. (Independent Consultant); Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran (CERE, the Department of Forest Economics, SLU and the Beijer Institute)
    Abstract: This article investigates key aspects related to managing water resources, and explores their implications for economic efficiency: incomplete property rights; overallocation of water; the divergence between water entitlements and productivity of water use. These issues are explored in a production model with a single input, water drawn from a common source, and two main insights are offered. First, a novel result relating welfare and water entitlements is established, an equivalence between the socially optimal and legal assignment of water rights, via a set of social weights implied by the rights assignment. It is also shown that, for water entitlements for which the divergence between productivity and entitlements is substantial, no set of valid social priorities can lead to the socially efficient allocation. Second, considering a hypothetical water market with an endogenous price, it is found that trade in water is unable to eliminate allocative inefficiency, and that taxes have unexpectedly moderate effects on trade and welfare, with the majority of tax shifts canceled out by changes in demand. In addition, trade is not effective at facilitating efficiency-enhancing reallocation of water under scarcity when entitlements diverge substantially from productivity. The results here highlight important new connections between welfare and water entitlements and the limitations of market-based instruments under incomplete property rights, and have implications for designing property rights regimes for managing water under scarcity.
    Keywords: markets; water rights; allocative efficiency; social welfare; copula
    JEL: D61 Q10 Q25
    Date: 2017–03–22

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.