nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2017‒01‒15
fifty-one papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Impact Evaluation of Banana Insurance Program of the PCIC in the Davao Region By Deluna, Roperto Jr. S.; Hinlo, Jennifer E.; Ayala, Michael L.
  2. Climate Change, Water Scarcity in Agriculture and the Economy-Wide Impacts in a CGE Framework By Roberto Ponce; Ramiro Parrado; Alejandra Stehr; Francesco Bosello
  3. LINKING SMALLHOLDERS TO PROFITABLE MARKETS IN WEST AFRICA: CASE STUDY SYNTHESIS By Staatz, John; Diallo, Boubacar; Me-Nsope, Nathalie M.; Vroegindewey, Ryan
  4. Embedding the AMPLE in a CGE Model to Analyze Intersectoral and Economy-Wide Policy Issues By Briones, Roehlano M.
  5. Does a Nutritious Diet Cost More in Food Deserts? By Fan, Linlin; Baylis, Kathy; Gundersen, Craig; Ver Ploeg, Michele
  6. Who Weans with Commodity Price Shocks? Rice Prices and Breastfeeding in the Philippines By Abrigo, Michael R.M.
  7. Mental cognition of scattered farms in the Great Plain By Andrea Szekely
  8. Evaluation of the Irrigation and Water Resource Management Project in Senegal: Design Report By Aravind Moorthy; Thomas Coen; Katie Naeve; Jeremy Brecher-Haimson; Sarah Hughes
  9. Determinants of Conservation Agriculture Adoption among Zambian Smallholder Farmers By Zulu-Mbata, Olipa; Chapoto, Antony; Hichaambwa, Munguzwe
  10. The Impact of NuVal Shelf Nutrition Labels on Consumption: Evidence from Cold Cereal Purchases By Melo, Grace; Zhen, Chen
  11. The fruit of inequality: wine, efficiency, agrarian contracts and property rights in Catalonia (1898-1935) By Samuel Garrido
  12. Beyond Dualism: Agricultural Productivity, Small Towns, and Structural Change in Bangladesh By Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
  13. The Economic Impact of Rice Sheath Blight Alleviation in the Mid‐South By Nalley, Lawton; Tsiboe, Francis; Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Thoma, Greg; Shew, Aaron
  14. IMPACT OF LEGUME TECHNOLOGIES ON FOOD SECURITY: EVIDENCE FROM ZAMBIA By Sauer, Christine M.; Mason, Nicole M.; Maredia, Mywish K.; Mofya-Mukaka, Rhoda
  15. Comprehensive Study on Credit Programs to Smallholders By Llanto, Gilberto M.; Geron, Ma. Piedad S.; Badiola, Jocelyn Alma R.
  16. Estimation of Vulnerability to Poverty Using a Multilevel Longitudinal Model: Evidence from the Philippines By Mina, Christian D.; Imai, Katsushi S.
  17. Junior Farmer Field Schools, Agricultural Knowledge and Spillover Effects: Quasi-experimental Evidence from Northern Uganda By Jacopo Bonan; Laura Pagani
  18. Decarbonization Pathways in Southeast Asia: New Results for Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam By Francesco Bosello; Carlo Orecchia; David A. Raitzer
  19. Inadequate N Application of Rice Farmers in the Philippines: Problems, Causes, Solutions By Briones, Roehlano M.
  20. Political-Economic Models of Misinformation: An Application to the Transparency of the TTIP Negotiations By Bullock, David S.
  21. Do Natural Disasters Change Savings and Employment Choices? Evidence from Bangladesh and Pakistan By Eskander, Shaikh M.S.U.; Fankhauser, Samuel; Jha, Shikha
  22. The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Developing Asia By Reis, Lara Aleluia; Emmerling, Johannes; Tavoni, Massimo; Raitzer, David
  23. Minnesota Farm Real Estate Sales: 1990-2016 By Lazarus, William F.
  24. Economic and Geographic Access to Food Retailers and Emergency Food Pantries By David Jones; James Mabli
  25. Putting Prevention of Childhood Stunting into the Forefront of the Nutrition Agenda: A Nutrition Sector Review By Herrin, Alejandro N.
  26. The Efficiency Cost of Protective Measures in Climate Policy By Christoph Böhringer; Xaquín Garcia-Muros; Ignacio Cazcarro; Iñaki Arto
  27. Economic Impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation: Evidence from the Colombian Coffee Market By Andrea Bastianin; Alessandro Lanza; Matteo Manera
  28. Income generation and inequality in India's agricultural sector: The Consequences of land fragmentation By Sanjoy Chakravorty; S. Chandrasekhar; Karthikeya Naraparaju
  29. The Coffee-Food Security Interface for Subsistence Households in Jimma Zone Ethiopia By Beghin, John
  30. Climate Change and Vulnerability to Poverty: An Empirical Investigation in Rural Indonesia By Fujii, Tomoki
  31. Dedicated Energy Crops and Competition for Agricultural Land By Sands, Ronald D.; Malcolm, Scott A.; Suttles, Shellye A.; Marshall, Elizabeth
  32. Household expenditure on higher education in India: What do we know & What do recent data have to say? By S Chandrasekhar; P. Geetha Rani; Soham Sahoo
  33. Linking perceived choice complexity with scale heterogeneity in discrete choice experiments: home heating in Finland By Enni Roukamo; Mikolaj Czajkowski; Nick Hanley; A. Juutinen; R. Svento
  34. The Long road to transformation of agricultural markets in India: Lessons from Karnataka By Nidhi Aggarwal; Sargam Jain; Sudha Narayanan
  36. Climate Change and Growth Risks By Ravi Bansal; Marcelo Ochoa; Dana Kiku
  37. Land Policy and Urbanization in the People’s Republic of China By Zhang, Li; Xu, Xianxiang
  38. Natural Disaster Shocks and Macroeconomic Growth in Asia: Evidence for Typhoons and Droughts By Alano, Emmanuel; Lee, Minsoo
  40. Reducing the Unintended Consequence of Overfishing Due to Open Access: Learning from the Zamboanga Experience By Israel, Danilo C.; Lunod-Carinan, Milva; Paqueo, Vicente B.
  41. Governance, Vulnerability to Climate Change, and Green Growth: International Evidence By Le, Thai-Ha; Chang, Youngho; Park, Donghyun
  43. Impact Evaluation of the Agricultural Insurance Program of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation on Agricultural Producers in Central Visayas By Anzano, Corazon G.; Alvarez, Julian Thomas B.
  44. Do Siblings Take Your Food Away? Using China's One-Child Policy to Test for Child Quantity-Quality Trade-Offs By Yun Liang; John Gibson
  45. Policy- v. Individual Heterogeneity in the Benefits of Climate Change Mitigation: Evidence from a Stated-Preference Survey By Anna Alberini; Milan Šcasný; Andrea Bigano
  46. The Political Economy of Weak Treaties By Battaglini, Marco; Harstad, Bard
  48. Exploiting the potential for expanding cropped area using animal traction in the smallholder sector in Mozambique By Cunguara, Benedito; Mather, David; Walker, Tom; Mouzinho, Bordalo; Massingue, Jaquelino; Uaiene, Rafael
  49. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice, Final Report By Committee to review WIC food packages of which Mary Kay Fox is a member
  50. Property rights and transaction costs : The role of ownership and organization in German public service provision By Friese, Maria; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Klein, Gordon J.

  1. By: Deluna, Roperto Jr. S.; Hinlo, Jennifer E.; Ayala, Michael L.
    Abstract: Agricultural crop insurance is a risk management tool to counter shocks and risks in banana production. It is a mechanism for farmers to be protected from unexpected risks and a tool for them to recover from the shocks experienced. The Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation is mandated to provide insurance protection to the country’s agricultural producers, particularly the subsistence farmers, against natural disasters and other perils. This paper evaluated how agricultural insurance made an impact on banana growers in terms of managing risks and their well-being. The inputs, outputs, and outcomes relative to risk, agricultural investment, productivity, and access to credit are documented to provide options and strategies in improving the agricultural crop insurance in the country. Agricultural crop insurance at its present coverage level is not sufficient to create impact on stabilizing income of banana farmers hit by shocks. This could be attributed to low insurance coverage, which is only 55 percent of the production cost of banana. Without the subsidy of the government, and status quo on coverage and premium rate, crop insurance in the country will not be sustained in the case of banana. Agricultural insurance has not fully penetrated the whole banana industry yet because of the lack of information dissemination. Hence, educational programs to inform the farmers about the benefits of modern risk management schemes in banana should be prioritized because the major driver toward sustainable development of agriculture in the Philippines is to instill resiliency of farmers through agricultural crop insurance.
    Keywords: Philippines, disasters, Davao, Davao Region, impact evaluation, Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation, agricultural crop insurance, banana, resiliency
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Roberto Ponce (Universidad del Desarrollo); Ramiro Parrado (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici); Alejandra Stehr (Universidad de Concepción); Francesco Bosello (FEEM, CMCC and University of Milan)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the economic impacts of changes in water availability due to climate change. We develop a new modeling approach as an alternative to include water as a production factor within a global CGE model. We tailor the structure of the ICES model to characterize the key features of the world economy with a detailed representation of the agricultural sector. In order to reach this objective, a new database has been built to explicitly consider water endowments, precipitation changes, and unitary irrigation costs. Results suggest different economic consequences of climate change depending on the specific region. Impacts are related to change in crop production, endowment demands, and international trade.
    Keywords: CGE Models, Climate Change, Agriculture, Irrigation, Water Resources
    JEL: C68 Q54 Q15 Q25
    Date: 2016–12
  3. By: Staatz, John; Diallo, Boubacar; Me-Nsope, Nathalie M.; Vroegindewey, Ryan
    Abstract: Over the period 2014-16, the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture, through its SRAI 2 project with Michigan State University, commissioned seven sets of case studies.1 These examined innovative models of linking small farmers in West Africa to growing markets for valued-added agricultural products, including processed food products and high-value exports. The models, termed “partnership models” here, involved various forms of contracting with farmers, either through farmer organizations or directly with private firms. The studies aimed at identifying factors that contributed to both inclusion of small farmers and sustainability of the approaches used. This paper synthesizes key results and crosscutting lessons from those studies.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: This study implements an updated set of projections for Philippine agriculture, which addresses the following key issues: (1) the proper modeling of land allocation to better analyze the implications of land scarcity under climate change; (2) the impact of climate change, agricultural productivity growth, and trade liberalization on agriculture; (3) the indirect impacts of climate change and agricultural productivity growth on the rest of the economy; and (4) the impact of productivity growth in manufacturing and services on agriculture, including on agricultural wages. To address the first and second issues, the study provides a new approach toward modeling land allocation, and updated projections for agriculture to 2030 using the extended Agricultural Model for Policy Evaluation (AMPLE). The study will address the third and fourth issues by extending AMPLE into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) version, called AMPLE – CGE, which is still being developed. This report documents the compilation of the AMPLE – CGE data set, namely, the 2013 Social Accounting Matrix.
    Keywords: Philippines, area allocation, quasi-fixed factor, partial equilibrium model, constant elasticity of transformation, Agricultural Model for Policy Evaluation (AMPLE), computable general equilibrium (CGE), Philippine agriculture, Social Accounting Matrix, agricultural productivity
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Fan, Linlin; Baylis, Kathy; Gundersen, Craig; Ver Ploeg, Michele
    Abstract: Food deserts and their potential effects on diet and nutrition have received much attention from policymakers. While some research has found a correlation between food deserts and consumer outcomes, it is unclear whether food deserts truly affect consumer choices. In this article, we compare food prices in food deserts, defined as low-income, low-access census tracts, and nonfood deserts to observe whether and to what extent consumers face higher prices for a complete diet in food deserts. If a nutritionally complete diet costs significantly more in food deserts, resident consumers may be constrained from consuming healthier foods. We use data on storelevel sales from a nationally representative sample and calculate a census-tract level Exact Price Index (EPI) based on a food basket defined by the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP). The EPI addresses potential biases from both product heterogeneity and variety availability. We have three central findings. First, prices for common foods are not significantly different between food deserts and non-food deserts. Second, after controlling for differential access to food variety, we find that the EPI in food deserts is 3% to 5% higher than similar census tracts with more store access and 4% higher than low-access census tracts with higher income. Third, the higher EPI in food deserts is largely driven by the lack of supermarkets nearby.
    Keywords: food deserts, food price, price indices, product variety, nutritious diet, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Q18, D40, L66, R32, I3,
    Date: 2016–12
  6. By: Abrigo, Michael R.M.
    Abstract: Commodity market fluctuations have been linked with a number of adult outcomes. Recent evidence on the lasting impact of early life conditions, however, suggests that the e ffects on children may be important as well. Using large spatio-temporal variations in rice prices in the Philippines as a natural experiment, the study estimates the eff ect of increasing food prices on parental behavior regarding an inexpensive yet time-intensive child investment: breastmilk feeding. It documents a countercyclical relationship between breastfeeding duration and rice prices, which may be a consequence of poorer health and induced labor force participation among mothers. Results highlight that even food producers may not be insulated against food price inflation.
    Keywords: Philippines, food prices, breastfeeding, child investments
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Andrea Szekely
    Abstract: The farm or lodge historically means a few isolated settlements of the Hungarian Great Plain (that belongs nowadays into three countries Hungary-Serbia-Romania) that are today the centres of the agricultural works and more generally, the centres of the agricultural management. The farm is not an independent form of settlement, but with its domain, is the depending form of a city or a village. The above mentioned criterions of farming units were changed during the twentieth century. The most visible changes could be observed after the 2nd World War, during collectivization. In the years after the fall of communism, and during the reprivatisation process, the structure of agriculture and land use has changed again dramatically. Now, the functions of farms are also scattered, including healthcare, tourism and secondary residence. In our comparative study we analyse the mental cognition of scattered farms in Hungary and in Serbia. We compare the mental maps of different populations (people living on farms, agriculture related students, and not related people). The differences of cognition can be observed on the drawings (elaboration, number of objects, their relative location); and we offer a typology based on spatial statistical analysis.
    Keywords: rural areas; scattered farms; mental map
    Date: 2016–12
  8. By: Aravind Moorthy; Thomas Coen; Katie Naeve; Jeremy Brecher-Haimson; Sarah Hughes
    Abstract: Mathematica is implementing an evaluation of MCC’s Irrigation and Water Resource Management Project’s activities to determine their impact on agriculture production, use and availability of water, household income, land security and conflicts, and land administration and governance.
    Keywords: Senegal, Irrigation, Land Tenure, Land Security, Agriculture
    JEL: F Z
  9. By: Zulu-Mbata, Olipa; Chapoto, Antony; Hichaambwa, Munguzwe
    Abstract: Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been actively promoted actively since the early 1990s among Zambian smallholder farmers as a practice that helps improve crop productivity, improve soil fertility, and mitigate against low and/or variable rainfall. However, nationwide survey data show that adoption rates by Zambian smallholder farmers have remained low, while dis-adoption is widespread despite years of promotion. Several empirical studies have investigated the determinants of adoption, dis-adoption, and non-adoption of CA with the focus being on human capital assets, farm assets, institutional factors, risks and economic factors, and climatic conditions.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–11
  10. By: Melo, Grace; Zhen, Chen
    Abstract: Research examining the effect of summary shelf nutrition labels on consumers’ behavior in real market settings is scarce. Using a supermarket’s voluntary adoption of NuVal―a 1 to 100 numeric summary shelf label system―as a natural experiment, we estimate a Two-Part Model (TPM) to identify the effect of the NuVal label on consumer purchasing decisions for cold cereal. Our results show that posting the NuVal score not only increases the purchase volume of healthier cold cereal products but also increases households’ likelihood to purchase cold cereal products with higher nutrition scores. Tests for heterogeneous treatment effects reveal that lower-income households experience a large improvement in their food choices when the NuVal scores are posted.
    Keywords: Shelf Nutrition Labels, NuVal, Two-Part Model, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, Marketing, Q18, D12,
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Samuel Garrido (Universitat Jaume I, Spain)
    Abstract: With the aim of drawing lessons that can act as a reference for reforms in today’s developing countries, economic historians are showing a renewed interest in the European experiences of agrarian reform. But in some developing countries property rights over the land show‘oddities’ with respect to the ‘Western canon’. Drawing on the case of Catalonia, this paper maintains that, if their work is to be useful, historians should be sensitive to the fact that in Europe – including the United Kingdom – oddities were not rare either. In Catalan vineyards, sharecropping contracts that granted the sharecropper ownership rights over the land were in widespread usage. Around 1900, sharecroppers’ rights became insecure, which led to several dysfunctions that the paper analyses.
    Keywords: Agrarian contracts, Property rights, Catalonia, Wine, Sharecropping, Land reform.
    JEL: N53 N54 P14 Q15
    Date: 2017–01
  12. By: Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
    Abstract: This paper uses a framework that goes beyond rural-urban dualism and highlights the role of small town economy (STE) in understanding structural change in a rural economy such as Bangladesh. It provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the role of agricultural productivity in structural transformation in the labor market, with a focus on the differences between a village economy and a small town economy. The empirical work is based on a general equilibrium model that formalizes the demand and labor market linkages: the STE draws labor away from the rural areas to produce goods and services whose demand may depend largely on rural income. The theory clarifies the role played by the income elasticity of demand and the elasticity of wage with respect to productivity increase in agriculture. For productivity growth to lead to a demand effect, the elasticity of wage has to be lower than a threshold. When the demand for goods and services produced in small towns comes mainly from the adjacent rural areas, the demand effect can more than offset the negative wage effect, and lead to higher labor allocation to the production of town good. Using rainfall as an instrument for agricultural productivity, the empirical analysis finds a significant positive effect of agricultural productivity shock on rice yield and agricultural wages. The evidence shows that productivity shock increases wages more in the rural sample when compared to the STE sample. But structural change in employment is more pronounced in the STE sample. In the rural sample, it increases employment only in small scale manufacturing and services. In contrast, a positive productivity shock has large and positive impacts on employment in construction and transport, education, health and other services, and manufacturing employment in larger scale enterprises located in small towns and cities. Agricultural productivity growth is found to induce structural transformation within the services sector in small towns, with employment in skilled services growing at a faster pace than that of low-skilled services.
    Keywords: Agricultural Productivity, Small Town Economy, Dualism, Employment in Large Firms, Employment Growth, Structural Transformation
    JEL: D5 O1 O12
    Date: 2017–01–01
  13. By: Nalley, Lawton; Tsiboe, Francis; Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Thoma, Greg; Shew, Aaron
    Abstract: The most tangible outcome of a breeding program of any type is increased yield; however, breeding for biotic stresses (maintenance breeding) generally results in pathogen resistance, which can be viewed as mitigating potential crop losses. Economists tend to undervalue the opportunity cost of this type of agricultural research. This study estimates the loss (volume and revenue) in rice production in the Mid-South attributed to the presence of sheath blight, a common fungus in the US. We then ask the counterfactual question: what would the implications be if sheath blight was not present in US rice production. To do this we estimated the additional rice supply from sheath blight resistance and entered it into the RiceFlow model. The RiceFlow model generates global estimates of changes in rice price given an increase supply, as well as changes in consumer and producer welfare. Finally, the counterfactual increased yield and decreased fungicide usage from the absence of sheath blight were analyzed in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model to assess the environmental impact that would have resulted if sheath blight was not present. These results provide insight on how potential genetic resistance to sheath blight could affect producer livelihoods, food security, and environmental sustainability.
    Keywords: Rice, Sheath Blight, LCA, Food Security, Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics, Q16, Q17,
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Sauer, Christine M.; Mason, Nicole M.; Maredia, Mywish K.; Mofya-Mukaka, Rhoda
    Abstract: Despite the many potential benefits of legume cultivation, there is scarce empirical evidence on whether and how producing legumes affects smallholder farm households’ food security. We use nationally representative household panel survey data from Zambia to estimate the differential effects on cereal-growing households of incorporating legumes into their farms via cereal-legume intercropping, cereal-legume rotation, and other means. Results suggest that cereal-legume rotation is positively and significantly associated with households’ months of adequate food provisions, and calorie and protein production. In contrast, cereal-legume intercropping generally has no statistically significant effect on the indicators of food security of Zambian smallholders.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–12
  15. By: Llanto, Gilberto M.; Geron, Ma. Piedad S.; Badiola, Jocelyn Alma R.
    Abstract: This paper looks at the existing credit programs for smallholders, including agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs). It also assesses the Agrarian Production Credit Program, which is a program being implemented in collaboration with the Department of Agriculture and the Land Bank of the Philippines for ARBs using agrarian reform beneficiary organizations as retailers. Moreover, the study determines specific gaps and issues related to meeting the credit needs of smallholders and identifies possible strategic interventions by both government and the private sector that can enhance smallholders' access to financial services.
    Keywords: Philippines, agrarian reform beneficiaries, smallholders, Department of Agriculture, landless rural workers, capacity-building financial inclusion, financial literacy, innovative lending programs, wholesalers, retailers, support services, Agrarian Production Credit Program
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Mina, Christian D.; Imai, Katsushi S.
    Abstract: Using the panel data for the Philippines in 2003-2009, the paper estimates a three-level random coefficient model to measure household vulnerability and to decompose it into idiosyncratic and covariate components. It corrects heterogeneity bias using Bell and Jones's (2015) "within-between" formulation. A majority of the poor and 18 percent of the nonpoor are found to be vulnerable to unobservable shocks, while both groups of households are more susceptible to idiosyncratic shocks than to covariate shocks. Adequate safety nets should be provided for vulnerable households that lack access to infrastructure, or are larger in size with more dependents and less-educated household heads.
    Keywords: Philippines, poverty, vulnerability, multilevel model, panel data
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Jacopo Bonan (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)); Laura Pagani (University of Milano-Bicocca)
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of a junior farmer field school project in Northern Uganda on students’ agricultural knowledge and practices. We also test for the presence of intergenerational learning spillover within households. We use differences-in-differences estimators with ex-ante matching. We find that the program had positive effects on students’ agricultural knowledge and adoption of good practices and that it produced some spillover effects in terms of improvements of household agricultural knowledge and food security. Overall, our results point to the importance of adapting the basic principles of farmer field schools to children.
    Keywords: Junior Farmer Field Schools, Agricultural Extension, Intergenerational Learning Spillover, Uganda
    JEL: O13 O22 O55 C93
    Date: 2016–12
  18. By: Francesco Bosello (University of Milan, FEEM and CMCC); Carlo Orecchia (FEEM and CMCC); David A. Raitzer (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Southeast Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to the impacts of climate change. At the same time, the region is also following a trajectory that could make it a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the future. Understanding the economic implications of policy options for low carbon growth is essential to formulate instruments that achieve the greatest emissions reductions at lowest cost. This study focuses on five developing countries of Southeast Asia that collectively account for 90% of regional emissions in recent years—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The analyses are based on the CGE economy-energy-environment model ICES under an array of scenarios reflecting business as usual, fragmented climate policies, an approximately 2.4°C post 2020 global climate stabilization target, termed 650 parts per million (ppm) carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent (eq), and an approximately 2°C global target (termed 500 ppm CO2 eq). Averted deforestation through reducing emissions from forest degradation and deforestation (REDD) is included in some scenarios. The study shows that global and coordinated action is found to be critical to the cost effectiveness of emissions stabilization policies. A 650ppm stabilization scenario (below 3°C in 2100) has a similar cost to the region to current fragmented targets, but achieves much higher levels of emissions reductions. However, only some of the countries have short-term emissions targets that are consistent with a stabilization scenario at 650ppm: these are Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam. None of the countries’ mid-term targets are coherent with more ambitious stabilization scenario at 500ppm.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, Asian Economies, Computable General Equilibrium Models
    JEL: Q54 Q58 C68
    Date: 2016–12
  19. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Inadequate application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been identified by the Food Staples Sufficiency Program as a major constraint in achieving rice self-sufficiency. The available literature on fertilizer application in the Philippines tends to find inadequate N application under the agronomic and economic criteria. Explanations for the gap may be grouped under the following sets of factors: external constraints, attitude toward risk, and internal constraints. Different explanations imply different policy solutions, hence, it is critical to correctly identify the most relevant explanations. A new estimation using FAO Fertibase data confirms the finding of inadequate N application by rice farmers in the Philippines. Additional study is proposed covering the following: (1) comparing actual to optimal N application using secondary data for Central Luzon (obtained from the International Rice Research Institute) and (2) identifying the reasons for inadequate N application using primary data collected from a survey of rice farmers in Nueva Ecija.
    Keywords: Philippines, efficiency, fertilizer, yield gap, risk aversion, prospect theory, behavioral economics
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Bullock, David S.
    Abstract: The International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium is an informal association of University and Government economists interested in agricultural trade. Its purpose is to foster interaction, improve research capacity and to focus on relevant trade policy issues. It is supported by United States Department of Agriculture (ERS, FAS, and OCE), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and the participating institutions. The IATRC Working Paper series provides members an opportunity to circulate their work at the advanced draft stage through limited distribution within the research and analysis community. The IATRC takes no political positions or responsibility for the accuracy of the data or validity of the conclusions presented by working paper authors. Further, policy recommendations and opinions expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the IATRC or its funding agencies. For a copy of this paper and a complete list of IATRC Working Papers, books, and other publications, see the IATRC Web Site
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2017–01
  21. By: Eskander, Shaikh M.S.U. (London School of Economics); Fankhauser, Samuel (London School of Economics); Jha, Shikha (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: We investigate the economic response of households to natural disasters in Bangladesh and Pakistan. In particular, we explore to what extent households adjust their income and employment strategies and savings in response to exposure to floods and storms. Using two unique panel datasets, we find evidence of autonomous adjustments in both countries. In Bangladesh, farmers move away from farm to nonfarm employment as a coping strategy to tackle immediate reductions in their total household income from exposure to disasters, whereas nonfarmers increase their off-farm labor supply. Such adjustments in employment strategies are stronger among the storm-affected households than the flood-affected households. On the other hand, although farmers in Pakistan move away from agriculture as an immediate response to disasters, they eventually come back to agriculture within a year of disaster exposure. We also identify that such adjustments in employment and income strategies help farmers to overcome the immediate losses from disaster exposure as the disasteraffected households from both Bangladesh and Pakistan exhibit at least no decrease in their savings behavior. We discuss policy implications in terms of developing nonfarm employment opportunities to reduce the future harms of disaster and financing economic migration to reduce income vulnerability.
    Keywords: Bangladesh; income; natural disasters; Pakistan; savings
    JEL: D13 D64 Q15 Q24 Q54
    Date: 2016–12–23
  22. By: Reis, Lara Aleluia (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Emmerling, Johannes (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Tavoni, Massimo (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Raitzer, David (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Developing Asia has the world’s fastest greenhouse gas emissions growth. This study uses an economy–energy–climate model to assess the effects of Paris Agreement pledges on Asia, in comparison with business as usual (BAU) and more ambitious scenarios. Results confirm that pledges must be strongly increased in ambition to achieve the Paris Agreement’s goal of less than 2 degrees Celsius (2°C) warming. The policy costs of Asia’s pledges are found to be less than 1% of gross domestic product (GDP) through 2050, while 2°C scenarios may cost less than 2% of GDP. However, costs are sensitive to assumptions about international carbon markets and mitigation timing, with costs for 2°C scenarios doubling in the absence of carbon trade, and increasing the later that mitigation is initiated. Under the 2°C scenarios, annual average energy supply investments are about $300 billion above the BAU levels through 2050. Mitigation policy may substantially reduce air pollution mortality, with up to 600,000 fewer deaths in Asia annually by 2050. When costs, benefits of avoided climate change, and cobenefits are considered together, investment in mitigation policy is found to have substantial economic returns for the region—if action is taken rapidly and international carbon market mechanisms are implemented.
    Keywords: climate change; energy; greenhouse gas; mitigation; Paris Agreement
    JEL: C61 D58 Q52 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2016–12–23
  23. By: Lazarus, William F.
    Abstract: This report is a summary of the data contained on the farmland sales portion of the Minnesota Land Economics (MLE) web site ( ) as of January 3, 2017. It is formally reissued each year, as new sales data become available. The present document consists largely of graphs and tables summarizing sales over the past twenty-four years. It provides averages at the multi-county region and at the statewide levels of aggregation. Individual transaction data are available for downloading and analysis at the MLE web site.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2017–01
  24. By: David Jones; James Mabli
    Abstract: This study describes the environment in which low-income households acquire and purchase food by examining the local population characteristics of areas with and without emergency food pantries and by examining the locations of food pantries in relation to the retail food environment.
    Keywords: Emergency food pantries, food access, food deserts, GIS, spatial analysis, FANRP
    JEL: I0 I1
  25. By: Herrin, Alejandro N.
    Abstract: In 2015, based on the latest survey of the Food Nutrition Research Institute, childhood stunting affected one-third (33%) of children under five years. This is equivalent to 3.78 million children in 2015. Moreover, there has been little progress in reducing stunting prevalence in the last 20 years. The strategic importance of stunting prevention cannot be overemphasized in view of its short- and long-term consequences on health, learning, and economic productivity, and the short period of time that it can be effectively prevented (the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years). Moreover, cost-effective interventions to address the situation are known and regularly updated. Assessments of specific nutrition projects have uncovered various implementation issues of targeting, coordination, management structures, logistics, and sustainability. On the other hand, recent sector-level assessment has uncovered a number of structural issues of governance--local mobilization to implement nutrition program; limited resources for nutrition; and organizational--effective coordination by the National Nutrition Council National Secretariat in a devolved set-up. Responding to these structural issues requires a new approach to address them. An approach suggested in the paper is to take advantage of existing opportunities offered, first, by the increasing global interest in child stunting, and second, by the existing platforms for identifying the poor and for delivering and financing health services. The paper outlines an approach for consideration and discussion.
    Keywords: Philippines, health service delivery, childhood stunting, maternal and child care, micronutrients
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Christoph Böhringer (University of Oldenburg); Xaquín Garcia-Muros (Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), Students); Ignacio Cazcarro (Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3)); Iñaki Arto (Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3))
    Abstract: Despite recent achievements towards a global climate agreement, climate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions remains quite heterogeneous across countries. Energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries in industrialized countries are particularly concerned on stringent domestic emission pricing that may put them at a competitive disadvantage with respect to producers of similar goods in other countries without or only quite lenient emission regulation. This paper focuses on climate policy analysis for the United States of America (US) and compares the economic implications of four alternative protective measures for US EITE industries: (i) output-based rebates, (ii) exemptions from emission pricing, (iii) energy intensity standards, and (iv) carbon intensity standards. Based on simulations with a large-scale computable general equilibrium model for the global economy we quantify how these protective measures affect competitiveness of US EITE industries. We find that while protective measures can attenuate adverse competitiveness impacts measured in terms of common sector-specific competitiveness indicators, they run the risk of making US emission reduction much more costly than uniform emission pricing stand-alone. In fact, the cost increase is associated with negative income effects such that the gains of protective measures for EITE exports may be more than compensated through losses in domestic EITE demand.
    Keywords: unilateral climate policy, competitiveness, computable general equilibrium
    JEL: D21 H23 D58
    Date: 2016–10
  27. By: Andrea Bastianin (University of Milan); Alessandro Lanza (Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change); Matteo Manera (University of Milan-Bicocca and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: We develop a structural econometric model to study the impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Colombian coffee production, exports and price. Our empirical specification is consistent with an economic model of the coffee market that, in the short-run, is characterized by a downward-sloping demand curve and by a vertical supply curve. This allows the study of the effects of unpredictable innovations to ENSO on the Colombian coffee price, while controlling for shocks arising from both the supply and the demand-side of the market. We show that El Niño events (i.e. positive shocks to ENSO) might be beneficial for production and exports and tend to decrease the price of coffee. On the contrary, La Niña conditions (i.e. negative shocks to ENSO) depress coffee production and exports and increase price. However, the overall impact of ENSO shocks is small. In the short-run, ENSO shocks explain 2% of the fluctuations of coffee production and 0.2% of the variability of the price of coffee. In the long-run, these percentages rise to 8% and 6%, respectively. Both in the short-run and in the long-run, demand-side shocks are more relevant than supply-side shocks in explaining the dynamics of the price of coffee.
    Keywords: Coffee, Colombia, El Niño, ENSO, La Niña, Structural VAR
    JEL: C32 O13 Q02 Q11 Q54
    Date: 2016–12
  28. By: Sanjoy Chakravorty (Temple University); S. Chandrasekhar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Karthikeya Naraparaju (Indian Institute of Management, Indore)
    Abstract: This paper is a contribution to understanding income generation and inequality in India's agricultural sector. We analyse the National Sample Surveys of agriculture in 2003 and 2013 using descriptive, decomposition, and modelling tools, and estimate income inequality in the agricultural sector at the scale of the nation and its 17 largest states. We show that: (a) income inequality in India's agricultural sector is very high (Gini Coefficient of around 0.6 during the period), (b) about half of the income inequality is explained by the household-level variance in income from cultivation, which in turn is primarily dependent on variance in landownership, and (c) there are significant state-level differences in the structures/patterns of income generation from agriculture. These findings are important for two principal reasons. First, these measurements of inequality challenge the widely-held belief-based on consumption rather than income data-that India is a low-inequality country. Second, these findings reinforce the idea that the extreme fragmentation of agricultural land is the root cause of poverty in India, and the fact that the fragmentation continues to grow more intense is the singular challenge of Indian development.
    Keywords: Agricultural Households, Sources of Income, Income Inequality, India
    JEL: D31 D63 O1
    Date: 2016–11
  29. By: Beghin, John
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2016
  30. By: Fujii, Tomoki (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Scientists estimate that anthropogenic climate change leads to increased surface temperature, rising sea levels, and more frequent extreme weather and climate events, among others. We investigate how climate change can potentially change vulnerability to poverty using a panel data set in Indonesia. We focus on the effect of drought and flood, two of the commonly observed disasters there. Our simulation results indicate that vulnerability to poverty in Indonesia may increase substantially as a result of climate change.
    Keywords: Climate change; poverty; vulnerability; Indonesia
    JEL: I32 O10
    Date: 2016–12–31
  31. By: Sands, Ronald D.; Malcolm, Scott A.; Suttles, Shellye A.; Marshall, Elizabeth
    Abstract: Dedicated energy crops, such as switchgrass in the United States, have received much attention as potential renewable feedstocks for liquid fuels or bioelectricity; however, markets do not presently exist for large-scale use of this resource. This study examines three policy scenarios that could create a market for bioelectricity using dedicated energy crops: a subsidy for bioelectricity generation, a national Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), and a national cap-and-trade policy to limit carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Model results suggest that energy crops as a share of total cropland by region would be greatest in the Northern Plains, Southeast, and Appalachia. Even though the impact of energy crop production on land use across scenarios is similar by design, the impacts on other model outputs are quite different, including the mix of electricity-generating technologies, the price of electricity, CO2 emissions, and the cost relative to a no-policy reference scenario. For example, the price of electricity increases with cap-and-trade but declines with a bioelectricity subsidy. In all scenarios, U.S. CO2 emissions decrease relative to the reference scenario. Emissions reductions are greatest in the cap-and-trade scenario, but significant reductions are also obtained with an RPS.
    Keywords: bioenergy, land use, energy crops, scenarios, renewable portfolio standard, climate policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2017–01
  32. By: S Chandrasekhar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); P. Geetha Rani (Department of Economics, Central University of Tamil Nadu); Soham Sahoo (University of Goettingen)
    Abstract: We analyse data from two recent NSSO surveys to provide estimates of expenditure on higher education and loans availed for higher education. The average share of expenditure on higher education out of total household expenditure is 15.3 per cent and 18.4 per cent for rural and urban households who participate in higher education. This average is higher in the southern states since individuals from these states are more likely to be enrolled in private unaided institutions where fees are higher and are more likely to be pursuing technical education. For reasons similar to mentioned above, individuals from southern states are more likely to have outstanding borrowings for education. At the all India level, poorer households are less likely to borrow possibly because they are risk averse and uncertain about future returns. We do however find that individuals from lower quintiles of the distribution of consumption expenditure are more likely to get fee subsidies or scholarships, indicating that such schemes reach their intended beneficiaries. One metric that should be tracked at the policy level is the reliance on non-institutional source of finance and in particular money lender. In conclusion, we also highlight the need for additional research on the relative importance of credit constraints vis a vis employability in the decision to pursue higher education.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Expenditure, Borrowing, India
    JEL: I2 I23
    Date: 2016–12
  33. By: Enni Roukamo (Department of Economics, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Finland); Mikolaj Czajkowski (University of Warsaw, Department of Economics, Poland); Nick Hanley (Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews); A. Juutinen (Department of Economics, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Finland); R. Svento (Department of Economics, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Finland)
    Abstract: Choosing a specific heating system is a complex and difficult decision for homeowners as there exists a wide array of heating technologies with different characteristics that one can consider before purchasing. We include multiple heating technologies and attributes in our Choice Experiment design and explore the effect of perceived choice complexity on the randomness of choices. In particular, we investigate how different self-evaluated factors of choice complexity affect mean scale and scale variance. Our findings suggest that perceived choice complexity has a systematic impact on the parameters of econometric models of choice. However, there are differences between alternative selfevaluated complexity-related covariates. Results indicate that individuals who report that answering the choice tasks was difficult have less deterministic choices. Perceptions of the realism of home heating choice options also affect scale and scale variance.
    Keywords: Home heating, Choice experiment, Choice modelling, Scale heterogeneity, Generalized mixed logit, Complexity
    JEL: D12 Q40 Q48 Q51 Q55
    Date: 2016–10
  34. By: Nidhi Aggarwal (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Sargam Jain (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Sudha Narayanan (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: This paper examines Karnataka's pioneering agricultural output marketing reforms with the twin goals of assessing the state and challenges of implementation and to glean lessons from Karnataka's experience for India's e-National Agricultural Market (e-NAM). Through a field study of ten mandis across the state, we find that while Karnataka has been consistently pushing through with reforms, in the context of deeply entrenched relationships between farmers, traders and com- mission agents, the challenges of deeper reforms are significant. We argue that Karnataka's experience suggests that agricultural market reform in India rests on three pillars - institutions that establish the rules of the game, incentives for agents to participate actively in the market and infrastructure to support the modernised trading platform. Unless reforms address all these three issues simultaneously, they are unlikely to succeed.
    Keywords: eNAM, Karnataka Model, Mandi reforms, APMC
    JEL: Q13 Q14 Q02
    Date: 2016–09
  35. By: Sherzod Hamdamov
    Abstract: Uzbekistan, country which is situated in Central Asia, is characterised with huge amount of agricultural resources. It is a leading economy of exporting agricultural products to CIS countries, especially Russia and Kazakhstan. Government of Uzbekistan has been supporting development of entrepreneurship in the sphere of agriculture, one of the successful results of which is presence of specialized farms almost in each region of country. At present, the main task for specialized farms is to provide both domestic and foreign markets with qualified agricultural products. In the conditions of competition and free market relations, farms need to have and use appropriate strategies, especially marketing strategies for gaining good positions in domestic and foreign markets. This article explains how specialized farms to succeed on gaining competitive positions in markets through developing and implementing effective marketing strategies. Key words: marketing, marketing activity of farms, agricultural enterprises, specialized farms, product sales markets, market conquest. Policy
    Date: 2016–12
  36. By: Ravi Bansal; Marcelo Ochoa; Dana Kiku
    Abstract: To study the welfare implications of rising temperature we propose a temperature-augmented long-run risks model that accounts for the interaction between temperature, economic growth and risk. The model simultaneously matches the projected temperature path, the observed consumption growth dynamics, discount rates provided by the risk-free rate and equity market returns, and the negative elasticity of equity prices to temperature risks documented in the data. We use the calibrated model to quantify the social cost of carbon (SCC) and to frame the optimal climate policy. We show that a preference for early resolution of uncertainty and long-run impact of temperature on growth imply a significant SCC and motivate early actions to abate global warming.
    JEL: E0 G0 Q0
    Date: 2016–12
  37. By: Zhang, Li (Asian Development Bank Institute); Xu, Xianxiang (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: We explore the relationship between land policies and urbanization in the PRC. We analyze the land policies associated with urbanization and summarize findings related to central and local government involvement in the process of urbanization. In particular, we explore the relationship between urbanization and land leasing. We find that the urbanization rate and the land leasing revenue are positively related. Land leasing provides financial support for PRC urbanization, but damages the interest of landless peasants. Especially in the west, population urbanization lags behind land urbanization, resulting in much higher land and house prices in the east than those in inland PRC. Current land and household registration policies hinder the mobility of production factors, including construction land and the labor force, and distort the process of urbanization and industrialization. Land policy should be revised such that the market determines the allocation of land resources, which will create a unified, competitive urban–rural land market.
    Keywords: Urbanization; land policy; land leasing; land prices; hukou system
    JEL: H71 P26 R52
    Date: 2016–12–31
  38. By: Alano, Emmanuel (Asian Development Bank); Lee, Minsoo (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Climate-related natural disaster shocks are expected to rise as the earth is getting warmer, which will adversely affect growth prospects globally. Current robust estimates of the effects of typhoons and droughts point to both short- and long-term declines in national incomes compared to predisaster trends and economic effects likely to persist up to 2 decades. Using the typhoon landfalls and damage in Asia, we analyze the wind–damage relationship and find damages to gross domestic product increase by 2.3% for an increase in maximum wind speed. The extreme projected temperature rise in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 will result in higher damage by more than 50% in 2100. Vulnerable developing Asian economies could expect dampened growth with significant impacts on agriculture and tourism, a concern that may roll back years of development gains and exacerbate inequality. To cope with increasing disaster risks, both short-term adaptation strategies like relocation, government transfers, and other social safety nets, as well as long-term strategies like disaster insurance or similar ex ante mechanisms are needed.
    Keywords: Asia; climate impact; drought; natural disaster; typhoon
    JEL: I30 Q54
    Date: 2016–12–21
  39. By: Win, Myat Thida; Thinzar, Aye Mya; Zu, A Myint
    Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that the mechanization of agriculture is proceeding rapidly in areas of Myanmar close to the country’s major city, Yangon, as farmers - driven by the need to remain profitable in the face of labor shortages and rising wage rates - adopt a variety of labor saving technologies
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2016–12
  40. By: Israel, Danilo C.; Lunod-Carinan, Milva; Paqueo, Vicente B.
    Abstract: The Philippines is blessed with rich marine fishing grounds that are valuable sources of food and livelihood for the population. Unfortunately, over the years, these fishing grounds have become increasingly less productive, and many are in danger of depletion. At the heart of the problem is the generally open-access nature of Philippine fisheries, which leads to the unintended consequence of overfishing. This paper reviews the basic theory of overfishing; institutions, laws, and policies related to overfishing in the Philippines; and past and current efforts to curb overfishing in the country. As case study, it looks into the sardine industry zeroing in on the Zamboanga Peninsula experience. The paper shows how choosing to act collectively in ways that effectively minimize overfishing can keep the sardine industry profitable and sustainable for its participants in the long haul. It also provides some recommendations on how to potentially improve the current situation and make the sardine industry even more effective in addressing overfishing.
    Keywords: Philippines, sardine industry, Zamboanga Peninsula, unintended consequence, overfishing, open access, closed season, fishery
    Date: 2016
  41. By: Le, Thai-Ha (RMIT University); Chang, Youngho (Nanyang Technological University); Park, Donghyun (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: We examine the role of governance and vulnerability to climate change in green growth using a global panel data set of 122 countries in 2000‒2012. We find that, as expected, governance has a positive effect on environmental performance and vulnerability to climate change has a negative effect. This suggests that promoting good governance and reducing climate change vulnerability can contribute to a cleaner environment. We find qualitatively similar results for the subsample of high-income countries, but governance does not have a significant effect for the subsamples of upper-middleincome, lower-middle-income, and low-income countries. One possible interpretation is that high-income countries have environmental policies which are strong enough to protect the environment, whereas other countries have relatively weak environmental policies which need to be strengthened.
    Keywords: air quality; governance; green growth; PM2.5; vulnerability to climate change
    JEL: Q56
    Date: 2016–11–08
  42. By: Sokvibol, Kea
    Abstract: Dissertation for Master of Economics and Management of Agriculture Northwest A&F University. Advisor: Professor Li Hua
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Production Economics,
    Date: 2016–11
  43. By: Anzano, Corazon G.; Alvarez, Julian Thomas B.
    Abstract: This study evaluates the impact of the agricultural insurance program on agricultural producers in Central Visayas (Region VII) on the premise that agricultural crop insurance is a potential risk-mitigating tool. Agricultural insurance, through the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC), is seen as a mechanism that can be used by farmers to manage risks and improve their well-being. The Cebu provincial government allocated PHP 8 million in 2015 and PHP 10 million in 2016 for agricultural insurance. The corn farmers need only to comply with the administrative requirements to enjoy the benefits of agricultural insurance. Data were gathered through on-site observation and a survey instrument designed by PIDS in collaboration with the regional partner universities. For Central Visayas, 510 corn farmers listed in either the PCIC client list or the RSBSA were randomly chosen from the municipalities in the region. They were categorized into three types corresponding to the treatment and control groups of the study. Findings showed that agricultural insurance has a positive and significant impact on incomes of corn farmers, particularly those with corn farms greater than 0.5 hectare. Six variables were found to have significant impacts to availment of agricultural insurance by corn farmers. These were membership in farmers’ organization, size of farmlands, educational attainment of the farmer, location of the farmer’s household relative to the PCIC office, status of land tenure, and access to community-level facilities. Given the importance of the agricultural sector and its positive impact to corn farmers in Central Visayas, what is important is to address how corn farmers can be motivated to avail themselves of agricultural insurance and enjoy its benefits.
    Keywords: Philippines, impact evaluation, Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation, agricultural crop insurance, corn, Central Visayas
    Date: 2016
  44. By: Yun Liang (University of Waikato); John Gibson (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: We test for the existence of a trade-off between child quantity and quality in Chinese families. We use changes over time and space in the local stringency of the one-child policy as a source of exogenous variation in family size. Investment in child quality is measured by intake of three nutrients, using seven waves of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. For all three nutrients, a quantity-quality trade-off is apparent, which persists for fats if child-specific effects are introduced. The trade-off would be less apparent if exogenous sources of variation in family size were ignored.
    JEL: I12 J13 O15
    Date: 2017–01–12
  45. By: Anna Alberini (University of Maryland, FEEM and Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zürich); Milan Šcasný (Charles University Environment Center); Andrea Bigano (FEEM, CMCC and Far East Federal University)
    Abstract: The implementation of decarbonization policies depends crucially on the public’s willingness to pay for them. We use stated preference methods to investigate the public’s preferences for such policies. We ask three research questions. First, does the willingness to pay (WTP) for each ton of CO2 emissions reductions depend on the policies and on individual characteristics of the respondents? Second, how extensive is the variation associated with these factors? Third, what factors affect support for or opposition to a carbon tax? Based on the responses to discrete choice experiments from a sample of Italians, we find that the WTP per ton of CO2 ranges between € 6 and 130, depending on whether the public program is based on taxes, incentives, information-based approaches or standards. Further allowing for individual characteristics of the respondents, such as gender or education, and knowledge of climate change, results in a 300% change in WTP, holding the policy instrument the same. We conclude that the variation associated with the policy instrument is approximately of the same order of magnitude as that associated with individual characteristics of the respondents.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, WTP per ton of CO2 Emissions Reduced, Choice Experiments
    JEL: Q41 Q48 Q54 Q51
    Date: 2016–12
  46. By: Battaglini, Marco; Harstad, Bard
    Abstract: In recent decades, democratic countries have signed hundreds of international environmental agreements (IEAs). Most of these agreements, however, are weak: they generally do not include effective enforcement or monitoring mechanisms. This is a puzzle in standard economic models. To study this phenomenon, we propose a positive theory of IEAs in which the political incumbents negotiate them in the shadow of reelection concerns. We show that, in these environments, incumbents are prone to negotiate treaties that are simultaneously overambitious (larger than what they would be without electoral concerns) and weak (might not be implemented in full). The theory also provides a new perspective for understanding investments in green technologies, highlighting a channel through which countries are tempted to rely too much on technology instead of sanctions to make compliance credible. We present preliminary evidence consistent with these predictions.
    Keywords: elections; environmental agreements; international agreements; political economy; sanctions; technology.
    JEL: D72 F55 Q58
    Date: 2016–12
  47. By: Abhinav Agarwal
    Abstract: The paper attempts to study the RBI initiatives with respect to Export financing schemes for boosting Indian Exports. It is of great importance that the country’s exports be stepped up, so as to reduce the trade and current account deficits to sustainable levels. Apart from export incentives provided to exporters, RBI and the Government should also ensure that the exporters are provided credit facilities at a reasonable rate of interest. The paper covers the existing financing policies of the RBI and also focus on issues relating to various difficulties being faced by exporters with regard to availability of credit, factoring and other procedural issues in their dealings with banks and financial institutions. Key words:Export financing, RBI, factoring Policy
    Date: 2016–09
  48. By: Cunguara, Benedito; Mather, David; Walker, Tom; Mouzinho, Bordalo; Massingue, Jaquelino; Uaiene, Rafael
    Abstract: We use a combination of descriptive and econometric analysis of rural household animal traction use to assess the relative role of disease pressure as compared with other potential determinants of animal traction use. The focus on the potential of area expansion using animal traction rather than motorization is because draft animals appreciate while tractors depreciate over time. Second, the direct transition from hand-hoe to tractorization is usually not cost-effective (Pingali et al., 1987). The costs of destumping are much higher for tractor tillage because a much higher quality of destumping is required in order to minimize the damage to tractor-drawn implements
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–04
  49. By: Committee to review WIC food packages of which Mary Kay Fox is a member
    Keywords: WIC, Food packages
    JEL: I0 I1
  50. By: Friese, Maria; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Klein, Gordon J.
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence that ownership and organization matters for the efficiency of provision of public services. In particular, we find that pure private ownership is more efficient than pure public ownership, followed by mixed ownership. The delegation of management in different legal forms also has an impact, highlighting the importance of the design of the government-operator relation. We apply a structural approach of production function estimation ensuring precise determination of total factor productivity for a panel of German refuse collection firms in the time period between 2000-2012. We project total factor productivity estimates (TFP) on ownership and organization. Our results are in line with the trade-offs implied by the property rights literature and provide important policy implications regarding the organization of public service provision.
    Keywords: incentive regulation,productive efficiency,refuse collection,public utility
    JEL: L00 L33 L50 L97
    Date: 2016
  51. By: AzlarovaDilnoza
    Abstract: Fats and Oils industry of Uzbekistan is growing in result of attraction of foreign direct investments in this industry. High demand for products of this industry and in domestic market and in foreign market requires development of effective management system. The key element of such system is human resources, and CEO, heads of departments in companies producing fats, oils and related products should be familiar with contemporary concepts of HR management. Key words: fats and oils industry, human resources, HR management, dynamic environment Policy
    Date: 2016–12

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