nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2016‒10‒23
twelve papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Time to Decide on French Agriculture By Jean-Christophe Bureau; Lionel Fontagné; Sébastien Jean
  2. "Impact Assessment of Credit Program for Tenant Farmers in Bangladesh: Evidence from a Field Experiment" By Marup Hossain; Mohammad Abdul Malek; Md. Amzad Hossain; Md. Hasib Reza; Md. Shakil Ahmed
  3. Yield to Change: Modelling the Land-use Response to Climate-Driven Changes in Pasture Production By Levente Timar
  4. Women's Roles in the West African Food System: Implications and Prospects for Food Security and Resilience By OECD
  5. Understanding the distribution of economic benefits from improving coastal and marine ecosystems By Kristine Pakalniete; Juris Aigars; Mikołaj Czajkowski; Solvita Strake; Ewa Zawojska; Nick Hanley
  6. Realising the right to social security and the right to food : the contribution of national social protection floors towards food security and the realisation of the right to adequate food for all By Devereux, Stephen.
  7. Retail Channel Management in Consumer Search Markets By Garcia, Daniel; Janssen, Maarten
  8. Statistical research of development of integration processes in Russian agriculture By Demichev, Vadim
  9. Green new deal and the question of environmental and social justice By Herman, Christoph.
  10. Forest Owners Motivations for Adopting Programs of Biodiversity Protection By Philippe Polomé
  11. Environmental Inequality in France: A Theoretical, Empirical and Policy Perspective By Eloi Laurent
  12. Voluntary Individual Carbon Trading By Clive L. Spash; Hendrik Theine

  1. By: Jean-Christophe Bureau (INRA Economie); Lionel Fontagné (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique); Sébastien Jean (INRA Economie, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique)
    Abstract: Despite significant amounts of subsidies, the French agricultural sector delivers unsatisfactory results in several respects: falling employment rates, partly low revenues, environmental degradation and declining commercial performance. The profession often highlights regulatory complexity and high labour costs as the main culprits. But also the predominantly small structures, in particular in the downstream industry, sluggish technical progress, unequal competence level among farmers, lacking coordination between sectors and questionable non-price competitiveness strategies add to the problem. In this context, public policies lack clear direction as various tools sometimes pursue conflicting objectives. Today, agricultural policy clearly needs to be refocused on key long-term objectives. Protection of natural capital needs to become a central part of agricultural policy. This is both an environmental issue and a condition for the future economic success of agriculture itself. To achieve this, policy needs to be directed at financing amenities, such as soil quality, rather than pursuing uncertain objectives with undifferentiated subsidies. Regulations, currently working restrictively and not effectively, need to better target results. In order to create the conditions necessary for innovative agriculture, promising biological innovations and spatial data, which are becoming strategic, should not be left to a few international companies. Instead there is a need to help public research direct the innovation, so that to ensure the compliance with biologic regulations. At the same time continuing vocational training for farmers needs to be reinforced by enhancing the role of digital tools, agricultural colleges and higher education. Regarding the French export strategy, national agriculture should principally rely upon a small number of labels promoting food control, full traceability, the absence of antibiotics and growth enhancement products and respect for the environment and animal welfare. Finally, in order to help farmers exposed to market volatility, measures such as smoothing taxes over several years, and the postponement of loan and social security contributions, as well as access to risk coverage, need to be promoted more favourably than administered prices and counter-cyclical subsidies. At the EU Community level, non-transferable contractual subsidies targeting public goods or with social objectives should substitute surface-area based subsidies. Competitiveness, environment and revenue are not necessarily incompatible in agriculture. However, major reorientation of policies is required to reconcile them.
    Keywords: agriculture, competitveness
    Date: 2015–12
  2. By: Marup Hossain (Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida); Mohammad Abdul Malek (Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo, and Research and Evaluation Division (RED), BRAC); Md. Amzad Hossain (Department of Economics, University of Dhaka); Md. Hasib Reza (Research and Evaluation Division (RED), BRAC); Md. Shakil Ahmed (Research and Evaluation Division (RED), BRAC)
    Abstract: We study the role of agricultural credit on productivity and livelihoods of small, marginal, and landless tenant farmers based on a randomized control trial (RCT) field experiment in Bangladesh. Twenty percent of the eligible households from the treatment group participate in the credit program and utilize sixty percent of their loans for agricultural purposes. Results show that access to credit increases adoption of modern seed varieties, productivity, and farming income in the treatment group. We find that impacts are heterogeneous over households0 headship, tenancy status, and farm size. We also examine distributional impacts using quantile regressions and find that impacts of the credit are mostly concentrated in the upper tail of the distributions.
    Date: 2016–10
  3. By: Levente Timar (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: In contrast to most economic drivers of land-use change, climate-related drivers display substantial geographic variation. Accounting for this spatial heterogeneity is important in simulations of the land-use response to climate change. I use a discrete choice model to estimate the relationship between pasture yields and rural land use. Land-use predictions from the model respond to climate change through its effects on pasture yields. This econometric model provides the foundation for the development of a new module of the Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) model, the Yield Change Module. In addition to enabling simulations of overall land-use change under different climate scenarios, the module also draws on the estimation results to allocate land-use change spatially. I employ the Yield Change Module to perform illustrative mid-century and end-of-century simulations of land use in a climate scenario characterised by a high level of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 8.5). Yield changes in this scenario lead to an expansion (by nearly 600,000 hectares) of dairy area and a fall (by over 800,000 hectares) of sheep-beef area by the end of the century. The implied rate of land-use change is modest relative to that observed in New Zealand’s recent past
    Keywords: Land use, climate change, pasture production, LURNZ, Yield Change Module
    JEL: Q15 Q54
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: This paper examines how women’s empowerment is essential for food and nutrition security and resilience in West Africa and suggests policy “pointers” arising from the West African experience that can help inform policies and strategies, particularly in view of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. West African women play a significant role at each stage in the food system, from production to distribution to nutrition, and they contribute to building resilience and adaptability to uncertainty and shocks including the effects of climate change. While it is clear that women significantly contribute to the eradication of hunger and malnutrition, it is also evident that there is a need for greater political representation and participation in policy dialogues. Cette note montre en quoi l’autonomisation des femmes est essentielle à la sécurité et à la résilience alimentaire et nutritionnelle en Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle suggère des arguments éclairés tirés de l’expérience ouest-africaine pour nourrir les politiques et stratégies en vue de l’agenda international pour le développement durable à l’horizon 2030. Les femmes ouest-africaines jouent un rôle important à chaque étape du système alimentaire, de la production à la nutrition en passant par la distribution. Elles contribuent à renforcer la résilience et la capacité d’adaptation aux incertitudes et aux chocs tels que les effets du changement climatique. Alors qu’il est clair que les femmes aident de manière significative à l’élimination de la faim et de la malnutrition, il est également évident qu’elles doivent être mieux représentées politiquement et participer davantage au dialogue sur les politiques.
    Keywords: Women, West Africa, food systems, gender
    Date: 2016–10–21
  5. By: Kristine Pakalniete (AKTiiVS Ltd., Latvia); Juris Aigars (Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economi Sciences, University of Warsaw); Solvita Strake (Latvian Institute of Aquatic Ecology); Ewa Zawojska (Faculty of Economi Sciences, University of Warsaw); Nick Hanley (University of St Andrews, Department of Geography and Sustainable Development)
    Abstract: The ecological status of coastal and marine waterbodies world-wide is threatened by multiple stressors, including nutrient inputs from various sources and increasing occurrences of invasive alien species. These stressors impact the environmental quality of the Baltic Sea. Each Baltic Sea country contributes to the stressors and, at the same time, is affected by their negative impacts on water quality. Understanding who benefits from improvements in coastal and marine waters is key to assessing public support for policies aimed at achieving such changes. We propose a new approach to account for variability in benefits related to differences in socio-demographics of respondents, by using a structural model of discrete choice. Our method (1) provides a convenient way of incorporating a wide range of socio-demographics as explanatory variables in conditional multinomial logit models without the risk of collinearity, and (2) is more statistically efficient than the alternative, typically used approaches. The new technique is applied in a study which examines the preferences of Latvian citizens towards improvements of the coastal and marine environment quality that could help the Baltic Sea waters of Latvia reach Good Environmental Status as required by the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Applying the discrete choice experiment method, we find that overall, Latvians are willing to pay for reducing losses of biodiversity, for improving water quality for recreation by reduced eutrophication, and for reducing new occurrences of invasive alien species. A significant group within the sample seems not to value environmental improvements in the Baltic Sea, and, thus, is unwilling to support costly measures for achieving such improvements. The structural model of discrete choice reveals substantial heterogeneity among Latvians towards changes in the quality of coastal and marine waters of Latvia.
    Keywords: good environmental status; coastal and marine water quality; biodiversity; invasive alien species; eutrophication; discrete choice experiment; observed preference heterogeneity; socio-demographic characteristics; hybrid choice model
    JEL: C35 D12 H41 Q25 Q26 Q51 Q53 Q57 R50
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Devereux, Stephen.
    Keywords: social protection, food security, social security, income, food policy, case study, Ethiopia, India, protection sociale, sécurité alimentaire, sécurité sociale, revenu, politique alimentaire, étude de cas, Ethiopie, Inde, protección social, seguridad alimentaria, seguridad social, ingreso, política alimentaria, estudio de casos, Etiopía, India
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Garcia, Daniel; Janssen, Maarten
    Abstract: We study how a monopoly manufacturer optimally manages her contractual relations with retailers in markets with consumer search. By choosing wholesale prices, the manufacturer affects the degree of competition between retailers and the incentives of consumers to search. We show that depending on whether or not the manufacturer can commit to her price decisions and on the search cost, the manufacturer may be substantially better off choosing her wholesale prices not independent of each other, consciously allowing for asymmetric contracts. Thus, our analysis may shed light on when we may expect sales across different retailers to be positively or negatively correlated. Our model may be able to generate loss leaders at the wholesale level and show the rationale for creating ”premium resellers”.
    Keywords: Consumer Search, Retailing, Pricing
    JEL: D43 L13 M30
    Date: 2016–10–09
  8. By: Demichev, Vadim
    Abstract: The article is devoted to the main directions of improving the analysis of integration processes in Russian agriculture. By the integration processes, we mean the development of cooperation, agricultural holdings and agrarian clusters. The article describes the history of agricultural cooperation and the role of cooperatives in the development of integration processes. A key point is the study of integration from the perspective of agricultural holdings’ formation, as the largest vertically integrated structures specializing in the production and deep processing of agricultural raw materials and products. Based on analysis of materials published on the websites and information portals, investigated the activities of 82 existing Russian agricultural holdings. The geography of agricultural holdings, their structure and specialization, the amount of resources available to the agricultural holdings in their production activities was evaluated as a result of the study. Particular attention is given to the leaders of the production of basic agricultural products. The most complex integration system in Russian agriculture is an agrarian clusters based on such structures as cooperatives and agricultural holdings. The highlights five main approaches to the study of agricultural clusters, the main of which is the general improvement of the statistics of the agricultural sector, the development of the current statistical reporting and analysis, the improvement of sample survey of peasant farms’ and individual entrepreneurs’ activities, expanding the program All-Russian agricultural census and organization of sample surveys of agricultural holdings’ activity. To analyze the feasibility of agrarian clusters establishing, the program screening the prerequisites for the formation of clusters in the agricultural region is proposed. The implementation of the directions presented in this article, significantly enhance the objectivity of the analysis of integration processes in Russian agriculture.
    Keywords: Integration, cooperation, agricultural holdings, statistical research, agricultural census, scorecard, agricultural clusters, factor of attraction.
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2016–10–17
  9. By: Herman, Christoph.
    Keywords: sustainable development, economic recovery, employment creation, green jobs, environmental protection, equal rights, développement durable, reprise économique, création d'emploi, emplois verts, protection de l'environnement, droits égaux, desarrollo sostenible, recuperación económica, creación de empleos, empleos verdes, protección ambiental, igualdad de derechos
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Philippe Polomé (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: The results of a survey of private forest owners on adoption of a number of current programs, that include biodiversity protection to some degree, are presented. Adoption amounts to 22% for all the programs jointly, and is shown to depend on economic, social and ethical motives, with significant crowding-out between the economic and ethical motives, but not with social motives. Adoption of each program is strongly negatively correlated to each other. Nearly no respondent adopted the Natura 2000 program. The results constitute a test of the " reputational crowding-out " theory of Bénabou and Tirole (2006)
    Keywords: adoption decision, motivation crowding-out,Non-indutrial private forest owner, biodiversity program
    Date: 2016–05–30
  11. By: Eloi Laurent (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)
    Abstract: This article highlights the challenge of environmental inequality in France within the framework of social-ecology, an approach relating ecological crises to social issues, especially inequality. It starts by defining the notions of environmental inequality and environmental justice within the framework of the ‘capability approach’ and then reviews recent empirical studies that show how air pollution, chemical and noise pollutions, access to environmental resources and exposure to social-ecological disasters are socially differentiated in France and can be understood, under the definition adopted in this article, as a form of injustice. It concludes by reviewing issues raised by environmental inequality in France and exploring policy solutions able to address this challenge.
    Keywords: Environmental inequality; Air pollution; Risk noise and chemical pollution
    Date: 2014–11
  12. By: Clive L. Spash; Hendrik Theine
    Date: 2016

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