nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2016‒08‒14
sixty-two papers chosen by

  1. Food Security and its Constraining Factors in South Asia: Challenges and Opportunities By Ahmad, Munir; Iqbal, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar
  2. Prioritisation of Food Security by Decision makers in the Caribbean, A study of three Caribbean territories: Trinidad and Tobago, Belize and Barbados By Renwick, Shamin
  3. Agricultural and non-agricultural determinants of Italian farmland values By Mela, Giulio; Longhitano, Davide; Povellato, Andrea
  4. An Assessment of the Extent to which Farmers Use Modern Technology to Improve Crop Production Value Chains in The Bahamas By Ferguson, Monique; Hepburn, Erecia
  5. Assessing Rural Development Programs in 4 EU regions and their potential to address climate concerns By Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, Jose-Maria; Chieco, Camilla; Di Virgilio, Nicola; Coninx, Ingrid; Ortiz-Miranda, Dionisio; Rossi, Federica; Zegg, Madlaina; Fülöp, Bence
  6. Challenges to the Development of Agro-processing Enterprises in Antigua and Barbuda By Laudat, Julie-Ann
  7. Impact of Farm Households’ Adaptations to Climate Change on Food Security: Evidence from Different Agro-ecologies of Pakistan By Ahmad, Munir; Mustafa, Ghulam; Iqbal, Muhammad
  8. Youth Awareness and Nutrition: Real Fruits and Vegetables = Real Results By Henry, Mary E.; Squitieri, Amanda
  9. The Role of Private Standards for Manufactured Food Exports from Developing Countries By Ehrich, Malte; Mangelsdorf, Axel
  10. An Assessment of the Household Food Security Status and Local Foods Grown in Rural Bahamas By Kelly, Jeri L.; Pemberton, Carlisle
  11. Advancing the Root Crop Industry in the English Speaking Caribbean By Harrynanan, Lisa; Jacque, Andrew; Theophile, Brent
  12. An increasing recognition of the role of family farming in achieving sustainable development By Thomas Cooper Patriota; Francesco Maria Pierri
  13. The Impact of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on Local Farmers in the Bahamas By Toote, Brendan T. A.
  14. A Forward Looking Ricardian Approach: Do Land Markets Capitalize Climate Change Forecasts? By Christopher Severen; Christopher Costello; Olivier Deschenes
  15. Investigating the Understanding, Interest and Options for Agri-tourism to Promote Food Security in the Bahamas By Hepburn, Erecia
  16. Impact of Farm Households’ Adaptation on Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Different Agro-ecologies of Pakistan By Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Mustafa, Ghulam
  17. Socio-economic impact of land reform projects benefiting from the Recapitalisation and Development Programme in South Africa By Nomfundo Mabuza, Nosipho
  18. A fuzzy multi-criteria approach for assessing sustainability of Italian farms By Ragona, Maddalena; Vitali, Giuliano; Bazzani, Gian Maria
  19. The value of the participation in Solidarity Purchasing Groups (SPGs): an empirical analysis in Piedmont By Corsi, Alessandro; Novelli, Silvia
  20. Contract (in)completeness, product quality and trade – evidence from the food industry By Fałkowski, Jan; Curzi, Daniele; Olper, Alessandro
  21. Efficiency in Production By Smallholder Rice Farmers Under Cooperative Irrigation Schemes in Pwani and Morogoro Regions, Tanzania By Joseph Kangile, Rajabu
  22. Households' Water Use Demand and Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Services: A Case Study of Semi-Urban Areas in the Lubombo and Lowveld Regions of Swaziland By Mvangeli Dlamini, Nqobizwe
  23. Evaluating Scale and Technical Efficiency among Farms and Ranches with a Local Market Orientation By Bauman, Allison; Jablonski, Becca B.R.; Thilmany McFadden, Dawn
  24. Analysing the Impact of Climate Change on Cotton Productivity in Punjab and Sindh, Pakistan By Raza, Amar; Ahmad, Munir
  25. A Choice Experiment Study on the Farmers’ Attitudes toward Biogas and Waste Reuse in a Nitrates Vulnerable Zone By Strazzera, Elisabetta; Statzu, Vania
  26. Investigation of the effects of rainfall (Climate Change) on pineapple production in Essequibo Tri-Lakes Area By De Mondonca, Arnold
  27. An Analysis of Institutional Credit, Agricultural Policy and Investment to Agriculture in India By saravanan, saravanan
  28. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Irrigation Water: The Case of Doho Rice Irrigation Scheme in Eastern Uganda By Angella, Namyenya
  29. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Market Participation Among Smallholder Rice Farmers in Western Province, Zambia By Moono, Lizzen
  30. The role of contracts in improving access to credit in the smallholder livestock sector of Swaziland By Xolile Mamba, Tangetile
  31. Moving Up or Moving Out? Insights on Rural Development and Poverty Reduction in Senegal By VAN DEN BROECK, Goedele; MAERTENS, Miet
  32. Analysis of the Marketing Behavior of African Indigenous Leafy Vegetables Among Smallholder Farmers in Nyamira County, Kenya By Momanyi, Denis
  33. Exploring scenario guided pathways for food assistance in Tuscany By Galli, Francesca; Arcuri, Sabrina; Bartolini, Fabio; Vervoort, Joost; Brunori, Gianluca
  34. How important are crop shares in managing risk for specialized arable farms? A panel estimation of a programming model for three European regions By Britz, Wolfgang; Arata, Linda
  35. Effect of Improved Sweet Potato Varieties on Household Food Security in Bungoma County, Kenya By Kilui Wabwile, Victor
  36. The impact of optimized diet patterns at a macro-level: the case of Tunisia By Drogué, S.; Vignes, R.; Amiot, M.
  37. Developing Food Value Chains to meet Tourism Demand in the Caribbean: Case Studies of St. Kitts Nevis and St. Lucia By Ford, JR Deep; Dorodnykh, Ekaterina
  38. Addressing Food and Nutrition Security Threats in the Caribbean: Lessons from the Cassava Value Chain in Barbados By Ford, JR Deep; Dorodnykh, Ekaterina
  39. Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth in Ethiopia: The Case of Coffee, Oilseed and Pulses By Yifru, Tigist
  40. Implications of water scarcity for economic growth By Thomas W. Hertel; Jing Liu
  41. Towards A Regional Approach for Animal Health Services Provision and Disaster Risk Reduction: The Economics of the Caribvet Network By Tago, D.; Pradel, J.; Percedo Abreu, M. I.; Frias Lepoureau, M. T.; Gongora, V.; Lancelot, R.; Lefrançois, T.; Surujbally, N.; Lazarus, C.; Morales, P.; Vokaty, S.
  42. The Volatility of the International Price and the Trinidad and Tobago Export Price of Cocoa By Pemberton, Carlisle; De Sormeaux, Afiya; Patterson-Andrews, Hazel
  43. Economics of Manure Disposal and Utilization in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania By Kangondo, Angelique
  44. Household resilience to food insecurity: evidence from Tanzania and Uganda By d'Errico, Marco; Pietrelli, Rebecca; Romano, Donato
  45. Price Efficiency in U.S. Water Rights Markets By Rimsaite, Renata; Fisher-Vanden, Karen A.; Olmstead, Sheila M.
  46. Land Acquisition and Compensation Policy for Development Activity By Dinda, Soumyananda
  47. First economic assessment of ecosystem services from Natura 2000 network in Lombardy (Northern Italy) By Pettenella, Davide; Thiene, Mara; Scarpa, Riccardo; Masiero, Mauro; Mattea, Stefania; Franceschinis, Cristiano
  48. Science, university-firm R&D collaboration and innovation across Europe By Barra, Cristian; Maietta, Ornella Wanda; Zotti, Roberto
  49. Global Value Chains, Large-Scale Farming, and Poverty: Long-Term Effects in Senegal By VAN DEN BROECK, Goedele; SWINNEN, Johan; MAERTENS, Miet
  50. Willingness to Pay for Improved Irrigation Water Supply in Zambia: A Case of Kabwe City By Malama, Milton
  51. Brazil?Africa knowledge-sharing: What do African policymakers say? By Cristina Cirillo; Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira; Fábio Veras Soares
  52. Eliminating Extreme Poverty in Africa: Trends, Policies and the Role of International Organizations By Zorobabel Bicaba; Zuzana Brixiova; Mthuli Ncube
  53. Toward Development of a New Health Economic Evaluation Definition By Alexei Botchkarev
  54. Agri-environmental measures and farmers’ rent: evaluating the potential contribution of auctions to increase the efficiency of Agri-environmental schemes in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) By Vergamini, Daniele; Viaggi, Davide; Raggi, Meri
  55. External Validity in a Stochastic World By Mark Rosenzweig; Christopher Udry
  56. Brazil?Africa knowledge-sharing on Social Protection and food and nutrition security By Cristina Cirillo; Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira; Fábio Veras Soares
  57. A framework to evaluate payment systems for cash transfer programmes: examples from Kenya By Valentina Barca; Alex Hurrell; Ian MacAuslan; Aly Visram; Jack Willis
  58. Determinants of Household Resilience to Dry Spells and Drought in Malawai: A Case of Chipoka By Francisco Banda, Taonga
  59. The Impact of Agricultural and Trade Policies on Price Transmission in Central Asia By Bobokhonov, Abdulmajid; Pokrivcak, Jan; Rajcaniova, Miroslava
  60. Climate change and its impacts on family farming in the North/Northeast regions of Brazil By Haroldo Machado Filho
  61. Price Determinants of California Wine in the U.S. Market: Does the Type Matter? By Asgari, Ali; Reed, Michael R.
  62. Investigating Shopper Awareness and Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Foods in Trinidad, West Indies By Badrie, Neela; Ramesar, Hershael; Lutchmedial, Mikhail; Nanan, Leann; Maraj, Meera; Radgman, Kristine

  1. By: Ahmad, Munir; Iqbal, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar
    Abstract: Since 1961, significant progress in terms of increasing food supplies has been made in South Asia (SA). Yet, per capita availability of cereals faces either declining trend or stagnated most recently. Currently per capita daily consumption ranges from 2440 calories in Pakistan to 2673 calories in Nepal - substantially lower than the world average. There is wide spread poverty in the region and ranks low merely above the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in most of the development and food security indicators. Micronutrient deficiency is also pervasive in the region. The situation highlights the fact that enhanced food availability on its own cannot guarantee good nutrition status at the household level. HIES data does not show any increase in daily intake of total calories per person in Pakistan— hinting at poor access to nutritious food. Major causes of food insecurity in SA include faster growth in population, unplanned urbanization through rural to urban migration, reduction in arable land, declining average farm size besides skewed distribution, low productivity, slow process of structural transformations and poor institutions, and changes in climate. The latter has emerged as a new real threat to food security, since most of SA is already hot and growing of cereals is under heat stress. Further rise in temperature could reduce he yields of some crops significantly. The adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture can be dealt with mitigation and adaptation strategies. The structure of farming and poor resource as well as poverty could be the major hurdles to adapting to climate change. It is anticipated that SA is likely to face severe food crisis by 2050 and food security shall be the critical issue in the years to come. The good news is that the countries in the regional have started emphasizing on assuring food security to masses by moving step forward from agricultural and food policies to food security and nutritional policies—accessibility, and utilization aspects. To effectively deal with the food crisis in coming decades, various strategies like paradigm shift from the policy of national level self-sufficiency to regional self-reliance in staple foods; sharing food production technologies and experiences; seed banking and exchange of genetic material; revising SAARC food banking mechanism; and, devising more effective strategies for dealing with disasters, are suggested.
    Keywords: Food Security, South Asia, Causes of Food Insecurity, and Agricultural Policies, Climate Change
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Renwick, Shamin
    Abstract: The consequences of global food and nutrition insecurity, for example, high and fluctuating food prices would have had an impact on individual countries worldwide. This vulnerability in the Caribbean is, in fact, reflected in the recognition that none of the territories are able to produce all the food that is required to feed their populations and ensure that people lead healthy and productive lives. The extent of this exposure is reflected in the high food import bills of many Caribbean countries. Do policymakers and those who most closely influence them, in terms of their decision making for national food security, identify the impact of global food and nutrition insecurity as a main constraint to enhancing national food security in their countries? Is food security the highest priority of the various objectives of the agriculture sector? Using a qualitative approach to answer the above questions, policy makers, planners and key persons who influence policy makers in three diverse Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Belize and Barbados) were interviewed and asked to complete an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) questionnaire to rank their priorities. This paper presents some early results of the AHP analysis in an ongoing PhD study. In terms of the criteria weightings, sustainability of the food supply was judged to be far more significant than the level of external dependency. And whereas economic trade-based food security was scored as the most important objective of agriculture, supporting producers and local agribusiness was the second most important surpassing food self-sufficiency and sustainability of the environment, as well as, maximising employment in the agricultural sector and production for the export trade. These results have implications for the plans and policies designed to enhance the level of food security locally and regionally.
    Keywords: Food Security, Food and Nutrition Security, Agriculture, Food Production, Agricultural Sector, Policy makers, Decision makers, Planners, Analytical Hierarchy Process, AHP, Multi-criteria DecisionMaking, MCDM, Pairwise Comparison, Trinidad and Tobago, Belize, Barbados, Caribbean, West Indies, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Mela, Giulio; Longhitano, Davide; Povellato, Andrea
    Abstract: Interest towards farmland market has been increasing in recent years. In developing countries there is a rising concern about land being purchased by foreign investors, while in the developed world the debate is focused on whether agricultural factors are still the main determinants of land values or not. This work assesses the determinants of land values in Italy using TSCS data techniques during the time span 1992-2013. In Italy farmland values have historically been influenced more by natural characteristics of the land than agricultural prices. However, lately non-agricultural factors have been increasing their importance. We find that the main determinants of Italian farmland prices are population density, GDP per capita, land productivity, agricultural prices and farm subsidies. In the case of vineyards, changing rainfall patterns due to climate change have also a significant impact. Environmental regulations for livestock farms positively affects arable land values.
    Keywords: farmland prices, land market, panel data models, farmland values determinants, Land Economics/Use, C23, E32, Q24,
    Date: 2016–07
  4. By: Ferguson, Monique; Hepburn, Erecia
    Abstract: Smallholder farms in The Bahamas generally produce as much as they can to sell to the Produce Exchange and other local markets. Much of the produce grown is of inconsistent size and inconsistent quality which causes it to be rejected by the market and consequently disposed of. This speaks to a breakdown in the Bahamian agricultural value chain which should negate wastage by relating the ultimate consumer’s demands to a farmers’ capability to produce. Value chains are essential linkages from purchase of inputs, land preparation, production and consumption that connect consumer demand to various agricultural enterprises. If Bahamian farmers were to effectively use the internet, cellular phone technology and research to improve production, efficiency would be increased, crop harvest increased and value chains strengthened. The necessary data for this research were garnered from farmers’ responses to a 13-question survey. The farmer’s names were extracted from the Ministry of Agriculture’s Farmers Register using a systematic random sampling selection process. Each farm was then rated as having a high, medium, or low level of technology usage in crop production value chains. Most Farmers in the Bahamas have a medium level of modern technology use. Improvements in seed selection, crop selection and research dissemination are needed.
    Keywords: Smallholder farms, The Bahamas, Bahamian agricultural value chain, consumer’s demands, Value chains, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, Jose-Maria; Chieco, Camilla; Di Virgilio, Nicola; Coninx, Ingrid; Ortiz-Miranda, Dionisio; Rossi, Federica; Zegg, Madlaina; Fülöp, Bence
    Abstract: Rural Development Programmes (RDPs) are a step to mainstream climate concerns in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). National and Regional RDPs for 2014 – 2020 include instruments that promote mitigation and adaptation strategies for agriculture to enhance biodiversity, environmental value of rural landscapes, efficient water management and the transition to a low carbon bio-based economy with reduced rates of GHG and ammonia emissions. This contribution presents a comparative assessment of actions undertaken by two EU Member states, the Netherlands (NL) and Hungary (HU) (national programmes), and two regions, Emilia Romagna (ER) and Valencia (VLC), which represent distinct agricultural and forest systems. It shows that EU regions selected for the case studies move towards mainstreaming climate concerns in Pillar II policies. In the sample, actions on ecosystems under Priority 4 (‘Restoring, preserving and enhancing ecosystems’) represent between 30 and 50% of the foreseen RDP expenditure for the whole period 2014- 2020. Actions under Priority 5 (‘Resource efficiency and shift to a low carbon and resilient economy’) account for less than 20% of the RDP expenditure. Implementation and monitoring become key factors of success to guarantee that measures are not cosmetic and they actually influence the transition to a sustainable bio-economy. Further efforts should contribute to progressively integrate innovative solutions in future adjustments of RDPs. Finally, further analysis of the regulatory framework, red tape, cultural change, and social innovations will be required to improve RDP effectiveness to face climate change challenges.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–06–17
  6. By: Laudat, Julie-Ann
    Abstract: The economy of Antigua and Barbuda, a small island developing state, has suffered a number of setbacks in the past four years. The global economic downturn, the collapse of the company that was the second largest employer and the crash of two insurance companies, have led to a scarcity of jobs. This was also compounded by a reduction in visitor arrivals, in a country dependent on tourism. As a result, self-employment has expanded to earn a livelihood. The agricultural sector seems to provide more opportunities for self-employment and the Ministry of Agriculture has received increased applications for farm lands during this period. The increased applications, could possibly lead to more land being farmed, and have the potential for increased crop production. This increased production, presents an opportunity for value addition to increased income earned from the sector. This opportunity is to be encouraged, as providing food through the full utilisation of the value chain can lead to enhanced food security. However, to properly develop this primary link in the value chain, there are a few challenges that must be overcome. These challenges include, but are not limited to: raw material availability and consistency of supply, high cost of production, limited support from government and non-government agencies, and low volume of production, resulting in limited export opportunities. This paper looks at the challenges that need to be overcome so that agro-processing agri-businesses can make meaningful contributions to the value chain. The role of women, in agro-processing and their contribution to their households will also be examined; as well as, the definition of agro-processing/agoindustry and its role in the economy.
    Keywords: agro-processing, value chain, agriculture, agri-business and raw material., Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Political Economy, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–10
  7. By: Ahmad, Munir; Mustafa, Ghulam; Iqbal, Muhammad
    Abstract: Treatment Effects Model was applied to evaluate the impact of adaptations on household food security. A household Food Security Index (FSI) was constructed applying PCA. Adaptation strategies employed by the farmers in response to climate change were categorised into four groups namely: changes in sowing time (C1); input intensification (C2); water and soil conservation (C3); and changes in varieties (C4). Out of 15 mutually exclusive combinations constructed for evaluation, only 7 combinations were considered for estimating the treatment effects models because of limited number of observations in other cases. Results of only two of the 7 are discussed here, as the other 5 had very small number of adapters and the impact measures shown either insignificant results or had opposite signs. The first (C1234) combined all the four while the second (C234) combined the last three strategies. The results suggest that the households which adapted to climate changes were statistically significantly more food secure as compared to those who did not adapt. The results further show that education of the male and female heads, livestock ownership, the structure of house—both bricked and having electricity facility, crops diversification, and non-farm income are among the factors which raise the food security of farm households and their impacts are statistically significant. The variables which are significantly negatively associated with the food security levels include age of the head of household, food expenditure management, households having less than 12.5 acres of land— defined as marginal (cultivate 6.25 to 12.5 acres). Farmers of cotton-wheat, rice-wheat, and rain-fed cropping systems are found to be more food secure as compared to the farmers working in the mixed cropping systems where farm holdings are relatively small and high use of tubewell water adding to salinity of soils. It is crucial to invest in developing agricultural technologies to address issues of climate change relevant to different ecologies and farming systems; improve research-extension-farmer linkages; enhance farmers’ access to new technologies; improve rural infrastructure; develop weather information system linking meteorological department, extension and farmers; and establish targeted food safety nets as well as farm subsidy programs for marginal farm households
    Keywords: Climate Change, Adaptation, Food Security
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Henry, Mary E.; Squitieri, Amanda
    Abstract: Educating youth on the relevance of agriculture to their daily lives is imperative to food security, as these future adults will be faced with land use decisions which call upon their perception of the value of agriculture. Though their food comes first from a farm, without opportunity to connect, students are often ignorant of their reliance on farms for food. Polk County, Florida, is fortunate to have abundant agriculture, yet many students, particularly those in urban areas, are unaware of the importance of agriculture to their daily lives. In 2011, Agrifest, a long standing agricultural awareness program for Polk County fourth graders, incorporated a new station to improve student perception of fruits and vegetables and increase the likelihood they would risk trying new ones. The station, highlighting the diversity and scope of Florida farms, emphasized the importance and excitement of eating fruits and vegetables using two enormous displays of more than 40 different kinds of real fruits and vegetables. More than 6,000 students experienced, touched and smelled new fruits and vegetables as a result of the Florida Farms station from 2011-2012. Teacher surveys showed the station was educationally relevant (80%, n= 82) and improved student awareness of Florida grown agricultural products (87%, n= 47). More than half of the teachers (53%, n=47) thought students were more likely to try new fruits and vegetables following the experience.
    Keywords: Youth, Nutrition, Fruits, Vegetables, Agriculture, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Ehrich, Malte; Mangelsdorf, Axel
    Abstract: The effect of food standards on agricultural trade flows remains unclear. We contribute to the debate with a unique dataset that contains the number of food processing firms of 88 countries from 2008 to 2013 that are certified with the International Featured Standard (IFS). Based on a theoretical framework that combines Melitz-type firm heterogeneity with quality upgrading, we estimate a gravity-model using the one-year lag of IFS as well as modern grocery distribution as an Instrument to address potential endogeneity. We find that IFS increases c.p. bilateral exports on average of seven agricultural product categories in both specifications. However, the effect remains only for upper- and middle-income countries once we separate by income and turns even negative for low income countries in the IV-specification. Hence, whereas IFS increases exports on average, it has a trade-impeding effect for low-income countries. Therefore, private standards are not a sufficient development policy tool to integrate low-income countries to the world trading system without being accompanied by other measures.
    Keywords: Agricultural trade, private food standards, manufactured food, gravity model, International Development, International Relations/Trade, F14, F18, F19,
    Date: 2016–08–04
  10. By: Kelly, Jeri L.; Pemberton, Carlisle
    Abstract: The Bahamas has been faced with an increasing food import bill and a declining agricultural sector. A benchmark of the degree of food insecurity within the country may create the challenge for a national effort to reverse these trends. The focus of this study is to determine a reliable assessment of household food security including the levels of local food availability and access within a rural area of the Bahamas. The paper also seeks to determine whether local food systems have the potential to encourage rural development within The Bahamas. The USDA Household Food Security Survey Module provided a reliable measure for the estimation of the household food security index for rural East Grand Bahama. ANOVA and regression models determined the associations between the food security index and households’ socioeconomic and local food factors. High monthly income was the most significant determinant of a food secure household as income was highly and positively correlated with the household food security index. The results offer evidence that it is plausible that local food systems, such as farmers’ market, community supported agriculture, and community gardens, can have a positive impact on the area’s economy.
    Keywords: Jeri Leah Kelly, estimation of household food security, local food systems, rural development in the Bahamas, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Marketing, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–07
  11. By: Harrynanan, Lisa; Jacque, Andrew; Theophile, Brent
    Abstract: Root and tuber crops have one of the highest potential for value-added development as well as capacity for addressing the food and nutrition security needs in the CARICOM region. However, it appears that the micro, small and medium enterprises, which are leading value-added activities on the ground, face several constraints to growth and development. The Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) undertook a situation assessment through a census of cassava and sweet potato processors in 7 participating countries in the region- Barbados, Dominica, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago. The census focussed on business operations, the business and marketing environment, and financing and accessibility of business support services. The census found that most processors are micro (56%), linked to subsistence and small-farmer farm production systems, mainly focused on cassava processing and produced a range of products using traditional methods. Major constraints were found in the processing technology; food safety management; business development for small entrepreneurs and product development. From these findings, specific evidence-based recommendations were made to inform national and regional initiatives that could support cassava and sweet potato processing in the Caribbean.
    Keywords: IICA, cassava, sweet potatoes, census, food safety, product development, capacity building, value-added, Caribbean, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: Thomas Cooper Patriota (IPC-IG); Francesco Maria Pierri (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The recently launched Policy in Focus special edition on Public Policies for Family Farming in the Global South aims to follow up on the celebration of the United Nations International Year of Family Farming (IYFF 2014), as well as on the recent adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Both of these events have given unprecedented visibility and recognition to the real and potentially greater role of family farmers worldwide in contributing to poverty reduction, food and nutrition security and the sustainable management of natural resources". (?)
    Keywords: increasing recognition, family farming, achieving, sustainable development
    Date: 2016–06
  13. By: Toote, Brendan T. A.
    Abstract: Natural disasters have the potential to have substantial impact particularly on the economy and food security of developing countries. The Bahamas, one of 52 small developing island states, is particularly vulnerable to the detrimental forces of nature which often strike without warning. Hurricanes and tropical storms are the predominant natural disaster events which affect The Bahamas and many other Caribbean nations. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and assess the damages that incurred as a result of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on food security in The Bahamas. The paper begins by establishing the parameters by which to determine the level of food security of The Bahamas. Due to the dependence on imports to feed the general populace, it was found that The Bahamas is not a food self-sustaining country and thereby has a low level of food security. Secondly, the impact that Hurricane Sandy had on local farmers was examined. Several local farmers were interviewed to establish a first-person descriptive account of Hurricane Sandy. The types of damage were divided into two main categories: crops and livestock. Overall, most of the losses incurred came from crops, with banana production being the crop that suffered the most. Using an estimation provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations (FAO), the amount of damage that the storm inflicted upon the agricultural sector is approximated at B $98.7 million.
    Keywords: Natural Disasters, Agriculture, Self-sustainability, Food Security, Bahamas, Assessment, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital, Marketing, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–07
  14. By: Christopher Severen; Christopher Costello; Olivier Deschenes
    Abstract: The hedonic pricing method is one of the fundamental approaches used to estimate the economic value of attributes that affect the market price of an asset. In environmental economics, such methods are routinely used to derive the economic valuation of environmental attributes such as air pollution and water quality. For example, the Ricardian approach is based on a hedonic regression of land values on historical climate variables. Forecasts of future climate can then be employed to estimate the future costs of climate change. This extensively-applied approach contains an important implicit assumption that current land markets ignore current climate forecasts. While this assumption was defensible decades ago (when this literature first emerged), it is reasonable to hypothesize that information on climate change is so pervasive today that markets may already price in expectations of future climate change. We show how to account for this with a straightforward empirical correction (called the Forward-Looking Ricardian Approach) that can be implemented with readily available data. We apply this empirically to agricultural land markets in the United States and find evidence that these markets already are accounting for climate change forecasts. Failing to account for this would lead a researcher to understate climate change damages by 36% to 66%.
    JEL: Q12 Q50 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2016–07
  15. By: Hepburn, Erecia
    Abstract: The Bahamas has depended on the dominance of one traditional sector, tourism combined with the lack of economic innovation and the inability to maintain domestic demand for food security. The connection between the local farming community and the hospitality industry has been identified as one of the best opportunities to ease the over reliance on foreign agricultural products. Additionally, this connection can provide innovation and address aspects of food security, such as stability and availability. Previous research has indicated that agri-tourism is one way to reduce dependence on foreign imports. This research seeks to determine if agri-tourism has the potential to assist with food security. This study is based on data from tourist’s surveys, who indicated they would like to do agri-tourism activities and interviews with persons in the agricultural sector. The investigation observed that barriers to food security were found on the supply side, coupled with issues of government support and lack of policies. While agri-tourism seemed to be touted as a benefit for agricultural production and food security, respondents indicated that without government support there would only be limited success. This research indicates a direct correlation between the potential to increase food security in the Bahamas by leveraging agritourism.
    Keywords: The Bahamas, Agriculture, Agri-tourism, Food Security, Tourism, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Mustafa, Ghulam
    Abstract: This study has utilised the Climate Change Impact Survey (CCIS, 2013) data and applied Treatment Effect Model (Heckman type) to analyse the impact of identified adaptation strategies if implemented in isolation or as portfolio (package of two or more) strategies on net revenue earned from wheat production in Pakistan. The implementation of adaptation strategies including varietal change, delayed sowing, and input intensification effect net revenues positively and significantly if adopted separately or as a part of portfolio strategies. Interestingly, the portfolio adaptation strategies missing delayed sowing resulted in either insignificant results or in reduced net revenues from wheat production. The evidence is found temperature (Nov-Dec.) and precipitation (March-April) norms and deviations of Jan-Feb. temperature from norm of the period are important determinants of net revenue. The results are supportive that fertility of land, farmer’s tenancy status, size of holding, non-farm income, and access to certain extension source are important determinants in the selection of various adaptation strategies. The study suggests revisiting the recommendations regarding wheat sowing dates by agricultural research institutions.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Adaptations, Wheat, Productivity
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Nomfundo Mabuza, Nosipho
    Abstract: Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MSc. Agric (Agricultural Economics) in the Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Advisor: Professor Charles L. Machethe
    Keywords: Socio-economic impact, Empowerment, Land reform, Household food security, RECAP, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2016–05
  18. By: Ragona, Maddalena; Vitali, Giuliano; Bazzani, Gian Maria
    Abstract: This work defines a procedure to assess the socio-economic and environmental sustainability of agricultural systems with a particular attention to conventional and organic farming. Firstly, a mathematical programming model calculates the different multi-dimensional outcomes of Italian farms depending on various levels of prices affecting organic products. Those outcomes are the input data for a fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, which processes the various criteria, takes into account different sets of weights for criteria, and, by a ranking of price scenarios, identifies the most desirable and the least desirable level of prices for five groups of regions. The method adopted proves to be sensitive to geographical location and different perspectives. In particular, when the farmers’ set of weights is adopted, the highest level of prices represents the most desirable scenario in all groups of regions. On the other side, in all other sets of weights, the lowest level of prices seems to be the most preferable scenario for North-Western regions.
    Keywords: fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, sustainability assessment, organic farming, conventional farming, analytic hierarchy process, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, C63, C65, D81, Q12, Q51,
    Date: 2016–06–17
  19. By: Corsi, Alessandro; Novelli, Silvia
    Abstract: Solidarity purchasing groups (SPGs) are common Alternative Food Networks in many towns in Italy. They are set up by groups of citizens who cooperate in order to buy food and other commonly used goods collectively and directly from producers, at a price that is fair to both parties. Within the group, the choice of the products and the farmers usually follow some guidelines related to the respect for the environment and the solidarity between the members of the group and the producers. Though still a small niche, SPGs are quite numerous and represent an interesting alternative to traditional setting of the food chain. The main motivation of members for participating in SPGs is arguably not a monetary one, i.e., it is not lower prices. Ethical motivations and environmental concerns are typically proposed among the goals of the groups. Nevertheless, the budget constraint is always operating, and it is of interest to measure how much the ethical and environmental motivations are able to overcome the budget constraint. This is tantamount to measure the value members attach to their participation to the SPG. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the value the group members attach to their participation. A stated preferences methodology was employed on a first sample of members of SPGs in Torino (Italy) and other neighbouring towns to estimate the value consumers buying in such groups attach to this particular channel, in comparison to the conventional supermarkets. Preliminary results show that SPG members do state a preference for buying with their organization rather than at a supermarket’s even when the prospected prices are substantially higher for the purchase through the SPG.
    Keywords: ethical purchasing groups, consumers’ choices, stated preferences, alternative food networks, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, D1, D4, Q13,
    Date: 2016–07
  20. By: Fałkowski, Jan; Curzi, Daniele; Olper, Alessandro
    Abstract: As the recent contributions to the literature show, institutional differences are an important source of comparative advantage. Yet our understanding of the exact mechanisms through which institutions affect trade flows is still rather limited. In this paper, focusing on food sector, we examine a particular channel through which this effect may occur. Using detailed country-product data, we focus on the relationship between the quality of contracting institutions and product quality, which is commonly perceived as a key feature of how countries specialise in production. In line with the existing theoretical arguments, we find that product quality improvements, which can proxy for an adoption of more advanced technologies, are associated with products made in countries-industries characterised by less contractual incompleteness and characterised by greater initial level of technological complementarities between intermediate inputs.
    Keywords: contracting institutions, product quality, technology adoption, trade, food industry, Agribusiness, Industrial Organization, F14, L15, O17, O33, Q17,
    Date: 2016–07–17
  21. By: Joseph Kangile, Rajabu
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Production Economics,
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Mvangeli Dlamini, Nqobizwe
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2015–10
  23. By: Bauman, Allison; Jablonski, Becca B.R.; Thilmany McFadden, Dawn
    Abstract: In recent years, the growth in local food marketing channels has been significant. Most of the research in this field examining the economic implication of these trends has focused post-farmgate including supply chain analysis (e.g. Hardesty et al., 2014; King et al., 2010), regional economic impacts (e.g. Brown et al., 2014; Hughes et al., 2008; Jablonski et al., 2016), and consumer values and motivations that have driven demand (e.g. Costanigro, 2014; Lusk and Briggeman, 2009). To date, with the exception of a few case studies examining expenses and sales by channel assessment (LeRoux et al., 2010; Hardesty and Leff, 2010; Jablonski and Schmit 2016) there has been little research that examines the impact on financial viability among farms selling through these markets. The goal of this paper is twofold: first, to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on the efficiency of farmers and ranchers that participate in local food systems, and second, to estimate the relationship between marketing strategy and farm financial efficiency, with a particular focus on variations across farm size. Our estimation of the stochastic production frontier suggests that scale, production enterprise specialty, market outlet choices, land ownership, and management of expenses have the greatest influence on producer financial efficiency. Our model suggests that scale has the largest impact on financial efficiency, providing evidence that, all else constant, the most important factor in the efficiency of direct market producers is scale. When profit is defined as operating profit, results indicate that marketing channel is not an important indicator of efficiency. But when profit is defined as return on assets, marketing channel is an important indicator of efficiency, albeit less than is scale. Results from this analysis indicate there are economies of scale associated with farms and ranches that sell through local and regional markets, and that scale rather than marketing channel has the largest influence on efficiency.
    Keywords: Local foods, technical efficiency, farm profitability, Agribusiness, Farm Management, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016
  24. By: Raza, Amar; Ahmad, Munir
    Abstract: The study analyses the impact of climate change on productivity of cotton in Pakistan using the district level disintegrated data of yield, area, fertilizer, climate variables (temperature and precipitation) from 1981-2010. Twenty years moving average of each climate variable is used. Production function approach is used to analyse the relationship between the crop yield and climate change. This approach takes all the explanatory variables as exogenous so the chance endogenity may also be minimized. Separate analysis for each province (Punjab and Sindh) is performed in the study. Mean temperature, precipitation and quadratic terms of both variables are used as climatic variables. Fixed Effect Model, which is also validated by Hausman Test, was used for econometric estimations. The results show significant impact of temperature and precipitation on cotton yields. The impacts of climate change are slightly different across provinces— Punjab and Sindh. The negative impacts of temperature are more striking for Sindh. The impacts of physical variables—area, fertilizer, P/NPK ration and technology, are positive and highly significant. The results imply educating farmers about the balance use of fertilizer and generating awareness about the climate change could be feasible and executable strategies to moderate the adverse impacts of climate change to a reasonable extent.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Cotton Productivity, Production Function, Fixed Effect Model, Linear Effects and Marginal Effects
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Strazzera, Elisabetta; Statzu, Vania
    Abstract: The present study aims at assessing dairy farmers’ preferences over different technological options related to the anaerobic digestion technology. A Choice Experiment study was conducted in Arborea, a NVZ dairy district located in Sardinia, Italy. The results show that profitability of the investment is a general driver of the choice. Heterogeneity of preferences is observed, especially as regards the options of investment on-farm or off-farm. Farmers who are especially interested in an investment on-farm are characterized by higher awareness of energy issues; while farmers with excess waste load would prefer an off-farm investment. Digestate treatment options have practically been ignored in our choice experiments: farmers do not seem aware of the opportunities offered by further processing of the digestate to improve management of the farm waste. New regulations associated with the Circular Economy EU package could increase the farmers’ perception of economic benefits associated with the adoption of anaerobic digestion technologies.
    Keywords: choice experiment, random parameter logit, anaerobic digestion, nitrates directive, Agribusiness, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q16, C35, Q42,
    Date: 2016–06
  26. By: De Mondonca, Arnold
    Abstract: The variability of the rainfall pattern on the Essequibo Coast can be seen as an agricultural risk. Indigenous and other farmers who produce pineapple in the area operate using an organic methodology, having been certified with the assistance of IICA, and have been traditionally relying on rain-fed conditions to satisfy the moisture requirements of the crops. Since the Essequibo Coast normally experiences two rainy periods on an annual basis, the pineapple farmers have depended upon and used this as a source of water for their cultivation methods. Moisture availability is important to the pineapple plant at critical periods of growth of the crop and deficits or excesses can have detrimental effects on production. This situation was evident owing to the fact that pineapple yields were substandard for a two-harvest period and the crops produced were not accepted for processing by the Mainstay Pineapple Factory, as the fruit from these crops did not satisfy the criteria for processing. The Mainstay Pineapple Factory which depends on local pineapples from the area was not able to satisfy its AMCAR export market to Europe and other countries. The pineapple factory lost important revenue and if the phenomenon continues, it risks losing its market share and foreign exchange income. During the period of review, the rainfall experienced was out of sync with the normal rainfall pattern with moisture not being available at the critical periods as needed for the maturity of the crop. This abnormal pattern of rainfall was to the detriment of two successive pineapple crops. The fruits produced were smaller and cores larger, being unfit for processing by the factory’s standards. The study reveals that even though there was the production of a smaller crop, the fruits were substandard relative to processing criteria. The reasons were that the rains were not enough during the vegetative state of the pineapple growth, triggering early flowering, just after which the rains came and there was too much water available, leading to vigorous stem growth and large core development which is disadvantageous when the fruit is used for canning.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Rainfall, Pineapple Processing, Agricultural Risk, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Political Economy, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2015–10
  27. By: saravanan, saravanan
    Abstract: Credit is an essential factor to determine the production and productivity in agriculture. For providing credit in India both Institutional sectors (Cooperative Banks, Commercial Banks and Regional Rural Banks) and non- Institutional sectors like money lenders, traders, landlords and relatives play significant. In order to increase the flow of credit the government of India introduced agriculture policy in 2004 to multiple credit to the farmers. At the same time, the role of both private and public sectors also contributes for agriculture in India. The cob-douglas production was used to determine the impact of institutional credit to agriculture GDP. In the cobb- douglas production function with agricultural GDP as dependent variable and institutional credit, net irrigated area, consumption of pesticide and consumption of fertilizer are independent variables. It was found that both institutional credit and net irrigated area had significant variables and other two variables are not significant.
    Keywords: Institutions, Credit, Policy, Investment
    JEL: Q13
    Date: 2016–08–05
  28. By: Angella, Namyenya
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management,
    Date: 2014–12
  29. By: Moono, Lizzen
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Production Economics,
    Date: 2015–04
  30. By: Xolile Mamba, Tangetile
    Abstract: Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture (Agricultural Economics) in the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria. Advisors: Professor Charles Machethe and Dr Nadhem Mtimet (ILRI)
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016–07
  31. By: VAN DEN BROECK, Goedele; MAERTENS, Miet
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate livelihood and poverty dynamics in the Senegal River Delta area in Senegal over a period of seven years. We use household survey data from two panel rounds in 2006 and 2013 and a cluster analysis to reveal which livelihood strategies and development processes have been most important in poverty reduction. We find that income growth in the region was rather modest but poverty decreased much more rapidly than in Senegal and Sub- Saharan Africa in general. We find that moving out of agriculture into wage employment in horticultural export companies and local service sectors has by far been the most successful strategy to move out of poverty for rural households. The ongoing structural transformation process in the region, that has been triggered by the development of export chains and the creation of employment in these chains, contributed importantly to rural income growth and poverty reduction. Agricultural intensification and upgrading of domestic agri-food chains are lagging behind and have not been major driving forces of income growth and poverty reduction. Our results support the view that moving out of agriculture can be a valid pro-poor rural development strategy. Moving up in agriculture remains necessary for further poverty reduction in the Senegal River Delta.
    Keywords: rural development, poverty reduction, globalisation, foreign direct investment, export supply chains, Sub-Saharan Africa, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2016–07–27
  32. By: Momanyi, Denis
    Abstract: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School in Partial Fulfilment for the Requirements of the Award of the Master of Science Degree in Agricultural and Applied Economics of Egerton University. Advisors: Prof. Job Kibiwot Lagat (PhD) and Dr. Oscar Ingasia Ayuya (PhD)
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Marketing,
    Date: 2016–01
  33. By: Galli, Francesca; Arcuri, Sabrina; Bartolini, Fabio; Vervoort, Joost; Brunori, Gianluca
    Abstract: Food and nutrition security in high income countries is challenged by financial crisis, austerity policies, unemployment and immigration and a growing number of people, also from those segments of population once considered secure, seek food assistance. Emergency food initiatives are developed by a diverse range of actors through various instruments and approaches. Alongside the difficulties of this sector – lack of control over donation, inability to ensure nutritional requirements, stigmatization, dependency on volunteer work – new challenges emerge from welfare expenditure cuts, the reorganization of EU funds for the most deprived (FEAD) and from the spreading of surplus food recovery practices. Based on a preliminary analysis on food assistance practices in Tuscany (Italy), it emerged that operators involved in food assistance activities are re-thinking their role to address changing needs: private companies are increasingly involved in food assistance operations and adjust their activities and strategies accordingly; public institutions re-think the boundaries between charitable assistance, welfare system and market-based food system. How is food assistance re-thinking its role to deal with the challenges posed by the current context of change? This work combines the strengths of two approaches by developing back-casted pathways and testing them within explorative scenarios, that describe plausible future contexts. The aim is to explore the feasibility of transformative change in different scenarios. We apply a participatory scenario approach, as a tool for future-oriented thinking, mindful of future uncertainty and the multidimensional scope required to look at planning context. Results comprise the definition of shared priority themes: governance, education and a person’s centered approach. For each, key objectives were identified and back-casted plans of actions were developed, considering a suitable time frame. These plans were then tested within and across four different scenarios of the food assistance system. The methodology provides a promising learning tool to engage with stakeholders and foster a creative future oriented thinking approach to food assistance system’s vulnerability and resilience.
    Keywords: food security, food assistance, scenario analysis, planning, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Q18, R58, I3,
    Date: 2016–06–17
  34. By: Britz, Wolfgang; Arata, Linda
    Abstract: We estimate a dual cost function together with farmers’ risk attitude in a programming model setup which allows for zero activity levels and not binding constraints. We use crop shares as decision variables in order to avoid scale bias and to shed light on farm risk management strategies. The model is estimated for three unbalanced panels of specialized arable farms observed for at least three consecutive years in Northern Italy, Cologne-Aachen region in Germany and the Grandes-Culture Region of France over the time period 1995-2008. Our estimated models show quite satisfactory fit with regard to crop shares and costs while results indicate that specialised arable farms from these regions use crop shares only marginally as a risk management instrument. The supply elasticities with respect to price show values in a reasonable range. The cost reducing effects of farm size measured in hectare is neglectable and, as expected, we find a positive correlation between farm size and the number of crops grown in a year.
    Keywords: risk behaviour, cost function estimation, programming model, Crop Production/Industries, Production Economics, Q12, C61, C33,
    Date: 2016–07
  35. By: Kilui Wabwile, Victor
    Abstract: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School in Partial Fulfilment for the Requirements of the Award of a Master of Science Degree in Agricultural and Applied Economics of Egerton University. Advisors: Professor B.K Mutai (PhD) and Dr Jackson K Langat (PhD)
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2016–02
  36. By: Drogué, S.; Vignes, R.; Amiot, M.
    Abstract: In the last 40 years Tunisia has experienced – as many other developing and emerging countries – a dietary transition, which led to an increase in the consumption of sugar, fats and animal products. This transition was accompanied by an increase in non-communicable diseases and particularly in cardio-vascular diseases. Using the framework developed by Srinivasan (2007) we optimized the Tunisian food intake using the French dietary recommendations (ANC) as constraints. We reproduced and enriched the work by including micronutrients in the analysis. Moreover we added a constraint on olive oil (a traditional culinary product in Tunisia), which consumption has also declined steadily over the period. Using this static model, we showed that the main needs in macro- and micronutrients are already covered by the food supply in Tunisia. However, the energy intake equivalent to 3329 Kcal per capita and per day, represented an average excess of 1000 Kcal for an adult. The adherence to all the dietary nutritional recommendations would induce an imperative shift to a less consumption of sugar and cereal-based products. Moreover, optimizing sustainable diets induced the reduction of the imports of cereals, sugar, and plant oils other than olive oil that is recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords: dietary adjustment, food, olive oil, mathematical programming, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, C61, I18,
    Date: 2016–07
  37. By: Ford, JR Deep; Dorodnykh, Ekaterina
    Abstract: Tourism plays a vital role in the Caribbean region and it is one of the fastest growing industries globally. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council Report (2014), tourism's contribution to regional GDP of Caribbean is estimated at 14.2% in 2014 and it accounts for 11.4% of regional employment. As the two most common pillars of the region’s economy, sugar and bananas industries, have declined, tourism has increasingly become a major source of income for many of the Caribbean countries. For some countries tourism accounts for more than half of their GDP for example in the Bahamas and Antigua and Barbuda. With an increasing number of tourist arrivals and cruise ship visits per year, tourism continues to be an important opportunity for further promoting economic development in the Caribbean. Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS) are very vulnerable open economies. This paper investigates how the tourism industry can contribute in a much greater manner to regional development through the development of competitive food value chains for all aspects of tourism food demand. The tourism industry mainly relies on food imports as opposed to accessing the local market. Despite numerous efforts over many years there has been little success in sustainably supplying tourism demand from domestic production and value-chains. This paper evaluates tourism, food and agricultural linkages and presents an approach to increase these linkages for greater economic and social impact. The main challenges for Caribbean farmers in meeting supply requirements have been related to their inability to compete (Beckford and Campbell, 2013; FAO, 2011, 2012; IICA, 2014). This inability results not only from low productivity but has also been related to quality and reliability of supply. The weak public policy and governmental support framework as well as private sector structural weaknesses have also contributed to the lack of inclusion of Caribbean farmers in tourism food markets. Based on a survey of tourism sector agricultural product buyers, the analysis of main food trade actors and requirements of the tourism industry carried out for two case studies countries – St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Lucia. With this information and the experience of domestic producers, production and marketing processes, local commodities with the greatest potential for the tourism food market are identified. The lessons from case studies analysis lead to the design of new approaches to the development of food value chains for the tourism sector. Results of this analysis can be applied to other Caribbean countries that have similar agricultural characteristics and depend on the tourism industry. Main findings demonstrate that if Caribbean producers are able to develop competitive food value chains, a cost saving alternative food supply will be available to the tourism sector and this specific segment of the Caribbean agricultural sector can be sustainable.
    Keywords: Food Value Chains, Food Trade, Tourism Food Demand, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–07
  38. By: Ford, JR Deep; Dorodnykh, Ekaterina
    Keywords: Cassava production is one of the most promising industries to deal with the main challenges that Caribbean region is currently facing. Cassava as a strategic locally-produced crop with a vast potential could contribute to addressing the issues of agricultural diversification, economic revitalization, climate change and food import bill. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the main perspectives of the cassava industry development. The paper presents the results of analysis of the profitability of the cassava value chain development in Barbados in terms of economic opportunities for local producers and processors. High production cost of cassava roots and traditional farm management system with low yields are the main constraints of cassava value chain development. Cost-benefit analysis applied to evaluate cassava production models and small-scale plants (mash, flour, chips) shows that returns and generated value can be multiplied many times, when cassava yields are increased up to 28 MT/Ha and higher. Results indicate that growing cassava and transforming it in various value-added products can be a profitable activity if local farmers decrease production costs under proposed management systems and guarantee a constant supply of fresh cassava roots at competitive prices. Policy decisions and incentives are needed to stimulate private sector investments in the development of this industry., Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–07
  39. By: Yifru, Tigist
    Abstract: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School in partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of the Masters of Science Degree in Agricultural and Applied Economics of Egerton University. Advisors: Prof. Job Kibiwot Lagat (PhD) and Dr. Delessa Daba (PhD)
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade, Marketing,
    Date: 2015–12
  40. By: Thomas W. Hertel; Jing Liu
    Abstract: Global freshwater demand is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades, making water one of the most fiercely contested resources on the planet. Water is linked to many economic activities, and there are complex channels through which water affects economic growth. The purpose of this report is to provide background information useful for a quantitative global assessment of the impact of water scarcity on growth using a multi-region, recursive-dynamic, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The paper provides a detailed review of the literature on water, water scarcity, sectoral activity and economic growth, and identifies the possibilities and bottlenecks in incorporating water use into a CGE framework. It covers agricultural water consumption, with special attention to irrigation, water use in energy production, and demands for water by households, industry and services. Finally, it discusses water supply and allocation. Based on the evidence assembled, there appear to have been relatively few instances in which water scarcity has significantly slowed the long term rate of national economic growth. Furthermore, in reviewing the literature on water demand, the ample opportunities for conserving water across the board are striking, including in the electric power sector, the production of industrial steam, residential consumption, and irrigated agriculture. In our opinion, the main reason why such substitution has not been more widespread to date is due to the absence of economic incentives for conservation. The presence of large inter-sectoral distortion heightens the need for general equilibrium analysis. But implementation of a global CGE model with detailed representation of water demand and supply will be a significant undertaking. It is essential to break out water from the other inputs in the CGE model, treat water as both an input and an output, and add sectoral detail, with special attention to crop irrigation. Furthermore, there are challenges in assigning appropriate values to water and specifying allocation rules for dealing with water scarcity. La demande mondiale d’eau douce devrait augmenter de manière substantielles dans les prochaines décennies, faisant de l’eau l’une des ressources les plus disputées de la planète. L’eau est liée à toutes les activités économiques et affecte la croissance par de multiples canaux. Le but de ce rapport est de donner les éléments de fond qui sont utiles à la mise en place d’une évaluation globale de l’impact de la rareté en eau sur la croissance économique dans un modèle d’équilibre général calculable (EGC) multi-périodes et multi-régions. Ce papier fournit une revue détaillée de la littérature sur l’eau, la rareté en eau, l’activité sectorielle et la croissance économique; et identifie les possibilités et les goulots d’étranglement en incorporant l’utilisation de l’eau dans le cadre d’un EGC. Il couvre la consommation d’eau pour l’agriculture, avec une attention particulière pour l’irrigation, ainsi que l’utilisation de l’eau pour la production d’énergie, et la demande d’eau des ménages, de l’industrie et des services. Enfin, il discute du problème de la fourniture d’eau et de son allocation. Sur la base des éléments rassemblés, il semble qu’il y ait eu relativement peu d’exemples où la rareté en eau ait ralenti significativement le taux de croissance économique de long terme. De plus, en considérant la littérature sur la demande en eau, il est frappant de voir les grandes opportunités qui existent pour économiser l’eau, notamment dans les secteurs de la production d’électricité, de vapeur pour l’industrie, dans la consommation résidentielle et l’agriculture irriguée. Selon nous, la principale raison pour laquelle une telle substitution ne s’est pas diffusée jusqu’à présent est liée à l’absence d’incitations économiques à utiliser moins d’eau. L’existence de larges distorsions entre les secteurs rend hautement nécessaire une analyse d’équilibre général. Mais la mise en place d’un modèle EGC mondial avec une représentation détaillée de l’offre et de la demande d’eau sera une entreprise importante. Il est essentiel de séparer l’eau des autres inputs de l’EGC, de traiter l’eau à la fois comme un input et un output, et d’ajouter du détail sectoriel, avec une attention spécifique portée sur les cultures irriguées. De plus, il y a des défis à relever pour donner à l’eau une valeur dans le modèle et pour spécifier les règles d’allocation en cas de rareté.
    Keywords: economic growth, CGE model, water use, water scarcity, demande d’eau, rareté en eau, croissance économique, modèle EGC
    JEL: C68 O44 Q15 Q25
    Date: 2016–08–09
  41. By: Tago, D.; Pradel, J.; Percedo Abreu, M. I.; Frias Lepoureau, M. T.; Gongora, V.; Lancelot, R.; Lefrançois, T.; Surujbally, N.; Lazarus, C.; Morales, P.; Vokaty, S.
    Abstract: Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of natural disasters (Mechler et al. 2010) that impact the socio-economic development of nations worldwide, including those in the Caribbean, a region particularly vulnerable to natural perils (Macpherson and Akpinar-Elci, 2013). Global changes and climate change are also expected to have a significant impact on animal and human health, especially distribution and impact of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases which are considered particularly sensitive to climatic variables (Harvell et al. 2002). An integrated approach of disaster risk reduction (DDR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) has been suggested to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts and to improve program effectiveness (Dwirahmadi et al. 2013). Consistent with the call of the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), for reinforcing the role of veterinary authorities at national levels for disaster risk reduction (OIE and World Bank, 2007), a similar strategy is needed at the regional level in the Caribbean. In the Caribbean, veterinary services, agricultural and veterinary universities, research institutes, and regional and international institutions in agriculture and health have garnered efforts to create a regional animal health network (CaribVET) in 2006 to assist in decision making and to advise on best management practices to mitigate the impact of animal diseases on livestock production and health, human health and welfare. Since 2012, the Epidemiology working group of CaribVET works on DRR in close collaboration with CENSA, which is the OIE collaborating center on DRR in animal health in Cuba (Gongora et al. 2012). According to CENSA’s expertise, prevention and preparedness are the key components of the DRR cycle towards which CaribVET’s efforts should be oriented. In this paper, we propose a model that explains the economic rationale behind an animal health regional network as CaribVET. Then, the role of CaribVET in the improvement of knowledge on animal diseases, the development of tools that facilitates the provision of animal health, and the capacity development in the region is explained and associated to the well-known concepts of comparative advantages and economies of scale. We explain the role of CaribVET in DRR and the challenges to a regional approach on the deliverance of animal health services and DRR are discussed.
    Keywords: Animal health economics, Regional networks, CaribVET, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–07
  42. By: Pemberton, Carlisle; De Sormeaux, Afiya; Patterson-Andrews, Hazel
    Abstract: Cocoa prices are known to be volatile and this volatility has been known to affect the cocoa industry. This paper first examines the volatility of the international cocoa price and compares this volatility to the international price of coffee. The measure of volatility that is used is the moving standard deviation. The paper then measures the volatility of the export price of cocoa from Trinidad and Tobago and concludes by discussing how price volatility affects the marketing of tropical commodities like cocoa.
    Keywords: Cocoa prices, price volatility, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Political Economy, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015–10
  43. By: Kangondo, Angelique
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2015
  44. By: d'Errico, Marco; Pietrelli, Rebecca; Romano, Donato
    Abstract: Resilience has become one of the keywords in the recent scholarly and policy debates on food security. However, household resilience to food insecurity is unobservable. Therefore, the two key issues in empirical research are (i) estimating a proxy index of household resilience on the basis of observable variables and (ii) assessing whether this index is a good indicator of the construct it intends to measure, i.e. household resilience. This paper contributes to this literature providing evidence based on two case studies: Tanzania and Uganda. Specifically, the paper: (i) proposes a method to estimate a resilience index and analyses what are the most important components of household resilience, (ii) tests whether the household resilience index is a good predictor of future food security status and food security recovery capacity after a shock, and (iii) explores how idiosyncratic and covariate shocks affects resilience and household food security. The analysis shows that: (i) in both countries adaptive capacity is the most important dimension contributing to household resilience, (ii) the resilience index positively influences future household food security status, decreases the probability of suffering a food security loss should a shock occur and speeds up the recovery after the loss occurrence, and (iii) shocks do not seem to have any statistically significant impact, though this likely reflects the poor quality of data on idiosyncratic and systemic shocks.
    Keywords: Resilience, food security, structural equation model, panel data, Food Security and Poverty, D10, Q18, I32, O55,
    Date: 2016–06
  45. By: Rimsaite, Renata; Fisher-Vanden, Karen A.; Olmstead, Sheila M.
    Abstract: With this study we seek to understand the relationship between the sale and one-year lease prices in the U.S. water rights market. Given that the majority of current water rights markets in the U.S. are informal, high in transaction costs, and heterogeneous within and across states, we do not expect for the asset pricing theory to completely explain high variation in prices. Our goal is to understand which part of the pricing can be explained by the arbitrage theory and which part should be attributed to the expectations about the future conditions. Using a unique water rights trading dataset, which consists of water rights sales and one-year leases in six U.S. western states between 1994 and 2007, we follow the Newell et al. (2007) approach applied to New Zealand fisheries, and econometrically analyze the applicability of a present-value asset pricing model to the water rights markets. Our preliminary results show that the asset pricing theory holds in water rights markets, and support our hypothesis that the U.S. water rights market is less efficient than the fishing quota market in New Zealand. We further analyze what policies lead to different water rights pricing mechanisms across and within the studied states.
    Keywords: water rights markets, arbitrage-free pricing, water institutions, climate change., Environmental Economics and Policy, Q21, Q25, Q28, Q54,
    Date: 2016
  46. By: Dinda, Soumyananda
    Abstract: Development policy focuses on creation of economic opportunities that increase the demand for transferring land from primary to secondary activities. Market mechanism is sufficient argument of distributive justice, but it ignores the income security. Agricultural land owners are heterogeneous in terms of risk preferences, skill, and perception of future development benefits. Farming skills are non-transferable, so, role of compensation should incorporate their concern for financial security and time preference. Alternative form of non-cash compensation is required to cater this diversity.
    Keywords: Cash, Non-Cash Compensation, financial secuirity, risk, farming skill, market mechanism, Job for land, Land for land, rent for land, Justice
    JEL: H0 K4 Q1 Q15 Z1 Z18
    Date: 2015–08–16
  47. By: Pettenella, Davide; Thiene, Mara; Scarpa, Riccardo; Masiero, Mauro; Mattea, Stefania; Franceschinis, Cristiano
    Abstract: Natura 2000 network is a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation and the implementation of the European Union Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Despite this, the great potential of the ecosystem service (ES) concept to add value to current conservation approaches remains insufficiently explored and there is a lack of quantitative and monetary data for the potential socio-economic benefits associated to the network. Information gaps on the economic value of ES provided by Natura 2000 are relevant in the case of Italy and, in particular, Lombardy, the Italian region hosting the highest number of Natura 2000 sites (242). The study considers the main potential ES delivered by the Natura 2000 network in Lombardy and performs a choice experiment exercise on two pilot areas (Adamello and Ticino Regional Parks) involving about 3,000 resident panellists at regional scale. Value function benefit transfer based on individual characteristics of respondents, land use and socio-economic characteristics of all regional municipalities has been performed as well. With few exceptions, results show an increase in willingness-to-pay (WTP) values that is consistent with the increase in the levels for attributes covered by the surveys. Besides providing some preliminary economic values, the research contributes to the development of a methodology for assessing and monitoring ES over time, with the aim to inform future policies and decision-making processes.
    Keywords: natura 2000, protected areas, ecosystem services, choice experiment, benefit transfer, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q57,
    Date: 2016–07
  48. By: Barra, Cristian; Maietta, Ornella Wanda; Zotti, Roberto
    Abstract: According to the National Innovation System (NIS) approach, the innovative capabilities of a firm are explained by its interactions with other national agents involved in the innovation process and by formal and informal rules that regulate the system. This paper intends to verify how product and process innovation in the European food and drink industry are affected by: i) the NIS structure in terms of universities vs public research labs, faculties/department mix and size; ii) the NIS output in terms of WoS indexed publications vs the supply of graduates; iii) the NIS fragmentation and coordination and iv) the NIS scientific impact and specialisation.The source of data on firm innovation is the EU-EFIGE/Bruegel-UniCredit dataset supplemented by information from the International Handbook of Universities, Eurostat and the bibliometric analysis of academic research quality. The results obtained suggest that large size of public research institutions are detrimental to interactions between university and industry and the indicators used for public research assessment are not appropriate proxies of local knowledge spillovers.
    Keywords: university–industry interaction, firm R&D collaboration, product and process innovation, academic research quality, university education, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O3, I23, D22, R1,
    Date: 2016–06–17
  49. By: VAN DEN BROECK, Goedele; SWINNEN, Johan; MAERTENS, Miet
    Abstract: This paper is the first to present panel data evidence on the longer-term impact of expansion of global value chains and large-scale export-oriented farms in developing countries. Using panel data from two survey rounds covering a seven-year period and fixed effects regression, we estimate the longer-term income effects of wage employment on large-scale farms in the rapidly expanding horticultural export sector in Senegal. In addition to estimating average income effects, we estimate heterogeneous income effects using fixed effects quantile regression. We find that poverty and inequality reduced much faster in the research area than elsewhere in Senegal. Employment in the horticultural export sector significantly increases household income and the income effect is strongest for the poorest households. Expansion of the horticultural export sector in Senegal has been particularly pro-poor through creating employment that is accessible and creates substantial income gains for the poorest half of the rural population. These pro-poor employment effects contrast with insights in the literature on increased inequality from rural wage employment.
    Keywords: globalisation, high-value supply chains, rural wage employment, quantile regression, panel data, long-term effects, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2016–07–27
  50. By: Malama, Milton
    Keywords: Willingness to pay, Contingent valuation method, Dichotomous choice, Irrigation, Environmental Economics and Policy, Public Economics,
    Date: 2015–09
  51. By: Cristina Cirillo (IPC-IG); Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Within the framework of the project 'Brazil & Africa: Fighting Poverty and Empowering Women via South?South Cooperation', the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) promoted an exchange of experiences of cooperation between Brazil and African countries on social protection and food and nutrition security. From June to August 2015, the IPC-IG invited African policymakers working in the area of social protection and food and nutrition security to participate in an online discussion and a survey about the cooperation between their countries and Brazil. The main objective was to assess the achievements of knowledge-sharing and learning exchange activities in the areas of social protection and food and nutrition security. The information gathered in these discussions was contextualised in Cirillo et al. (2016). In this One Pager, we present a summary of the major achievements and challenges of this process, as well as some suggestions from the participants on how to make this learning exchange more effective in the future". (?)
    Keywords: Brazil?Africa, knowledge-sharing, African policymakers
    Date: 2016–06
  52. By: Zorobabel Bicaba (African Development Bank); Zuzana Brixiova (IZA and University of Cape Town); Mthuli Ncube (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: Eradicating extreme poverty for all people everywhere by 2030 is the first goal among the UN Sustainable Development Goals that guide the current development agenda. This paper examines its feasibility for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the world's poorest but growing region. It finds that under plausible assumptions extreme poverty will not be eradicated in SSA by 2030, but it can be reduced to low levels. National and regional policies that focus on accelerating growth, while making it more inclusive would accelerate poverty reduction. International organizations, including informal ones such as the G20, can play a key role in this endeavor by encouraging policy coordination and coherence.
    Keywords: Poverty, sustainable development, inclusive growth, policies, governance
    JEL: E21 E25 I32 O11 O20
    Date: 2016
  53. By: Alexei Botchkarev
    Abstract: Economic evaluation is a dynamically advancing knowledge area of health economics. It has been conceived to provide evidence for allocating scarce resources to gain the best value for money. The problem of efficiency of investments becomes even more crucial with advances in modern medicine and public health which bring about both improved patient outcomes and higher costs. Despite the abundance of literature on the economic evaluation concepts, some key notions including the definition of the health economic evaluation remain open for discussion. Academic literature offers a large number and growing variety of economic evaluation definitions. It testifies to the fact that existing definitions do not meet requirements of economists. The aim of this study was to examine existing definitions and reveal their common features.
    Date: 2016–08
  54. By: Vergamini, Daniele; Viaggi, Davide; Raggi, Meri
    Abstract: This work compares the cost-effectiveness of a simulated auction model (AM) with that of classical payment mechanisms as a marginal flat rate payment (MFR) and average flat rate payment (FR). The study provide an extension of the one-shot budget constrained auction model (BC) first introduced by Latacz-Lohmann and Van Der Hamsvoort (1997), and subsequently by Viaggi et al. (2008) and Glebe (2008). In this formulation, the model allows farmers to offer multi-dimensional bid as a combination of payment and a measure of a share of their land to commit to a hypothetical agri-environmental measure (AEM). The results show that the performance of the auction (i.e. 7.5 % and 27 % of the total UAA of the sample) is always located halfway between that of FR (i.e. 5% and 21 % of the total UAA of the sample) and that of MFR (i.e. 17% and 100% of the total UAA of the sample). According with Schillizzi and Latacz-Lohmann (2007) the flat rate option provides an amount of rents that is one and a half the auction’s rents with a lower budget and around two times greater with the higher budget level. The results confirm that the auction has the potential to reduce farmers’ information rent when compared with uniform policy instruments. However, the scale of saving depends crucially on auction design hypotheses and farmers' expectation about the maximum acceptable bid cap. The results of this research while attempting to provide a useful empirical exploration of auction theory cannot provide a comprehensive solution in most real world settings. However, it can contribute to feed the debate at EU policy level about the role of tendering instruments in agri-environmental programs to reduce the inefficiency related to the actual agri-environmental payments.
    Keywords: agri-environmental policy, conservation auction, compensation payments, information asymmetry, adverse selection, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q18, Q58,
    Date: 2016–06–17
  55. By: Mark Rosenzweig; Christopher Udry
    Abstract: We examine the generalizability of internally valid estimates of causal effects in a fixed population over time when that population is subject to aggregate shocks. This temporal external validity is shown to depend upon the distribution of the aggregate shocks and the interaction between these shocks and the casual effects. We show that returns to investment in agriculture, small and medium enterprises and human capital differ significantly from year to year. We also show how returns to investments interact with specific aggregate shocks, and estimate the parameters of the distributions of these shocks. We show how to use these estimates to appropriately widen estimated confidence intervals to account for aggregate shocks.
    JEL: C93 O1 O13 O14 O15
    Date: 2016–07
  56. By: Cristina Cirillo (IPC-IG); Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "The objective of this paper is to analyse how knowledge-sharing activities between Brazil and several sub-Saharan African countries, in the fields of social protection and food and nutrition security policies and programmes, have directly and/or indirectly influenced African policies and programmes. To this end, the paper provides a summary of the recent evolution of the knowledge-sharing between Brazil and Africa in this area, as well as a summary of a recent consultation with African policymakers involved in knowledge exchange about their experience. This exercise allows us to map the African social protection and food and nutrition security programmes and instruments inspired and encouraged by the Brazilian experiences, and to understand the main challenges of this knowledge-sharing from the point of view of African policymakers". (?)
    Keywords: Brazil?Africa, knowledge-sharing, Social Protection, food, nutrition, security
    Date: 2016–06
  57. By: Valentina Barca (IPC-IG); Alex Hurrell (IPC-IG); Ian MacAuslan (IPC-IG); Aly Visram (IPC-IG); Jack Willis (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Cash transfers are increasingly being piloted and scaled up in sub-Saharan Africa, where current evidence suggests that they have positive impacts both as emergency and long-term social protection programmes. As with any programme, the operations of cash transfers strongly influence their impact, but analyses of cash transfers have paid much more attention to targeting than to payment systems. This briefing note argues that payment systems are important in terms of programme impact, provides a framework with which to analyse them, and considers three different payment systems from three cash transfer programmes evaluated by Oxford Policy Management (OPM) in Kenya". (?)
    Keywords: framework, evaluate, payment systems, cash transfer, programmes, examples, Kenya
    Date: 2016–07
  58. By: Francisco Banda, Taonga
    Keywords: Dry spells, droughts, vulnerability, resilience, livelihood, welfare, Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–06
  59. By: Bobokhonov, Abdulmajid; Pokrivcak, Jan; Rajcaniova, Miroslava
    Abstract: This paper investigates the market integration between international and domestic markets in the case of two-transition countries namely Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. More specifically, our study aims to understand the extent and speed of price transmission from international to local market. We have used cointegration techniques to analyse the price transmission mechanism, such as a vector error correction model (VEC). We have found strong cointegration evidences between world market and domestic market of Tajikistan while no cointegration was observed in case of Uzbekistan. Tajikistan has liberal trade while Uzbekistan frequently used protectionist trade policy.
    Keywords: price transmission, market integration, agricultural trade, food prices, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Demand and Price Analysis, Q1,
    Date: 2016–07
  60. By: Haroldo Machado Filho (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Climate change has increasingly been recognised as the main challenge facing humanity in the coming decades. The starting point of this study is the consideration of future climate change scenarios and the uncertainties they bring. First, global projections available in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) are presented. Second, they are compared with regional scenarios (downscaling) developed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), focusing on the two main IPCC scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5)1 and the two main global models (MIROC and Hadley Centre) for the periods 2011?2040 and 2041?2070, to identify the main trends in terms of changes in temperature and precipitation for the North and Northeast regions of Brazil (more specifically, in the Amazon, Semi-arid and Cerrado biomes)". (?)
    Keywords: Climate change, impacts, family farming, North, Northeast, Brazil
    Date: 2016–05
  61. By: Asgari, Ali; Reed, Michael R.
    Abstract: The price of wine reflects the various features that differentiate each bottle. This study is aimed at analyzing the determinants of California wine prices. A hedonic price model is estimated using data collected between 2004 and 2015 from the Wine Spectator, with a total of 4,693 individual wines, focusing on type, age, critical points, and variables related to the origin. The impact of geographic production of origin from Bay Area/Central Coast, Carneros, Napa, Mendocino/Lake, and South Coast is analyzed. An important aspect of this analysis is to investigate whether the type of wine is important, and if any price premium regarding to the type (still and sparkling) is changing, holding quality and quantity constant. The main findings suggest California wine prices are determined by time related variables such as age. The expert points given by the Wine Spectator also have a significant impact on prices.
    Keywords: Hedonic price model, Sparkling, California Wine prices, U.S. wine market, Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing,
    Date: 2016–07
  62. By: Badrie, Neela; Ramesar, Hershael; Lutchmedial, Mikhail; Nanan, Leann; Maraj, Meera; Radgman, Kristine
    Abstract: The development of genetically modified foods (GMFs) has led to consumer concern about food safety and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to determine the Trinidadian shopper awareness and attitudes toward GMFs. One hundred and twenty six (126) respondents were interviewed by a structured questionnaire of 19 questions with sections on demographics, awareness, willingness to purchase GMFs perceived benefits and risks, labeling, availability of GMFs and responsibility for GMFs information Whilst some respondents (44.4%) have not heard of GMFs, the slight majority of 54.8% of all respondents claimed to have some knowledge of the topic. Furthermore it was found that of the respondents who claimed to know of GMFs were 55.6% had an incorrect understanding of the term. Respondents were asked if they believed that GMFs were well publicized in Trinidad with 42.9% ‘strongly disagreeing’, 39.7% ‘disagreeing’, 13.5% ‘agreeing’, and 3.2% ‘strongly agreeing’, this was further emphasized by the finding that the majority of respondents(67.5%) were not mindful of any GM food product on the market. It was the view of the majority that GMFs should not be sold in Trinidad, with risks to human health (71.4%) and the environment being major concerns. GMFs were viewed in a positive light with reference to food security, although the majority of respondents (88.1%) stated they would purchase non-GMFs as opposed to GMFs, if priced equally. Significant relationships (P<0.05) were determined between awareness of GMFs, education and employment, as well as overall attitude to GMFs genuine awareness and publicity. There was no significant statistical relationship between age and overall attitude to GMFs.
    Keywords: risks, environment, health, labeling, education, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015–10

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.