nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2016‒07‒02
sixty-two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. The Relative Efficiency of Organic Farming in Nepal By Khem Raj Dahal; Shiva Ch; ra Dhakal
  2. Economic growth and agricultural land conversion under uncertain productivity improvements in agriculture By Bruno Lanz; Simon Dietz; Timothy Swanson
  3. Rural Jobs and the CAP: Spitting into the Wind? By Davidova, Sophia; Hennessy, Thia; Thomson, Ken
  4. Financial needs and tools for agricultural development and transformation pertinent to low-income, food-insecure countries By Alexandros SARRIS
  5. Junior Farmer Field Schools, Agricultural Knowledge and Spillover Effects: Quasiexperimental Evidence from Northern Uganda By Jacopo, Bonan; Laura, Pagani;
  6. Examining Irish farmers’ awareness of climate change and the factors affecting the adoption of an advisory tool for the reduction of GHG emissions By Tzemi, Domna; Breen, James P.
  7. Pesticides and Bees: ecological-economic modelling of bee populations on farmland. By Ellis, Ciaran; Hanley, Nick; Kleczkowski, Adam; Goulson, David
  8. Role of phosphogypsum and NPK amendments on the retention or leaching of metals in different soils By Rawaa Ammar; Hussein Jaafar H.J. Kanbar; Véronique V. Kazpard; Mahmoud M. Wazne; Antoine G. El Samrani; Nabil Amacha; Zeinab Z. Saad; Lei Chou
  9. A Recipe for Democracy? The Spread of the European Diet And Political Change By Andrey Shcherbak
  10. Does farm level diversification improve household dietary diversity? Evidence from Rural India By Chatterjee, Tirtha
  11. Evaluation of the Impact of Forest Certification on Environmental Outcomes in Sweden By Nordén, Anna; Coria, Jessica; Villalobos, Laura
  12. Agricultural Production Subsidies and Child Health: Evidence from Malawi By Michelson, Hope; Galford, Gillian
  13. Payments for environmental services: Coasian transactions or something else? By Da-Rocha, Jose-Maria; Gutierrez, Maria Jose; Trelles, Rafael
  14. Technical efficiency and technology heterogeneity of beef farms: a latent class stochastic frontier approach By Martinez Cillero, Maria; Breen, James; Thorne, Fiona; Wallace, Michael; Hennessy, Thia
  15. Does Export Product Quality Matter for CO2 Emissions? Evidence from China By Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis
  16. Energy, Water and Food under Climate Change: Tradeoffs and Policies By Rosegrant, Mark W.
  17. Understanding the determinants of diet quality among rural agricultural farm households in Fiji By Finizio, Anna; Ahmed, Sharmina; Umberger, Wendy
  18. My lived experience should also explain my market choice: Mixing methods to examine the influence of transaction cost on live chicken sales in Nigeria By Antia-Obong, Essien Akpan; Hubbard, Carmen; Garrod, Guy
  19. Carbon pricing under binding political constraints 1 and By Jesse D. Jenkins; Valerie J. Karplus
  20. Agri-environmental subsidies and French suckler cow farms’ technical efficiency accounting for GHGs By Dakpo, K Hervé; Latruffe, Laure
  21. Innovation and University-Firm R&D Collaboration in the European Food and Drink Industry By Cristian Barra; Ornella Wanda Maietta; Roberto Zozzi
  22. Price Formation on Agricultural Land Markets – A Microstructure Analysis By Odening, Martin; Hüttel, Silke
  23. Index-based Costs of Agricultural Production (INCAP) – A new cost and risk analysis tool By Heinschink, Karin; Sinabell, Franz; Tribl, Christoph
  24. A vision about the farming sector’s future: What is in there for farmers in the time of the second machine age? By Rizov, Marian
  25. The effect of aspirations on agricultural innovations in rural Ethiopia By Daniel Ayalew Mekonnen; Nicolas Gerber
  26. Using geographically weighted choice models to account for spatial heterogeneity of preferences By Wiktor Budziński; Danny Campbell; Mikołaj Czajkowski; Urška Demšar; Nick Hanley
  27. The affective dynamics of hedonic versus healthy food choices: Making salient post-consumption affect promotes healthy food choices By Claudia Toma; Marcel Zeelenberg; Olivier Corneille
  28. Are diverse ecosystems more valuable? A conceptual framework of the economic value of biodiversity By Bartkowski, Bartosz
  29. Florida Statewide Agricultural Irrigation Demand (FSAID), Modelling future irrigation demand from the ground-up (2015-2035): lessons from Florida USA By Seidel, Valerie; Yacobellis, Paul; Fountain, John
  30. Food Policy with Endogenous Preferences: Theory and Evidence By Smith, Trenton G.
  31. How does FSA’s Guaranteed Farm Loan Program benefit Beginning Farmers and Ranchers? By Franzen, Nate
  32. Contribution of Product Reformulation to the EU Salt Campaign: Empirical Evidence from the UK By Srinivasan, C. S.; Nocella, Guiseppe
  33. Developing northern Australia’s agriculture: potential scale, location, benefits and costs By Stone, Peter; Petheram, Cuan; Watson, Ian; Ash, Andrew
  34. Integrating clean energy use in national poverty reduction strategies Opportunities and challenges in Rwanda.s Girinka programme By Chika Ezeanya; Abel Kennedy
  35. Compensation Payments and Animal Disease: Incentivising Farmers Both to Undertake Costly On-farm Biosecurity and to Comply with Disease Reporting Requirements By Fraser, Rob
  36. Understanding Indonesian Smallholder Dairy Farmers’ Decision to Adopt Multiple Farm-Level Innovations By Akzar, Rida; Permani, Risti; Wahida; Umberger, Wendy
  37. Measuring Natural Capital on Agricultural Farm By Azad, Samad; Ancev, Tihomir; Harris, Michael
  38. Evaluating the productivity gap between commercial and traditional beef production systems in Botswana By Temoso, Omphile; Hadley, David; Villano, Renato
  39. Testing the Nexus of Income, Agriculture, and Nutrition in Indonesia By Pangaribowo, Evita
  40. Modeling the Opportunity Costs of Reducing Legal Deforestation and the Implications for Forest Policy in Mato Grosso, Brazil By Cai, Ruohong; Lubowski, Ruben; Reis, Tiago; Stabile, Marcelo; Azevedo, Andrea
  41. Shepherding Millennials To and Through Agricultural Careers By Harrison, Tomesah
  42. Ties that Bind: Network Redistributive Pressure and Economic Decisions in Village Economies By Di Falco, Salvatore; Feri, Francesco; Pin, Paolo; Vollenweider, Xavier
  43. Trends in Foreign Direct Investment in Food, Beverages and Tobacco By Yannick Fiedler; Massimo Lafrate
  44. Structural challenges, farm adjustment and profitability By Dinh, Huong; Freyens, Ben; Daly, Anne
  45. Optimal taxes and charges in the management and use of water resources (with particular reference to the MDB) By Webster, Tony; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak
  46. The effects of banning advertising in junk food markets By Dubois, Pierre; Griffith, Rachel; O'Connell, Martin
  47. Socio-economic evaluation of NSW Water Sharing Plans, A case study of the Murrumbidgee Valley By Carter, Graham; Bari, Maksudul; Hill, Christine M.
  48. The Economics of Farm Animal Welfare and Consumer Choice – Evidence from Australia By Umberger, Wendy; Windle, Jill; Rolfe, John; Malek, Lenka; Anders, Sven
  49. Price & Preference in U.S. Consumer Demand for Cotton By Hughes, Julia K.
  50. On the Role of Community Management in Correcting Market Failures of Rural Developing Areas: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment of COGES Project in Burkina Faso By Sawada, Yasuyuki; Aida, Takeshi; Griffen, Andrew; Kazianga, Harounan; Kozuka, Eiji; Nogushi, Haruko; Todo, Yasuyuki
  51. The value of water sensitive landscaping styles in residential property market By Polyakov, Maksym; Zhang, Fan; White, Ben; Pandit, Ram
  52. Role of Partnerships in Financing Rural America By Buzby, Tim
  53. Entrepreneurs and the Co-Creation of Ecotourism in Costa Rica By Geoffrey G. Jones; Andrew Spadafora
  54. Measuring boat level efficiency in Commonwealth Fisheries, An example using the Commonwealth Trawl Sector of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery By Green
  55. FIELDS OF STUDY AND THE EARNINGS GAP BY RACE IN BRAZIL By MAURICIO CORTEZ REIS
  56. Understanding Gasoline Price Dispersion By Demet Yilmazkuday; Hakan Yilmazkuday
  57. Big Data and the Productivity Challenge for Wine Grapes By Dokoozlian, Nick
  58. Does tenure security allow more efficiency-enhancing land transactions? Evidence from Vietnam over a ten-year period By Klaus, Deininger; Hoang, Tram; Jin, Songqing
  59. Environmental Policy and Endogenous Market Structure By Barbara Annicchiarico; Luca Correani; Fabio Di Dio
  60. The Farm Economy and Outlook for Ag Lending By Kauffman, Nathan
  61. What Motivates Indonesian Smallholders’ to Adopt Non-Conventional Farming Systems? An Application of Best-Worst Scaling Methods By Wahida; Umberger, Wendy; Minot, Nicholas; Stringer, Randy
  62. Adoption potential of two wheel tractor drill technology in the lowland rice growing areas of Cambodia – An economic analysis By Singh, Rajinder P.; Desbiolles, Jack; Vang, Seng; Bunna, Som; Men, Roat; Sovandina, Chea; Sophal, Chuong; Martin, Bob; Coombes, Neil

  1. By: Khem Raj Dahal; Shiva Ch; ra Dhakal
    Abstract: This study compares the productivity and profitability of organic and conventional farming for five crops (tea, coffee, rice, maize and cauliflower) in five different districts in Nepal.We find that organic farmers generally have a larger number of cattle and land holdings, but are not very different from conventional farmers in terms of education and household size. In terms of crop productivity, conventional yields are statistically higher than organic yields for two crops, tea and rice, and conventional profits in rice are also higher. Two crops, organic maize and coffee, show negative profits in both conventional and organic systems. However, net revenues are higher in organic maize and coffee relative to their conventional counterparts because of lower costs. In general, conventional crops are more costly to produce than organics. Organic farms face many more policy barriers than conventionally cropped farms. In this context, technological options such as suitable seed varieties, bio-fertilizers, vermi-compost, and improved farm yard manure would improve organic crop productivity. A shortage of organic manure could be overcome by promoting farm livestock enterprises.
    Keywords: Organic farming, productivity, profits, rice, tea, Nepal
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:snd:wpaper:106&r=agr
  2. By: Bruno Lanz; Simon Dietz; Timothy Swanson
    Abstract: We study how stochasticity in the evolution of agricultural productivity interacts with economic and population growth, and the associated demand for food. We use a two-sector Schumpeterian model of growth, in which a manufacturing sector produces the traditional consumption good and an agricultural sector produces food to sustain contemporary population. In addition, sectors differ in that agriculture also demands land as an input, itself treated as a scarce form of capital. In our model both population and sectoral technological progress are endogenously determined, and key technological parameters of the model are structurally estimated using 1960-2010 data on world GDP, population, cropland and technological progress. Introducing random shocks to the evolution of total factor productivity in agriculture, we show that uncertainty optimally requires more land to be converted into agricultural use as a hedge against production shortages, and that it significantly affects both consumption and population trajectories.
    Keywords: Economic growth; Stochastic control; Agricultural productivity; Endogenous innovations; Land conversion; Population dynamics; Food security.
    JEL: O11 O13 O31 J11 C61 Q16 Q24
    Date: 2016–06–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gii:ciesrp:cies_rp_43&r=agr
  3. By: Davidova, Sophia; Hennessy, Thia; Thomson, Ken
    Abstract: The European Parliament’s Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (COMAGRI) is drafting an own-initiative report “How Can the CAP Improve Job Creation in Rural Areas?” (EP, 2015). The creation or maintenance of jobs is not one of the CAP’s original (and still operational) objectives. Assessing the “success” or “failure” of the CAP in terms of job creation is not a simple matter, particularly considering gross versus net job creation (including off-farm diversification by farm family members), and side effects in a sense of job losses or gains in different sectors. How should agricultural economists address this topic, which is clearly of political importance but seems to require the reversal of long-term trends in EU agriculture? The paper suggests a number of questions, with a particular emphasis on the trade-off between employment and productivity, and the respective role of the two CAP Pillars. Some evidence from Ireland is presented to support the argument.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236364&r=agr
  4. By: Alexandros SARRIS (Université d'Athènes)
    Abstract: The process of agricultural transformation is discussed, and the role of agriculture in both growth and poverty reduction is reviewed. The finance needs for agricultural development in low income food insecure countries is discussed, and the public and other official flows to agricultural development reviewed. It is seen that the monetary flows into agriculture have been grossly inadequate, compared to needs. The situation of smallholders is reviewed, and their financing needs are explored. It is indicated that the current finance flows to smallholders are less than 5 percent of perceived needs. A variety of institutional methods and models for increasing agricultural smallholder finance are then reviewed and assessed.
    Date: 2016–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fdi:wpaper:2928&r=agr
  5. By: Jacopo, Bonan; Laura, Pagani;
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of a junior farmer field school (JFFS) project in Northern Uganda on students' agricultural knowledge and practices. Assuming that children are induced to transmit their newly acquired knowledge to their parents and guardians, we also test for the presence of spillover effects at household level. The empirical analysis is based on two sources of panel data: a household survey and a dataset containing results of a test on agricultural knowledge administered to treated and control students before and after the program by the project’s staff. We use matching difference-in-differences estimators, comparing the key outcomes across matched samples of treated and non-treated groups before and after the project intervention. We find that the program had positive effects on students’ agricultural knowledge and adoption of good practices and that it produced some spillover effects in terms of improvements of household agricultural knowledge and food security. However, we find no impact on the propensity to introduce new agricultural good practices and on household agricultural production. Overall, our results point to the importance of adapting the basic principles of farmer field schools to children through junior farmer field schools, as they could improve short and long-term food security and well-being of both children and their households.
    Keywords: junior farmer field schools, agricultural extension, Uganda
    JEL: O13 O22 O55 C93
    Date: 2016–05–31
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mib:wpaper:339&r=agr
  6. By: Tzemi, Domna; Breen, James P.
    Abstract: Livestock is a very significant sector in Irish agriculture and it could possibly mitigate a large amount of greenhouse gas emissions. However, farmers’ awareness and acceptance towards climate change might be a significant barrier to voluntary adoption of best practice techniques. This paper presents results from a supplementary survey of 747 Irish farmers conducted as part of the National Farm Survey (NFS) in 2014, with a view to understanding farmers’ awareness of and attitudes to climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Survey results showed that there was a general uncertainty towards a number of agricultural GHG emissions related questions and that farmers’ attitude towards GHG emissions reduction was not very positive. In order to explore further farmers’ attitudes towards climate change, a multinomial logit model was used to examine the socio-economic factors that affect farmers’ willingness to adopt an advisory tool that would show the potential reduction in GHG emissions from the adoption of new technologies. Results showed that investment in machinery, awareness, region, environmental subsidies, use of social networking, agri-training encouraged adoption while off-farm income was negatively related to adoption.
    Keywords: climate change, adoption, awareness, multinomial logit, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics, P32,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236331&r=agr
  7. By: Ellis, Ciaran; Hanley, Nick; Kleczkowski, Adam; Goulson, David
    Abstract: Production of insect-pollinated crops typically relies on both pesticide use and pollination, leading to a potential conflict between these two inputs. In this paper we combine ecological modelling with economic analysis to investigate the effects of pesticide use on wild and commercial bees, whilst allowing farmers to partly offset the negative effects of pesticides on bee populations by creating more on-farm bee habitat. Farmers have incentives to invest in creating wild bee habitat to increase pollination inputs. However, the optimal allocation of on-farm habitat strongly depends on the negative effects of pesticides, with a threshold-like behaviour at a critical level of the impairment. When this threshold is crossed, the population of wild bees becomes locally extinct and their availability to pollinate breaks down. We also show that availability of commercial bees masks the decrease in pollination services which would otherwise incentivise farmers to conserve the wild pollinator population, therefore indirectly leading to local wild bee extinction. The paper demonstrates the importance of combining ecological modelling with economics to study sustainability in the provision of ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems.
    Keywords: pollination, pesticides, wild bees, commercial bees, ecological-economic modelling., Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236355&r=agr
  8. By: Rawaa Ammar; Hussein Jaafar H.J. Kanbar; Véronique V. Kazpard; Mahmoud M. Wazne; Antoine G. El Samrani; Nabil Amacha; Zeinab Z. Saad; Lei Chou
    Abstract: Column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on metal mobility in the subsurface. The metals investigated originated from disposed industrial waste byproducts and from agrochemicals spread over the farmlands. Soil column tests can provide insights into leaching of metals to underlying water compartments. The findings of this study can be used for prevention strategies and for setting risk assessment approaches to land-use and management, and soil and water quality and sustainability. Soils collected from an industrial (IS) watershed and an agricultural (AQ) hydrographic basin were used in soil column leaching experiments. The soil samples were characterized for mineralogy, functional groups, grain size, surface charge, soil type, porosity, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) along with elemental composition. Varying concentrations of phosphogypsum industrial waste or agrochemical (NPK fertilizer) was then added to the surface of the packed columns (n = 28). The columns were subjected to artificial rain over a period of 65 days. Leachates were collected and analyzed for dissolved Na+, K+, and Cd2+ throughout the experimental period, whereas residual Cd content in the subsurface soil was measured at the end of the experiment. Physicochemical characterization indicated that the AQ soil has a higher potential for metal retention due to its fine clay texture, calcareous pH, high organic matter content and CEC. Metal release was more prominent in the IS soil indicating potential contamination of the surrounding soil and water compartments. The higher metal release is attributed to soil physicochemical characteristics. High calcium concentrations of phosphogypsum origin is expected to compete for adsorbed bivalent elements, such as Cd, resulting in their release. The physicochemical characteristics of the receiving media should be taken into consideration when planning land-use in order to achieve sustainable development. Soil physiochemical characteristics play a key role in determining the behavior and fate of elements upon application of amendments. Sandy soils should not be assigned to industrial zones or landfills due to their high permeability, unlike fine clay soils. Furthermore, application of fertilizers on sandy soils can threaten groundwater quality, whereas their extensive use on clayey soil can cause soil salinisation.
    Keywords: Agrochemicals; Disturbed soil columns; Elemental mobility; Industrial waste; Leachates; Mediterranean soils
    Date: 2016–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/230969&r=agr
  9. By: Andrey Shcherbak (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper reveals the relationship between the improvement in human diet and the transition to democracy. The spread of a ‘European diet’ with a historically unprecedented high proportion of animal protein in the daily calorie intake is considered one of the factors of regime change since 1992. In contrast to other studies, I regard European diet as an outcome of a long historical transformation and show that an improvement in nutrition preceded regime change. Data on nutrient consumption around the world are from the Food balance sheet data from FAOSTAT. Based on this data I was able to define a European diet as containing animal-protein rich items (mostly, meat and dairy), alcohol beverages and sugar. Using OLS, factor analysis and SEM, the direct and indirect effects of the European diet on the chance of a transition to democracy were tested. The findings reveal that an improvement in diet affects regime change, but not vice versa
    Keywords: diet, democracy, animal proteins, values
    JEL: I14 I15 Q18
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hig:wpaper:70/soc/2016&r=agr
  10. By: Chatterjee, Tirtha
    Abstract: Using data from a nationally representative survey of farm households in India we identify a causal link between dietary-diversity and farm level diversification. Propensity score matching techniques show that households which exclusively grow cereals (our treatment-group) consume significantly less diverse diet compared to those who grow both cereals and other crop-groups (our control-group). Various matching rules have been used to check for robustness of our results.
    Keywords: dietary diversity, farm diversification, propensity score matching, India, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236369&r=agr
  11. By: Nordén, Anna (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Coria, Jessica (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Villalobos, Laura (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Voluntary forest certification is an increasingly popular tool allowing producers who meet stringent environmental standards to label their products in the marketplace and potentially achieve greater market access and receive higher prices for their products. The voluntary nature of certification programs implies, however, that it is difficult to determine the effects of forest certification due to selection bias. This paper contributes to the impact evaluation of forest certification by estimating the effects of certification of non-industrial private forest owners in Sweden – one of the countries with the largest total area of certified forests. We rely on official forest inventory data at the plot level, information on certification status, and standard impact evaluation methods to identify the causal effect of certification on three environmental outcomes: environmentally important areas preserved during the felling, number of trees and high stumps left after the felling, and area set aside for conservation purposes. Moreover, we analyze the effect of the two most important certification schemes: the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). Our results indicate that certification has not improved any of these outcomes. Furthermore, we find no differences between the FSC and PEFC schemes. Our findings suggest that for forest certification to have an effect, the standards should be tightened and the monitoring and enforcement of forest certification schemes strengthened.
    Keywords: certification; impact evaluation; sustainable forest management; treatment effects; Sweden; FSC; PEFC
    JEL: L15 Q12 Q23 Q28
    Date: 2016–06–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:gunwpe:0657&r=agr
  12. By: Michelson, Hope; Galford, Gillian
    Abstract: Can rapid increases in agricultural productivity lead to improved nutritional outcomes for children in developing countries? In the 2005-06 growing season, the Malawi government introduced the Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP), a high-profile and large-scale agricultural inputs subsidy targeting small farmers. This paper links new data on sub-district subsidy allocation across Traditional Authorities -- an administrative level beneath districts and above the village in Malawi -- to more than 20,000 observations of anthropometric outcomes for children born in rural Malawi between 1995 and 2010. We use the considerable spatial variation in TA-level per household fertilizer voucher allocation and the differences across birth cohorts introduced by the timing of FISP to study the effect of the program on child anthropometrics. We find a small, positive effect of Malawi’s farm subsidy program on child anthropometric outcomes in Malawi's Central region -- the region with the the historically highest stunting and underweight rates. Our estimates suggest that the Malawi fertilizer subsidy has increased child height-for-age z-scores in the Central Region by approximately 0.04 standard deviations, a two percent increase, on average. We investigate mechanisms of the effect and discuss its potential significance.
    Keywords: farm input subsidies, Africa, Malawi, mineral fertilizer, agricultural productivity and nutrition, food security, child health, maize, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, O12, O13, O15, Q01, Q12,
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea16:236815&r=agr
  13. By: Da-Rocha, Jose-Maria; Gutierrez, Maria Jose; Trelles, Rafael
    Abstract: Payments for environmental services (PES) are based on the beneficiary-pays rather than the polluter-pays principle. In this paper we argue that this is a key factor for identifying what ecosystems are amenable to PES. We build a general equilibrium framework to identify what ecosystems are amenable to PES as an efficient solution. In economies where society has a higher degree of environmental responsibility and produces a low level of alternative land services income efficient transfers cannot be financed with voluntary payments. There- fore PES programs must be seen as environmental subsidies (to ES providers) and must be combined with a user fee (on ES users). We use Costa Rica’s Payments for Environmental Services program (PSA) to illustrate our findings. We find that the efficient payments for forest conservation are higher than the value reported by Pagiola (2008). Implementing an efficient system implies an increase in payments for forest conservation by 4.15-fold.
    Keywords: PES, Coase, Efficiency
    JEL: Q50
    Date: 2016–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:72061&r=agr
  14. By: Martinez Cillero, Maria; Breen, James; Thorne, Fiona; Wallace, Michael; Hennessy, Thia
    Abstract: A high degree of heterogeneity has been observed amongst Irish beef farms, with a diverse range of production systems employing different practices and technologies. Such variation can compromise the estimates obtained when stochastic frontier analysis is used to estimate the frontier under which farms in the sector operate, since it relies on the assumption that all farms operate under the same technology. A latent class stochastic frontier model is implemented using an unbalanced panel dataset constructed from farm level data for Irish beef farms between the years 2000 and 2013, in order to identify different technologies. Results obtained suggest that a single frontier model overestimates technical inefficiency compared to the model where technology heterogeneity is taken into account. Overall results highlight the importance of correctly addressing technology heterogeneity in order to obtain reliable technical efficiency measures; and the comparison of the main characteristics for different classes identified suggest the need of targeted policy measures.
    Keywords: latent class model, beef production, technical efficiency, stochastic frontier, Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q18 - Agricultural Policy • Food Policy < Q1 - Agriculture < Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Q12 - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets < Q1 - Agriculture < Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236351&r=agr
  15. By: Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis
    Abstract: This paper re-estimates the environmental Kuznets curve over the period 1971–2010 in China. To this end, it uses the unit root tests with one structural break and the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) estimations. The special role is given to the impacts of export product quality and energy consumption on CO2 emissions in the empirical models. The paper finds that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in China. It also observes the positive effect from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. In addition, it finds that the export product quality is negatively associated with CO2 emissions. The paper also argues potential implications.
    Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve; energy consumption; export product quality; ARDL estimation; structural break
    JEL: C32 L15 O13 Q56
    Date: 2016–06–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:71873&r=agr
  16. By: Rosegrant, Mark W.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235590&r=agr
  17. By: Finizio, Anna; Ahmed, Sharmina; Umberger, Wendy
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235302&r=agr
  18. By: Antia-Obong, Essien Akpan; Hubbard, Carmen; Garrod, Guy
    Abstract: Transaction cost economics posits that farmers opt to sell in a market that minimizes their costs of participation. Smallholder farmers in Nigeria face the choice of travelling to sell live chicken at the spot market or at the farm-gate. However, little is known of the factors that influence their choice. So far, studies on market choice overlook farmers lived experience in explaining their market decision. To investigate this gap in research, an explanatory sequential mixed methods design comprising a quantitative phase; followed by a qualitative phase is applied for the first time. We use a two-limit Tobit model to obtain quantitative results from a survey of 259 smallholder farmers in the first phase. Results show that: regular/repeat customers, bargaining power, access to extension services, access to credit, distance to the nearest township, stock size, bicycle ownership and price are factors that significantly influence the choice of selling at the farm-gate. In order to explore this finding in more depth, a qualitative phase was developed and 25 purposively selected respondents were interviewed. The overarching significance of this study is that by integrating quantitative and qualitative data substantially more information is obtainable than is usually obtainable from quantitative data alone.
    Keywords: Mixed methods, transaction costs, poultry markets, tobit model, smallholder farmers, Nigeria, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q12, Q13,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236335&r=agr
  19. By: Jesse D. Jenkins; Valerie J. Karplus
    Abstract: The economic prescription for climate change is clear: price carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions to internalize climate damages. In practice, a variety of political economy constraints prevent the introduction of a carbon price equal to the full social cost of emissions. This paper develops insights about the design of climate policy in the face of binding political constraints, formulated here as limits on the CO2 price itself, on increases in energy prices, and on energy consumer and producer surplus loss. We employ a stylized model of the energy sector to develop intuition about the welfare-maximizing combination of CO2 price, subsidy for clean energy production, and lump-sum transfers to energy consumers or producers under each constraint. We find that the strategic use of subsidies or transfers can compensate for or relieve political constraints and significantly improve the efficiency and environmental efficacy of carbon pricing policies..
    Keywords: political economy, carbon pricing, environmental economics, public economics, climate change, instrument choice, carbon tax, emissions trading
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2016-044&r=agr
  20. By: Dakpo, K Hervé; Latruffe, Laure
    Abstract: In this article we assess the impact of agri-environmental subsidies on farms’ technical efficiency, when the latter is measured with and without accounting for greenhouse gases (GHGs). The application is to a sample of beef cattle farms located in grassland areas in France during the period 1993-2013. In a first stage we calculate robust technical efficiency accounting for both good output (meat) and bad output (GHGs). In a second stage we regress the different technical efficiency scores on a set of explanatory variables including agri-environmental subsidies as an amount received by the farmer related per livestock unit. The results indicate that these subsidies had a positive impact on farms’ technical efficiency among the farmers that have adopted agri-environmental measures. This is the first work on the effect of subsidies on technical efficiency including environmental outputs, and it does not confirm the negative effect generally found in existing studies based on classic technical efficiency.
    Keywords: by-production, GHG emissions, agri-environmental subsidies, livestock, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries, D24, O47, Q10, Q50,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236339&r=agr
  21. By: Cristian Barra (Università di Salerno); Ornella Wanda Maietta (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Roberto Zozzi (Università di Salerno)
    Abstract: In National Innovation Systems (NIS), knowledge is generally understood to be produced and accumulated through an interactive innovation process that is embedded in a national context which in turn may help determine propensity for innovation. This paper aims to verify how product and process innovation in the European food and drink industry are affected by: i) NIS structure ii) NIS output in terms of WoS indexed publications and the supply of graduates iii) NIS fragmentation and coordination and iv) NIS scientific impact and specialisation. The main source of data on innovation by firms is the EU-EFIGE/Bruegel-UniCredit dataset. This is supplemented by information from the International Handbook of Universities, Eurostat and the bibliometric analysis of academic research output. The results obtained suggest that large research institutions in the public sector may well be detrimental to interaction between university and industry and that the indicators used for public research assessment are not necessarily the most appropriate proxies of local knowledge spillovers.
    Keywords: university–industry interaction, firm R&D collaboration, product and process innovation, academic research quality, university education
    JEL: O3 I23 D22 R1
    Date: 2016–06–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sef:csefwp:447&r=agr
  22. By: Odening, Martin; Hüttel, Silke
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235490&r=agr
  23. By: Heinschink, Karin; Sinabell, Franz; Tribl, Christoph
    Abstract: Producers of agricultural commodities are exposed to numerous uncertainties regarding output and input prices, crop yields, yield responses to inputs and the like. In agricultural risk analyses, relevant developments or events are usually measured in economic terms resulting in a positive or negative impact on farm incomes. We develop a novel data set: the ‘Index-based Costs of Agricultural Production’ (INCAP) that can be used to quantify risk-related statistics associated with standardised production systems. Activity-specific gross margins and their stochasticity can be measured at an arbitrary level of aggregation. The aims of this article are to present the structure and scope of INCAP and to demonstrate its potential use in agribusiness, farm extension programmes and policy analyses. Wheat production in Austria is presented as an example.
    Keywords: INCAP, agricultural production costs, economic modelling, risk analysis, Austria, Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, Risk and Uncertainty, Q10, Q12, Q13, Q18, Q54,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236347&r=agr
  24. By: Rizov, Marian
    Abstract: Recent technological advances both on the farm and in the lab have made farming more independent form nature than ever before. Arguably, the new and accessible technologies are helping us to better understand and ‘manage’ nature and thus for first time in history farming is becoming as any other industry, susceptible to specialisation and economies of scale. This in turn, besides increased productivity, leads to fundamental organisational change away from family control towards corporate forms with associated implications for employment and rural livelihoods – automation in farming replaces both ‘muscles and brains’.
    Keywords: technology, farming, agriculture, industrial organisation, employment,welfare
    JEL: D2 I38 L23 O33
    Date: 2016–03–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:72135&r=agr
  25. By: Daniel Ayalew Mekonnen; Nicolas Gerber
    Abstract: This paper identifies the impacts of aspirations on the adoption of agricultural innovations in the context of rural Ethiopia. While most studies on agricultural innovations have focused on identifying observable and resource-related deprivations or 'external' constraints, a related stream of literature suggests that 'internal' constraints, such as the lack of aspirations, could reinforce external constraints and lead to self-sustaining poverty traps. Since both aspirations and the adoption of innovations are forward-looking, they are likely to be intimately linked. Aspirations are motivators that can enhance innovations or their adoption not only in their own right but also through their determinants, including self-efficacy, locus of control and other internal traits that may be unobserved. This implies that aspirations may affect innovations through multiple channels and hence may be endogenous. On the other hand, aspirations are also affected by a person's level of achievement, implying that aspirations and innovations are simultaneously determined. To identify the effect of aspirations on the adoption of agricultural innovations, we conducted both plot-level and household-level analysis using purposely collected data from households in rural Ethiopia. Using econometric strategies that account for the endogenous nature of aspirations, we found that a narrow or a very wide gap between aspirations and achievement in a farming household is strongly associated with low levels of innovativeness and low adoption rate of innovation products such as chemical fertilizers.
    JEL: D1 O1 Q1 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2016–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fsc:fspubl:52&r=agr
  26. By: Wiktor Budziński (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Danny Campbell (University of Stirling, Stirling Management School); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Urška Demšar (University of St Andrews, School of Geography and Geosciences); Nick Hanley (University of St Andrews, School of Geography and Geosciences)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the prospects of using geographically weighted choice models for modelling of spatially clustered preferences. The data used in this study comes from a discrete choice experiment survey regarding public preferences for the implementation of a new country-wide forest management and protection program in Poland. We combine it with high-resolution geographical information system data related to local forest characteristics. Using locally estimated discrete choice models we obtain location-specific estimates of willingness to pay (WTP). Variation in these estimates is explained by the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents and characteristics of the forests in their place of residence. The results are compared with those obtained from a more typical, two stage procedure which uses Bayesian posterior means of the mixed logit model random parameters to calculate individual-specific estimates of WTP. The latter approach, although easier to implement and more common in the literature, does not explicitly assume any spatial relationship between individuals. In contrast, the geographically weighted approach differs in this aspect and can provide additional insight on spatial patterns of individuals’ preferences. Our study shows that although the geographically weighted discrete choice models have some advantages, it is not without drawbacks, such as the difficulty and subjectivity in choosing an appropriate bandwidth. We find a number of notable differences in WTP estimates and their spatial distributions. At the current level of development of the two techniques, we find mixed evidence on which approach gives the better results.
    Keywords: discrete choice experiment, contingent valuation, willingness to pay, spatial heterogeneity of preferences, forest management, passive protection, litter, tourist infrastructure, mixed logit, geographically weighted model, weighted maximum likelihood, local maximum likelihood
    JEL: Q23 Q28 I38 Q51 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:war:wpaper:2016-17&r=agr
  27. By: Claudia Toma; Marcel Zeelenberg; Olivier Corneille
    Abstract: This research provides original evidence for the impact of anticipated affects on hedonic versus healthy food choices. Study 1 and 2 reveal the asymmetric affective dynamics of hedonic and healthy food choices and pave the way for our behavioral prediction: People anticipate more instant than post-consumption satisfaction when choosing hedonic over healthy food, whereas they anticipate more post-consumption than instant satisfaction when choosing healthy over hedonic food. In Study 3, the experiment proper, we further find that orienting people’s attention on immediate post-consumption affects helps them redirecting their choice towards a more healthy food option. These findings suggest that a simple affectfocused manipulation may prove very effective in increasing healthier choices. The role of anticipated affect in inter-temporal choices is discussed.
    Keywords: affective dynamics; food choices; post-consumption satisfaction
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2016–06–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/230925&r=agr
  28. By: Bartkowski, Bartosz
    Abstract: Biodiversity is often believed to be economically valuable, but it is unclear where its value stems from. To date, a number of economic valuation studies targeted biodiversity in highly diverse ways, yet there exists no consistent framework for valuing it. In this paper, a conceptual framework for the economic valuation of biodiversity is presented. By drawing insights from both ecology and economics, the ways through which biodiversity influences human well-being are identified. It is argued that biodiversity’s economic value has four sources: biodiversity contributes to ecosystem functioning (insurance value), is the carrier of future options (option value), provides ‘efficient’ support for migrating species (spill-over value) and influences the aesthetic appreciation of ecosystems (aesthetic value). Being only a property of ecosystems, it does not have value per se, but only contributes to the overall value of an ecosystem. The paper also includes a discussion of the conceptual framework’s fit within the conventional TEV framework, from which the need is derived to expand TEV to better account for biodiversity; a possible extension is offered.
    Keywords: biodiversity, economic valuation, ecosystem functioning, insurance value, option value, TEV, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q51, Q57,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236293&r=agr
  29. By: Seidel, Valerie; Yacobellis, Paul; Fountain, John
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235306&r=agr
  30. By: Smith, Trenton G.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235616&r=agr
  31. By: Franzen, Nate
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao16:236618&r=agr
  32. By: Srinivasan, C. S.; Nocella, Guiseppe
    Abstract: Voluntary reformulation of food products by the industry is one of the key pillars of the EU Salt Campaign aimed at reducing the daily salt intake in the population. Using the National Diet and Nutrition Surveys in the UK a decade apart, this paper applies regression-based counterfactual decomposition methods to quantify the contribution of product reformulation to reduction in the salt intake observed in the UK. We find that ongoing product reformulation efforts have made a significant contribution to a reduction in the salt intake of the UK population. The significant contribution of reformulation to reduction in salt intakes is in sharp contrast to the results for calories and macronutrients such as fats and sugars where reformulation appears to have a very limited impact on population level intakes. The contribution of different product groups to reduction in salt intake varies substantially across the quantiles of salt intakes. We find that certain product groups which are usually not perceived as being major contributors to excessive salt intakes (e.g., cereals and egg dishes) are important drivers of salt consumption across all segments. However, the differences in the food-product preference across population segments suggests that product-reformulation efforts may have to be targeted at different product groups to influence the salt intakes of different segments.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236327&r=agr
  33. By: Stone, Peter; Petheram, Cuan; Watson, Ian; Ash, Andrew
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235627&r=agr
  34. By: Chika Ezeanya; Abel Kennedy
    Abstract: The disappearance of Rwanda. forests and attendant change in climatic conditions prompted the government to explore clean energy alternatives such as biogas. Unlike at any other time in Rwanda.s history, more and more Rwandans in rural areas are becoming owners of cattle because of Government of Rwanda.s agricultural direct assistance and poverty reduction programme known as Girinka.This paper focuses on the various strategies employed by the government of Rwanda in achieving increased biogas use among the rural poor Girinka beneficiaries who use cow dung for their domestic biogas plants. Conditions necessary for successful implementation of clean energy pro-poor reforms in rural communities are explored.
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2016-023&r=agr
  35. By: Fraser, Rob
    Abstract: This paper examines the issue of compensation payments for farmers affected by an animal disease outbreak. Recent literature has questioned the scope for the widely used “single mechanism” of compensation payments to incentivise farmers both to undertake costly on-farm biosecurity and to comply with disease reporting requirements. This paper develops a simple theoretical model of the farmer’s decision environment in this situation and uses a numerical analysis to illustrate both the potential for a range of levels of compensation payments to achieve this dual incentivising, and how this range is affected by changes in the parameter values of the farmer’s decision environment. Particular attention is given to the problem of spatial variation among farmers in the baseline of likelihood of a disease outbreak, and the findings of the paper are used to suggest a policy solution to this problem.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc16:236359&r=agr
  36. By: Akzar, Rida; Permani, Risti; Wahida; Umberger, Wendy
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235233&r=agr
  37. By: Azad, Samad; Ancev, Tihomir; Harris, Michael
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235241&r=agr
  38. By: Temoso, Omphile; Hadley, David; Villano, Renato
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235522&r=agr
  39. By: Pangaribowo, Evita
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235497&r=agr
  40. By: Cai, Ruohong; Lubowski, Ruben; Reis, Tiago; Stabile, Marcelo; Azevedo, Andrea
    Abstract: In recent decades, global society has paid growing attention to tropical deforestation as it contributes significantly to global warming. One promising way of addressing the issue is to create economic incentives to protect forests. In this study, we estimate the opportunity costs of reducing legal deforestation in Mato Grosso of Brazil, based on an econometric model using fine resolution spatial data and administrative data on properties registered in the rural land registry. We find that, inside the properties that have rights to legally clear forest area, most projected demand for deforestation will fit within the legal limitations, making it essential to establish additional positive economic incentives for forest protection. Also in these properties, for the period of 2014-2030, total incentives of about US$ 279 million could reduce 77% of projected legal deforestation, from 278,257 ha to 64,287 ha. Certain incentives could come from the properties with forest restoration requirements under Brazil’s forest code, since we found that our modeled incentives can only cover about 7% of the forest restoration requirement in those properties through passive land abandonment. As a result, active reforestation or purchasing the Environmental Reserve Quota from properties with legal deforestation allowance may become attractive alternatives.
    Keywords: Tropical deforestation, Forest policy, Opportunity cost, Brazil, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea16:236637&r=agr
  41. By: Harrison, Tomesah
    Keywords: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2016–02–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao16:236865&r=agr
  42. By: Di Falco, Salvatore; Feri, Francesco; Pin, Paolo; Vollenweider, Xavier
    Abstract: In this paper, we identify the economic implications of the pressure to share resources within a social network. Through a set of field experiments in rural Tanzania we randomly increased the expected harvest of a treatment group by the assignment of an improved and much more productive variety of maize. We find that individuals in this group reduced their interaction with their own network. We also find that treated individuals reduced labor input by asking fewer network members to work on their farm during the growing season and, as a result, obtained fewer harvest gains.
    Keywords: Ego-network, Field Experiment, Redistributive pressure, Harvest, Tanzania, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, O12, O13, C93, H26, Z13,
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea16:236345&r=agr
  43. By: Yannick Fiedler (Centre de recherches internationales); Massimo Lafrate
    Abstract: This paper analyses foreign direct investment (FDI) flows in food, beverages and tobacco, including primary agriculture and retail, from 2003 to 2014. It provides information on global, regional and - where possible - national trends in FDI flows in food, beverages and tobacco. When data are available, this study also provides more detailed insights into particular qualitative traits of FDI flows, such as whether FDI seems to be market- or resource-seeking, or in how far changes in sub-sector-specific investment could be linked to changes in consumer demand. Thus it contributes to the ongoing global debate on the relevance and characteristics of FDI in developing country agriculture.
    Keywords: foreign investments; foods; beverages; tobacco
    Date: 2016–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/53gvesh9a58lq804hmvlk76n1l&r=agr
  44. By: Dinh, Huong; Freyens, Ben; Daly, Anne
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235269&r=agr
  45. By: Webster, Tony; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235787&r=agr
  46. By: Dubois, Pierre; Griffith, Rachel; O'Connell, Martin
    Abstract: There are growing calls to restrict advertising of junk foods. Whether such a move will improve diet quality will depend on how advertising shifts consumer demands and how firms respond. We study an important and typical junk food market -- the potato chips market. We exploit consumer level exposure to adverts to estimate demand, allowing advertising to potentially shift the weight consumers place on product healthiness, tilt demand curves, have dynamic effects and spillover effects across brands. We simulate the impact of a ban and show that the potential health benefits are partially offset by firms lowering prices and by consumer switching to other junk foods.
    Keywords: advertising; Demand estimation; dynamic oligopoly; welfare
    JEL: L13 M37
    Date: 2016–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:11316&r=agr
  47. By: Carter, Graham; Bari, Maksudul; Hill, Christine M.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235261&r=agr
  48. By: Umberger, Wendy; Windle, Jill; Rolfe, John; Malek, Lenka; Anders, Sven
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235640&r=agr
  49. By: Hughes, Julia K.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016–02–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao16:236623&r=agr
  50. By: Sawada, Yasuyuki; Aida, Takeshi; Griffen, Andrew; Kazianga, Harounan; Kozuka, Eiji; Nogushi, Haruko; Todo, Yasuyuki
    Abstract: We estimate the short-term impacts of a school-based management program in Burkina Faso in a range of outcomes that include education, voluntary contribution to public goods, participation in informal saving groups, and health. Evaluated at the control average, COGES increases the voluntary contributions to public goods by 15.90%. Participation in informal saving groups increases by 0.016 percent for the lowest income group, and enrollment in school increases by 7.1%. Overall the findings are consistent with the observation that social capital, strengthened by SBM, plays a critical complementary role in correcting financial market failures in low income economies. The results also demonstrate that impact evaluation of SBM that focus only on education are likely to undervalue the overall effects of SBMS.
    Keywords: School Based Management, Public Goods, Education, Informal Saving Groups, Health, Developing Countries, Burkina Faso, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, Public Economics, O12, D14, H41, I1, I2,
    Date: 2016–05–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea16:236323&r=agr
  51. By: Polyakov, Maksym; Zhang, Fan; White, Ben; Pandit, Ram
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235502&r=agr
  52. By: Buzby, Tim
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao16:236614&r=agr
  53. By: Geoffrey G. Jones (Harvard Business School, General Management Unit); Andrew Spadafora (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: Between the 1970s and the 2000s Costa Rica became established as the world's leading ecotourism destination. This working paper suggests that although Costa Rica benefited from biodiversity and a pleasant climate, the country's preeminence in ecotourism requires more than a natural resource endowment explanation. The paper argues that the ecotourism industry was a co-creation of the public, private, and tertiary sectors. While the role of the government and conservation NGOs is acknowledged in the existing literature, this study draws attention to the critical role of small entrepreneurs. Making extensive use of oral history, the working paper demonstrates the role of tour companies in drawing affluent Western ecotourists to the country, and of the creators of ecolodges and other forms of accommodation in providing them with somewhere to stay. These entrepreneurs, many of them expatriate Americans, helped ensure that formally protected areas remained sustainable parks and reserves, by providing revenues, education in conservation to tourists, and community development and jobs. Clustering created positive externalities for new entrepreneurs to enter the industry, who could also learn from knowledge spillovers. There were downsides to the new industry, however. The creation of the national image of a natural paradise enabled many businesses which were not environmentally sustainable to free-ride on the green image. Even values-driven ecotourism entrepreneurs faced questions about their impact as they expanded the scale of their operations. While scaling was a sign of success and delivered many benefits to Costa Rica, there were distinct drawbacks from a sustainability perspective.
    Keywords: eco-tourism; Costa Rica; entrepreneurship; sustainability
    JEL: N56 N86
    Date: 2016–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hbs:wpaper:16-136&r=agr
  54. By: Green
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235315&r=agr
  55. By: MAURICIO CORTEZ REIS
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:anp:en2014:199&r=agr
  56. By: Demet Yilmazkuday (Department of Economics, Florida International University); Hakan Yilmazkuday (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: This paper models and estimates the gasoline price dispersion across time and space by using a unique data set at the gas-station level within the U.S.. Nationwide effects (measured by time Â…fixed effects or crude oil prices) explain up to about 51% of the gasoline price dispersion across stations. RefiÂ…nery-specific costs, which have been ignored in the literature due to using local data sets within the U.S., contribute up to another 33% to the price dispersion. While state taxes explain about 12% of the price dispersion, spatial factors such as local agglomeration externalities, land prices, distribution costs of gasoline explain up to about 4%. The contribution of brand-specifiÂ…c factors is relatively minor.
    Keywords: Gasoline Prices, Gas-Station Level Analysis, Nighttime Lights, Land Prices, the United States
    JEL: L11 L81 R32 R41
    Date: 2016–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fiu:wpaper:1602&r=agr
  57. By: Dokoozlian, Nick
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao16:236854&r=agr
  58. By: Klaus, Deininger; Hoang, Tram; Jin, Songqing
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2016–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea16:236565&r=agr
  59. By: Barbara Annicchiarico (DEF and CEIS, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata"); Luca Correani (Dipartimento di Economia e Impresa, Università degli Studi della Tuscia); Fabio Di Dio (Sogei S.p.a. - IT Economia)
    Abstract: This paper presents a simple dynamic general equilibrium model with supply-side strategic interactions to study the economic effects of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in an economy with an emission cap and oligopolistic firms competing on prices. With such endogenous market structure a gradual decarbonization policy is likely to induce higher markups, while the number of active firms displays a U-shaped behavior, first decreasing and then increasing. In the long run more firms are active, but they transfer a part of the compliance cost to households by charging a higher markup. The negative effects on the level of economic activity of this anti-competitive outcome are strongly mitigated by recycling policies.
    Keywords: Environmental Policy, Dynamic General Equilibrium Model, Endogenous Market Structure.
    JEL: E32 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2016–06–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rtv:ceisrp:384&r=agr
  60. By: Kauffman, Nathan
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2016–02–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:usao16:236807&r=agr
  61. By: Wahida; Umberger, Wendy; Minot, Nicholas; Stringer, Randy
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235781&r=agr
  62. By: Singh, Rajinder P.; Desbiolles, Jack; Vang, Seng; Bunna, Som; Men, Roat; Sovandina, Chea; Sophal, Chuong; Martin, Bob; Coombes, Neil
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare16:235517&r=agr

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