nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2016‒02‒04
sixty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Achieving global food security: Building a new food system where nutrition, climate change and sustainability collide By Kyte, Rachel
  2. AHedonic Price Model of Self-Assessed Agricultural Land Values By O'Donoghue, Cathal; Lopez, Jeremey; O’Neill, Stephen; Ryan, Mary
  3. Food vs feed: The livestock equation in food security By Noor, Yudi Guntara
  4. Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Agricultural Production: The Case of Small-Scale Farmers in Kenya By Ochieng, Justus; Kirimi, Lilian; Mathenge, Mary
  5. The Mechanisms and the Results of the Agrarian Reform in Post-Soviet Russia By Uzun, Vasily Yakimovich; Shagaida, Natalia
  6. Watch your waste: Lose less, consume sustainably, feed more By Szoke, Helen
  7. Climate Variability and Crop Insurance: An Optimization Analysis By Holmes II, Glyen; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Solis, Daniel; Thomas, Michael
  8. Long-term food demand in Asia and implications for Australian agriculture By Penm, Jammie
  9. The Coffee-Food Security Interface for Subsistence Households in Jimma Zone Ethiopia By John C. Beghin; Yalem Teshome
  10. Soil resource, at the core of competitiveness and sustainability issues in agriculture: an economic approach By Alice Issanchou
  11. Assessing the Market Impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy: Does Farmers’ Risk Attitude Matter? By Gohin, Alexandre; Zheng, Yu
  12. India.s political economy responses to the global food price shock of 2007.08: Learning some lessons By Ashok Gulati; Shweta Saini
  13. Policy Drivers of Land Mobility in Irish Agriculture By Geoghegan, Cathal; Kinsella, Anne; O’Donoghue, Cathal
  14. The Spatial Distributional Effect of Common Agricultural Policy Reform By O'Donoghue, Cathal; Grealis, Eoin; Loughrey, Jason; Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin; Hennessy, Thia
  15. Consulting Services in Uzbekistan Agriculture By Ibragimov, G.A.
  16. Production efficiency and commercialization channels among small-scale farmers: Evidence for raspberry production in Central Chile By Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Bravo-Ureta, Boris; Solis, Daniel; Martinez, Daniela
  17. Current state and future prospects of crop insurance in Uzbekistan By Muradullayev, Nuriddin; Bobojonov, Ihtiyor; Mustafaqulov, Sherzod
  18. The Effect of Biofuels on the Link between Oil and Agricultural Commodity Prices: A Smooth Transition Cointegration Approach By Anthony Paris
  19. Agricultural Policy in the United States: From Price Support and Protectionism, to Subsidies, Payments, and Risk Management By Effland, Anne; Glauber, Joe
  20. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in Chinese Agricultural Exports: The Roe of Trade Intermediaries By Gibson, Mark J.; Wang, Qianqian
  21. Weather shocks, maize yields and adaptation in rural China By Jean-Francois Maystadt; Ma Jiliang Jiliang
  22. Modelling the Spatial Distributional Agricultural Incomes By O'Donoghue, Cathal; Grealis, Eoin; Farrell, Niall
  23. A spatial perspective to introducing biofortified staple food crops in Colombia By Funes, J.; González, C.; Birol, E.; Moursi, M.; Zeller, M.
  24. Economics of food insecurity and malnutrition By Fan, Shenggen
  25. Mobile money and household food security in Uganda By Murendo, Conrad; Wollni, Meike
  26. Microfinance and climate change: threats and opportunities, the case of Brazil’s largest rural MFIs, Agroamigo and Cresol By Rafael Moser; Davide Forcella; Lauro Emilio Gonzales Farias
  27. Effective, efficient, ethical solutions to feeding 9 billion people: Invest in Women By Bertini, Catherine
  28. Transformations and current trends of water governance in Central Asia By Abdullaev, Iskandar
  29. Trade Impacts of Common Agricultural Policy By Matthews, Alan; Salvatici, Luce; Scoppola, Margherita
  30. Supply Chain Design and Adoption of Indivisible Technology By Lu, Liang; Reardon, Thomas; Zilberman, David
  31. Raspberry production in Ukraine: current status and possibilities for development By Bashtannyk, Taras
  32. Analysis of Beef Value Chain in Zambia: Challenges and Opportunities of Linking Smallholders to Markets By Lubungu, Mary; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Hichaambwa, Munguzwe
  33. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL RETURNS FROM A FUTURE NATIONAL WHEAT CHECKOFF PROGRAM By Williams, Gary W; Welch, J. Mark
  34. The Impact of Retail Mergers on Food Prices: Evidence from France By Villas-Boas, Sofia B; Turolla, Stephane; Chambolle, Claire; Allain, MArie-Laure
  35. The political economy of food price policy:A synthesis By Derrill D. Watson II
  36. The Impact of SQF Certification on U.S. Agri-Food Exports with a Focus on Product Quality By Seok, Jun Ho; Reed, Michael; Saghaian, Sayed
  37. A STUDY ON RETAIL FMCG MARKETING IN RURAL INDIA By Shambhavi Tamrakar; Bharti Venkatesh
  38. Land Requirement, Feedstock Haul Distance, and Expected Cost Consequences of Restricting Switchgrass Production to Marginal Land By Gouzaye, Amadou; Epplin, Francis
  39. Impact of a combined meat tax and vegetable protein subsidy on European agriculture By Helming, John; Kuhlman, Tom
  40. Research on Land Use Functions in Central Asia: A bibliometric analysis By Hamidov, Ahmad; Helming, Katharina; Balla, Dagmar
  41. Investment and Input Subsidies: A Growing Category of Farm Support Exempted from WTO Limits By Brink, Lars
  42. Global supply chains and trade policy By Blanchard,Emily J.; Bown,Chad P.; Johnson,Robert Christopher
  43. Green to Gold: barriers to and driving forces for biogas investments in Ukrainian agribusiness sector By Romets, Dmytro; Decker, Thomas; Menrad, Klaus
  44. The Impact of Households’ Characteristics on Food at Home and Food away from Home By Kim, GwanSeon; Saghaian, Sayed
  45. Methods matter: The sensitivity of Malawian poverty estimates to definitions, data, and assumptions By Ulrik Beck; Karl Pauw; Richard Mussa
  46. The Water – Energy – Food Nexus: Who Owns it? By Rabi Mohtar
  47. The Farm Animal Welfare - Dilemma: Can concerted Action of the Value Chain be a solution? By Hartmann, Monika; Simons, Johannes
  48. Local and regional spatial interactions in the analysis of Norwegian farm growth By Storm, Hugo; Heckelei, Thomas
  49. Does Climate Variability Affect the Financial Sustainability of Farmers in Florida? A Causality Analysis By Marie, Kimberly; Solis, Daniel; Thomas, Michael; Alvarez, Sergio
  50. Management of Ecosystem Services with a Focus on Biodiversity: Financing and Paying Services at Spatial Level in Landscapes By Nuppenau, Ernst-August
  51. Social Well-Being and International Trade: the Food and Nutrition Channel By LaBorde, David
  52. Food Borne Disease Outbreaks, Consumer Purchases and Product Preferences: The Case of the 2010 Salmonella Egg Outbreak By Villas-Boas, Sofia B
  53. Behavioural Drivers of Stocking Rate Decisions in Less Favoured Areas By McCormack, Michele; O’Donoghue, Cathal; Loughrey, Jason
  54. The Impact of Nutritional Supplement Choices on Diet Behavior and Obesity Outcomes By Anders, Sven; Schroeter, Christiane
  55. Public policies for the strengthening of family farming in the Global South By Thomas Patriota; Francesco Maria Pierri
  56. Monitoring and evaluating social protection programs'efforts to respond to natural disaster and climate change-related shocks By Cipryk, Rachel; Ovadiya, Mirey
  57. Climate change and developing country interests:Cases from the Zambezi River Basin By Channing Arndt; Paul Chinowsky; Charles Fant; Yohannes Gebretsadik; James E. Neumann; Sergey Paltsev; C. Adam Schlosser; Kenneth Strzepek; Finn Tarp; James Thurlow
  58. The Role of Export Restrictions in Agriculture Trade By Estrades, Carmen
  59. Measuring the Informational Value of Interpretive Shelf Nutrition Labels to Shoppers By Zhen, Chen; Zheng, Xiaoyong
  60. The expansion of regional supermarket chains: Changing models of retailing and the implications for local supplier capabilities in South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe By Reena das Nair; Shingie Chisoro
  61. Impacts of Corn Price and Imported Beef Price on Domestic Beef Price in South Korea By Kim, GwanSeon; Tyler, Mark
  62. Asymmetric Consumer Price Responses and Asymmetric Cost Pass-Through By Villas-Boas, Sofia B; Bonnet, Celine
  63. Concentration, Product Variety and Entry-for-Merger: Evidence from New Product Introductions in the U.S. Food Industry By Bhattacharya, Haumanti; Innes, Robert
  64. Europe Needs a Food not Feed Policy By Lymbery, Philip; Stevenson, Peter; McKenna, Carol
  65. Trade Diversion and High Food Prices: The Impact of the Russian Pig Meat Import Ban By Djuric, Ivan; Götz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas
  66. TPP and Canada’s Dairy Sector: How Reducing Protection Can Increase Rents By Barichello, Richard

  1. By: Kyte, Rachel
    Abstract: We stand at the confluence of three of the greatest challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century: achieving global food and nutrition security; climate change; and agriculture’s environmental footprint. A business-as-usual approach to agriculture will not effectively address these challenges and feed and nourish the world’s growing population while protecting the planet. Only an integrated holistic approach that preserves vital natural resources such as water, land, forests and fisheries will enable us to achieve our development goals. At the heart of this solution is ‘climate-smart agriculture’, which seeks to address challenges head-on by pursuing a triple win: sustainably increasing productivity; enhancing resilience and farmers’ capacity to adapt; and reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing carbon storage. Climatesmart agriculture is at the heart of a paradigm shift in the food system and how we manage the fragile ecosystems that sustain rural livelihoods. It combines sustainable intensification – producing good quality food with fewer inputs – with a landscapes approach, so that progress on farms does not come at the expense of forests, streams, and biodiversity, the loss of which will have impacts on farmers’ productivity and resilience down the line. Diverse farming systems also provide more diverse and nutritious diets. This will have to be accompanied by a reduction in food waste and significant changes in the nitrogen cycle. Capitalising on the potential of climate-smart agriculture requires broad, strategic partnerships and significant investment in research – particularly the global public goods that CGIAR and its partners may uniquely provide – to generate the scientific, political, financial and technological innovations needed to transform agriculture for the benefit of poor people and the planet.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp14:225572&r=agr
  2. By: O'Donoghue, Cathal; Lopez, Jeremey; O’Neill, Stephen; Ryan, Mary
    Abstract: The hedonic price model assumes that land prices contain information in relation to the value that consumers put on characteristics of the land. Variations in prices may then be used to measure the productive value of those characteristics. There is a small literature on hedonic price models of agricultural land, including a study by Kostov (2009). Kostov deals with the impact of land characteristics on price in Northern Ireland and puts the emphasis on solving problems related to spatial dependency which can lead to biased results they are ignored. Latruffe and Le Mouel (2007) studied the capitalization of farm subsidies into higher land prices, while Myles et al. (2008) assess the influence of direct payments on the rental value of the land by. Urbanization can also have an impact on land prices because of an increased expected value of the land due to land use changes as discussed by Cavailhès and Wareski (2003). The aim of this paper is to understand what drives the farm land market in terms of price making and value of the land and to what extent. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of certain groups of factors on the agricultural land market, namely:  Policy Capitalisation  Local Markets  Environmental and Agronomic Drivers of Land Productivity  Land Use In order to estimate a hedonic price model with the four agronomic, market, land use and policy elements, we require a dataset that contains both land values and relevant explanatory variables. In order to capture market capitalization, it requires information on policy changes over time, while capturing local market and agronomic characteriststics requires georeferenced information. The Teagasc National Farm Survey, which is the Irish component of the EU Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) is a detailed farm datasetthat has been conducted annually since 1972. Given the selection bias associated actual sales or purchases, we have chosen to use selfassessed land prices from the NFS as our dependent variable. 3 Models are estimated of increasing complexity  Land use  Land use plus policy plus environment  Land use plus policy plus environment plus local land market
    Keywords: Hedonic Price Index, Agricultural Land, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212639&r=agr
  3. By: Noor, Yudi Guntara
    Abstract: The world’s population of 7.2 billion is projected to increase and reach 9.6 billion by 2050. FAO-predicted demand for food, fuel and fibre will thus increase 60% by the year 2050. Demand for beef and milk will increase significantly, and create global concern over the level of feed required to meet the projected levels of demand. Indonesia is the fourth largest populated country in the world with almost 240 million people in 2010 and a predicted population of about 320 million in 2050. The high population, together with economic growth and increased public demand for high quality protein sources such as beef and milk will result in a significant increase in demand for these food products. Increasing livestock and dairy production to secure food availability to feed the population is a high national priority. Need for food, feed and fuel, along with factors including climate change and massive land clearance for housing and industries, have encouraged Indonesia to improve the competitiveness and efficiency of its livestock and dairy production systems. Recent public awareness of ethical and environmental issues in animal production means these matters require greater attention to avoid public distrust in these industries. As feed and feeding contribute to more than 70% of the cost of livestock or dairy production, utilising alternative cheaper feeds which do not compete with food is a commercial necessity. Fortunately, there are by-products of agro-industries in Indonesia that can be used as alternative feeds: for example, cassava meal, rice straw, copra meal and palm oil byproducts such as palm kernel cake and palm fronds. The nutritive value of these by-products can be improved by physical or biological treatment. Among these, palm oil by-products have the highest potential as feed alternatives because Indonesia is one of the largest palm oil producing countries in the world. Consequently, integrating livestock, dairy and palm oil plantation systems is seen as a preferable way forward to deliver better efficiency and zero-waste agricultural systems and add more value for the local communities. Also grazing management under palm oil plantations may improve the cost-efficiency of cattle breeding systems.
    Keywords: Food Security and Poverty, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2014–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp14:225574&r=agr
  4. By: Ochieng, Justus; Kirimi, Lilian; Mathenge, Mary
    Abstract: Agriculture is the mainstay of the Kenyan economy with an estimated GDP share of 26 percent in 2012, and thus remains an important contributor to employment and food security of rural populations. Climate variability and change have adversely affected this sector. This situation is expected to worsen in the future if the latest findings of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are anything to go by. We estimate the effect of climate variability and change on crop revenue and on maize and tea revenue separately using household panel data collected between 2000 and 2010 in rural Kenya. Effect of climate variability and change is estimated using a fixed effects estimator. Findings show that climate variability and change affect agricultural production but differs across different crops. Temperature has negative effect on crop and maize revenues but positive one on tea while rainfall has negative effect on tea incomes. Long-term effects of climate change on crop production are larger than short-term effects, requiring farmers to adapt effectively and build their resilience. We find that tea relies on stable temperatures and consistent rainfall patterns and any excess would negatively affect the production. Climate change will adversely affect agriculture in 2020, 2030 and 2040 with greater effects in tea sector if nothing is done. Therefore, rethinking about the likely harmful effects of rising temperature and increasing rainfall uncertainty should be a priority in Kenya. It is important to invest in adaptation measures at national, county and farm level as well as implementing policies that prevent destruction of the natural environment in order to address the challenges posed by climate variability and change.
    Keywords: agricultural incomes, food security, fixed effects model, adaptation, panel data, Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, C31, Q24, Q12, Q54,
    Date: 2016–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:egtewp:229711&r=agr
  5. By: Uzun, Vasily Yakimovich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shagaida, Natalia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: We have systematized prerequisites of agrarian reform in Russia; generalized the theory and practice of its implementation, a comparative analysis of Stolypin's agrarian reforms and Yeltsin; assessed the positive and negative impacts of reform; formulated lessons reforms, new challenges faced in the area of restructuring of agriculture in adapting to changing market and political conditions. In the 25 years since the start of the agricultural reform russian agriculture has advanced along the path of adaptation to market conditions, it formed a new agrarian structure; provided mobility reallocation of resources between farmers; increased productivity, efficiency of use of other resources in agriculture in general. At the same time, there were new challenges: the concentration of land ownership in the hands of a few, a sharp reduction in the number of people employed in agriculture and an increase in unemployment, the redistribution of production in the country and the uneven development of rural areas, loss of the farmland from the market, a large part of imports Food in the structure of food resources, increased competition, manufacturers in the framework of the Common Economic Space, increased differentiation of rural incomes and food consumption as a whole, the unevenness of state support to agriculture areas, etc. These challenges require adequate changes in agricultural policy, the main directions of which are discussed in the present work.
    Date: 2015–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rnp:wpaper:mak15n6&r=agr
  6. By: Szoke, Helen
    Abstract: The world already produces enough food to feed the world, yet over 800 million people are hungry. Further to this paradox, increasingly we are aware of the potential negative impacts that expanding agriculture can have. Valuable ecosystems and carbon sinks may be lost or threatened, while vulnerable people – particularly women, children and Indigenous peoples – can be forced off their land as we see increasing levels of competition for arable land. Curbing waste in the food system is critical to more sustainable natural resource use and reducing agriculture’s contribution to climate change. Addressing food waste can also bring social benefits at the family level, supporting smallholder farmers to retain more of their crop, and household consumers to spend less on food purchases. The dynamics of food waste also differ between communities. In smallholder agriculture, up to 40% of food produced can spoil, rot or be diseased before it reaches the plate. Reasons for such losses can include a lack of post-harvest storage facilities or locally appropriate options for pest management. This can have dire impacts for communities with limited access to water or land, and for those facing the stress of adapting to a rapidly changing climate. Yet in long-chain agriculture, food is similarly wasted – up to 20% of Australian household food purchases may be being discarded – contributing heavily to Australia’s already weighty carbon footprint. This paper explores some of the ways in which Oxfam Australia approaches curbing waste in the food system, drawing on our analysis of trends in global agriculture, as well as our work on the ground in smallholder agriculture and public education.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2014–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp14:225579&r=agr
  7. By: Holmes II, Glyen; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Solis, Daniel; Thomas, Michael
    Abstract: Agricultural production is a risky endeavor. Farmers face uncertain yield (revenues) due to climate conditions, pest infestations and other stochastic production factors. Crop insurance offers farmers economic stability under these environments. This study focuses on the impact of climate variability on row crop production in North Florida. The climate in Southeast US is influenced by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent scientific advances have improved the ability to predict climate fluctuations and provide opportunities to improve the management of climate-associated risks for agriculture. The study case includes farmers growing four crops corn, cotton, peanuts, and soybeans in Jackson County, Florida. We use enterprise budgets along with historical yield harvest data related to ENSO to create whole farm budgets under climate variability. Our study shows that climate variability significantly affects selecting the right crop insurance mixture for farmers.
    Keywords: Climate Variability, Crop Insurance, Optimization Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea16:229603&r=agr
  8. By: Penm, Jammie
    Abstract: Food consumption in Asia is projected to increase significantly toward 2050, with consumption patterns shifting from traditional diets oriented around starchy staples to more varied diets with larger quantities of higher-value and higher-protein foods. Although food production in Asia is also expected to increase, it will not be able to meet the growth in Asian consumption of many food products. In Japan and the Republic of Korea, growth in food consumption is projected to be limited through to 2050 because of projected declining populations and modest future income growth. The most significant rise in food demand is expected to occur in China toward 2050. The rise in food consumption in China will be characterised by significantly higher demand by urban consumers for high-value foods such as dairy products, beef, sheep and goat meat, fruit and vegetables. For rural consumers in China, growth in consumption of high-value commodities is also projected, but the increases on average are expected to be smaller than from urban households. India is one of the largest consumers and producers of grain in Asia and has a self-sufficiency policy. By 2050, India is projected to become a significant net importer of fruit, vegetables and dairy products. For the ASEAN (Association of SE Asian Nations) member states as a whole, imports of wheat, beef and dairy products are projected to rise toward 2050. Vegetable and fruit consumption in the ASEAN region is projected to nearly double by 2050. Australia needs to remain competitive to meet the opportunities provided by greater Asian demand for food. Apart from the role governments will play in reducing market barriers, contributions from the private sector will also be important. Strong working relationships with supermarkets and hypermarkets in Asia will facilitate food exports.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp14:225576&r=agr
  9. By: John C. Beghin (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD)); Yalem Teshome
    Abstract: We investigate food security in three villages in rural Ethiopia for smallholder farmers growing staple crops and coffee, and facing variable coffee and commercial input prices. The surveys were conducted in the coffee growing region of Oromia (Jimma Zone). Commercial input use among these smallholders remains sporadic, although most farmers use them occasionally. A major impediment to systematic usage is the price of these inputs. Policies lowering the unit cost and increasing the local availability of commercial inputs would be useful to systematically boost production and income generation. These smallholders rely on a major coffee cooperative to market their coffee. The cooperative helps with transportation and easing market participation decisions-it provides better prices and some market information. Many farmers rely on credit and banking services offered by the cooperative. The food insecure households are more likely to be led by a female head and to be constrained by extremely small land holdings than food-secure households. These food insecure households tend to work outside of their own farm more often than food-secure households, but in lower-return activities. In our sample, food shortages and household size do not seem to be related, although food shortages are less likely in households with more children. Despite the fast growing economy of Ethiopia, many of these households still face considerable impediments to improve their economic livelihoods and market participation because of bad roads, poor telecommunication infrastructure and limited land. Basic schooling seems to reach most of their children.
    Date: 2016–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ias:cpaper:16-wp560&r=agr
  10. By: Alice Issanchou
    Abstract: Agriculture is facing an expected increase in food production demand, caused by an increased global population of 9 billion people by the middle of this century. At national scale, competitiveness and economic growth issues are at stake. To insure this increase in production, there are two solutions: extend the proportion of agricultural lands at the expense of natural ecosystems; and increase agricultural productivity. Through a review of agronomic and economic articles, we show the importance of considering soil quality in the productivity and sustainability of farms. However, farming practices preserving soil quality are not widely adopted, particularly in France. An economic analysis of these issues provide an understanding of farmers' decision making process, and indicate what the optimal strategies can be to cope with these challenges. We propose an optimal control model that illustrates the links between farming practices and soil quality when soil quality is considered as an endogenous production factor. The interest and originality of this article is to associate different disciplines to investigate the role of soil quality in the sustainability and profitability of farms.
    Keywords: soil quality, sustainability, competitiveness, endogenous production factor
    JEL: Q10 Q24
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rae:wpaper:201601&r=agr
  11. By: Gohin, Alexandre; Zheng, Yu
    Abstract: Recent models assessing the market impacts of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms are mostly static, non-stochastic and do not account for the risk attitude of farmers. This paper is a first attempt to fill this gap. We develop a stochastic version of GTAP-AGR model in which we introduce exogenous productivity shocks and farmers’ attitude towards risks. In addition to the expectation on mean price, the expectation on price volatility also becomes one of the key factors for the farmers’ decisions through its influence on risk premium. We show that under the endogenous modeling of the CAP instruments, risk aversion leads to larger production and price effects. The impacts are even larger if wealth effect is taken into consideration.
    Keywords: Agricultural policy, Risk aversion, Dynamic, Stochastic, Computable general equilibrium, Partial equilibrium, Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, Q17, Q18,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229235&r=agr
  12. By: Ashok Gulati; Shweta Saini
    Abstract: : India.s policy responses to the food price crisis were strong. Exports of basic staples were banned. Domestic support prices of wheat and rice were raised substantially. The urea price increases in global markets were absorbed through enhanced fertilizer subsidies. The government launched the National Food Security Mission in 2007.08 with an objective to raise grain production by 20 MMT over the subsequent five years. The results: India contained food inflation below 7 per cent in 2007.08; grain production increased by 42 MMT over five years leading to government.s grain stocks touching 82 MMT in 2012. Backed by robust production and stock levels, rice exports surged when India freed up its exports in September 2011, making it a world leader in rice exports. However, policies followed during the crisis and eventually to combat it, resulted in a high fiscal deficit mainly because of the rising food and fertilizer subsidies, leading to double-digit food inflation after 2009.10. In retrospect, had India reviewed its export bans and opened up exports earlier, it could have avoided excessive grain stocks, reduced its fiscal deficit, and benefited global markets, leading to a win-win situation.
    Keywords: : food security, trade, export bans, global food crisis, India, agriculture policy
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2015-120&r=agr
  13. By: Geoghegan, Cathal; Kinsella, Anne; O’Donoghue, Cathal
    Abstract: This paper compares financial returns deriving from a range of agricultural land use options in order to examine the effectiveness of agricultural land mobility policies in Ireland. Irish agriculture is characterised by a lack of land mobility despite a number of policy initiatives designed to address to problem, most notably tax exemptions on income derived from the long-term leasing of land. Using socio-economic data from the Teagasc National Farm Survey, a number of hypothetical farms are created using a microsimulation approach to compare incomes across farm systems and land use options. Tax and subsidy policies are applied to derive rates of return for the hypothetical farms under a variety of land use scenarios. The analysis finds that in numerous hypothetical scenarios, leasing out agricultural land on a long-term basis can prove more profitable for cattle and tillage farmers than farming the land. Only dairy farmers derive consistently higher disposable incomes from farming their land as opposed to leasing it out. However, despite these results, 66% of Irish agricultural land is used for cattle and tillage farming. Further work is required to determine the reasons why many Irish farmers prefer to farm land unprofitably rather than lease the land out at a profit.
    Keywords: Land Use, Land Tenure, Tax, Subsidies, Microsimulation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212658&r=agr
  14. By: O'Donoghue, Cathal; Grealis, Eoin; Loughrey, Jason; Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin; Hennessy, Thia
    Abstract: Agricultural incomes are quite heterogeneous relying as they are in part on the environmental context which land is farmed. In addition a very significant proportion of agricultural income results from public policy via the Farm Direct Payments within in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this paper we develop and test a methodology to spatially model the distribution of Agricultural Activity and associated income across place utilising a spatial microsimulation model. In particular we build upon a quota sampling method used in the development household based spatial microsimulation models to account for spatial heterogeneity in relation to stocking rate. We utilise this framework to model the spatial distribution of activity, incomes and viability across Ireland. We also model the static spatial incidence of changes in the Common Agricultural Policy.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212656&r=agr
  15. By: Ibragimov, G.A.
    Abstract: There are many factors for influencing Agricultural enterprises efficiency, one of them is consulting (extension) service. In this article described and analyzed organizing ways of consulting service, its role, importance and ways of improving in Agriculture. Research provided through questionnaire and participations was 100 Agricultural enterprises. Farming - a new form of agricultural activity in Uzbekistan for the 21st century. Uzbek government always pays attention to the developing of farms and this gave already own results. Today the farmers play a significant role in agricultural production in Uzbekistan. Farms produced 3400 thousand tons of raw cotton1, and 8050 tons of grain2 in 2014. Although the results significantly, but scientific research shows these figures should be even more. Tests revealed that the head of farms were representatives of different professions. This was the reason for the initial stage of farms decreases the efficiency in production. In many countries that developed agricultural production found an original solution for this problem: consulting service for agricultural enterprises.
    Keywords: Agricultural enterprises, services entities, consulting (extension) service, usage of consulting service, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2014–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iamc14:212557&r=agr
  16. By: Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Bravo-Ureta, Boris; Solis, Daniel; Martinez, Daniela
    Abstract: Raspberry production has become a significant cash crop that supports the livelihood of many small-scale growers in Central Chile. Almost 100% of raspberry production is exported, and the cultivation of this crop has put pressure on smallholder farmers to integrate into the modern agri-food chain system. The goal of this article is to analyze technical efficiency (TE) levels for a sample of 139 small-scale raspberry farmers in the Maule region of Chile, the main production area for this crop in the country. One focus of this study is to evaluate the association between TE -understood as an indicator of managerial performance- and farmers’ decisions to sell their production directly to the agri-industry or indirectly through an informal middleman. Using a stochastic production frontier model we find that the commercialization decision plays an important role in the productivity and revenue of small-scale raspberry producers. The analysis also reveals a positive relationship between TE levels and income among experienced and trained farmers. The role of implementing food quality and safety standards on farm income is also discussed.
    Keywords: Commercialization, stochastic production frontiers, technical efficiency, small-scale farmers., International Development, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, D24, O13, Q1,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea16:229330&r=agr
  17. By: Muradullayev, Nuriddin; Bobojonov, Ihtiyor; Mustafaqulov, Sherzod
    Abstract: This study describes the importance and development of agricultural insurance sector in Uzbekistan. Agricultural insurance sector in Uzbekistan was established with the state initiative and government organizations still play an important role in service provision. However, agricultural insurance functions without state subsidies and about 30 percent of the crops are insured. This is comparatively better result while compared to other countries in the region. However, sectors still has several development constraints which are not discussed in the international literature. Therefore, the objective of this study is to describe the development path and challenges in agricultural insurance market in Uzbekistan. Discussions in the study show that access to favorable credit and very high risk averseness of agricultural producers created demand for agricultural insurance in the country which is functioning without the state subsidies. However, premium rates currently charged seem to be very high when compared neighboring countries who subsidize agricultural products. Furthermore, lack of coverage during the systemic drought years could be considered another challenge constraining further development of insurance market in Uzbek agriculture. Establishment of index insurance market could be considered as an alternative option to provide coverage during the systemic drought years since price of the index-based products lower than multiple crop insurance products.
    Keywords: Central Asia, transition economy, insurance demand, risk sources, drought, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Financial Economics,
    Date: 2014–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iamc14:212559&r=agr
  18. By: Anthony Paris
    Abstract: Given the few studies highlighting the existence of an oil-price effect on agricultural commodity prices in the last decade, we sought to demonstrate the role of first-generation biofuel production in such a relationship. Relying on a smooth transition cointegration approach, we show that biofuel development has led to an increase in the long-term price effect of oil on agricultural commodity prices. Thus, the increasing production of biofuels contributes to the price rise of agricultural commodities. This result underlines the importance of accelerating second-generation biofuel production to replace first-generation biofuels
    Keywords: IBiofuel, Oil price, Agricultural commodity, Nonlinear econometrics.
    JEL: C22 Q02 Q16
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:drm:wpaper:2016-5&r=agr
  19. By: Effland, Anne; Glauber, Joe
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229245&r=agr
  20. By: Gibson, Mark J.; Wang, Qianqian
    Abstract: We study the e§ect of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures on Chinese agricultural exports and the role of trade intermediaries in this process following Chinaís accession to the World Trade Organization. While agricultural exports and SPS regulations have both grown, the use of trade intermediaries has declined sharply. We develop a model of heterogeneous producer-level decisions about choice of export mode that is consistent with this trend. In our econometric analysis, we analyze the e§ects of SPS measures and trade intermediaries on Chinese fruit and vegetable exports using transaction-level customs data. In contrast to much of the literature, we Önd a positive relationship between SPS measures and exports. The interaction between SPS measures and the use of trade intermediaries is, however, negative, which is also consistent with our model of producersíexport mode decisions.
    Keywords: Chinese agricultural exports, trade intermediaries, SPS measures, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, F1,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:assa16:212838&r=agr
  21. By: Jean-Francois Maystadt; Ma Jiliang Jiliang
    Abstract: Based on panel household data collected between 2004 and 2010, we assess the impact of weather shocks on maize yields in the two main producing regions in China, the Northern spring maize zone and the Yellow-Huai Valley summer maize zone. Temperature, drought, wet conditions, and precipitations have detrimental effects on maize yields in the two maize zones. Nonetheless, the magnitude of those effects appears to be low compared to other parts of the world. Adaptation seems to be key in the region where the largest impact is estimated. On the contrary, the lower impact found in the other region, the Yellow-Huai Valley summer maize zone, is low but likely to intensify.
    Keywords: Weather shocks, Adaptation, Maize yield, China
    JEL: I32 Q54
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:lan:wpaper:104825642&r=agr
  22. By: O'Donoghue, Cathal; Grealis, Eoin; Farrell, Niall
    Abstract: Agricultural incomes are quite heterogeneous relying as they are in part on the environmental context which land is farmed. In addition a very significant proportion of agricultural income results from public policy via the Farm Direct Payments within in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this paper we develop and test a methodology to spatially model the distribution of Agricultural Activity and associated income across place utilising a spatial microsimulation model. In particular we build upon a quota sampling method used in the development household based spatial microsimulation models to account for spatial heterogeneity in relation to stocking rate. We utilise this framework to model the spatial distribution of activity, incomes and viability across Ireland.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212654&r=agr
  23. By: Funes, J.; González, C.; Birol, E.; Moursi, M.; Zeller, M.
    Abstract: Micronutrient malnutrition affects 2 billion people worldwide and biofortification—the process of breeding and delivering staple food crops with higher micronutrient content— could prove to be a cost-effective strategy for its alleviation. There is, however, a dearth of information on where and in which crop-micronutrient combinations to invest for this strategy to be most effective and yield the highest impact. To fill in this gap, a global biofortification index (BPI) was developed (Asare-Marfo et al., 2013). It is based on three sub-indexes, namely production, consumption, and micronutrient deficiency, all developed with subnational-level representative data. The Global BPI, however, is not granular enough to suggest within country investment opportunities for biofortification. In this paper we develop a methodology for a subnational-level BPI, using Colombia as a case study. In order to guide strategies for geographic targeting and intervention within country, we set statistical conditions for each sub-index and classify geographic targeted areas as areas of: (1) impact and intervention, (2) impact, or (3) intervention. To further identify geographic areas for intervention, a spatial interaction index derived from an economic gravity model is used. This spatial interaction index helps to identify and link foodsurplus and food-deficit areas. Our empirical results show that crops biofortified with zinc, namely white maize and rice, should be introduced in the North Coast of Colombia; crops biofortified with vitamin A, namely yellow maize and cassava, should be introduced primarily in the Atlantic and Amazon regions of the country. Introduction of iron-biofortified beans in the Andean region, especially Tolima and Antioquia, could have the greatest impact. Finally, we also estimate area- or population-weighted subnational BPIs, which, depending on the objective, takes into account the intensity of crop production as well as the proportion of people at risk of micronutrient deficiency.
    Keywords: biofortification, subnational BPI, food balance sheet, spatial interaction index, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212674&r=agr
  24. By: Fan, Shenggen
    Abstract: Despite significant progress achieved in the last two decades, global hunger and malnutrition remain big challenges. About 805 million people in the world continue to suffer from chronic hunger and more than 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, overweight and obesity are on the rise in lowand middle-income countries. Hunger and malnutrition impose huge economic and social costs which can be felt at individual, household, and societal levels. For example, hunger and undernutrition cost the global economy US$1.4–2.1 trillion per year, or 2–3% of global gross domestic product, according to the FAO. The economic returns to eliminating hunger and malnutrition can also be very high. Evidence from IFPRI-led research demonstrates that there are substantial, lifetime economic benefits from reducing child undernutrition. In India, for example, every dollar spent on interventions to reduce stunting is estimated to generate about US$34 in economic returns. This paper makes the economic case for investing in the elimination of global hunger and malnutrition. It also focuses on the inefficiencies of policies and practices that add to the burden of hunger and malnutrition: such as under-investment in food security and nutrition; lack of social safety nets to protect the poorest; unsustainable natural resource use in food production; trade restrictions; and gender inequality in agriculture.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp14:225569&r=agr
  25. By: Murendo, Conrad; Wollni, Meike
    Abstract: Despite the fact that the use of mobile money technology has been spreading rapidly in developing countries, empirical studies on the broader welfare effects of the technology on rural households are still limited. Using household survey data, we analyse the effect of mobile money on household food security in Uganda. Unlike previous studies that rely on a single measure of food security, we measure food security using two indicators – a food insecurity index and food expenditures. To account for selection bias in mobile money use, we estimate treatment effects and instrumental variables regressions. Our results indicate that the use of mobile money per se as well as the volumes transferred are associated with a reduction in food insecurity. Furthermore, the use, frequency of use, and volumes of mobile money transferred are associated with increases in food expenditures. Policy interventions and strategies aiming to improve household food security should consider the promotion of mobile money among rural households in Uganda and other developing countries as a promising instrument.
    Keywords: mobile money, food security, households, Uganda, Consumer/Household Economics, Financial Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, G29, I31, O16, O33,
    Date: 2016–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gagfdp:229805&r=agr
  26. By: Rafael Moser; Davide Forcella; Lauro Emilio Gonzales Farias
    Abstract: This paper reports a cross-case study of the interface between rural microfinance and climate change in Brazil. We use a simple theoretical framework to analyse climate change opportunities and threats of Brazil’s largest rural microfinance institutions, Agroamigo and Cresol, along three main metadimensions: economic, financial and additional services. Our analysis focuses on vulnerability and adaptation to climate change and, to a lesser extent, mitigation. As proxy for climate change effects on clients and institutions, we use the recent droughts and floods affecting some of the areas of operation of these MFIs. We argue that the absence of a combination of climate change strategies in MFIs operating in weather hazard prone regions may result in greater and additional credit risks for their portfolios and a missing opportunity for these players to support their clients better respond to climate change impacts. The case studies under scrutiny corroborate our hypothesis.
    Keywords: Climate Change Adaptation; Climate Change Vulnerability; Agricultural Microfinance; Rural Microfinance; Green Microfinance; Climatic Risk; Credit Risk; Brazil; Agroamigo; Cresol
    JEL: O13 Q14 Q54 G21
    Date: 2016–01–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/225672&r=agr
  27. By: Bertini, Catherine
    Abstract: Most of the world’s expected population increase will be in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Growing more food in these regions is imperative, and smallholder farmers are critical to this effort. Women are the core of the agriculture workforce, and their improved productivity is key to this increase. Women are also responsible for feeding their families; feeding growing populations is impossible without significant emphasis on and support for the roles of women and girls.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Development,
    Date: 2014–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cfcp14:225564&r=agr
  28. By: Abdullaev, Iskandar
    Abstract: Current water governance systems in Central Asian countries are shaped by recent water sector reforms and are past dependent. Since collapse of soviet system, countries of the region are implementing water policies, in line with their national development strategies. Moreover, agricultural reforms, socio-political changes have result new situation in rural areas which are having strong influence on everyday water management. The water management became a playground for different interest groups at all hierarchical levels. In this research, author has been applying institutional analysis, comparative study approach to understand system of water governance in different Central Asian countries. Author tried to link impact of the changes at local, national and regional levels on regional cooperation.
    Keywords: water governance, water management, Central Asia, institutional analysis, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, Land Economics/Use, Political Economy, Public Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2014–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iamc14:212552&r=agr
  29. By: Matthews, Alan; Salvatici, Luce; Scoppola, Margherita
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229230&r=agr
  30. By: Lu, Liang; Reardon, Thomas; Zilberman, David
    Abstract: In this paper, we develop a framework to analyze adoption of indivisible technologies by relatively small farms using a threshold diffusion model. It shows that different supply chains may emerge to enable the adoption of indivisible technologies. Independent technology dealers may buy the indivisible equipment and rent it to farmers, when the gain from adoption is not affected by scale or ownership of the technology. Also, larger farmers may buy the technology equipment and rent it (renting the machine per se or providing a set of services that includes use of the machinery for the farmer buying the service) to smaller farmers, especially when there are gains from scale or ownership. The paper derives equilibrium prices and quantities in the output, equipment, and technology rental market. These equilibrium prices and quantities depend on the heterogeneity of farmers and the features of the technology. Introduction of the new indivisible technology will benefit larger adopting farmers and consumers but may hurt non-adopters. We illustrate our conceptual findings with empirical examples.
    Keywords: Supply chain, Technology adoption, Threshold model, Agricultural services, Farm mechanization, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q12, Q18,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:assa16:212811&r=agr
  31. By: Bashtannyk, Taras
    Abstract: Economic efficiency of industrial raspberry is one of the highest among all berries crops. On the next year after planting grower could expect to pick up and sell first harvest. However, if planting "long cane" type plants, then the first harvest can be obtained 60 days after planting, which makes a quick investment return. One of the quickest in berries sector. It is important to understand that high results and prospects of commercial raspberry growing are available only for industrial professional growers, who can provide quality planting material, install drip irrigation, undergo European certification, mechanization of all production processes, ensure high quality storage products etc.
    Keywords: raspberries, economic and operational indicators, production, yields, supply chains, Agribusiness, Farm Management,
    Date: 2015–09–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaml15:212171&r=agr
  32. By: Lubungu, Mary; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Hichaambwa, Munguzwe
    Abstract: Rapid urbanization and population expansion, coupled with sustained income growth and the emergence of an urban African middle class are triggering an increase in the consumption of animal protein in Zambia. The sustained increase in the consumption of animal proteins creates a host of new development opportunities to synergistically link small-scale livestock producers into economic growth processes from which they have largely been excluded.
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midcwp:229599&r=agr
  33. By: Williams, Gary W; Welch, J. Mark
    Abstract: Concerned about growing negative pressure on the U.S. wheat market, from low relative productivity growth and production returns to wheat quality concerns, gluten and other wheat consumption issues and growing wheat export competition, industry leaders have begun a dialogue on the possibility of establishing a national wheat checkoff program similar to those currently in place for other agricultural commodities to enhance wheat industry profits. This study provides an economic assessment of the potential returns from the establishment of a future national wheat checkoff program. In general, the study concludes that a national wheat checkoff program would likely return more to wheat producers in revenues than the cost of the program to them in checkoff assessments.
    Keywords: wheat, checkoff program, benefit-cost, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Marketing, Q02, Q13, Q18,
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea16:229601&r=agr
  34. By: Villas-Boas, Sofia B; Turolla, Stephane; Chambolle, Claire; Allain, MArie-Laure
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2016–01–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:agrebk:qt30t981mm&r=agr
  35. By: Derrill D. Watson II
    Abstract: This paper identifies eight political economy factors that influenced governments. policy choices during the most recent global food price crisis. To explain the variety of responses and the policy failures, a framework is proposed that locates policies along the twin dimensions of unitary vs. fragmented decision-making processes and social welfare maximizing vs. selfinterested policy goals. Policies are favoured that maintain government legitimacy and produce private benefits for the best-connected stakeholders. Policy interventions were frequently ad hoc and delayed because of lack of market information, conflicts among fragmented government agencies in all governments, and extended deliberations among competing stakeholder groups.
    Keywords: political economy, food prices, public choice, rent-seeking
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2015-117&r=agr
  36. By: Seok, Jun Ho; Reed, Michael; Saghaian, Sayed
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229247&r=agr
  37. By: Shambhavi Tamrakar; Bharti Venkatesh
    Abstract: Rural marketing is a vast and developing area and when its comes to exploring rural market, it has a great future possibility to expand the market . FMCG sector in India is the fourth largest in the economy & none of the FMCG companies would like to miss this opportunity, it gives an immense growth possibilities. Characteristics like low income ,illiteracy , heterogeneity ,scattered population are making it a bit unattractive but still it has a huge scope of penetration as government are now launching various schemes to uplift the rural India to get them pace with the current scenario of technological advancement . FMCG companies are also adopting various marketing strategies and approaches to penetrate in to rural market and have win -win situation. This paper tries to understand what rural market are? Its origin, characteristics, contribution to economy ,challenges and future prospects. Key words: Rural market, EMCG, retail, marketing
    Date: 2015–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:vor:issues:2015-09-12&r=agr
  38. By: Gouzaye, Amadou; Epplin, Francis
    Abstract: Energy crop production has been proposed for land of poor quality to avoid competition with food production and negative indirect land use consequences. The objective of this study was to determine the land area requirements, biomass transportation distance, and expected cost consequences of restricting switchgrass biomass production, for use as biofuel feedstock, to marginal land relative to unrestricted land use. The USA soils capability classification system was used to differentiate between high quality land (Class I) and land of marginal quality (Class IV). Switchgrass biomass yield distributions were simulated for each of four land capability classes for counties in the Eastern Oklahoma case study region. For a 70 million gallons per year cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, restricting land use to capability Class IV (defined as marginal) increases the quantity of land required to support the biorefinery by 47%; increases biomass trucking distance by 218%; increases cost to delivery feedstock by 13%; and increases the expected cost to produce a gallon of ethanol by $0.19. In the absence of government restrictions, for-profit companies are not likely to limit energy crop production to land of marginal quality.
    Keywords: biorefinery, EPIC, marginal land, switchgrass, yield variability, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C60, Q42, Q24,
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea16:229199&r=agr
  39. By: Helming, John; Kuhlman, Tom
    Keywords: vegetable protein subsidy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa148:229271&r=agr
  40. By: Hamidov, Ahmad; Helming, Katharina; Balla, Dagmar
    Abstract: Agriculture is the backbone of Central Asia’s (CA) economy providing economic and social stability in the region. Sustainable use of agricultural land is therefore of critical importance to economic growth, human well-being and social equity, and ecosystem services. However, severe land degradation through salinization, erosion and desertification is evident and respective impacts on human health and ecosystem services are suspected. This paper aims to analyze current research on agricultural land use in CA through applying the Land Use Functions framework. In particular, it examines the type and relative shares of environmental, economic and social aspects of agricultural land use addressed in existing scientific literature. This study analyzed scientific publications dealing with agricultural land use in five CA countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. A systematic database search of international peer-reviewed articles was conducted using the ISI Web of Science. We selected the English-language articles that were published between 2008 and 2013. After the analysis of paper titles, abstracts and keywords, we found 362 articles relevant to agricultural land use in CA. The analysis indicated that publications concentrating on environmental and economic dimensions of land use functions were primary focus of land use scientists. By contrast, social aspects of land use functions, such as employment, human health and recreational services, and landscape aesthetics received far less importance by international scholars. Interestingly, large portion of articles focused on issues of agricultural land use in Uzbekistan. This is due to the fact that the country extensively benefited from large international research projects in the last decade. By applying the Land Use Functions framework, we identified international research focus and knowledge gaps that future scientists can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural land use in CA.
    Keywords: Land use functions, sustainable development, research gaps, agriculture, Central Asia, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2014–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iamc14:212555&r=agr
  41. By: Brink, Lars
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229234&r=agr
  42. By: Blanchard,Emily J.; Bown,Chad P.; Johnson,Robert Christopher
    Abstract: How do global supply chain linkages modify countries'incentives to impose import protection? Are these linkages empirically important determinants of trade policy? To address these questions, this paper introduces supply chain linkages into a workhorse terms-of-trade model of trade policy with political economy. Theory predicts that discretionary final goods tariffs will be decreasing in the domestic content of foreign-produced final goods. Provided foreign political interests are not too strong, final goods tariffs will also be decreasing in the foreign content of domestically-produced final goods. The paper tests these predictions using newly assembled data on bilateral applied tariffs, temporary trade barriers, and value-added contents for 14 major economies over the 1995-2009 period. There is strong support for the empirical predictions of the model. The results imply that global supply chains matter for trade policy, both in principle and in practice.
    Keywords: Free Trade,Economic Theory&Research,Trade Policy,Labor Policies,Trade Law
    Date: 2016–01–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:7536&r=agr
  43. By: Romets, Dmytro; Decker, Thomas; Menrad, Klaus
    Abstract: Since 2009 Ukrainian Government has been planning to increase the share of renewable energies (RE) in the country´s energy mix and to promote the natural gas substitution by the use of biomass and biogas production. Notwithstanding their many environmental, economic and social advantages, after several years of policy making none of them have been implemented on large scale. The aim of this paper is to create insight into the underlying factors of this troublesome trajectory of biogas technologies in Ukrainian agribusiness sector and to shed new light on biogas investment decisions by large agricultural companies. We investigate the investment decisions of large-scale farms, with the objective to identify the main determinants of their choices. Our findings reveal that large-scale farms show related investment thresholds. Their investment decision regarding biogas is mainly driven by the projects´ capital costs and payback period. But the other important issue is the potential of energy cost reduction through natural gas substitution and a perceived need of waste recycling. Nevertheless, there are systemic problems that hamper investments in biogas in Ukraine, such as lack of capital, geopolitical uncertainty and investor´s perceived risk. The analysis provides several lessons to take into account when developing policies for the acceleration of the biogas production in the agricultural sector of Ukraine.
    Keywords: Renewable energy investments, organisations´ decision-making, biogas technologies, Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–09–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaml15:212883&r=agr
  44. By: Kim, GwanSeon; Saghaian, Sayed
    Abstract: In this research, we investigate the impact of income and household characteristics on food expenditures both at home and away from home, to identify the factors affecting total food expenditures. The main goal of this paper is to investigate how differently household food expenditures are affected by socio-economic characteristics and food stamp benefits. We use the 2013 Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) dataset from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), and incorporate the Tobit model to calculate the marginal effects. The results show variables like male, white, employed, and geographic location have different impacts on food expenditures at home and away. Also, food stamp benefits affect food expenditure away from home negatively by $9.68, but affect food expenditure at home positively by $5.79. These results have implications for policy makers and analysts.
    Keywords: food away from home, food at home, Tobit model, food stamp, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2016
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea16:229605&r=agr
  45. By: Ulrik Beck; Karl Pauw; Richard Mussa
    Abstract: This paper decomposes differences between the official poverty estimates of Malawi and a set of revised estimates by Pauw et al. (2016, forthcoming) with respect to five methodological differences: (i) the use of a revised set of unit conversion factors; (ii) the specification and use of regional poverty lines as opposed to a single national poverty line; (iii) the use of implicit survey-based prices rather than external price data; (iv) estimation of food separate poverty lines in the two surveys; and (v) permitting a change in the food/non-food composition of the consumption basket over time. Our results suggest that the decline in national poverty varies between 3.4 and 8.4 percentage points, compared to the official estimate of a decline of 1.8 percentage points.
    Keywords: growth, poverty, Malawi, poverty measurement
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2015-126&r=agr
  46. By: Rabi Mohtar
    Abstract: The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has emerged over the last few years as an innovative and holistic platform for resource management and allocation. Unlike many other disciplines that make their way to the policy circle through academic debates, the nexus emerged from the global and policy business community as a platform to guide sustainability efforts. It is, with no doubt, that the nexus will find its way to the implementation of the sustainability development goals (SDGs), approved by the UN general assembly in September 2015. The nexus is also finding its way to the academic community, where a lot of scientific questions are awaiting answers: what are the data needs? What are appropriate modelling strategies? How will we scale (upscaling and downscaling)? And what is the appropriate scale for approaching the nexus? These are but a few of the technical challenges. With that in mind, critical questions need answers regarding the governance of the nexus, including ownership and appropriate governance structures. The global community is in urgent need of good, successful examples of how the nexus has helped reach water, energy and food security goals.
    Keywords: Water, energy, food, nexus, development, governance, agriculture, climate, innovation, efficiency, policy choices, supply chain, private public partnership
    Date: 2016–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ocp:ppaper:pb-16/03&r=agr
  47. By: Hartmann, Monika; Simons, Johannes
    Keywords: Farm Animal Welfare, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa148:229280&r=agr
  48. By: Storm, Hugo; Heckelei, Thomas
    Abstract: We analyse the importance of farm level spatial interaction for farm growth. We hypothesize that farms compete on local land markets and interact through knowledge transfer leading to positive and negative feedbacks, respectively. One of the main challenges in the analysis of farm level interaction is to distinguish between actual interactions from the effects of spatially correlated omitted variables. We approach this challenge be estimating a spatially lagged explanatory model (SLX) employing two spatial weighting matrix differentiating between a local and regional neighbourhood. Using a spatially explicit dataset for nearly all Norwegian farms in 1999 and 2009, we found that neighbouring effects differ substantially between local and regional neighbourhood. Our results indicate that the behaviour of directly neighbouring farms is indeed important for farm growth decisions.
    Keywords: farm growth, direct payments, land market, spatial competition, spatial interaction, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212648&r=agr
  49. By: Marie, Kimberly; Solis, Daniel; Thomas, Michael; Alvarez, Sergio
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to present a framework to analyze if there is any statistical correlation between climate variability and commodity prices in Northern Florida, and whether real causality effect exists. This assessment is significant because it aids to strengthen North Floridian farmers’ awareness as well as preparing them for possible fluctuations in their commodities’ by analyzing the correlation between the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and commodity prices. Because the study will be based on the assumption that a correlation between ENSO and commodity prices exists in Northern Florida; both linear and logarithm models, as well as econometric equations will be used to measure the hypothesis. These models fulfils a crucial role in evaluating the policy implications of climate change and how its effects can be mitigated.
    Keywords: Climate, Causality, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saea16:229596&r=agr
  50. By: Nuppenau, Ernst-August
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is on the design of instrument variables (in the mode of payment for ecosystem services: PES) to achieve optimal service provision (ESS) at farming community level. These services shall improve production by reducing costs as public good and divert farmers’ interest from using chemical inputs. In other words, preferring less costly nature compared to inputs purchased from the market is a vision. Apparently this depends on farm types and it must be shown how services can be evaluated to set priorities. We work with shadow prices. ESSs are built around biodiversity BD, its value and we may see disservices. To solve problems we suggest a programming approach. Then farmers providing ESSs are compensated and money has to be raised from farmers benefitting. The approach delineates interest functions and helps to simulate quasimarket coordination under governance elucidated as actively promoting habitats for ESS. Instruments are outlined with regards public management for habitat provision, assuring ESS, which results in spatial organisations. They include land set aside for field margins (wildflowers), explicit outline of nature elements (hedges, etc.) and waivers on input use (reduced pesticides). We present the theoretical background for such farm level analysis in a cultural landscape where managers can address farm and field levels individually. In order to procure needed finance for payment on the one hand and to use this money efficiently on the other hand, farmers should be addressed as users and providers.
    Keywords: common property management, spatial management of ESS, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212653&r=agr
  51. By: LaBorde, David
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229250&r=agr
  52. By: Villas-Boas, Sofia B
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2016–01–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:agrebk:qt2348568h&r=agr
  53. By: McCormack, Michele; O’Donoghue, Cathal; Loughrey, Jason
    Abstract: In this paper we use a natural experiment to investigate the behavioural response of Irish Cattle farmers to historical policy incentives. In particular we are interested in the period 2001 – 2005 when Less Favoured Area payments were decoupled from production and other subsidy payments available to all farmers remained coupled. The decoupling of the Less Favoured Areas payment provides an exogenous source of variation that gives us unique opportunity for policy evaluation. Researchers rarely observe the effects of a policy change on those affected and those not affected since in almost all cases a policy change affects all. We adopt an ordinal Utility maximization consumer choice framework where individuals make decisions in relation to consumption and leisure. Under our model of utility maximization the expected market gross margin is positively associated with livestock intensity. We identify a non-linear relationship between direct coupled payments and livestock intensity which suggests that high payments incentivise farmers towards extensification. Using a Difference in Difference with propensity score matching we find that there were substantial differences in the behavioural responses of both groups. Farms where payments remained fully coupled adapted their stocking rate decisions in a way that reflects both learning and rationality more significantly than farms where part of their payment was decoupled.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa150:212644&r=agr
  54. By: Anders, Sven; Schroeter, Christiane
    Abstract: Despite decades-old efforts to inform and educate consumers about healthier lifestyles through established dietary guidelines, diet-related diseases are on the rise. At the same time, consumers have developed more favorable attitudes towards nutritional supplements as a perceived alternative way to improve diet quality. Thus, there is a need to understand the role of nutritional supplements in U.S. consumers’ diets, given that supplements might serve as a possible policy tool to improve dietary behavior. We use data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the impact of nutritional supplements intake on respondent’s body weight outcomes, while controlling for diet quality based on individual Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) scores. Our analysis applies a set of innovative Propensity Score Matching (PSM) estimators that account for potential selection bias and endogeneity of the self-reported behavior and diet-health outcomes. The empirical analysis demonstrates a negative association between nutritional supplement intake and BMI. Our findings suggest that health-conscious individuals overinvest in health by taking nutritional supplements instead of improving diet quality through more appropriate food choices. Nutritional supplements have been discussed as a disease-preventative input that may enhance the 2 diets and health of at-risk populations. The analysis in this paper suggests that consuming supplements should not be thought of as a replacement for a healthy food-based diet. Our study provides an important contribution to the literature on a key food policy issue and contributes new insight with regard to the relationship between dietary choices and health behavior
    Keywords: At-risk Populations, Health Behavior, Healthy Eating Index-2010, Nutritional supplements, Obesity, Propensity Score Matching, Self-selection Bias., Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, I12, I10, D12,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:assa16:212806&r=agr
  55. By: Thomas Patriota (IPC-IG); Francesco Maria Pierri (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "This special edition of Policy in Focus aims to follow up on discussions and debates instigated by the International Year of Family Farming (IYFF 2014) by drawing attention to specific cases as well as more general policy recommendations related to family farming in countries of the Global South. It is the product of a collaboration between the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP IPC-IG), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA) of Brazil." (...)
    Keywords: public policies, strengthening, family farming, global South
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ipc:ifocus:34&r=agr
  56. By: Cipryk, Rachel; Ovadiya, Mirey
    Abstract: Early integration of disaster risk management/climate change adaptation criteria into social protection programs’ monitoring and evaluation plans, systems, and budgetsallows for more effective capture of necessary information, including proxy indicators to measure the reduction of risk exposure. Organizations such as the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP) have documented international experience in developing monitoring and evaluation systems that measure disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. Monitoring and evaluation systems have also been used after disasters to provide rapid real-time feedback on the appropriateness and coverage of the response, so that adjustments can be made.
    Keywords: Natural Disasters,Hazard Risk Management,Poverty Monitoring&Analysis,Disaster Management,Poverty and Social Impact Analysis
    Date: 2014–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:hdnspu:91807&r=agr
  57. By: Channing Arndt; Paul Chinowsky; Charles Fant; Yohannes Gebretsadik; James E. Neumann; Sergey Paltsev; C. Adam Schlosser; Kenneth Strzepek; Finn Tarp; James Thurlow
    Abstract: We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows for rigorous comparison of climate, biophysical, and economic outcomes across global mitigation regimes. We find that effective global mitigation policies generate two sources of benefit. First, less distorted climate outcomes result in typically more favourable economic outcomes. Second, successful global mitigation policies reduce global fossil fuel producer prices, relative to unconstrained emissions, providing a substantial terms of trade boost to structural fuel importers. Combined, these gains are on the order of or greater than estimates of mitigation costs. These results highlight the interests of most developing countries in effective global mitigation policies, even in the relatively near term, with the likelihood of much larger benefits post 2050.
    Keywords: : climate change, global mitigation, developing countries, growth and development, climate uncertainty
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2015-116&r=agr
  58. By: Estrades, Carmen
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229229&r=agr
  59. By: Zhen, Chen; Zheng, Xiaoyong
    Abstract: We use the voluntary adoption of the NuVal shelf nutrition labels by a grocery retailer to estimate the value of these labels to shoppers in the yogurt category. Using an incomplete quadratic almost ideal demand system to represent consumer demand, we found a statistically significant positive effect of these shelf labels on demand for yogurt with above-average NuVal scores. The coefficients on the NuVal treatment variable in the demand equations for yogurt with below-average NuVal scores and unlabeled yogurt are not statistically significant. The value of nutrition information brought by NuVal labels is estimated to be 3.1% of consumer expenditures on yogurt at the store that uses the labels.
    Keywords: Value of Information, NuVal, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Q18,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:assa16:212812&r=agr
  60. By: Reena das Nair; Shingie Chisoro
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, southern African countries have experienced rapid growth in the number and spread of supermarkets. Several factors have been attributed to this growth, including increasing urbanization, increased per capita income, the rise of the middle class, economies of scale and scope, and transport economies. The format and location of supermarkets have also evolved over the years, moving away from serving the traditional highend affluent consumers in urban areas to successfully penetrating new markets in low-income rural communities, including through more efficient procurement and distribution systems. This spread into rural areas and the rapid proliferation of supermarkets generally has given rise to some important consequences for competitive rivalry between grocery retail outlets, as well as for local suppliers who want to participate in supermarket value chains in the southern African region.
    Keywords: supermarkets, southern Africa, regional development, strategy, suppliers, capabilities
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2015-114&r=agr
  61. By: Kim, GwanSeon; Tyler, Mark
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229243&r=agr
  62. By: Villas-Boas, Sofia B; Bonnet, Celine
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2016–01–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cdl:agrebk:qt172676f9&r=agr
  63. By: Bhattacharya, Haumanti; Innes, Robert
    Abstract: Competing theories in industrial organization predict that more concentrated industries will lead to a smaller and more efficient variety of products, or alternately, a larger and less efficient array of products. This paper presents an empirical study of these competing implications that estimates the impact of market concentration on new product introductions in a panel of nine food processing industries over 1983 to 2004. Controlling for industry-level unobservables (using fixed effects) and endogeneity of industry market structure, we find that industry concentration promotes the introduction of new products. Preliminary evidence also suggests that new product introductions spur subsequent food industry mergers. Both conclusions are consistent with the “entry for merger” theory of product variety wherein small firms introduce new products in anticipation of profitable future mergers with concentrated firms.
    Keywords: New Product Introductions, Market Concentration, Mergers, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, L1, L2, L66,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:assa16:212836&r=agr
  64. By: Lymbery, Philip; Stevenson, Peter; McKenna, Carol
    Keywords: Food policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2015
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa148:229269&r=agr
  65. By: Djuric, Ivan; Götz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229240&r=agr
  66. By: Barichello, Richard
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iats15:229241&r=agr

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