nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2016‒01‒03
twenty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. The determinants of wheat yields: the role of sustainable innovation, policies and risks in France and Hungary By Mauro Vigani; Manuel Gomez-Barbero; Emilio Rodríguez-Cerezo
  2. Tapping Potentials of Innovation for Food Security and Sustainable Agricultural Growth: An Africa-Wide Perspective By Husmann, Christine; von Braun, Joachim; Badiane, Ousmane; Akinbamijo, Yemi; Abiodun, Fatunbi Oluwole; Virchow, Detlef
  3. Myanmar’s Agriculture Sector: Unlocking the Potential for Inclusive Growth By Raitzer, David A.; Wong, Larry C. Y.; Samson, Jindra Nuella G.
  4. Food Intake and the Role of Food Self-Provisioning By Katharina Lehmann-Uschner; Kati Krähnert
  5. Characteristics of farming systems in Albania By Fatmir Guri; Ilir Kapaj; Bahri Musabelliu; Maksim Meço; Eneida Topulli; Remzi Keco; Natasha Hodaj; Shpresim Domi; Gentjan Mehmeti; Sergio Gomez y Paloma
  6. An Approach to Assess Sustainability of Agricultural Farms By Bachev, Hrabrin
  7. Economics of Antibiotic Use in U.S. Livestock Production By Sneeringer, Stacy; MacDonald, James; Key, Nigel; McBride, William; Mathews, Ken
  8. Do land market restrictions hinder structural change in a rural economy ? evidence from Sri Lanka By Emran,M. Shahe; Shilpi,Forhad J.
  9. Global commodity chains, financial markets, and local market structures: Price risks in the coffee sector in Ethiopia By Tröster, Bernhard; Staritz, Cornelia
  10. Income diversification among female-headed farming households By Vimefall, Elin
  11. Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Myanmar By Raitzer, David A.; Samson, Jindra Nuella G.; Nam, Kee-Yung
  12. Competition and Food Intake: A Laboratory Study By Marisa Bucheli; Mariana Gerstenblüth; Máximo Rossi
  13. Water Quality and Recreational Angling Demand in Ireland By John Curtis; Brian Stanley
  14. The LEADER process as a European policy for local development: A comparison of the implementation in three European member states By Berriet-Solliec, Marielle; Laidin, Catherine; Lépicier, Denis; Pham, Hai Vu; Pollermann, Kim; Raue, Petra; Schnaut, Gitta
  15. Indonesia’s Single Registry for Social Protection Programmes By Adama Bah; Suahasil Nazara; Elan Satriawan
  16. A Green Lewis Development Model By Guilherme de Oliveira; Gilberto Tadeu Lima
  17. Measuring the Impacts of Off-Season Berry Imports By Arnade, Carlos; Kuchler, Fred
  18. Preventing Environmental Disasters: Market-Based vs. Command-and-Control Policies By Francesco Lamperti; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini
  19. Land market restrictions, women's labor force participation, and wages in a rural economy By Emran,M. Shahe; Shilpi,Forhad J.
  20. Relational Goods and Direct Purchase from Farmers: Estimating the Value of the Relationship between Consumers and Producers By Corsi, Alessandro; Novelli, Silvia

  1. By: Mauro Vigani (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Manuel Gomez-Barbero (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Emilio Rodríguez-Cerezo (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The report presents the results of a survey conducted on 700 wheat farmers in France and Hungary. The survey aimed to single out the most critical elements at the base of wheat productivity, collecting information for the growing seasons 2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. Two types of data are obtained: farmers’ opinions on the determinants of wheat productivity; quantitative data on wheat output, production factors, marketing strategies, damages, and field and risk management practices. Through descriptive statistics, the report revealed important and significant differences between the countries. According to French farmers' opinion, the most important wheat yield determinants at national level are seasonal weather and soil quality; while Hungarians addressed climate change and seasonal weather. At the farm level, the high prices of inputs and the low wheat market prices are considered the most constraining factors in both countries. Wheat yields are positively correlated to higher agro-chemicals use in Hungary and to additional days of labour in France. The adoption of precision farming provides 7-12% higher yields in both countries, while yield gains from conservation agriculture and IPM are found in partial adopters. In both countries, the most frequently adopted innovation to increase wheat yields and grains' quality are new wheat varieties, however farmers’ willingness to adopt genetically modified wheat varieties is opposite: positive in France and negative in Hungary. Finally, both farmers perceive market risks as more detrimental than natural disasters. While crop insurance is the most adopted tool to deal with natural risks in both countries, French farmers adopt diversification strategies more frequently than Hungarians to deal with market risks.
    Keywords: Wheat, Productivity, Yield, Innovation, Risk management, Sustainability, European Union, Agricultural policies.
    JEL: G22 G32 Q12 Q16 Q18 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2015–12
  2. By: Husmann, Christine; von Braun, Joachim; Badiane, Ousmane; Akinbamijo, Yemi; Abiodun, Fatunbi Oluwole; Virchow, Detlef
    Abstract: While in the past, increased use of inputs and expansion of agricultural land accounted for a good part of agricultural growth in Africa, improvements in productivity will need to be a major driver of growth in the future. Thus, agricultural innovations are needed to sustainably increase productivity, i.e. output per unit of all inputs, while maintaining environmental quality and resources. Such innovations require enhanced investments in research and development. This study identifies potentials in agriculture and food systems in Africa for enhanced food security. For maximum impact, the Special Initiative “One World – No Hunger” of BMZ needs to take note of the whole African landscape of actions in agriculture and food security. Therefor this study provides a detailed review of related ongoing and recent initiatives, in order to help identify in what ways investments under the “One World – No Hunger“ Special Initiative from a broad strategic perspective might best connect and serve in coherent and complementary ways to increase food and nutrition security and sustainable agricultural productivity growth. Innovations in the agricultural sector are key to ensure food security and achieve the right to food. Investments in the agricultural sector are crucial not only to increase food production but also because the returns on investments in terms of poverty reduction effects are often highest in in this sector. Furthermore, food insecurity and violent conflicts are inextricably interlinked with food insecurity being both a driver and a consequence of violent conflicts and related refugee flows. African countries have recently made major commitments to invest in agriculture. The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), that was initiated in 2003 and has been reinforced by the Malabo Declaration in 2014, is now the reference point and measure of commitment in Africa. With CAADP, African countries committed to spend 10% of their total public expenditures on agriculture to achieve an annual agricultural growth rate of 6%. Other African and international initiatives, including new partnerships between African governments, donors and the private sector like the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition or Feed the Future, have since been launched to support the CAADP process. Investment opportunities differ across Africa. In view of the above mentioned goals, it is suggested here that development investments by Germany target countries which reveal potentials indicated by 1. having a track record of political commitment to foster sustainable agricultural growth, as indicated by performance under CAADP, and 2. showing actual progress in sustainable agricultural productivity driven by related innovations, as indicated by comprehensive productivity measurement and innovation actions on the ground, and 3. prioritizing actions for hunger and malnutrition reduction and showing progress (for instance measured by the Global Hunger Index), but where agricultural and rural development and nutrition interventions are likely to make a significant difference, as indicated by public policy and room for civil society actions. The records and potentials of 42 African countries are identified accordingly, using comprehensive assessments of agronomic, economic and governance criteria that can be transparently tracked.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Innovations, Food and Nutrition Security, Agricultural Policy, Sustainable Growth, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015–12
  3. By: Raitzer, David A. (Asian Development Bank); Wong, Larry C. Y. (Institute of Strategic and International Studies); Samson, Jindra Nuella G. (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Myanmar’s agriculture sector offers substantial unexploited potential to underpin the country’s inclusive economic development. With extensive land, water, and labor resources, as well as proximity to fast-growing markets, the country’s agriculture has key competitive advantages. At the same time, Myanmar’s agricultural productivity trails its neighbors as a result of constraints in input markets, infrastructure, and institutions. Key actions to address these constraints include improving land tenure, expanding credit availability, investing in input markets for nutrients and machinery, developing drainage and irrigation systems, and enhancing rural transport and electricity connectivity. In the short-term, public–private partnerships may help to address these barriers to investment, but increased public investment is vital over the longer term. All these direct actions should be underpinned by investments in innovation and attention to climate change effects as part of comprehensive long-term agricultural development planning.
    Keywords: agricultural policy; crop performance; fisheries and aquaculture; input markets development; Myanmar
    JEL: O13 Q13 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2015–12–15
  4. By: Katharina Lehmann-Uschner; Kati Krähnert
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of food self-provisioning for the intake of macro- and micronutrients of households in Mongolia. Our analysis is based on rich household survey data that collected food consumption through consumption diaries. We analyze nutritional outcomes within and across the three prevalent Mongolian livelihoods that derive food from different sources: urban wave employees, rural households with small herds, and pastoralists with large herds. Results show that food consumption patterns differ strongly across the three livelihoods, with herding households having a better nutrition situation. Moreover, food self-provisioning significantly affects dietary quality and quantity. Farming food crops improves the nutrient intake of small herders. In contrast, the provision of food through animal husbandry activities has ambivalent effects on households’ diet. It increases the intake of calories and nutrients from animal sources, while it decreases the intake of carbohydrates and nutrients from vegetal sources. This finding suggests household-specific market failures due to remoteness exist. Last, exposure to a severe weather event did not negatively affect households’ energy intake, but it reduces the intake of nutrient from animal sources.
    Keywords: food-self provisioning, herding, nutrition, Mongolia, shock
    JEL: O12 I32
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Fatmir Guri (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Ilir Kapaj (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Bahri Musabelliu (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Maksim Meço (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Eneida Topulli (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Remzi Keco (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Natasha Hodaj (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Shpresim Domi (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Gentjan Mehmeti (Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Economics and Agro-business, Tirana, Albania); Sergio Gomez y Paloma (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This report is based on information collected from a face-to-face survey of more than 1 000 farmers from three regions of Albania (namely Berat, Elbasan and Lezhë To identify a representative sample of Albanian farming systems, a three-step sample design was used. A group of 11 variables dealing with the socio-economic characteristics of farms was selected to build up the farming system typology. Two typologies are used: one for the whole sample (three regions) and a second one for each region. The differences between the two typologies are considered to be a proxy indicator of different characteristics of farming systems in each region. The farm types identified are (1) poly-culture, mainly for the market; (2) leisure farms; (3) arable crops; (4) fruit trees; (5) self-sufficient; and (6) livestock. The farm typology is slightly different for the regions of Berat and Lezhë. The farm types’ strategies are constructed according to the land, infrastructure facilities and the investment availability of farms. Non-agricultural incomes (remittances, income from the construction, trade, pensions, etc.) appear to provide an important economic support for the farm household. Farming structures in rural areas are characterised by the use of more labour and lower inputs. The farm types that tend to specialise in one activity are not always those that make the best use of labour and land. Farming does not provide enough income to repay the work put in at the official minimum wage level. Non-agricultural work is better paid. Albanian farms provide at least a minimal income that is enough to keep the household members above the threshold of extreme poverty. The farm types that base their incomes on agricultural activities are poorer than those that base their income on non-agricultural activities. Income structures and the low incomes generated by work in agriculture suggests that rural migration towards urban areas and abroad is a phenomenon that will persist into the future
    Keywords: Albania, face-to-face interviews, farming systems typology, Agricultural incomes, non-agricultural incomes, rural areas.
    Date: 2015–12
  6. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: This paper gives an answer to important questions such as: „what is sustainability of farms?“ and „how to assess sustainability of farms?“. First, evolution of the “concept” and the major approaches for assessing sustainability of farms is discussed. More adequate definition of the farm sustainability is suggested as ability of a particular farm to maintain its governance, economic, social and ecological functions in a long term. Next, a specific for the conditions of Bulgarian farms framework for assessing farm sustainability is proposed. The later includes a system of appropriate principles, criteria, indicators, and reference values for evaluating governance, economic, ecological and social aspects of farms sustainability as well as an approach for their integration and interpretation. The ultimate objective of this study is to work out an effective framework for assessing sustainability of farms in the specific economic, institutional and natural environment of farms of different types and location, assist farm management and strategies, and agricultural policies and forms of public intervention in agriculture.
    Keywords: farm sustainability, governance, economic, social, ecological aspects, framework for assessment
    JEL: Q10 Q12 Q13 Q15 Q18 Q2 Q20 Q3 Q5 Q51 Q52 Q53 Q54 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2015–12
  7. By: Sneeringer, Stacy; MacDonald, James; Key, Nigel; McBride, William; Mathews, Ken
    Abstract: Farmers use antibiotics to treat, prevent, and control animal diseases and increase the productivity of animals and operations. However, there is concern that routine antibiotic use in livestock will contribute to antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, with repercussions for human and animal health. Given these concerns, pressure to limit antibiotic uses for purposes other than disease treatment is mounting. Changes in use will lead to a series of adjustments in animal agriculture as producers change production practices, with potential repercussions for prices and volumes in livestock markets. This report addresses the following questions: How widely are antibiotics used in the livestock industries? How could the current structure of the livestock industry influence the effects of restrictions on certain uses of antibiotics? How might the restriction of antibiotics affect production and costs at the animal and farm levels? How might those impacts affect production and prices in markets?
    Keywords: Antibiotics, livestock, United States, economics, prices, feed efficiency, production purposes, antimicrobials, growth promotion, policy analysis, disease prevention, Agricultural and Food Policy, Health Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015–11
  8. By: Emran,M. Shahe; Shilpi,Forhad J.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of land market restrictions on structural change from agriculture to non-farm in a rural economy. This paper develops a theoretical model that focuses on higher migration costs due to restrictions on alienability, and identifies the possibility of a reverse structural change where the share of nonagricultural employment declines. The reverse structural change can occur under plausible conditions: if demand for the non-agricultural good is income-inelastic (assuming the non-farm good is non-tradable), or non-agriculture is less labor intensive relative to agriculture (assuming the non-farm good is tradable). For identification, this paper exploits a natural experiment in Sri Lanka where historical malaria played a unique role in land policy. The empirical evidence indicates significant adverse effects of land restrictions on manufacturing and services employment, rural wages, and per capita household consumption. The evidence on the disaggregated occupational choices suggests that land restrictions increase wage employment in agriculture, but reduce it in manufacturing and services, with no perceptible effects on self-employment in non-agriculture. The results are consistent with the migration costs model, but contradict two widely discussed alternative mechanisms: collateral effect and property rights insecurity. This paper also provides direct evidence in favor of the migration costs mechanism.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Common Property Resource Development,Labor Policies,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Environmental Economics&Policies
    Date: 2015–12–22
  9. By: Tröster, Bernhard; Staritz, Cornelia
    Abstract: Risks related to commodity price volatility are a major thread to actors in commodity chains, particularly to smallholder farmers in low income countries. Therefore, price setting and transmission within global commodity chains are of crucial importance from a developmental and distributional perspective. With the end of global price stabilization mechanisms in the 1980s, financial derivative markets have taken over the central role in price discovery and risk management. This is also true for the case of coffee, being the agro-commodity with the highest trading volume on financial commodity exchanges. In this paper, the coffee commodity chain is assessed with a focus on Ethiopia, the largest coffee exporter in Sub-Saharan Africa. Given the crucial role of the coffee sector for exports and for millions of smallholders, price risks for Ethiopian and international actors are analyzed along two indicators - exposure to price risks and ability to mitigate price risks. Even though Ethiopia imposes strict regulations on local value addition in green coffee production, the use of a market-based price discovery system via the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange exposes local actors to highly volatile international coffee prices, but with limited access to risk management. This is in contrast to lead firms in the global coffee chain - international traders and roasters - which use various strategies to deal with and also profit from price risks, mainly interlinked to financial derivate markets.
    Keywords: global commodity chains,financialization,commodity prices,price risks,price risk management,coffee sector,Ethiopia,commodity exchange
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Vimefall, Elin (Örebro University School of Business)
    Abstract: In most rural parts of sub-Saharan Africa, production on one’s own farm is still the main source of income. However, other sources are becoming more important and obtaining income from outside the agricultural sector has been identified as an important path out of poverty. To take advantage of these more attractive livelihood strategies, households need to overcome several barriers to entry. Female-headed households have been found to have less education, less productive resources, and less access to credit than male-headed households; thus, they have limited options. Using data from the RIGA database, we analyze income diversification among female-headed households in rural Kenya. Using a multinomial logit model, we find that households headed by a married woman are approximately 12 percentage points more likely to rely only on income from their own farms compared to households headed by monogamously married man. Female-headed households are also less likely to diversify into non-agricultural wage work than male-headed households.
    Keywords: Income diversification; Livelihood; Female-headed households; Kenya
    JEL: J16 O12 O15 O55
    Date: 2015–12–23
  11. By: Raitzer, David A. (Asian Development Bank); Samson, Jindra Nuella G. (Asian Development Bank); Nam, Kee-Yung (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Myanmar’s long isolation from international markets and sources of finance historically limited development, and thus, the pressure on its environment. Many of its resources remain relatively intact, despite an absence of effective environmental regulations. Yet, as the country integrates into the global economy and its economic development accelerates, resource degradation is rising rapidly. Deforestation of closed forests in recent years has taken place at the fastest rate among major Southeast Asian countries, much of it driven by concessions for plantations and other large-scale projects. Marine capture fishing pressure has increased rapidly, and the sustainability of catches is largely unknown. Water and air pollution effluents and emissions are escalating. At the same time, policy responses to date, while emphasizing overall sustainability, need to be developed to address these issues. Environmental impact assessment procedures, environmental quality standards, emissions regulations, and penalties for environmental violations remain under development. Perverse incentives for resource destruction are still in place and efforts to create market incentives for sustainable practices are at an initial stage. To ensure long-run, sustainable economic development, Myanmar’s reforms need to address these issues more quickly and comprehensively.
    Keywords: deforestation; environmental protection and conservation; Myanmar; pollution management; vulnerability to climate change
    JEL: O13 O44 Q15 Q56
    Date: 2015–12–14
  12. By: Marisa Bucheli (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Mariana Gerstenblüth (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República); Máximo Rossi (Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de la República)
    Abstract: In this paper we are interested on the study of the effect of competition on the food intake from two perspectives: the overall consumption and the substitution between two snacks (a “healthy” and a “non-healthy” snack). For this purpose we do a laboratory experiment in which the participants are women. Participants are offered chocolate candies and raisings as they solve several tasks. Half of the participants solve the tasks under non- competitive piece rate and the other half, under a competitive a tournament incentive scheme. The results show that the intake of participants is higher under tournament than piece rate payment. Moreover, the increase of food intake is led by a rise of chocolate consumption. We interpret that competition increases the consumption of fat, calories and carbohydrates and thus, affect the eating behavior in favor of unhealthy patterns. This research contributes to the strand of the literature that focuses on factors that affect the eating behavior which influences health.
    Keywords: food intake, competition, laboratory experiment, women
    JEL: C91 D12 I19
    Date: 2015–07
  13. By: John Curtis; Brian Stanley
    Abstract: Using on-site survey data from sea, coarse and game angling sites in Ireland, this paper estimates count data models of recreational angling demand. The models are used to investigate the extent to which anglers are responsive to differences in water quality, with the water quality metric defined by the EU’s Water Framework Directive. The analysis shows that angling demand is greater where water quality has a higher ecological status, particularly for anglers targeting game species. However, for coarse anglers we find the reverse, angling demand is greater in waters with lower ecological status. On average, across the different target species surveyed, anglers have a willingness to pay of €371 for a day’s fishing. The additional benefit of angling in waters with high versus low ecological status was the highest for game anglers at a mean of €122 per day.
    Date: 2015–12
  14. By: Berriet-Solliec, Marielle; Laidin, Catherine; Lépicier, Denis; Pham, Hai Vu; Pollermann, Kim; Raue, Petra; Schnaut, Gitta
    Abstract: New governance structures, meant to empower local decision makers, are supported by some policies introduced by the European Commission. LEADER, from rural development policy, is among these approaches. Nevertheless, these new policies are implemented in very different multi-level governance contexts in the European nation states. We question in how far the institutional differences on the different levels affect the implementation of LEADER on the local level. We thereby hope to contribute to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of differences in the impacts and effectiveness of the LEADER approach as has been documented thus far by research analyses. In our TRUSTEE research project we concentrate on ten cases in France, Germany and Italy. We describe the three different administration systems and the different types of RDP-implementation. Based on analyses of documents and interviews with stakeholders, we then analyze the possible relation of these institutional differences to the LEADER implementation at a local level.
    Keywords: rural development,multi-level governance,European policy,decentralization
    JEL: H11 R58
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Adama Bah (IPC-IG); Suahasil Nazara (IPC-IG); Elan Satriawan (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: Indonesia began to implement targeted social assistance programmes for both households and individuals in the aftermath of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The crisis had halted Indonesias economic growth and caused a sharp rise in domestic prices—particularly for food items, which led to a rapid and significant increase in poverty. The massive economic and social impacts of the crisis required a rapid roll-out of large-scale social assistance programmes, collectively termed the Social Safety Net (JPS), to protect households and communities that were most affected and to prevent the further spread of poverty. Such programmes relied on locally validated data from the National Family Planning Coordination Board and were largely pro-poor, although several targeting issues emerged. (…)
    Keywords: Indonesia, Single Registry, Social Protection Programmes
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Guilherme de Oliveira; Gilberto Tadeu Lima
    Abstract: This paper develops an environmental extension of a Lewis dual economy model, in which the interaction between environmental quality and economic growth, in one of its several dimensions, is explicitly modeled to explore long-run effects of a pollution abatement rule in developing economies. The government requires the Modern sector to dedicate a fraction of its output to pollution abatement, with such profitability-reducing fraction being endogenous to the level of environmental quality. Meanwhile, the level of environmental quality positively affects labor productivity, profits and, therefore, savings, which has a positive impact on capital accumulation. It is shown that this pollution abatement requirement, by affecting profitability in the Modern sector both negatively and positively, makes for the emergence of an ecological development trap from which a developing dual economy, if left to the free play of its structural forces, never escapes. Fortunately, however, this economy can be released from such a trap not only through a standard Big Push, in the spirit of Rosenstein-Rodan, but also by means of what we call an Environmental Big Push.
    Keywords: Ecological development trap; Environmental Big Push; Economic development; Environmental quality.
    JEL: O11 O44 Q50
    Date: 2015–12–21
  17. By: Arnade, Carlos; Kuchler, Fred
    Abstract: This report estimates the value to U.S. consumers from the increased availability of strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries during winter months. Findings suggest that additional supplies of these fruits from domestic off-season and foreign producers are especially valuable to consumers because they occur in winter months, when domestic fruit production is relatively low, consumers’ choices are fewer than during spring, and prices are high. Findings also suggest that consumers would benefit from further reductions in seasonal production cycles. However, consumers receive larger benefits from making off-season berries available (having some berries rather than none) than from increasing supplies to the extent that off-season prices fall to in-season levels.
    Keywords: seasonal imports, berries, compensating variation, consumers’ welfare, virtual prices, Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis,
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Francesco Lamperti; Mauro Napoletano; Andrea Roventini
    Abstract: The paper compares the effects of market-based and command-and-control climate policies on the direction of technical change and the prevention of environmental disasters. Drawing on the model proposed in Acemoglu et al. (2012, American Economic Review), we show that market-based policies (carbon taxes and subsidies towards clean sectors) exhibit bounded window of opportunities: delays in their implementation make them completely ineffective both in redirecting technical change and in avoiding environmental catastrophes. On the contrary, we find that command-and-control interventions guarantee policy effectiveness irrespectively on the timing of their introduction. As command-and-control policies are always able to direct technical change toward "green" technologies and to prevent climate disasters, they constitute a valuable alternative to market-based interventions.
    Keywords: Environmental Policy, Command and Control, Carbon Taxes, Disasters
    Date: 2015–12–28
  19. By: Emran,M. Shahe; Shilpi,Forhad J.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of land market restrictions on the rural labor market outcomes for women. The existing literature emphasizes two mechanisms through which land restrictions can affect the economic outcomes: the collateral value of land, and (in) security of property rights. Analysis of this paper focuses on an alternative mechanism where land restrictions increase costs of migration out of villages. The testable prediction of collateral effect is that both wages and labor force participation move in the same direction, and insecurity of property rights reduces labor force participation and increases wages. In contrast, if land restrictions work primarily through higher migration costs, labor force participation increases, while wages decline. For identification, this paper exploits a natural experiment in Sri Lanka where historical malaria played a unique role in land policy. This paper provides robust evidence of a positive effect of land restrictions on women's labor force participation, but a negative effect on female wages. The empirical results thus contradict a collateral or insecure property rights effect, but support migration costs as the primary mechanism.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Population Policies,Labor Policies,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Economic Growth
    Date: 2015–12–22
  20. By: Corsi, Alessandro; Novelli, Silvia (University of Turin)
    Date: 2015–11

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