nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
forty-one papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Security of Property Rights and Transition in Land Use By Denys Nizalov; Suzanne Thornsbury; Scott Loveridge; Mollie Woods; Olha Zadorozhna
  2. Transboundary Haze Polluters and Accountability: The Legal Landscape in Indonesia and Malaysia By HANIM KAMARUDDIN; CECEP AMINUDDIN
  3. The role of crop diversity in household production and food security in Uganda: A gender-differentiated analysis. FOODSECURE Working Paper No 32. By Katia Alejandra Covarrubias
  4. Action levers for a sustainable farmland management in Niger By Tankari, Mahamadou Roufahi
  6. Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation in India: Implications for Food Security and Rural Livelihoods By K.S. Kavi Kumar; R.S. Soundar Rajan; R. Manivasagan
  8. Sustainability and food & nutrition security: A vulnerability assessment framework for the Mediterranean region By Paolo Prosperi; Thomas Allen; Martine Padilla; Luri Peri; Bruce Cogill
  9. Cost-benefit framework for policy action to navigate food price spikes. FOODSECURE Working Paper No 33. By Matthias Kalkuhl; Mekbib Haile; Lukas Kornher; Marta Kozicka
  10. A Typology of Indicators on Production Potential, Efficiency and FNS Risk By Matthias Kalkuhl; Irfan Mujahid
  11. Migration and Deforestation in Indonesia By Rivayani Darmawan; Stephan Klasen; Nunung Nuryantono
  12. Global Food Prices and Business Cycle Dynamics in an Emerging Market Economy By Oliver Holtemöller; S. Mallick
  13. Relative Contribution of Child Labour to Household Farm and Non-Farm Income in Ghana: Simulation with Child\'s Education By Isaac Koomson; Simplice Asongu
  14. Effects of the Great Recession on the U.S. Agricultural Labor Market By Fan, Maoyong; Pena, Anita Alves; Perloff, Jeffrey M.
  15. The Cost of Greening Stimulus: A Dynamic Discrete Choice Analysis of Vehicle Scrappage Programs By Chao Wei; Shanjun Li
  16. Do we care about sustainability? An analysis of time sensitivity of social preferences under environmental time-persistent effects. By Michela Faccioli; Nick Hanley; Catalina M. Torres Figuerola; Antoni Riera Font
  17. An Assessment into the Risk Factors in Inter-Temporal Sustainability of Cropping Sector: Findings of A Survey In Pakistan By Bilal Khan; Toqueer Akhtar; Toqueer Akhtar; Toqueer Akhtar
  18. Households' food consumption behavior in Argentina: a quadratic demand system with demographic effects By Echeverría, Lucía; Berges, Miriam
  19. Land Certification and Schooling in Rural Ethiopia By Congdon Fors, Heather; Houngbedji, Kenneth; Lindskog, Annika
  20. Shocks and child labor: the role of markets By Dumas, Christelle
  21. Food Security in Russia: Monitoring, Trends and Threats By Natalia Shagaida; Vasiliy Uzun
  22. Trends in economics publications represented by JEL categories between 2007 and 2013 By Wohlrabe, Klaus; Rath, Katharina
  23. Macro News and Commodity Returns By Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Fabio Spagnolo; Nicola Spagnolo
  24. Side Effects of Immunities: the African Slave Trade By Esposito, Elena
  25. Managing radical innovation as an innovative design process: generative constraints and cumulative sets of rules By Pierre-Antoine Arrighi; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  26. REDD+ Impacts: Evidence from Nepal By Bishnu Prasad Sharma; Subhrendu Pattanayak; Mani Nepal; Priya Shyamsundar; Bhaskar S. Karky
  27. Diversification of Income Sources for Cocoa Farm Households : A Case Study of the Central West of Côte d’Ivoire By Iritié, B. G. Jean Jacques; Djaléga, Fabrice Soukou
  28. Financialization, price risks, and global commodity chains: Distributional implications on cotton sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa By Staritz, Cornelia; Newman, Susan; Tröster, Bernhard; Plank, Leonhard
  29. The Effects of Minimum Wages on Food Stamp Enrollment and Expenditures By Reich, Michael; West, Rachel
  30. When Low Market Values Are No Bad News: On the Coordination of Renewable Support and Real-Time Pricing By Michael Pahle; Wolf-Peter Schill; Christian Gambardella; Oliver Tietjen
  31. Willingness to pay for a differentiated potato applying a choice modelling experiment by socioeconomics levels of Argentinean consumers By Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.; Lupín, Beatriz; González, Julia
  32. Implementing Bioremediation Technologies to Degrade Chemical Warfare Agents and Explosives from War Affected Regions in Sri Lanka By Elackiya Sithamparanathan
  33. Agri-food logistics as a determinant of the competitiveness of SME's enterprises in the food industry By Joanna Nowakowska-Grunt
  34. Determinants of Potato Prices and its Forecasting: A Case Study of Punjab, Pakistan By Anwar, Dr. Mumtaz; Shabbir, Dr. Ghulam; Shahid, M. Hassam; Samreen, Wajiha
  35. A Study of Green Marketing Practices in the Food Processing Industry of India By Farheen Khan; SHAMIM AHMAD
  36. From Ambition to Execution: Policies in Support of Sustainable Development Goals By Stefania Fabrizio; Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu; Catherine A. Pattillo; Adrian Peralta-Alva; Andrea Presbitero; Baoping Shang; Geneviève Verdier; Marie-Thérèse Camilleri; Kazuaki Washimi; Lisa Kolovich; Monique Newiak; Martin Cihak; Inci Otker-Robe; Luis-Felipe Zanna; Carol L. Baker
  37. Synopsis: Global Nutrition Report 2015: Actions and accountability to advance nutrition and sustainable development By International Food Policy Research Institute
  38. Water, U.S. Foreign Policy and American Leadership By Marcus King
  39. Climate damages on production or on growth: what impact on the social cost of carbon By Céline Guivarch; Antonin Pottier
  40. The long-run relationship between CO2 emissions and economic activity in a small open economy: Uruguay 1882 - 2010. By Matias Piaggio; Emilio Padilla; Carolina Roman
  41. Voluntary industry standards: An experimental investigation of a Greek gift By Schmid, Julia

  1. By: Denys Nizalov (Kyiv School of Economics/ University of Kent); Suzanne Thornsbury (USDA Economic Research Service); Scott Loveridge (Michigan State University); Mollie Woods (Michigan State University); Olha Zadorozhna (Lazarski University)
    Abstract: Price and yield uncertainty are traditional considerations in agricultural markets and their impact on development. Agricultural producers in transition economies face an additional risk factor – changes in the institutional protection of property rights. This paper illustrates how institutional uncertainty may affect investment, land use, and crop mix patterns. In particular, in the Ukrainian example, the rights of tenants are viewed as uncertain in anticipation of establishment of an open market for sale of agricultural land. Establishment of the land market in Ukraine has been postponed several times over the last fifteen years and a significant number of lease contracts are not formalized. A large panel of farm-level data was used to show that a higher share of rented land is associated with a lower share of land used for investment intensive perennial crops controlling for prices and other factors. The difference in response to uncertainty is found to be significant among three crop types: perennials, grains and oil crops. The implication is that the lower level of protection of use rights and uncertainty regarding the future regulation of land sales market leads to under-investments in more capital intensive crops. As a result, tenants deviate from the optimal crop mix, reducing the productivity of tenant farms. Farms under 200 ha are affected the most negatively as they are less likely to be able to access the level of legal and political protection enjoyed by large farms. As a result, Ukraine faces significant losses in the value of agricultural production and GDP in the short and longer run.
    Keywords: property rights, agricultural development, crop mix, transition economy, Ukraine
    JEL: Q15 Q12 O13 O17 O24
    Date: 2015–09
    Abstract: In the second last quarter of 1997, the haze experience affected many countries in South East Asia (SEA) particularly Indonesia and Malaysia. These countries became unwilling victims of slash and burn or burning activities for land clearing purposes carried out in their own forestlands, mostly by foreign vested agricultural companies and local farmers. The impacts of severe haze caused by manmade burning activities in these neighbouring countries at that particular time transcended both borders into other parts of SEA and resulted into economic losses and damages, loss of biodiversity and impacts on human health. It was alleged that agricultural companies that were mostly oil palm concessionaires had used fire as a tool to clear forests including peatland areas to transform the areas into readily planted areas despite the fact that Indonesia and Malaysia were well aware of the need for strict law enforcement. Implementation and changes in domestic laws of Indonesia and Malaysia since the 1997 haze occurrence had proved to be quite challenging in dealing with issues of local burning and prevention thereof. The enforcement to penalise foreign based companies in Indonesia and Malaysia is slow and plagued with issues related to alleged cronyism and corruption, lack of awareness and education, weaknesses in institutional framework and lack of political will. In addition, the penalties imposed are too low that it is insufficient to deter further acts of environmental pollution by these companies. Whilst these limitations hinders effective enforcement in both countries, incidences of forest fires leading to transboundary haze pollution becomes more imminent particularly between March to October each year. Hence, it is suffice to conclude that domestic laws have been insufficient to control and prevent transboundary haze from activities by foreign vested agricultural companies in Indonesia or Malaysia. As these companies have Indonesian or Malaysian interests that carry out agricultural activities in either countries, an external regulation should be explored to complement and support internal regulation in each country to ensure that the activities of these transnational companies are undertaken within the confines of environmental standards and ASEAN notion of cooperation. Thus, a legitimate legislative framework to impose and enforce internationally environmental standards recognised under human rights obligations upon the overseas activities of the plantation corporations incorporate within the host state’s territory may be feasible to imposing accountability to haze polluters in Indonesia and Malaysia.
    Keywords: haze, polluters, Malaysia, Indonesia, accountability, companies.
    JEL: K32 Q53 K33
  3. By: Katia Alejandra Covarrubias
    Abstract: The linkages between gender, crop choice and agricultural output must be explored if food security is to be ensured under changing climates. Using a rich nationally representative household panel dataset from Uganda, this paper addresses the topic empirically, bringing new evidence to a literature that has not yet fully examined the role of gender in responding to environmental shocks that increase agricultural production variability. A longitudinal analysis that endogenizes production portfolios and agricultural decision-maker gender in ascertaining productivity outcomes indicates parcel manager gender and crop diversity are distinguishing factors in the household food security function. Heterogeneity is explored in the context of diverse agro-ecological zones and differential access to factors of production.
    JEL: Q12
    Date: 2015–07
  4. By: Tankari, Mahamadou Roufahi
    Abstract: This study aims to contribute to the understanding of factors influencing the sustainable farmland management in Niger. Specifically, it examines the determinants of adoption of sustainable land management practices including measures to combat erosion, and the use of manure, residues and fertilizer with a view to support the formulation of efficient land use policies based on evidences given fact that the impact of factors influencing farmland management appears to be specific to each context. The study is based on data from the National Survey of Household Living Conditions and Agriculture of 2011 (ECVMA-2011) analyzed within the framework of multivariate Probit model. The results show that there are unobservable interdependences between the decisions on farmland management practices. Furthermore, several types of factors related to access to physical, human, financial and biophysical capitals as well as infrastructure and services seem to play an important role. In addition, it appears that more security is needed in land tenure for a sustainable farmland management while farmland defragmentation can act negatively on sustainable farmland management.
    Keywords: land degradation, sustainable farmland management, poverty.
    JEL: Q1 Q15
    Date: 2015–09
  5. By: Siti Sumiati (Faculty of Economics-Sultan Agung Islamic University); Indah Susilowati (Faculty of Economics and Business-Diponegoro University (UNDIP))
    Abstract: Rembang is considered as one of the salt production centrum in Central Java province. It lies in the eastern-north of Java sea coast. Within a year farmers usually produce with rotation traditional farming system to produce salt and the brackish water aquaculture commodities (either milkfish and/ or shrimp). The salt production in this study area is mosly used for industry since less in quality for consumption purposes. Many efforts had been put on to improve the salt-farming, but can not achieve the maximum target. This is due to the advanced technology for salt-farming system (such as using fondation technique) stipulates the pond solely used for salt production throughout a year. However, farmers in Rembang used to share the pond for milkfish and/ or shrimp production within a year. The study is aimed to formulate the possible empowerment strategy to improve the salt production. Further, Cost and returns (C/R) and value chains analyes (VCA) have been applied to ascertain which commodities should be given a priority between salt and aquaculture production. The study invoked a mixed-method of quantitative-and-qualitative to answer the objectives posed. In-depth interview and focus group discussion with key-persons and informants were carried out for data collection. The study found that farmers’ role were more considered as the price taker more in salt production compare than in milkfish or shrimp. Moreover, the margin of value chains from salt seems to be less favourable to the farmers. In facts, milkfish and/ or shrimp production is just accounted as a complimentary routine activities to complete a year farming system. Thereafter, this study suggests to re-structure the farming system management practiced in the study area thru empowering the farmers; and improvement in institutional set up for agribusiness in salt industry.
    Keywords: empowerment, salt, farming, agribusiness, Rembang, Indonesia
  6. By: K.S. Kavi Kumar (Madras School of Economics); R.S. Soundar Rajan; R. Manivasagan
    Abstract: Biofuels are acquiring importance due to their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The two most important biofuels – viz., bioethanol and bio-diesel, are largely considered supplementary to the transport fuels. India has extensive programs and aims to blend 20 percent of transport fuels with biofuels by 2017. This paper focuses on three aspects in the context of biofuel production and policy in India. First, the paper looks at feasibility of meeting the biofuel blending targets envisaged. While jatropha remains as the main feedstock for biodiesel production, sweet sorghum could be considered as alternative feedstock to sugarcane for bioethanol production. Secondly, the paper analyzes the competitiveness of jatropha and sweet sorghum using the cost of cultivation data for a number of crops grown in major states of India during the decade of 2000s. The results suggest that both jatropha and sweet sorghum could pose threat to coarse cereals production. Lastly, the paper critically analyzes the viability of jatropha plantations based on insights from field survey conducted in the Southern state of Tamil Nadu. The paper argues that despite aggressive approach adopted by the Government of India, inadequate attention paid to the institutional issues has resulted in unsatisfactory progress in achieving the bio-diesel blending targets.
    Keywords: Bio-ethanol; Bio-diesel; Energy Policy; Economic Viability; Rural Livelihoods
    JEL: Q42 Q56 O13
    Date: 2015–06
  7. By: OLAWUYI SEYI (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology); OLAWUYI TOSIN (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology)
    Abstract: Risk is an unavoidable element in the business of agriculture especially with the prevalent issue of climate change which hitherto affects production. Production can vary widely from year to year due to unforeseen weather and market conditions, causing wide swings in commodity prices. But risk, while inevitable, is often manageable. Risk management involves choosing among alternatives for reducing risks that threaten the economic success of production process and well-being of the households; hence, determinants of risk management strategies adoption among farming households in Kwara State of Nigeria was investigated. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 122 farming households used for the study. Data collected through a well-structured questionnaire was analyzed through descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages and mean values while inferential statistics such as Tobit regression was used to test the formulated hypothesis. The result revealed a mean age of 49.25 years while the average household size was estimated at approximately 12 persons; also, the average years of formal education was estimated at 6.31 years. 92.62% of the respondents engaged primarily in farming while majority are faced with production risks. The prevalent risk management strategies adopted are: obtaining credit facilities from social organizations, irrigation practices, borrowing from friends, use of family labour and distress sales of assets. And, determinants of risk management strategies adoption are: years of formal education (p<0.1), household size (p<0.1), social organization membership (p<0.01) and outcomes (p<0.05). This study concludes that human capital (proxied by years of formal education) and social capital endowment (proxied by social organization membership) have a strong influence on the adoption of risk management strategies.
    Keywords: Risk Management Strategies, Adoption, Farming Households, Tobit, Nigeria
    JEL: A12
  8. By: Paolo Prosperi (MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - IAMM, IAMM - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier, UniCT - Università degli Studi di Catania); Thomas Allen (Bioversity International); Martine Padilla (IAMM - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier); Luri Peri (UniCT - Università degli Studi di Catania); Bruce Cogill (Bioversity International)
    Abstract: Recurrent food crises and climate change, along with habitat loss and micronutrient deficiencies, are global issues of critical importance that have pushed food security and environmental sustainability to the top of the political agenda. Analyses of the dynamic linkages between food consumption patterns and environmental concerns have recently received considerable attention from the international and scientific community. Using the lens of a broad sustainability approach, this conceptual article aims at developing a multidimensional framework to evaluate the sustainability of food systems and diets, applicable to countries of the Mediterranean region. Derived from natural disaster and sustainability sciences, a vulnerability approach, enhanced by inputs from the resilience literature, has been adapted to analyze the main issues related to food and nutrition security. Through causal factor analysis, the resulting conceptual framework improves the design of information systems or metrics assessing the interrelated environmental, economic, social, and health dynamics of food systems.
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Matthias Kalkuhl; Mekbib Haile; Lukas Kornher; Marta Kozicka
    Abstract: This paper develops a cost-benefit framework for evaluating the impacts of price spikes and price volatility in food commodities ranging from allocative, political-economy and health to human welfare effects. After reviewing the research on impacts of price spikes and volatility, several policies to reduce volatility or its adverse impacts are classified and evaluated. The evaluation of policies is visualized according to different criteria that allow assessment of strengths and weaknesses of several policies.
    JEL: D61 E30 E64 F13 Q18
    Date: 2015–07
  10. By: Matthias Kalkuhl; Irfan Mujahid
    Abstract: This paper provides background information for a database and typology on volatility and food nutrition security (FNS) relevant for modeling volatility effects on FNS. First, the data sources and derived indicators are discussed. Second, the typology consisting of three dimensions 'potential', 'efficiency' and 'FNS risk' is described and visualized in geographical maps and tables for each sub-indicator of the three dimensions. The linkages between the sub-indicators are also explored. Finally, a global mapping of hunger and volatility is provided to identify countries that are severely affected by malnutrition and/or market instability.
    JEL: E30 Q18
    Date: 2014–06
  11. By: Rivayani Darmawan (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Nunung Nuryantono (Bogor Agricultural University)
    Abstract: Indonesia now has the highest deforestation rate in the world, with an average increase of about 47,600 ha per year. As a result, the nation is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and putting its rich biodiversity at risk. Although the literature discussing the political economy of Indonesia commercial’s logging is growing, only a small amount focuses on the relationship between migration and deforestation. Migration may contribute to the forest cover change, as migrants often face serious constraints from the local residents in claiming the land, and thus tend to find new forest land which can be used as a means of living or converted into an agricultural plantation. This paper empirically investigates the relationship between recent in-migration and deforestation in Indonesia. By combining available population census data with the satellite image data MODIS, we find a significant positive relationship between migration and deforestation at the district level using a fixed effects panel econometric framework. The results also suggest that the expanding oil palm production is one significant driver for the fast disappearance of Indonesia’s forest.
    Keywords: deforestation; migration; oil palm; Indonesia
    JEL: Q23 R14 J61
    Date: 2015–09–19
  12. By: Oliver Holtemöller; S. Mallick
    Abstract: This paper investigates a perception in the political debates as to what extent poor countries are affected by price movements in the global commodity markets. To test this perception, we use the case of India to establish in a standard SVAR model that global food prices influence aggregate prices and food prices in India. To further analyze these empirical results, we specify a small open economy New-Keynesian model including oil and food prices and estimate it using observed data over the period from 1996Q2 to 2013Q2 by applying Bayesian estimation techniques. The results suggest that big part of the variation in inflation in India is due to cost-push shocks and, mainly during the years 2008 and 2010, also to global food price shocks, after having controlled for exogenous rainfall shocks. We conclude that the inflationary supply shocks (cost-push, oil price, domestic food price and global food price shocks) are important contributors to inflation in India. Since the monetary authority responds to these supply shocks with a higher interest rate which tends to slow growth, this raises concerns about how such output losses can be prevented by reducing exposure to commodity price shocks and thereby achieve higher growth.
    Keywords: commodity prices, food prices, New-Keynesian macroeconometric model, inflation, India, structural vector autoregressive model
    JEL: C32 E31 Q02
    Date: 2015–09
  13. By: Isaac Koomson (Cape Coast, Ghana); Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: Child labourers play an integral role in households’ income diversification process by contributing to farm and non-farm incomes but policies, including that of the ILO have focused largely on eliminating child labour from the agricultural sector through education. This study sought to ascertain the relative contribution of child labourers to farm and non-farm income using the GLSS6 data and employed a SUR estimation that simulated, empirically, with child’s education. Findings showed that as a child labourer spends more time in school, every Gh₵1.00 contributed to farm income is accompanied by a Gh₵2.12 contribution towards non-farm income. By implication, child education policy removes child labourers from the farm but are likely to have a paradoxical effect of pushing these children into non-farm activities as they engage in them after school and during weekends. The suggestion is that governments must provide adequate remuneration for workers and pay a good price for agricultural products so that households do not use children as instruments to diversity their income portfolios, since child labour acts as a push factor in the diversification process.
    Keywords: Child labour, Farm income, Non-Farm income, Altruistic, Non-Altruistic
    JEL: I21 J21 J22 J23 Q12
    Date: 2015–09
  14. By: Fan, Maoyong; Pena, Anita Alves; Perloff, Jeffrey M.
    Abstract: Recessions typically lead to excess supply in non agricultural labor markets. However, a major recession, like the Great Recession, has different effects in the seasonal agriculture labor market. During such recession, hourly earnings of workers, the probability that workers receive bonuses, and employed workers’ weekly hours rise. These results are consistent with a large reduction in immigrant labor supply during a major recession. Direct and indirect evidence on immigration supports this conclusion
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, agriculture, Great Recession, immigrants, recession, undocumented workers
    Date: 2015–03–01
  15. By: Chao Wei (George Washington University); Shanjun Li (Cornell University)
    Abstract: During the recent economic crisis, many countries have adopted stimulus programs designed to achieve two goals: to stimulate economic activity in lagging durable goods sectors and to protect or even enhance environmental quality. The environmental benefits are often viewed and much advocated as co-benefits of economic stimulus. This paper investigates the potential tradeoff between the stimulus and environmental objectives in the context of the popular U.S. Cash-for-Clunkers (CFC) program by developing and estimating a dynamic discrete choice model of vehicle ownership. Results from counterfactual analysis based on several specifications all show that the design elements to achieve environmental benefits significantly limit the program impact on demand stimulus: the cost of vehicle demand stimulus after netting out environmental benefits can be up to 77 percent higher under the program than that from an alternative policy design without the design elements aimed at the environmental objective.
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Michela Faccioli (Department of Applied Economics at the University of the Balearic Islands.); Nick Hanley (Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews); Catalina M. Torres Figuerola (Department of Applied Economics at the University of the Balearic Islands.); Antoni Riera Font (Department of Applied Economics at the University of the Balearic Islands.)
    Abstract: Environmental cost-benefit analysis has traditionally assumed that environmental policies’ social benefits are sensitive to the timing of the improvement. Indeed, it has relied on the idea that policies’ outcomes, taking place at different moments in the future depending on the intervention’s performance or on environmental dynamics, are preferred if occurring earlier. However, this assumption needs to be verified as it may lead to consider as socially desirable policies being less so. This is especially important when interventions aim at counteracting time-persistent environmental problems, whose impacts occur in the long-and very long-term, respectively involving the present and future generations. In this framework, with the objective to identify the role of sustainability concerns, this study analyzes the time sensitivity of social preferences for preservation policies of adaptation to time-persistent climate change stresses. Results have shown that preferences are time insensitive due to sustainability issues, as current generations equally care about nature preservation in the long-term, when they will enjoy it, and in the very long-term, when future generations will. These outcomes are relevant to better inform decision-making in the design of policies in the face of time-persistent environmental problems, by pointing out that, to be welfare-maximizing, interventions also need to be sustainable.
    Keywords: Time-persistent environmental problems, sustainability, preference analysis, choice experiment, time sensitivity, climate change
    JEL: D6 D90 Q51 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2015–08
  17. By: Bilal Khan (Lahore School of Economics); Toqueer Akhtar (Lahore School of Economics); Toqueer Akhtar (Lahore School of Economics); Toqueer Akhtar (Lahore School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper aims to determine the Inter-Temporal situation of Pakistan’s Agricultural sector while assessing the Risk factors in both, past and current time-periods using a Cross-Sectional setting. A lot of other previously published papers do not discuss the inter-temporal effects on sustainability; instead they talk about policy changes and using a secondary research. It also accounts for the role, involvement and the need for further involvement of government into this sector, taken on an ordinal scale as measure in econometric models. The paper also looks into the intent of subsistence to commercialized farming, accounting for all the factors affecting and or supporting them. Few of the main important questionnaire sections that aided in the write-up and model development are; Production, Incomes, Sales, Inputs and Food Reserves, use of technology in Operations and Government policies to Support Agriculture in Pakistan. Using advance econometric models, such as Tobit Regression model, thus, the conclusions are made alongside policy improvement suggestions, choices for risk aversion methods, diversification within this sector and techniques to empower Pakistan’s agricultural sector. However, both the models indicate and point towards sustainability criteria, provided proper agricultural development policies are undertaken.
    Keywords: Industrialization, De-industrialization, Sustainable Development, Green Revolution, Structural Transformation, Export Led Growth, Government Intervention, Market Integration, Policy Uncertainty, Policy Risks, Tobit Regression and Risk Aversion Techniques.
  18. By: Echeverría, Lucía; Berges, Miriam
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze household's food consumption behavior in Argentina by comparing two cross sectional estimations system (QES). We employ data from the National Expenditure Survey at household level (2004-05 and 2012 demographical variables in order to examine changes across different household types. We estimate quality adjusted prices and we account for any selectivity bias in our data. In addition, we propose an exercise which consists on calculating equivalence scales from estimated expenditures for each household type. Results allow us to analyze an particular, changes in food consumption are led by changes in relative prices; inflation process unequally affects consumption of different food categories, implying that households' budget is being reallocated.
    Keywords: Comportamiento del Consumidor; Consumo de Alimentos; Función de Demanda;
    Date: 2015–08
  19. By: Congdon Fors, Heather (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Houngbedji, Kenneth (Paris School of Economics); Lindskog, Annika (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of a rural Ethiopian land certification program on schooling. Our hypothesis is that formal property rights facilitate land inheritance, reducing the net benefit of schooling for children who will inherit the land. Formal rights also decrease the need for activities to secure continued access to the land, reducing the cost of schooling for all children. The results suggest a positive overall effect on school enrollment. However, grade progress of oldest sons, who are most likely to inherit the land, worsens. Our complementary analysis on child labor suggests a differential impact in the two zones studied.
    Keywords: Schooling; Child labor; Land administration; Property rights; Ethiopia
    JEL: J22 O15 Q15
    Date: 2015–09
  20. By: Dumas, Christelle
    Abstract: Economic shocks have been shown to affect child labor and particularly so when households fail to access credit. This paper endeavours to assess whether access toagricultural labor markets also reduce the impact of shocks on child labor. Using panel data from Tanzania, we confirm that households respond to transitory productivity shocks by changes in child labor, but that (1) child labor increases with increases in rainfall, (2) it increases less when households have access to a labor market and (3) the agricultural labor market seems more efficient than the credit market to smooth rainfall shocks. These findings are consistent with the theoretical model offered in the paper. They highlight that imperfect agricultural labor markets are important determinants of child labor.
    Keywords: child labor; labor market imperfections; credit market imperfections; Tanzania
    JEL: O12 O13 O15 J13 J43
    Date: 2015–09–07
  21. By: Natalia Shagaida (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Vasiliy Uzun (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on monitoring, assessment and threats of food security in Russia. The authors propose methodologies and submit calculations of aggregate indices of assessment of the food security. Economic accessibility of food for groups of population with different income levels in the country as a whole and in the constituents of the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: Russian economy, food security
    JEL: Q17 Q18
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Wohlrabe, Klaus; Rath, Katharina
    Abstract: This article updates Kelly and Bruestle (2011) by illustrating how publication trends in different subject categories in economics evolved from 2007 to 2013. Using data from RePEc we show that the largest increase in the relative share was for articles published in JEL category Q (“Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics”) over this period. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the number of JEL categories per article increased over the last 25 years.
    Keywords: JEL classification, economics, research fields, RePEc
    JEL: A12 A14
    Date: 2015–09–17
  23. By: Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Fabio Spagnolo; Nicola Spagnolo
    Abstract: This paper adopts a VAR-GARCH approach to model the dynamic linkages between both the mean and the variance of macro news and commodity returns (Gold, Corn, Wheat, Soybeans, Silver, Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Aluminium and Crude Oil) over the period 01/01/2001-26/09/2014. The chosen specification also controls for the effect of the exchange rate. The results can be summarised as follows. Mean spillovers running from news to commodity returns are positive with the exception of Gold and Silver. Volatility spillovers are bigger in size and affect most commodity returns. Both first and second moment linkages are stronger in the post-September 2008 period. Overall, our findings confirm that commodities, despite not being financial assets, are sensitive to macro news (especially their volatility), and also suggest that the global financial crisis has strengthened such linkages.
    Keywords: Macro news, Commodity Prices, VAR-GARCH model
    JEL: C32 F36 G15
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Esposito, Elena
    Abstract: The resistance of Sub-Saharan Africans to diseases that were plaguing the southern United States contributed to the establishment of African slavery in those regions. Specifically, Africans' resistance to malaria increased the profitability of employing African slave labor, especially that of slaves coming from the most malaria-ridden parts of Africa. In this paper, I first document that African slavery was largely concentrated in the malaria-infested areas of the United States. Moreover, I show that the introduction of a virulent strain of malaria into US colonies greatly increased the share of African slaves, but only in states where malaria could thrive. Finally, by looking at the historical prices of African slaves, I show that enslaved individuals born in the most malaria-ridden African regions commanded higher prices.
    Keywords: Slavery, Malaria, African Slave Trade, Colonial Institutions
    JEL: I12 N31 N37 N57 J15 J47
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Pierre-Antoine Arrighi (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the organization of design processes and the difficulty of simultaneously achieving control and exploration while aiming to achieve radical innovation. After a first generation of works that tended to oppose NPD processes (with controlled convergence and very limited exploration) to Innovation processes (with poorly controlled convergence and random (uncontrolled) exploration, the new generation of works proposed ways to combine control and convergence either through concept shift or through stable architectures. Relying a generic analytical framework (design space / value management) it appears that each model makes restrictive hypotheses (respectively smart leadership or stable architecture) to address two critical questions: Q1. How can one increase the efficiency of exploration? Q2. How can one ensure forms of cumulative convergence? Relying on the ame analytical framework we analyze two cases that explore the unknown in a controlled way and still don't correspond two either of the two models. We show that these two anomalies and the two models actually have two critical features in common: a focus on generative constraint and a logic of cumulative design rules. As a consequence these two features might generic to several processes where teams have to explore the unknown and still have to keep a rigorous control of exploration and convergence.
    Keywords: concept shift,modular innovation,Radical innovation,design process,design theory
    Date: 2015–08–31
  26. By: Bishnu Prasad Sharma; Subhrendu Pattanayak; Mani Nepal; Priya Shyamsundar; Bhaskar S. Karky
    Abstract: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD and REDD+) is an international mechanism for mitigating climate change impacts. The ambitiously designed architecture that makes REDD+ win-win for high emitting developed countries and forest rich developing countries has led to high hopes and expectations as well as a fear of failure. However, we do not as yet know if and whether REDD+ would succeed. This paper discusses the findings from one of the first rigorous quasi-experimental studies using a 'before-after-control-intervention' design that encompass all major aspects of REDD+: forest carbon and bio-physical, ecological, livelihood and welfare. The analysis of the outcome indicators from two years of REDD+ incentive payments indicate that there are positive signs of improved forest condition for carbon additionality and livelihood improvements, while no harm has been done to local livelihoods, which is generally feared in REDD+ literature. Although there is no change in forest carbon components in REDD+ communities compared to controls, important changes are observed in ecological indicators such as reduction in forest fires, timber extraction and encroachments that could contribute to carbon enhancement in the future. We find a decline in the share of firewood in household cooking that is consistent with the observed increase in biogas, a cleaner and convenient renewable energy source. These findings support the broader sense that REDD+ initiatives must and can work in tandem with other global initiatives (e.g., ENERGY + and the Sustainable Development Goals), in this case, indicating that a shift to biogas fuel could improve livelihoods and ensure REDD+ success in Nepal.
    Keywords: Sustainable forest management, forest carbon, livelihood, REDD+ impact
  27. By: Iritié, B. G. Jean Jacques; Djaléga, Fabrice Soukou
    Abstract: This paper is aimed at identifying complementary sources of income for cocoa farm households in the Central West of Côte d’Ivoire. Our methodology con- sists of four successive stages: (i) a need assessment of cocoa households and specificities of the study area through a participatory diagnosis in order to pro- pose potential income generating activities; (ii) a technical qualitative analysis of these activities; (iii) an analysis of the profitability and (iv) an analysis of their social acceptability. It appears that beekeeping and snail breeding are the most appropriate activities for this cocoa producing region. However, the results show that the lack of information and technical knowledge, the religious burdens and the high local illiteracy rate can constitute barriers to the imple- mentation of IGAs. Finally, as future prospects, we discuss the opportunity to combine horizontal diversification and vertical diversification (especially, cocoa processing) in order to give more added value to the sustainable cocoa produc- tion and to contribute to the industrial development of Ivorian economy.
    Keywords: Cocoa farm households,vulnerability,income generating activities,diversification,Côte d’Ivoire
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q13
    Date: 2015–09–18
  28. By: Staritz, Cornelia; Newman, Susan; Tröster, Bernhard; Plank, Leonhard
    Abstract: The functioning of commodity markets has changed related to processes of financialization that involve two major developments - the rise of financial interest on commodity derivative markets through the increasing presence of financial investors and the changing business models of international commodity trading houses and the increasing importance of these markets in price setting and risk management since the liberalization of national commodity sectors. A critical question is how these global financialization processes affect commodity producers in low income countries via the operational dynamics of global commodity chains and distinct national market structures. This paper investigates how global financialization processes influence how prices are set and transmitted and how risks are distributed and managed in the cotton sectors in Burkina Faso, Mozambique and Tanzania. It concludes that uneven exposure to price instability and access to price risk management have important distributional implications. Whilst international traders have the capacity to deal with price risks through hedging in addition to expanding their profit possibilities through financial activities on commodity derivative markets, local actors in producer countries face the challenge of price instability and increased short-termism - albeit to different extents deepening on local market structures - with limited access to risk management.
    Keywords: commodity markets,financialization,global commodity chains,commodity prices,price risks,price risk management,cotton sector,Africa
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Reich, Michael; West, Rachel
    Abstract: We provide the first analysis of how minimum wage policy affect s enrollments and expenditures i n the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Exploiting state and federal - level variation in minimum - wage policy between 1990 and 2012, and incorporating local controls in our specifications, we find that a 10 percent minimum wage increase reduces SNAP enrollment between 2.4 and 3.2 percent, and reduces program expenditures an estimated 1.9 percent. If the federal minimum wage were increased from $7.25 to $10.10, enrollment would fall between 7 .5 and 8.7 percent (3. 1 to 3. 6 million persons) relative to 2012 levels, and annual expenditures would decrease 6 percent ($4.6 billion).
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2015–06–01
  30. By: Michael Pahle; Wolf-Peter Schill; Christian Gambardella; Oliver Tietjen
    Abstract: We analyze the interactions between different renewable support schemes and the benefits of real-time pricing (RTP) using a stylized economic model with a detailed demand-side representation calibrated to the German market. We find that there are considerable differences between a market premium on energy and capacity regarding wholesale prices, support levies and market values, which are all related to induced negative wholesale prices in case of the former. This comes along with overall higher welfare as it allows RTP consumers to increase their consumption in periods of high renewable availability. Moreover, increasing RTP shares also incurs higher welfare gains in case of a premium on energy, with the deployment-relevant group of consumers that switch from a flat-rate tariff to RTP benefiting most. Our analysis thus puts the widespread notion that higher market values are instrumental for the deployment of high shares of RES into perspective.
    Keywords: RES support schemes, demand side response, market value, negative prices, Germany
    JEL: D02 Q21 Q28 Q42 Q58
    Date: 2015
  31. By: Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.; Lupín, Beatriz; González, Julia
    Abstract: Choice Modelling surveying was applied to assess the importance of attributes and willingness to pay for a fresh potato produced with a low environmental impact production system.Among the stated preference methods, this is the most used to study consumer preferences for attributes of goods with little or no market share. We interviewed 402 individuals, aged 18, in super / hypermarkets and grocery stores. Four different attributes of potato: price, agrochemicals content, cooking quality and treatment were selected according to previous research carried out by the authors. For this purpose, a Conditional Logistic Model (McFadden, 1973) was applied. On the average, ceteris paribus, the full sample participants were willing to pay between US$ 0.60 and US$ 0.49 more per 1 kg of potatoes with low agrochemical content. Related to good cooking quality attributes, participants were willing to pay between US$ 0.31 and US$ 0.25 more per 1 kg of potatoes having this attribute.
    Keywords: Disposición a Pagar; Papa; Preferencias del Consumidor; Modelos Econométricos;
    Date: 2015–08
  32. By: Elackiya Sithamparanathan (Wageningen University)
    Abstract: Chemical agents used during the Sri Lankan civil war continue to threaten human andenvironmental health as affected areas are re-settled. Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to degrading chemical agents, and has greater public acceptance than chemical degradation. Baseline data on contaminant distribution, environmental parameters, and indigenous microbes are required before bioremediation can commence. The culture and isolate of suitable microbes and enzymes should be followed by laboratory trials, before field application and long-term monitoring of contaminant concentration, soil parameters, microbial ecology, and public health to monitor environmental and public health. As local people are not aware of the persistence of warfare chemicals and do not understand the potential impacts on human health, community awareness programs are required. Active community participation, and collaboration with international and local agencies, would contribute to the success of bioremediation and the effective removal of chemical agents in war affected areas of Sri Lanka.
    Keywords: Bioremediation, Warfare agents, Protection of environmental and human health, Sustainable solution
    JEL: O39 Q53 Q55
  33. By: Joanna Nowakowska-Grunt (Czestochowa University of Technology)
    Abstract: In the article were tested small and medium-sized enterprises in the food industry which exporting and importing to the EU market looking for opportunities to make a profit and market advantage. They indicated on the relationship that exist between the adopted strategy in the field of logistics and efficiency of the actions of various cells of food chains . The article presents also cases of companies that have achieved market success through synergies in logistics. Intense competition in food markets requires , especially from small and medium-sized enterprises to seek solutions that will allow the use of occurring in logistics principles 7R. the use of physical flows in coordinating logistics operators necessitates the application of uniform procedures for the various elements of logistics , such as packaging , delivery system and handling , etc . Is becoming an important issue as food security, which requires companies need to closely monitor the flow processes .
    Keywords: agri-food logistics, physical flows, synergy
    JEL: A19
  34. By: Anwar, Dr. Mumtaz; Shabbir, Dr. Ghulam; Shahid, M. Hassam; Samreen, Wajiha
    Abstract: Potato figures among the principal crop in Pakistan. This paper describes the determinants of potato prices in Punjab, Pakistan. Annual data for the period 1998-2014 were analyzed to identify factors affecting the prices of potato. Results indicated that temperature and world oil prices were significantly affecting price. Seasonal variation of prices are also analyzed in this paper. This paper also use ARIMA and ARMA model to forecast the prices. These results suggest that temperature increase above the limit will lead to increase in prices and support prices also.
    Keywords: Whole sale potato prices, pricing factors, Seasonal Variation, determinants of potato, ARIMA & ARMA, forecasting.
    JEL: E3 E31 E37
    Date: 2015–09–16
    Abstract: : Green marketing initiatives focus on the values and efforts that various companies incorporate into their marketing portfolio. The practice is driven by environmentally-conscious-consumers, who demand eco-friendly, healthy and sustainable products and services from organizations that they perceive to be socially-responsible and do business with. This article analyses the green marketing process and practices prevalent in the food industry of India. Green marketing, along with greening the product and the firm by converting the 4Ps (price, product, promotion and place) of marketing into 4Ps of green marketing, involves a careful understanding of consumer preferences and purchase decision process. An in-depth review of the recent literature indicates that most of the aspects of green marketing align synergistically with the framework in the developed nations and, though it may appear to lag behind momentarily, it is catching-up quickly among Asian countries, including India. With the conscious-consumer at the helm, green marketing is increasingly viewed as a relevant marketing strategy in India towards sustainable development of the food industry. A questionnaire-based survey method was used for the data collection from food companies in India. The data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and made use of other statistical tools and evaluations as well.The data presented in this study was also drawn from the World Bank repository of food processing companies of India. In India, the demand for environmentally-safe and green food products has been at the lower level, as the consumers perceive these options to be expensive and not offering much special benefits to them. In the long-term, both the consumers and the food processing industry stand to benefit greatly from such green marketing initiatives and awareness but the policies and strategies need to be formulated and implemented accordingly. This article recommends that the Government of India and various business organizations work together to adjust and promote the marketing elements to Indian consumers so as to increase the acceptance, accessibility and affordability of the green products.
    Keywords: Green Marketing Practices, Green Products, Food Processing Industry, Sustainable Development
    JEL: M39 Q01 Q13
  36. By: Stefania Fabrizio; Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu; Catherine A. Pattillo; Adrian Peralta-Alva; Andrea Presbitero; Baoping Shang; Geneviève Verdier; Marie-Thérèse Camilleri; Kazuaki Washimi; Lisa Kolovich; Monique Newiak; Martin Cihak; Inci Otker-Robe; Luis-Felipe Zanna; Carol L. Baker
    Abstract: The formal launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) sets the global development agenda through 2030, placing significant emphasis on promoting social and environmental sustainability alongside economic growth and poverty reduction. Meeting the SDGs will require actions across a wide range of areas by both national governments and the international community. This paper examines the types of policies that developing countries will need to implement to foster economic transformation, to promote economic and social inclusion, and to meet key environmental objectives. Reducing inequality, achieving gender equity, and pricing energy and water resources appropriately receive particular attention.
    Keywords: Sustainable development;Developing countries;Inclusive growth;Income inequality;Gender;Fiscal policy;Environmental sustainability;Sustainable Development Goals, Growth, structural transformation, Inclusion, Income inequality, financial inclusion, gender inclusion, environmental sustainability, energy pricing, water pricing.
    Date: 2015–09–22
  37. By: International Food Policy Research Institute
    Abstract: As we move into the post-2015 era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the world faces many seemingly intractable problems. Malnutrition should not be one of them. Countries that are determined to make rapid advances in malnutrition reduction can do so, and the incentives to improve nutrition are strong. Good nutrition provides a vital foundation for human development, central to meeting our full potential. When nutrition status improves, it leads to a host of positive outcomes for individuals and families. Many more children will live to see their fifth birthdays, their growth will be less disrupted, and they will gain in height and weight. They will learn more in school because their brain function is not impaired. As a result of this positive early environment, as adults they will have better jobs and get ill less often. Older adults will age more healthily and live longer.
    Keywords: nutrition; malnutrition; hunger; nutrition policies; anemia; stunting; wasting disease; obesity; overweight; diabetes; children; diet; micronutrients; health; climate change; private sector; agricultural development; economic growth; agricultural policies; economic development; sustainability; food systems; breast feeding; poverty; capacity building; public expenditure; public-private cooperation; HIV infections; HIV/AIDS; sustainable development goals; undernourishment; undernutrition; interventions; scaling up; safety net programs; Asia; Africa; North America; Europe; South America
    Date: 2015
  38. By: Marcus King
    Date: 2013–10
  39. By: Céline Guivarch (CIRED); Antonin Pottier (Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: Recent papers have investigated with Integrated Assessment Models the possibility that climate damages bear on productivity growth and not on production, the traditional route that follows Nordhaus's work. According to these papers, damages on growth lead to a higher social cost of carbon (SCC). Here, we reconsider the evidence with the introduction of a measure of the amount of damages, to allow the comparison between alternative representations of damages. We build a simple climate-economy model and compare three damages specifications: quadratic damages on production, linear damages on growth and quadratic damages on growth. We show that when total damages are the same, the ranking of SCC between a model with damages on production and a model with damages on growth is not unequivocal. It depends on welfare parameters such as the utility discount rate or the elasticity of marginal social utility of consumption. The difference in SCC comes both from when damages occur and from their total amount.
    Keywords: Climate change, damages, social cost of carbon, growth
    JEL: Q54 Q51
    Date: 2015–09
  40. By: Matias Piaggio (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Emilio Padilla (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (España). Department of Applied Economics); Carolina Roman (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: The long-run relationship between carbon dioxide emissions from energy use and economic activity level is estimated for Uruguay between 1882 and 2010. We apply cointegration techniques and estimate a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for testing whether these variables are endogenous over the long-rung while also considering the short-run dynamics. The economic productive structure, the degree of openness, and the share of clean sources on total energy supply are also considered as explanatory variables. The results show that there exists a linear relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and per capita economic activity level. Moreover, emissions increase jointly with the industrial sector participation in total output, as a consequence of the intensity of this activity in the consumption of energy from fossil fuels sources. The degree of openness is inversely related with carbon dioxide emissions. This is so because the periods of major opening were based on primary inputs exports, lower in energy intensity than industrial products. The changes in carbon dioxide emission are inversely related to the variation in the share of clean sources on total energy supply. Finally, all the variables included in the cointegration vector are endogenous, adjusting together to the deviations from the long-run relationship. As a consequence of the above, economic growth appears to be not enough for diminishing Uruguayan emissions in the long-run. Changes in the energy matrix should be encouraged, and emissions reduction should come not by energy constraints but by the development of clean sources or energy use efficiency improvements, given the impact of energy on economic activity level.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, cointegration techniques, Uruguay, Environmental Kuznets Curve
    JEL: Q43 C32 Q56
    Date: 2015–09
  41. By: Schmid, Julia
    Abstract: One reason for firms to voluntarily increase their environmental or social production standards is to prevent consumers from lobbying for stricter mandatory standards. In this sense, voluntary overcompliance serves as a Greek gift, as consumers might be worse off in the end. Strategically, a Greek gift deteriorates the consumer's incentive for lobbying and, as such, might be unkind. In many experiments it was shown that unkind actions which decrease the other's payoff are punished by negative reciprocal behavior. This paper experimentally investigates whether negative reciprocity can also be observed if unkind behavior is not directed at payoffs but rather at a deterioration of strategic incentives.
    Keywords: experiments,voluntary agreements,overcompliance,learning,reciprocity
    JEL: C72 C92 D83
    Date: 2015

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