nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒08‒25
thirty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Economic modelling of climate change scenarios and adaptation of Mediterranean agriculture By Dono, Gabriele; Cortigiani, Raffaele; Dell'Unto, Davide
  2. Toward the adaptation to new regulation on water pricing in the agricultural sector: a case study from northern Italy By Galioto, Francesco; Guerra, Elisa; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide
  3. Is Smallholder Horticulture the Unfunded Poverty Reduction Option in Zambia? A Comparative Assessment of Welfare Effects of Participation in Horticultural and Maize Markets By Hichaambwa, Munguzwe; Chamberlin, Chamberlin; Kabwe, Stephen
  4. What if meat consumption would decrease more than expected in the developed countries? By Santini, Fabien; Ronzon, Tevecia; Perez Dominguez, Ignacio; Araujo Enciso, Sergio Rene; Proietti, Ilaria
  5. CAP post-2013: alternative greening designs in Tuscany (Italy) By Gava, Oriana; Andreoli, Maria; Bartolini, Fabio; Brunori, Gianluca
  6. Sorghum Productivity in Mali: Past, Present, and Future By Kelly, Valerie; Diakité, Lamissa; Teme, Bino
  7. Price Shocks, Vulnerability and Food and Nutrition Security among Rural and Urban Households in Tanzania By Romano, Donato; Carraro, Alessandro
  8. Alternative food networks and local markets: determinants of consumers’ choices between conventional and farmers’ stands By Novelli, Silvia; Corsi, Alessandro
  9. Evaluation of ecosystem services production under different Agricultural Policy Scenarios By Chatzinikolaou, Parthena; Viaggi, Davide
  10. Urbanization and Agricultural Structural Adjustments: Some Lessons from European Cities By Walid Oueslati; Julien Salanié; Junjie Wu
  11. Agricultural Farm Income and competitiveness of the tax and insurance systems By Pawłowska-Tyszko, Joanna; Soliwoda, Michał
  12. "Agricultural budget" and the competitiveness of the Polish agriculture By Lenkiewicz, Stanisław; Rokicki, Bartłomiej
  13. Fewer Fish for Higher Profits? Price Response and Economic Incentives in Global Tuna Fisheries Management By Chin-Hwa Jenny Sun; Fu-Sung Chiang; Patrice Guillotreau; Dale Squires
  14. Competition and Relational Contracts: Evidence from Rwanda's Coffee Mills By Rocco Macchiavello; Ameet Morjaria
  15. EcoAdapt Working Paper Series N°3: Generation of shared knowledge and joint learning on water governance and climate change adaptation By Kees Prins; Alejandra Cáu-Cattan; Nataly Azcarrúnz; Grégoire Leclerc
  16. Agricultural marketing cooperatives with direct selling: A cooperative–non-cooperative game By Maxime Agbo; Damien Rousselière; Julien Salanié
  17. Property Rights and Labour Supply in Ethiopia By Kenneth Houngbedji
  18. Limited Self-Control, Obesity and the Loss of Happiness By Alois Stutzer; Armando N. Meier
  19. Volunteer and satisfied? Rural households' participation in a payments for environmental services programme in Inner Mongolia By Sylvie Démurger; Adeline Pelletier
  20. Cooperative Organizations as an Engine of Equitable Rural Economic Development By Altman, Morris
  21. Effectiveness, production costs and competitiveness of Polish agricultural holdings at present and in the medium and long-term perspective By Józwiak, Wojciech; Kagan, Adam; Niewęgłowska, Grażyna; Skarzynska, Aldona; Sobierajewsja, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech
  22. Analyzing valuation practices through contracts: the case of animal breeding under the genomic revolution. By Germain Tesnière; Julie Labatut; Eva Boxenbaum
  23. Is Smallholder Horticulture the Unfunded Rural Poverty Reduction Option in Zambia? By Hichaambwa, Munguzwe; Kabwe, Stephen; Chamberlin, Jordan
  24. Policy Space in Agriculture under the WTO Rules on Domestic Support By Brink, Lars
  25. The Innovation Union Scoreboard is flawed: The Case of Sweden – not the innovation leader of the EU – updated version By Edquist , Charles; Zabala-Iturriagagoitia , Jon Mikel
  26. Asymmetric Information and Middleman Margins: An Experiment with Indian Potato Farmers By Sandip Mitra; Dilip Mookherjee; Maximo Torero; Sujata Visaria
  27. New methodological frontiers for sustainability assessment: A multidimensional vulnerability framework for the agrofood system By Paolo PROSPERI; Thomas Allen; Martine PADILLA; Luri Peri
  28. The price effects of cash versus in-kind transfers By Cunha, Jesse M.; De Giorgi, Giacomo; Jayachandran, Seema
  29. Millennium goals and Climate-Change negotiations : for a climate and development convergence mechanism By Sandrine Mathy
  30. Mitigating carbon leakage: Combining output-based rebating with a consumption tax By Christoph Böhringer; Knut Einar Rosendahl; Halvor Briseid Storrøsten
  31. Consumer responses to elimination of overpackaging on private label products By Elisa Monnot; Fanny Reniou; Béatrice Parguel
  32. Agriculture's Role in the South Dakota Economy By Tyler Holmquist; Matthew Diersen
  33. Rural Electrification and Household Labor Supply: Evidence from Nigeria By Claire Salmon; Jérémy Tanguy
  34. Demand for food away from home in Slovakia By Pokrivcak, Jan; Cupak, Andrej; Rizov, Marian
  35. Environmental pressures embodied in the French cereals supply chain By Jean-Yves Courtonne; Pierre-Yves Longaretti; Julien Alapetite; Denis Dupré
  36. Non-market valuation in France: An overview of the research activity By Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu; Romain Craste; Bengt Kriström; Pere Riera

  1. By: Dono, Gabriele; Cortigiani, Raffaele; Dell'Unto, Davide
    Abstract: This paper discusses some of the most relevant economic findings of two research projects, Agroscenari ( and MACSUR (, which analyze the impact of climate change (CC) on production levels and profitability of Italian and European agriculture for defining effective adaptation actions. Both projects provide research lines on climatology, agronomy, animal breeding and economics for building integrated models that simulate farmers’ decision making in the context of CC. The integration sought in these projects aims at determining how climate variability (CV) normally influences production and management of farms, then, at assessing the impact of CC based on the change of this variability (CCV). The influence of CV on crop production and livestock farming is considered in this study. The relationships among CV, agricultural and livestock production are expressed by means of Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) estimated for the main agricultural variables in both climate scenarios, present (Ps) and future (Fs). These PDFs, appropriately discretized, are then used to represent the expectations on productive variability in an economic Discrete Stochastic Programming model that simulates farm management decision making process under Ps and Fs. Comparing the model results in the two scenarios indicates the effects of CCV, given the possibility to adapt the use of resources and the cultivation techniques. These possibilities of adjustment are modelled based on the current technologies, production structures and markets. So, even if Fs is not far away in time, they may appreciably increase during the transition period. For this reason, the comparison of the economic results achievable in Ps and Fs is not intended to provide an estimate of the final economic impact, but to indicate the farm types and cropping systems that will suffer the greatest stresses from CC.
    Keywords: stochastic programming, climate variability changes, sustainability, Agricultural and Food Policy, C61, Q12, Q54,
    Date: 2015–06
  2. By: Galioto, Francesco; Guerra, Elisa; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide
    Abstract: As the Water Framework Directive (WFD) expects, Italian Regions established new criteria for pricing rules the design, according to which Reclamation and Irrigation Boards (RIBs) allocate supply costs among users. A novelty is the attainment of full-cost recovery, introducing mixed tariffs, covering both fixed and variable costs. This paper evaluates the feasibility and the effectiveness of new water pricing criteria, in northern Italy case-study. Specifically, the impact of current pricing criteria are compared to a new hypothetical pricing scenario, based on irrigation consumption, land allocation, and irrigation technology adoption. The methodology followed a two-step approach. First, crops water requirements, and irrigation reduction effects on crop yields were simulated for different irrigation systems. Then, the derived water-crop production functions were input into an economic model, following a positive mathematical programming approach (PMP). Main assumptions were that farmers seek to maximize profits, that observed cropdesigns and water-uses are optimal, and that the authority acts on behalf of its users, aiming to both supply cost recovery and minimize impact on farm profits. Results highlight that there are no substantial variations between current and new hypothetical pricing scenarios, for three reasons. First, the variable charge is low, and it does not significantly affect water consumption. Second, incentive water pricing is feasible only in a limited area, served by pressured pipes. Third, irrigation water demand is inelastic, and it depends on the distribution system adopted. Moreover, the adoption rate of more precise irrigation systems would rise by increasing variable charges, when the ratio between fixed and variable components is flexible, hence also directly affecting irrigation demand. In fact, since fixed costs are usually greater than variable costs, mixed tariff adoption in this area could both recover water supply costs, and co-finance subsidies on irrigation technology investments, as was otherwise prevented by latest CAP-reform.
    Keywords: WFD, PMP, water pricing, irrigation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q5,
    Date: 2015–06
  3. By: Hichaambwa, Munguzwe; Chamberlin, Chamberlin; Kabwe, Stephen
    Abstract: Recent significant agricultural growth without rural poverty reduction in Zambia is causing concern to policy makers, development specialists, and other sector stakeholders. It is generally agreed that agricultural growth is the most powerful tool out of poverty for developing countries where the majority of the population is in agriculture. Zambia’s policy focus since the pre- and post-independence period has been on a single crop, maize, for which it has in the past decade spent over 60% of the annual public expenditure in the sector through maize input and output subsidies.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Santini, Fabien; Ronzon, Tevecia; Perez Dominguez, Ignacio; Araujo Enciso, Sergio Rene; Proietti, Ilaria
    Abstract: As a complement to the analysis of the baseline scenario used for the European Commission agricultural market outlook, a first alternative scenario envisaging a lower meat consumption trend have been elaborated. It shows that a decrease in per capita meat consumption in developed countries and selected Latin American countries would impact on the world and EU meat markets, and consequently on markets of crops used as feed, prices being under pressure despite the continuing increase of meat consumption in the rest of the world. In a second scenario where the decrease of meat consumption is compensated by an increase intake of plant products and certain other animal products such as dairy or eggs, the impact on markets other than the meat ones is mitigated, although the beef meat sector is even more affected by an increase of dairy products outputs. This possible evolution would be a challenge for farmers, who can rely for this on the CAP policy tools, in their diverse implementation among Member States
    Keywords: meat consumption, agricultural markets, agro-economic modelling, agricultural commodities, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q13, Q17, Q18,
    Date: 2015–06
  5. By: Gava, Oriana; Andreoli, Maria; Bartolini, Fabio; Brunori, Gianluca
    Abstract: The provision of public goods is at the heart of agriculture’s multifunctionality. Since 1992s, the Common Agricultural Policy has addressed the environmental challenge by designing and implementing a set of environmental instruments, among which the most important are cross-compliance and agri-environmental schemes, respectively under Pillar I and Pillar II. The CAP has faced a reform where one of the main novelty beside to a new payment mechanism is the greening. This paper aims at assessing the ex-ante impact of alternative designs of the greening measure, within the framework of introduction of the new basic payment system. The design of the alternative scenarios encompasses the design of the optimal greening prescription: to increase the cost-effectiveness of the measure. The empirical analysis relies on Tuscany’s micro-data from the Italian agricultural Census 2010. We focus on the province of Grosseto, due to its high concentration of intensive farms. We apply a mathematical programming model at the farm level, which allows simulating the behaviour of farmers facing alternative greening designs under the new payment system. Data about farmers’ cost are derived from the Farm Accountancy Data Network. We assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative greening designs, by upscaling farm-level model’s results about the crop diversification index and the intensity of management.
    Keywords: ex-ante analysis, cost-effectiveness, hnv, mathematical programming, cap’s greening, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q18, Q10,
    Date: 2015–06
  6. By: Kelly, Valerie; Diakité, Lamissa; Teme, Bino
    Abstract: Mali has a long history of focusing agricultural research and policies on the cereal sector, as cereals are the major staples providing food security. Despite the overall success of Malian cereal research and market reforms, recent production and productivity trends for traditional coarse grains (millet and sorghum) have grown at a much slower pace than rice and maize. This literature review describes how Mali is currently performing in terms of sorghum productivity, how the sector got to where it is today, and issues that need to be addressed to further its development. Sorghum is the focus of the review because of its adaptability to a variety of climates and the role it plays in providing food security to semi-subsistent rural households.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development,
    Date: 2015–07
  7. By: Romano, Donato; Carraro, Alessandro
    Abstract: Global food price fluctuations have increased substantially over the last decade leading to significantly high prices within the developing countries. Tanzania is not an exception, since the recent food price surges made it one of the most affected countries in SSA. This paper investigates the impact of the recent food price crisis on the quantity and quality of the dietary composition of rural and urban households in Tanzania, since excessive food price movements are likely to harm most vulnerable households. Results using household data from the 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13 waves of the Tanzania National Panel Survey show that urban households are more vulnerable than rural households to food price shocks. Moreover, we find evidence that price movements negatively affected also the quality of the diet, in particular, looking at the regional distribution, fats, calcium and vitamin A were the most cutback macro and micronutrients. Short-term policy measures, such as food fortification or micro-nutrient supplementation programmes are needed to strengthen diet diversity and micronutrient intake of Tanzanian vulnerable households and to improve the ability of poor to cope better with food price instability.
    Keywords: VER, food-price shocks, Tanzania, food security, nutrient intake, Agricultural and Food Policy, D12, I12, I32, Q12,
    Date: 2015–06
  8. By: Novelli, Silvia; Corsi, Alessandro
    Abstract: Direct purchases are a widespread and important typology of the so-called Alternative Food Networks. Within this channel, farmers’ markets represent a popular and deeply investigated farmer-to-consumer market segment. While farmers’ markets are a quite recent initiatives, it is traditional to find in many towns in Italy both conventional stands and farmers’ stands selling fruit and vegetables in the same district market. We therefore analyse the behavioural characteristics of local market consumers choosing to purchase from farmers in order to point out the determinants of their choice. The consumers’ preferences were assessed through an in-person survey. Data were collected interviewing consumers in open-air markets in Torino, Cuneo, Alessandria and Asti, four cities in Piedmont Region (Italy) where farmers sell their products. The determinants of the choice to buy from farm stands were analysed with a probit model using a final sample of 1,138 respondents. Explanatory variables comprise the consumers’ general attitudes towards the purchase of food (importance given to convenience, price, quality and trust) and their personal characteristics. Also, other variables were added in order to highlight the possible role of markets and areas with distinctive characteristics. The most important factor affecting consumers’ choice for farm stand is the quest for quality. Consumers with a strong interest in quality are significantly more likely to buy from farmers. Among the personal characteristics, being the household member in charge of buying fruits and vegetables, and education, are the main determinants of the choice of farmers’ stands. On the contrary, the effects of variables such as income and job skill level are not clear enough,and seem to be open to different interpretations.
    Keywords: Alternative Food Networks, direct purchase, consumers’ choices, Agricultural and Food Policy, D4, Q13,
    Date: 2015–06
  9. By: Chatzinikolaou, Parthena; Viaggi, Davide
    Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the provision of Ecosystem Services. The overall aim is to contribute in understanding the value and improving valuation methods for ecosystem, in an attempt to provide an instrument that contributes to closing the gap between the ES concept, regional planning and agricultural policies. The analysis is based on the design of a framework suitable to be translated in a multicriteria evaluation process, followed by its empirical testing. It focuses on the different categories of the ES trying a set of indicators that is non-overlapping and without redundancy, and assessing different aspects of ES: the capacity of ecosystems to provide services, changes in the provision of ES, and benefits thus derived. The framework is applied in the 26 municipalities of the Province of Ferrara. To develop an applicable framework, we have chosen a set of ES from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The focus of this paper is the evaluation of the provision of ecosystem services that are currently provided by agricultural areas that evidently support provisioning services and are appreciated for their recreational value explaining their inclusion under recreation services. While existing ecosystem service metrics and indicators have many gaps and limitations, applying those existing indicators in diverse policy processes and further assessments should be a priority.
    Keywords: ecosystem services, multicriteria analysis, evaluation, CAP, scenarios, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015–06
  10. By: Walid Oueslati (Granem - Groupe de Recherche ANgevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Agrocampus Ouest - Institut National de l'Horticulture et du Paysage, AGROCAMPUS OUEST [Le Rheu] - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1); Julien Salanié (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS); Junjie Wu (Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University - Oregon State University (USA) - Oregon State University (USA))
    Abstract: Urbanization presents both opportunities and challenges to agriculture. This paper analyzes the effect of urbanization on the structure and profitability of agriculture at the rural-urban fringe. We develop a theoretical model accounting for changes in the amount of urban development, the level of fragmentation, and population density associated with urbanization. We show that urbanization not only affects the land allocation between traditional and highvalue crops, but also changes relative input and output prices for the two types of crops. We conduct an empirical analysis to estimate the effect of increasing population density and urban fragmentation on farm returns for a set of European metropolises using a Bayesian averaged model that deals with model uncertainty. Our results show that increasing population density increases farm returns while increasing land fragmentation may have a detrimental effect in the beginning but a positive effect for high levels of fragmentation.
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Pawłowska-Tyszko, Joanna; Soliwoda, Michał
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the conditions and principles of functioning of the insurance system and the taxation on agriculture with regard to their impact on increasing efficiency and improving the competitiveness of the agricultural sector in order to make appropriate changes to these systems.
    Keywords: insurance system, tax, taxation, competitiveness, agricultural sector, Agricultural and Food Policy, Financial Economics, International Development,
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Lenkiewicz, Stanisław; Rokicki, Bartłomiej
    Abstract: The aim of the publication is to assess the impact of public support on the functioning of the Polish agriculture. In order to achieve this aim the publication includes an analysis of the system of direct payments and rural development policy instruments planned to be implemented in Poland within the CAP 2014-2020. The study also presents an analysis of regional diversity of the Polish agriculture and an assessment of the scale of agricultural investment made in recent years in all the Polish FADN regions depending on the farms’ production type.
    Keywords: public support, Polish agriculture, direct payments, rural development policy, CAP, agricultural investment, Polish FADN regions, farms’ production type, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Chin-Hwa Jenny Sun (Gulf of Maine Research Institute); Fu-Sung Chiang (National Taiwan Ocean University - National Taiwan Ocean University); Patrice Guillotreau (University of Nantes (LEMNA) - University of Nantes (LEMNA)); Dale Squires (National Marine Fisheries Service - National Marine Fisheries Service - University of California, San Diego)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates industry-wide economic incentives arising from changes in product prices in an industry exploiting a common renewable resource under public regulation that sets total sustainable conservation targets. Changes in prices alter economic incentives through impacts upon revenues, profits, conservation, and nonmarket public benefits. Economic incentives in industries exploiting common resources have been examined along many margins, but not at the overall industry level from changes in market prices arising from public regulation. We analyse the impact upon economic incentives from changes in overall sustainable output level and market price through a study of a tuna fishery to estimate ex-vessel price and scale flexibilities for imported skipjack and yellowfin in Thailand’s cannery market. The unitary scale flexibility, estimated from the General Synthetic Inverse Demand Systems (GSIDS), indicates no loss in revenues and even potential profit increases resulting from lower harvest levels that could arise from lower sustainable catch limits. However, for this to work, three of the inter-governmental tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organization (tRFMOs), that manage majority of the yellowfin and skipjack tuna in Pacific and India Oceans, would have to coordinate their conservation measures on catch limit of both species together.
    Date: 2015–01–28
  14. By: Rocco Macchiavello (Warwick University); Ameet Morjaria (Harvard University)
    Abstract: Business transactions often occur in the absence of enforceable contracts. To sustain trade in such cases, parties rely on relational contracts (RC). Introducing competition might change exit options, thus undermining the ability to sustain RC. To examine the impact of competition in procurement of inputs, we exploit the prevalence of RC between processing mills and farmers in Rwanda's coffee sector. We implement a census of all mills and farmers to capture the features of the RC binding them. We then develop a RC model to capture the incentive problems between mills and farmers. The model is used to predict how competition affects RC, the mill's performance, and farmer outcomes. Since the location of mills is endogenous, an engineering model is estimated for the optimal placement of mills to instrument for competition in each locality. We find that competition between mills undermines RC by increasing the mill's processing costs, lowering the mill's capacity utilization and reducing the quality of coffee cherries received by the mill. Competition constraints the farmer's credit and input choices and reduces farmer's wellbeing. The findings highlight that in weak contracting settings, the value RC generates can be hampered by competition. The evidence provides a rationale for policies commonly observed historically across developing countries, such as zoning regulations and monopsony licensing, and emphasizes the importance of promoting contractual enforcement in agricultural value chains in order to reap the benefits of competition.
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Kees Prins (International Union of Forest Research Organizations - IUFRO); Alejandra Cáu-Cattan (International Union of Forest Research Organizations - IUFRO); Nataly Azcarrúnz (International Union of Forest Research Organizations - IUFRO); Grégoire Leclerc (GREEN - Gestion des ressources renouvelables et environnement - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement)
    Abstract: EcoAdapt ( is an ambitious, complex and demanding action-research project about water security in a context of climate change. The issues the project deals with are also complex and demanding. A central challenge is how to get the investigators, the project partner Model Forest local teams and the relevant local actors in the territorieson the same page. That is why joint knowledge development and shared learning from different sources and ways of knowing is of such strategic importance in EcoAdapt. Moreover, a viable and sustainable community based response to environmental and climaticchallenges requires a critical mass of motivated, informed and concerted local actors. To make good headway in this direction, an arduous but dynamic process has been set into motion resulting in a growing commitment and capacity building among the local actors in the three EcoAdapt territories. The project’s mini and synthesis workshops were building- and stepping-stones in a continuous path of joint learning and capacity development. In the former events the information captured in the base line study was discussed with the locals actors ,while in the second ones, the interest aroused was capitalized upon to form the change agents groups (an essential aspect of the EcoAdapt strategy) and to respond to the demand of more precise and accessible information, by means of a series of field learning activities. This had some promising outcomes such as contributing to a common interest and growing understanding of water as a central watershed ecosystem; widening of the horizon and view towards watershed and landscape management; strengthening of community drinking water systems with regards to its hardware and software (physical infrastructure, local management and governance); growing cooperation among urban and rural groups or between civil society and policy makers around water issues; creating a link between the legal framework and policy making and the processes on the ground. A spiral of learning took place. As people satisfy their curiosity and initial interest they want to know more and understand better, and they become even more investigative as the activity gets geared towards action and towards helping them achieve their needs and aspirations. Learning does not stop and is clearly evolving in the project with regards to aims, content and methods. This proves to be entirely in line with one of the working hypothesis of the project and also with constructivist theories such as meaningful learning. It has been fundamental and very instrumental to induce the formation of multi actor platforms of change agents in the three territories, through which the field learning activities are organized. These new instances are pivotal in the EcoAdapt learning and organization process by the local project partners: due to a broad representation of local groups and institutions, these platforms get grounded and obtain a growing legitimacy in the territory; they fill a real demand by tackling felt needs for local development around water issues and capitalizing human, institutional and financial opportunities and resources; information is spread and debated; trust and chemistry is built and a common language and vision developed; by lowering barriers between groups and institutions transaction costs are lowered and opportunities are taken advantage of to decrease operational costs and achieve higher effectiveness in ongoing or initial action around water issues and management. Hence it is also very cost effective in economic terms. Climate change adaptation is a variant of risk management to secure water, food and other means of living. Management of climate risks is a millenarian old need and practice, but recent climate change tendencies give it a whole new dimension. Traditional knowledge and practice is a good springboard to climate change adaptation, but new science based information and views must be inserted in what people already know, do and want to change (or conserve) to widen their horizon and action alternatives, and create in this way, a solid 5 base for a viable and shared climate change adaptation plan. In that perspective it is essential that the complex issue of climate change is made transparent, understandable and meaningful. This still remains a great challenge in tactical and didactical terms. The systematized experience so far teaches us that it may be necessary to deviate a bit from the project proposal (“description of work”, or DoW) in order to advance towards the project vision. So, in Climate Change Adaptation for Local Development (the project slogan) the relation between both aims is inter-active.Local development can be a starting point for advancing to climate change adaptation and ecological and social resilience. Close observation shows that the prime mover of action by the local actors has not been so much climate change adaptation but securing clean water in sufficient quality and quantity or satisfying other felt local needs and aspirations. And this is not just a matter of climate- but also of legal stress, and a lack of equity and legitimacy. Hence, the internal learning and systematization has fed also the adaptive project management. Looking backwards and reflecting on it, one gets more clarity on how to go forwards to reach the vision. But therefore it is also important to look out of the EcoAdapt box and combine internal reflection with relevant literature and other cases, in order to get more out of the empirical data and process.Hence, much emphasis was put in this working paper on a relevant literature review, whose results merged in a conceptual flow chart, with the philosophy and strategy of EcoAdapt. In chapter VI Analysis and Synthesis the link is made between this flowchart with the process and outcomes of the field learning activities described in much detail in chapter V. Many promising results were found as well as pending challenges which both are inputs for action and strategy in the next two years: momentum must be maintained, advances consolidated and a qualitative jump forward made. One of the lessons learned is the importance of combining tangibles and intangibles in water management to motivate participation of the local actors and enable their learning, organization and governance towards the desired change. It also shows the added value of EcoAdapt and how it gets the most out of its limited financial means. Learning outcomes must be converted into input for strategic development, scaling out and up, policy debate and policy incidence. There is clear evidence that this process has already begun. Distances between actors diminish; policy makers get more involved; people become more knowledgeable on legal and policy matters and want to influence them or make better use of them; joint practice and understanding of water issues go hand in hand; scales of intervention are combined. Scaling up is of strategic importance because community based environment management has a limited effect and does not make much sense if policy makers do not respond correspondingly. So, in order for intervention to be effective it must occur at different scales and be articulated. Both literature and the project practice confirm this need and possibility. It is also clearly foreseen in the project strategy expressed in the theory of change of the DoW. A next central priority will be to incorporate, intelligently and tactically, the planned scenarios and measures of climate change adaptation within the activities and processes already in march in the three sites and organized around perceived local needs and opportunities, while at the same time doing the inverse - insert the ongoing activities in a broader framework. A related central challenge in this perspective will be to stimulate in the coming years, a fruitful debate and clarity on water governance and conflict management in a context of growing water scarcity due to the effects of climate change and other stressors. A debate on ‘’hotter issues’’ is quite feasible as more trust, chemistry and cooperation is built around non conflictive issues during start up activities, like what is going on at the moment. 6 As the literature shows, in the history of humankind, water scarcity does not necessarily lead to conflict and often has been a base for cooperation, social organization and synergy, depending on the rules of the game and the governance institutions in place and functioning. This will become an increasingly important issue in light of viable and robust adaptation plans to be made in the three sites in the course of 2014-2015.
    Date: 2014–01–20
  16. By: Maxime Agbo (African School of Economics); Damien Rousselière (AGROCAMPUS OUEST [Le Rheu] - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1, Granem - Groupe de Recherche ANgevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Agrocampus Ouest - Institut National de l'Horticulture et du Paysage); Julien Salanié (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS)
    Abstract: We build a theoretical model to study a market structure of a marketing cooperative with direct selling, in which many farmers are members of an agricultural marketing cooperative. They can sell their production either to the cooperative or on an oligopolistic local market. We show that the decision to sell to the cooperative induces an anti-competitive effect on the direct selling market. The cooperative facilitates collusion on the local market by making farmers softer competitors on that market. Conversely, direct selling may create a "healthy emulation" among farmers, leading to more production benefiting the cooperative.
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Kenneth Houngbedji (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the change in labour supply patterns by agricultural households as a result of formalization of their land-use rights. The findings are based on panel data collected before and after a land registration programme which demarcated and provided legal recognition of the landholdings of households in the Amhara region in Ethiopia. Using a semi-parametric difference-in-difference strategy, we find that the provision of documentary evidence of land rights freed household time otherwise allocated to safeguard their landholdings from encroachment. The reduction in labour supply is driven by a decrease of time allocated to pre-planting activities requiring households to leave their land vacant until the most suitable time for planting. Indeed disputes over land boundaries are associated with neighbouring landholders pushing the boundaries of their holdings during ploughing.
    Date: 2015–04
  18. By: Alois Stutzer; Armando N. Meier
    Abstract: Is obesity the consequence of an optimally chosen lifestyle or do people consume too much relative to their long-term preferences? The latter perspective accepts that people might face self-control problems when exposed to the immediate gratification from food. We exploit unique survey data for Switzerland in multinomial logit and ordered probit regressions to study i) the covariates of obesity including indicators of self-control, and ii) the consequences of obesity on the subjective well-being of people with limited willpower. Our main finding is that obesity decreases the well-being of individuals who report having limited self-control, but not otherwise.
    Keywords: obesity; revealed preference; self-control problem; subjective well-being
    JEL: D12 D91 I12 I31
    Date: 2015–08
  19. By: Sylvie Démurger (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Adeline Pelletier (Centre for Economic Performance - LSE - London School of Economics, Instituto de Empresa Business School)
    Abstract: Using survey data from Inner Mongolia, this paper explores the role of stakeholder engagement in the implementation of the Sloping Land Conversion Programme (SLCP), a payments for environmental services programme designed to restore forest in degraded land. Based on the idea that volunteerism and satisfaction with the programme's outcome are two important components of the programme's viability, we successively analyse the intensity of households' participation in the programme and their reported satisfaction with its economic achievement, which we relate to their stated volunteerism. We show that households' participation intensity in the SLCP is primarily driven by land and location characteristics, and that these findings hold true whether or not the households voluntarily enrolled in the programme. Moreover, as far as participants' satisfaction can be interpreted as an indicator of potential long-term support for the programme, our findings also support plausible sustainability for the programme.
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Altman, Morris (The University of Newcastle, Newcastle Business School)
    Abstract: Cooperatives represent an alternative to large-scale corporate farms and plantations as well as to independent unaffiliated small private farms. This paper presents a comparative modeling narrative on cooperative organizational forms’ potential impact on equitable rural development. This speaks to issues of both increasing the size of the economic pie and how this income is distributed. The case is made the cooperatives can potentially generate higher rates of growth and more equitable growth, even in competitive economic environments. An important type of cooperative that is focused upon in this paper is one based on the linking of smaller farms into a cooperative. Economies of scale and scope can be captured by the cooperatives and transaction costs can be reduced. Given cooperative governance, one would also expect higher levels of x-efficiency. Overall, cooperatives can generate relatively high incomes to cooperative members, whilst remaining competitive with the traditional privately owned large farms. Critical to the success of the cooperative, is a set rules and regulations that place them on a level playing field with the privately owned farm. In addition, the implementation and practice of cooperative principles is key to the success of the cooperative farm and rural cooperatives, more generally speaking.
    Keywords: Cooperation; Cooperatives; Economics of scale and scope; Fairness; Transaction costs; Cooperative principles; X­efficiency; Dynamic efficiency; Income equality
    JEL: D02 D03 D10 D23 D33 D4 D6 D72 D74 D8 G2 I3 J00 J30 J54 J8 K2 L1 L2 L5 M5
    Date: 2015–03–05
  21. By: Józwiak, Wojciech; Kagan, Adam; Niewęgłowska, Grażyna; Skarzynska, Aldona; Sobierajewsja, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek; Ziętara, Wojciech
    Abstract: The main part of the paper includes: estimates of the number of competitive national agricultural holdings, analysis of their situation at the background of similar holdings in some selected European Union countries, and analysis of production costs and profitability for selected products in 2005-2012. This was used as a basis to project a change in the number of competitive national agricultural holdings in a 2020 perspective, and the futurological literature – to develop a vision of evolution of the phenomenon in the next two decades.
    Keywords: agricultural holdings, European Union countries, effectiveness, production costs, competitiveness, Polish agricultural holdings, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, International Development,
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Germain Tesnière (AGIR - AGrosystèmes et développement terrItoRial - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Julie Labatut (AGIR - AGrosystèmes et développement terrItoRial - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)); Eva Boxenbaum (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris, Copenhagen Business School - Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to analyze the most recent changes in how societies value animals. We analyze this topic through the prism of contracts between breeding companies and farmers. Focusing on new valuation practices and qualification of breeding animals, we question the evaluation of difficult commensurable entities (animal, embryo, mating) and the impacts of these valuation and qualifications on government of living entities.
    Date: 2015–01–12
  23. By: Hichaambwa, Munguzwe; Kabwe, Stephen; Chamberlin, Jordan
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015–07
  24. By: Brink, Lars
    Keywords: policy space, WTO, agriculture, domestic support, exemptions, Aggregate Measurement of Support, de minimis, value of production, EU, United States, India, China, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, F13, Q17, Q18,
    Date: 2015–07
  25. By: Edquist , Charles (CIRCLE, Lund University); Zabala-Iturriagagoitia , Jon Mikel (Deusto Business School, Deusto University)
    Abstract: According to the Innovation Union Scoreboard published by the European Commission, Sweden has been, and still is, an innovation leader within the EU and one of the most innovative countries in Europe. In this paper, the performance of the Swedish national innovation system is analyzed using exactly the same data as those employed by the Innovation Union Scoreboard for the years 2014 and 2015. <p> We argue that the Summary Innovation Index provided by the Innovation Union Scoreboard is highly misleading. Instead of merely calculating this Summary Innovation Index, the individual indicators that constitute this composite innovation indicator need to be analyzed in much greater depth in order to reach a correct measure of the performance of innovation systems. We argue that input and output indicators need to be considered as two separate types of indicators and each type should then be measured individually. Thereafter the input and output indicators should be compared to one another, as is normally done in productivity and efficiency measurements. <p> To check whether our approach provides results similar to those of the Innovation Union Scoreboard (or not), we apply it and analyze the relative position of Sweden - appointed the innovation leader of the EU, by the EU. A theoretical background and reasons for selecting the indicators used are also given and a new position regarding Sweden’s innovation performance compared to the other EU countries is calculated. <p> Our conclusion is that Sweden cannot be seen as an innovation leader in the EU. This means in turn that the Innovation Union Scoreboard is flawed and may therefore mislead researchers, policy-makers, politicians as well as the general public – since it is widely reported in the media.
    Keywords: Innovation system; innovation policy; innovation performance; Sweden; indicators; input; output
    JEL: O30 O38 O49 O52
    Date: 2015–08–11
  26. By: Sandip Mitra (Sampling and Ocial Statistics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute); Dilip Mookherjee (Department of Economics, Boston University); Maximo Torero (International Food Policy Research Institute); Sujata Visaria (Department of Economics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Institute for Emerging Market Studies, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: In the Indian state of West Bengal, potato farmers sell to local middlemen because they lack direct access to wholesale markets. In high-frequency farmer marketing surveys we find that farmers are poorly informed about wholesale and retail prices, and there is a large gap between wholesale and farmgate prices. To test alternative models of farmer-middlemen trades, we conduct a field experiment providing farmers in randomly chosen villages with market price information. Information provision had negligible average effects on farmgate sales and revenues, but increased pass-through from wholesale to farmgate prices. The results are inconsistent with models of risk-sharing via contracts between middlemen and farmers. They are consistent with a model of ex post bargaining and sequential price competition between a cartel of village middlemen and a cartel of external middlemen.
    Keywords: agricultural finance, agent based lending, group lending, selection, repayment
    JEL: O12 L14
    Date: 2015–08
  27. By: Paolo PROSPERI (MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - IAMM, IAMM - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier, University of Catania); Thomas Allen (Bioversity International); Martine PADILLA (MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - IAMM, CIHEAM - Centre International des Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); Luri Peri (University of Catania)
    Abstract: Sustainable Food Security and Sustainable Diets are widely acknowledged and studied by the international community. The links between food regimes of populations and the environmental and socioeconomic issues concerning individuals, countries and geographical areas, are nowadays recognized and proved. Nevertheless, identifying metrics for a multidimensional analysis remains a challenging task. This methodological paper proposes a revisited vulnerability approach for an innovative application to food security and sustainability issues in the agrofood system. The aim is to identify qualitative and quantitative methods to consider the interrelating factors leading to vulnerability, in order to inform decision-making and adaptive strategies. An original methodological framework of the integrated vulnerability approach to analyze food insecurity and unsustainability is presented together with a metric methodology.
    Date: 2013–09–26
  28. By: Cunha, Jesse M. (Naval Postgraduate School); De Giorgi, Giacomo (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Jayachandran, Seema (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of cash versus in-kind transfers on local prices. Both types of transfers increase the demand for normal goods; in-kind transfers also increase supply in recipient communities, which should cause prices to fall relative to cash transfers. We test and confirm this prediction using a program in Mexico that randomly assigned villages to receive boxes of food (trucked into the village), equivalently valued cash transfers, or no transfers. We find that prices are significantly lower under in-kind transfers compared with cash transfers; relative to the control group, in-kind transfers lead to a 4 percent fall in prices while cash transfers lead to a positive but negligible increase in prices. Prices of goods other than those transferred are also affected, but by a small amount. Thus, households' purchasing power is only modestly affected by these price effects, even in this setting where program eligibility is high, the transfer per household is sizeable, and hence the supply influx is large. The exception is in remote villages, where the price effects (both the negative effects of in-kind transfers and the positive effects of cash transfers) are larger in magnitude. The effects do not dissipate over the two years of program duration we observe.
    Keywords: price; policy
    JEL: O00 O12
    Date: 2015–08–01
  29. By: Sandrine Mathy (équipe EDDEN - PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - CNRS - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier)
    Abstract: In 2015 two major international events will coincide: the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris and negotiations on a new set of Millennium Development Goals for 2030, including measures to combat poverty. Until now these two dossiers have mainly been treated separately, but the stakes for development and the measures required to avoid unbridled climate change are inextricably linked, particularly in developing countries. In the build-up to the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, this article presents a proposal which seeks to reconcile development strategies with policies on climate change and adaptation, by promoting various forms of synergy between these two fields, in such a way as to make satisfying basic needs an absolute priority and to clear up the dispute between industrialized and developing countries regarding the latter’s commitment to combating climate change. Our Climate and Development Convergence Mechanism advocates an approach based on voluntary, sector-based, flexible participation enabled by output-based aid and indicators of the satisfaction of basic needs.
    Date: 2014–10
  30. By: Christoph Böhringer (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); Knut Einar Rosendahl (Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås); Halvor Briseid Storrøsten (Statistics Norway, Oslo)
    Abstract: Unilateral climate policy induces carbon leakage through the relocation of emission-intensive and trade-exposed industries to regions with no or more lenient emission regulation. Both analytical and numerical studies suggest that emission pricing combined with border carbon adjustments may be a second-best instrument, and more cost-effective than output-based rebating, in which case domestic output is indirectly subsidized. No countries have so far imposed border carbon adjustments, while variants of output-based rebating have been implemented. In this paper we demonstrate that it is welfare improving for a region who has already implemented emission pricing along with output-based rebating for emission-intensive and trade-exposed goods to also introduce a consumption tax on these goods. Moreover, we show that combining output-based rebating with a consumption tax can be equivalent with border carbon adjustments.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage; output-based rebating; border carbon adjustments; consumption tax
    JEL: D61 H2 Q54
    Date: 2015–05
  31. By: Elisa Monnot (THEMA - Université de Cergy Pontoise); Fanny Reniou (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Béatrice Parguel (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - CNRS - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine)
    Abstract: Purpose – Eliminating overpackaging is a central question in sustainable development, and poses a dilemma for retailers. Since packaging is a differentiation tool for private labels, eliminating it could limit the capacity to give those labels an equivalent image to national brands just as much as it could be a sustainable development opportunity and a positioning instrument. Drawing on the attribution theory framework, this article examines how eliminating overpackaging influences consumers’ perception of products sold under generic and mimic private labels, and their purchase intention. Methodology – This research uses a 2 (overpackaging: present vs. absent) x 2 (brand concept: generic vs. mimic private label) between-subjects experiment on a convenience sample of 217 French consumers. The conceptual framework was tested using ANCOVA and mediation analyses. Findings – Our experiment shows that eliminating overpackaging does have an influence on mimic private labels’ image, particularly on perceived quality, convenience and environmental friendliness. We also find that this influence negatively transfers to purchase intention for mimic private labels through lower perceived quality and convenience. No such effect appears for generic private labels’ image. Value – This study addresses an issue as yet unexplored in marketing – the effect of overpackaging on private label products – and proposes areas for managerial and societal reflection relevant to retail chains interested in eliminating overpackaging.
    Date: 2015–03–01
  32. By: Tyler Holmquist (Deparment of Economics South Dakota State University); Matthew Diersen (Deparment of Economics South Dakota State University)
    Date: 2015–08–06
  33. By: Claire Salmon (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - Université de Savoie); Jérémy Tanguy (GAINS - Groupe d'Analyse des Itinéraires et des Niveaux Salariaux - UM - Université du Maine, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS)
    Abstract: Using recent household survey data, this paper investigates how electrification affects female and male labor supply decisions within rural households in Nigeria. Focusing on matched husband-wife data, we propose to consider dependence in spouses’ labor supply decisions and to address adequately zero hours of work using a copula-based bivariate hurdle model. In parallel, we opt for an instrumental variable strategy to identify the causal effect of electrification. Our findings show that such dependence is strongly at work and critical to consider when assessing the impact of electrification on spouses’ labor supply outcomes. Electrification is found to increase the working time of both spouses in a separate examination of their labor supply, while the joint analysis emphasizes only a positive effect of electrification on husbands’ working time. However, whatever the econometric specification, we find no significant effect of electricity on spouses’ employment probability.
    Date: 2014
  34. By: Pokrivcak, Jan; Cupak, Andrej; Rizov, Marian
    Abstract: We analyse demand for food away from home (FAFH) in Slovakia by double-hurdle model from the Household Budget Survey data covering period 2004-2010. Results reveal an increasing trend in food away from home expenditure between the two periods with a considerable heterogeneity among different household types. The estimated income elasticities of FAFH in Slovakia also differ among different household groups. For example, single person households perceive out of home eating as a necessity. On the other hand, households consisting of multiple adults without children, single parent with children, and traditional families with parents and children perceive eating out of home as a luxury. FAFH in Slovakia differs substantially between regions as well as between the annual seasons. Slovak households appear to have higher demand for FAFH in western regions and during the winter season. An important feature of the applied household model is to measure the effect of wife’s opportunity costs regarding the food preparation at home. Results reveal the fact that households with employed wife have significantly higher expenditure on FAFH than unemployed (housekeeping) wife.
    Keywords: Double-hurdle model, elasticity, food away from home, Slovakia, Agricultural and Food Policy, C21, C24, D12,
    Date: 2015–06
  35. By: Jean-Yves Courtonne (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - CNRS, INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes / LJK Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - STEEP - CNRS - INRIA - LJK - Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - CNRS - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG)); Pierre-Yves Longaretti (LAOG - Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble - CNRS - INSU - OSUG - Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble - CNRS - INSU - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier, INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes / LJK Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - STEEP - CNRS - INRIA - LJK - Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - CNRS - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG)); Julien Alapetite (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - CNRS, INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes / LJK Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - STEEP - CNRS - INRIA - LJK - Laboratoire Jean Kuntzmann - CNRS - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG)); Denis Dupré (IAE Grenoble - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France, CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - CNRS)
    Abstract: France is the second largest exporter of cereals in the world. Although the cereals supply chain is an asset for the country's economy and employment, it is at the same time responsible for a number of pressures on the local and global environment including greenhouse gases emissions (GHG) and stresses on water quality and quantity. This article aims at evaluating this situation from an environmental point of view by linking productions occuring in French regions with consumptions occuring in France and abroad. Based on previous work on Material Flow Analysis, we use an Absorbing Markov Chain model to study the fate of French cereals and link worldwide consumptions to environmental pressures along the supply chain, that is, induced by production, transformation or transport. The model is based on physical supply and use tables and distinguishes between 21 industries, 22 products, 38 regions of various spatial resolution (22 French regions, 10 countries, 6 continents) and 4 modes of transport. Energy use, GHG emissions, land use, use of pesticides and blue water footprint are studied. Illustrative examples are taken in order to demonstrate the versatility of the results produced, for instance: What is the fate/supply area of a region's production/consumption? What are the production and consumption footprint of a region? These results are designed to be a first step towards scenario analysis for decision-aiding that would also include socioeconomic indicators. Examples of such scenarios are discussed in the conclusion.
    Date: 2015–04
  36. By: Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - UN - Université de Nantes); Romain Craste (Agri'Terr Unit - ESITPA); Bengt Kriström (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Pere Riera (University Autonoma of Barcelona)
    Abstract: A selection of articles presented in Nantes (France) at the first edition of WONV (Workshop on Non-Market Valuation) will be published in a special issue of Revue d’Economie Politique. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of the articles involving French institutions that were published between 2002 and 2013. We find that (a) the number of published articles tends to increase, (b) stated preferences preference methods are more often employed than revealed preference methods and (c) recreational/landscape goods are the most valued goods.
    Date: 2014–11–25

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