nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒07‒25
37 papers chosen by

  1. Synopsis: Agricultural production and children’s diets: Evidence from rural Ethiopia: By Hirvonen, Kalle; Hoddinott, John F.
  2. Agribusiness Indicators By World Bank Group
  3. Botswana Agriculture Public Expenditure Review 2000-2013 By World Bank
  4. Balancing water resources conservation and food security in China By Carole Dalin; Huanguang Qiu; Naota Hanasaki; Denise L. Mauzerall; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
  5. Investment Contracts for Agriculture By World Bank
  6. Small-scale Subsistence Farming, Food Security, Climate Change and Adaptation in South Africa: Male-Female Headed Households and Urban-Rural Nexus By Byela Tibesigwa and Martine Visser
  7. Opportunities of networking in Bulgarian agrifood sector By Venelin Terziev; Ekaterina Arabska
  8. Islamic State of Afghanistan Agricultural Sector Review By World Bank
  9. Synopsis: Can agricultural traders be trusted? Evidence from urban coffee markets in Ethiopia: By Assefa, Thomas Woldu; Minten, Bart
  10. Tax policy tools vs. sustainable development of agriculture. The case of Poland By Micha Soliwoda; Joanna Paw
  11. Was Gerschenkron right? Bulgarian agricultural growth during the Interwar period in light of modern development economics By Michael Kopsidis; Martin Ivanov
  12. Risk Assessment of the Implementation of the Eea Agreement on Agriculture for Russia By Shagaida, Natalia; Uzun, V.; Gataulinà, Ekaterina; Saraikin, Valeri; Yanbykh, Renata; Karlova, Natalia
  13. Nutrient Assimilation Services for Water Quality Credit Trading Programs By Stephenson, Kurt; Shabman, Leonard
  14. Mapping Subnational Poverty in Zambia By Alejandro de la Fuente; Andreas Murr; Ericka Rascón
  15. Republic of Moldova Food Security Assessment By World Bank
  16. Supporting Womens Agro-Enterprises in Africa with ICT By World Bank
  17. Synopsis: Social networks and factor markets: Panel data evidence from Ethiopia: By Abay, Kibrom A.; Kahsay, Goytom A; Berhane, Guush
  18. Identifying the Impacts of Critical Habitat Designation on Land Cover Change By Nelson, Erik J.; Withey, John C.; Pennington, Derric; Lawler, Joshua J.
  19. The Agricultural Origins of Time Preference By Oded Galor; Ömer Özak
  20. The forest roads’ Environmental Suitability based on the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) Method and the contribution to the sustainable development By Stergios Tampekis; Fani Samara; Stavros Sakellariou; Athanasios Sfougaris; Olga Christopoulou
  21. The effects of volumetric pricing policy on farmers? water management institutions and their water use: the case of water user organization in an irrigation system in Hubei, China By Kajisa,Kei; Dong,Bin
  22. Feast or Famine: The Welfare Impact of Food Price Controls in Nazi Germany By Robin Winkler
  23. Methods of Accounting and Assessment of the Biological Assets and Agricultural Products in the Absence of an Active Market (by the International Accounting Standards) By Levan Sabauri; Elena Kharabadze
  24. Synopsis: Who benefits from the rapidly increasing voluntary sustainability standards? Evidence from fairtrade and organic certified coffee in Ethiopia: By Minten, Bart; Dereje, Mekdim; Engeda, Ermias; Tamru, Seneshaw
  25. The changes of the natural resources access in the small forestry Mediterranean islands: The case study of Skiathos, Greece By Fani Samara; Stergios Tampekis; Stavros Sakellariou; Olga Christopoulou; Athanasios Sfougaris
  26. Rural Development in Haiti By Barbara Coello; Gbemisola Oseni; Tanya Savrimootoo; Eli Weiss
  27. Beyond Quality at Entry By Ingrid Mollard; Emily Brearley; Marialena Vyzaki; Sanna-Liisa Taivalmaa
  28. Managing Vulnerability and Boosting Productivity in Agriculture through Weather Risk Mapping By Carlos Arce; Edgar Uribe
  29. How consistent is the new common agricultural policy with the challenges it faces? By Popp, József; Jámbor, Attila
  30. How Effective Are Federal Food Safety Regulations? The Case of Eggs and Salmonella Enteritidis By Lutter, Randall
  31. Migration and Consumption Insurance in Bangladesh By Melanie Morten; Corina Mommaerts; Ahmed Mobarak; Costas Meghir
  32. Relational environment and intellectual roots of 'ecological economics': An orthodox or heterodox field of research? By Teixeira, Aurora A. C.; Castro e Silva, Manuela
  33. Russia’S Water Resources 2030: Plausible Scenarios By Ozcan Saritas; Liliana Proskuryakova; S Sivaev
  34. Nutrition in Ethiopia: An emerging success story?: By Headey, Derek D.
  35. Synopsis: An analysis of trends and determinants of child undernutrition in Ethiopia, 2000-2011: By Headey, Derek D.
  36. Economic, Environmental, and Social Evaluation of Africa's Small-Scale Fisheries By World Bank
  37. Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Ordinance 2014: A Process Perspective By Raghuram, G.; Simy Sunny

  1. By: Hirvonen, Kalle; Hoddinott, John F.
    Abstract: We study the relationship between pre-school children’s food consumption and household agricultural production. Using a large household survey from rural Ethiopia, we find that increasing household production diversity leads to considerable improvements in children’s diet diversity. However, we also document how this non-separability of consumption and production does not hold for households that have access to food markets. These findings imply that nutrition-sensitive agricultural interventions that push for market-integration are likely to be more effective in reducing undernutrition than those promoting production diversity.
    Keywords: households, Nutrition, Children, Diet, Markets, food consumption, Agricultural policies, child dietary diversity, agricultural household model, count data,
    Date: 2015
  2. By: World Bank Group
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Research Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Rural Development
    Date: 2014
  3. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Rural Development Knowledge Information Systems Crops and Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Research Rural Development
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Carole Dalin; Huanguang Qiu; Naota Hanasaki; Denise L. Mauzerall; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
    Abstract: China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.
    Keywords: virtual water; food trade; trade policy; sustainable agriculture; water saving
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2014
  5. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Investment and Investment Climate Social Protections and Labor - Labor Policies Agriculture - Agricultural Sector Economics Rural Development - Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction Economic management Social dev/gender/inclusion - Gender Rural development Environment and natural resources management - Land administration and management
    Date: 2015–06
  6. By: Byela Tibesigwa and Martine Visser
    Abstract: This study examines the role of gender of the head of household on the food security of small-scale subsistence farmers in urban and rural areas of South Africa, using the exogenous switching treatment-effects regression framework. Our results show that agriculture contributes to food security of female-headed more than male-headed households, especially in rural areas. We also observe that male-headed households are more food secure compared to female-headed households, and this is mainly driven by differences in off-farm labour participation. We further observe that the food security gap between male- and female-headed households is wider in rural than in urban areas, where rural male- and female-headed households are more likely to report chronic food insecurity, i.e., are more likely to experience hunger than their urban counterparts. Our results suggest that the current policy interest in promoting rural and urban agriculture is likely to increase food security in both male- and female-headed household, and reduce the gender gap.
    Keywords: Food security; male-headed household; female-headed households; urban; rural
    JEL: Q18 Q54
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Venelin Terziev (University of Rousse); Ekaterina Arabska (Innovations and Sustainability Academy)
    Abstract: The paper examines the opportunities of networking in agrifood sector in Bulgaria through the perspectives of the new program period 2014-2020 and the potential contribution to rural development. Key measures are discussed focusing on support and motivation for establishing groups and associations of agricultural producers. Some behavioral, organizational and managerial issues are considered in connection to the historical development of agrifood sector in the country and possible approaches and ways of putting into practice network initiatives. The study puts a special attention on the importance of marketing co-operations considering the peculiarities of land and production in the country and market opportunities providing examples of good practices and recommendations for future development. The investigation is oriented towards some key problems in management in agrifood enterprises in connection to contemporary challenges to operation in conditions of increasing law requirements on European and national level and expanding processes in globalization concerning different spheres of economic and social life.
    Keywords: networking, association, agriculture, food
    JEL: Q13
  8. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Agriculture - Agricultural Research Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Rural Development
    Date: 2014–06
  9. By: Assefa, Thomas Woldu; Minten, Bart
    Keywords: Sustainability, coffee, exports, Commodities, Quality, urban areas, trade, Retail marketing, value chains, high value agricultural products,
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Micha Soliwoda (Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics – National Research Institute); Joanna Paw (Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics – National Research Institute)
    Abstract: A transition from conventional to sustainable model of agriculture depends on various factors. Sustainable development of farms may be described in terms of three dimensions, ("economic, environmental and social"). The Green Growth paradigm indicates the significance of economic policy interventions, including subsidies and tax incentives. A gap in the literature on agricultural economics and finance explains the need for studies on a fiscal dimension of sustainability of farms.The main aim of the paper was to highlight the role of selected tax policy tools from the perspective of sustainable development of agriculture. The research goals were as follows (1) to present a review of selected tax policy instruments in an international context, (2) to analyse the impact of selected tools on making pro-environmental actions (based on experts' opinions). Our paper concluded with proposals and recommendations on the aforesaid process for policymakers. Fiscal instruments that may affect sustainability in agriculture exist in the majority of Old Member States of European Union (e.g. the Netherlands, Germany, Austria). The ongoing “Agricultural tax” (‘podatek rolny’) that affect a majority of Polish farms and their organization of production favours leads to maintaining sustainability of agriculture (given an environmental dimension of sustainability). The existing tax instruments have a neutral or positive impact on environmental sustainability. The highest medium positive impact on the medium are characterized by capital allowances and deductions for the purchase of new environmental technologies.Polish policymakers should reasonably developed a more detailed fiscal policy instruments, e.g. investment reliefs (similarly, as in the Netherlands), subjective exemptions in respect of agro-environmental practices. In the near future a key role in environmental protection will be played by a group of small farm households. These entities will be responsible for provision of public goods for Polish agricultural sector.
    Keywords: agricultural taxation, sustainable development, agricultural finance, fiscal instruments, family farms
    JEL: Q14 H25 Q01
  11. By: Michael Kopsidis (Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (Halle / Germany)); Martin Ivanov (Department of Philosophy, Sofia University)
    Abstract: The classical view of BulgariaÕs failed industrialization prior to the Second World War was established by Alexander Gerschenkron. According to his interpretation, an inherently backward small peasant agriculture and well-organized peasantry not only retarded growth in agriculture but obstructed any possible industrialization strategy. Following Hayami and Ruttan, we utilize the decomposition of farm labor productivity into land productivity, and land-to-man ratio to analyze the sources of growth in BulgariaÕs agriculture 1887-1939. Our results show that BulgariaÕs peasants did cross the threshold to modern growth during the Interwar period. Rich qualitative evidence supports the findings of our quantitative analysis that contrary to GerschenkronÕs view and conventional wisdom, BulgariaÕs peasants substantially contributed to the modernization of BulgariaÕs economy and society. We interpret our results in light of modern development economics, and conclude that agriculture formed no impediment to BulgariaÕs industrialization. The reasons that a Ôlarge industrial spurtÕ did not occur in Bulgaria until 1945 are not to be found in the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: Bulgaria, agricultural productivity, peasant agriculture, industrialization
    JEL: N53 N54 N13 N14 O13
    Date: 2015–07
  12. By: Shagaida, Natalia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Uzun, V. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Gataulinà, Ekaterina (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Saraikin, Valeri (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Yanbykh, Renata (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Karlova, Natalia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Abstract: The paper gives a brief description of Agriculture of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia, shows the role of the mutual trade, revealed the goods, the intervention of which could potentially adversely affect the Russian agricultural producers, assessed the possibility of expanding their expansion. On the basis of the functioning of the EU highlights the main elements of the formation of a common market for agricultural products. Systematized materials on the system of state support of agriculture in each of the countries studied and compared, evaluated the levels of state support of the countries, analyzed the possibility of limiting production within the common economic space for the protection of Russian agricultural producers, revealed defects agreement on common rules for state support of agriculture and forms notification.
    Keywords: agriculture, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhsta, Armenia, EEA agreement
    Date: 2015–06
  13. By: Stephenson, Kurt; Shabman, Leonard (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Water quality trading programs envision regulated point sources meeting discharge control requirements and then being allowed to increase their nutrient discharge if they secure nutrient reduction credits from other pollutant sources in the watershed. Reduction credits can be created when agricultural land managers implement best management practices and regulators predict that those practices will result in water quality conditions equivalent to controlling discharges at the regulated source. However, natural variability in runoff combines with model and data limitations to make predictions of water quality equivalence uncertain. Nutrient assimilation credits can be created by increasing the capacity of the ecosystem to assimilate nutrients through investments in aquatic plant biomass creation and harvest, shellfish aquaculture, stream restoration, and wetlands restoration and creation. Nutrient assimilation credits can provide greater certainty than agricultural best management practices that trading will result in equivalent water quality. Such credits should be an option in trading programs.
    Keywords: water quality, trading, nutrient pollution, Clean Water Act, assimilation
    JEL: Q53 Q58
    Date: 2015–07–13
  14. By: Alejandro de la Fuente; Andreas Murr; Ericka Rascón
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Agricultural Economics Poverty Reduction - Poverty Assessment Rural Development - Agricultural Growth and Rural Development Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Economic Growth Agriculture
    Date: 2015–03
  15. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Food Beverage Industry Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Agriculture - Agribusiness Industry
    Date: 2015–04
  16. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Research Rural Development Knowledge Information Systems Private Sector Development - E-Business Information and Communication Technologies - ICT Policy and Strategies Rural Development Rule of law - Legal institutions for a market economy Social dev/gender/inclusion - Gender Rural development Environment and natural resources management - Land administration and management
    Date: 2015–02
  17. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Kahsay, Goytom A; Berhane, Guush
    Abstract: In the absence of well-established factor markets, the roles of indigenous institutions and social networks as mobilizing factors for agricultural production can be substantial. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that by joining an iddir network, households’ access to land, labor, and credit improves between 7 and 11 percentage points. Furthermore, our findings indicate that iddir networks crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as Arata Abedari), a relatively expensive credit source, virtually without affecting borrowing from formal credit sources. These results improve our understanding of the role informal market arrangements, such as social networks, can play in mitigating factor market inefficiencies in poor rural markets. The results also have important policy implications for designing alternative policy measures which aim to improve these markets.
    Keywords: Social networks, Panel data, social networks, iddir networks, factor market imperfections, factor market transactions, crowding-out,
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Nelson, Erik J.; Withey, John C.; Pennington, Derric; Lawler, Joshua J.
    Abstract: The US Endangered Species Act (ESA) regulates what landowners and land managers can do on lands occupied by listed species. The act does this in part through the designation of habitat areas considered critical to the recovery of listed species. Critics have argued that the designation of critical habitat (CH) has substantial economic impacts on landowners above and beyond the costs associated with listing in general. Here we examine the effects of CH designation on land cover change from 1992 to 2011 in areas subject to ESA regulations. We find that, on average, the rate of change in developed land (urban and residential) and agricultural land is not significantly affected by CH designation. In addition, our estimate of the effects of CH designation is not strongly correlated with the costs of CH as predicted by economic analyses published in the Federal Register. While CH designation, on average, does not affect the overall rates of land cover change, CH designation does appear to modify the impact of land cover change drivers. Generally, land prices had more impact (statistically) on land cover decisions within CH areas than in areas subject to ESA regulations but with no CH designation. Land cover decisions in these latter areas tended to be driven more by clustering and land availability concerns. These trends suggest that CH designation has increased landowner uncertainty and that conversion to developed and agricultural use in CH areas, on average, requires a return premium. Overall, however, this different reaction to land prices in and outside of CH areas has not been strong enough to differentiate the average rates of developed or agricultural land change in CH areas versus areas subject to ESA regulations but with no CH designation.
    Keywords: critical habitat, opportunity cost, land cover change, matching analysis
    JEL: Q24 Q28 Q57
    Date: 2015–06–17
  19. By: Oded Galor (Brown University); Ömer Özak (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: This research explores the origins of the distribution of time preference across regions. It advances the hypothesis, and establishes empirically that geographical variations in the natural return to agricultural investment have had a persistent effect on the distribution of time preference across societies. In particular, exploiting a natural experiment associated with the expansion of suitable crops for cultivation in the course of the Columbian Exchange, the research establishes that pre-industrial agro-climatic characteristics that were conducive to higher return to agricultural investment, triggered selection and learning processes that had a persistent positive effect on the prevalence of long-term orientation in the contemporary era.
    Keywords: Time preference, Delayed Gratification, Culture, Agriculture, Economic Development, Evolution
    JEL: O1 Z1
    Date: 2014–05
  20. By: Stergios Tampekis (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly); Fani Samara (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly); Stavros Sakellariou (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly); Athanasios Sfougaris (Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly); Olga Christopoulou (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly)
    Abstract: The need for the “Sustainable Development” and at the same time the protection and preservation of the available natural assets has become a global concern. Forests constitute vulnerable ecosystems that change at great speed. In most of the occasions the change is downgrading. The right management of natural resources is the unique solution for the achievement of sustainable development. However, sustainable management of forests must be achieved with the respect and protection of nature and landscape. Sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network compatible with the natural environment. This paper describes the forest roads’ Environmental Suitability based on the Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) Method. With this method we present the spatial variability mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment. With the use of the MCE method, we can assess the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem’s absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads’ construction. For the human impact intensity assessment the criteria that were used are: the forest’s protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the traffic load and truck type, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries and the probability that the forest roads come through unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem’s absorption evaluation we used forestry, topographical and social criteria. The MCE method which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful and easy to use implement in order to combine the sustainable exploitation of natural resources and the environmental protection.
    Keywords: Environmental Suitability, forest roads’ network, spatial variability, environmental impact, gis
    JEL: Q01 Q23 Q56
  21. By: Kajisa,Kei; Dong,Bin
    Abstract: This article examines the effect of water pricing policies on farmers? water saving behaviors, using original water user group (WUG) data from a reservoir irrigation system in China. The introduction of volumetric water pricing at the group level, to replace area-based pricing, induces institutional change to prevent each member?s overuse of water when the volumetric price levels are moderate. Depending on the initial conditions, the multiple pathways of change lead to new institutional arrangements, with all of them contributing to water savings. However, when the price is set high enough, many farmers exit a WUG for private irrigation. This tendency is associated with an increased probability that the remaining members do not undertake institutional change and that they do not end up saving water. This may be due to the increased management difficulties among the remaining members whose fields are separated by former members who have now opted out for private irrigation across the WUG. As a result, we do not find evidence that the reservoir water is saved at high volumetric price levels.
    Date: 2015–07–15
  22. By: Robin Winkler (Oxford University)
    Abstract: How good was the standard of living in pre-war Nazi Germany? Some historians have argued that household food consumption in the 1930s was at least as high as in the Weimar Republic, in spite of militarisation. This article provides new evidence against this view by demonstrating that food price controls significantly distorted consumption patterns. We estimate that involuntary substitution effects cost average working-class households 7% of their disposable income. Consumer welfare in Nazi Germany was thus meaningfully lower than observed consumption levels and prices suggest. Our finding is based on microeconometric welfare analysis of detailed budget data for 4,376 individual German households surveyed in 1927 and 1937.
    Keywords: German economic history, National Socialism, household consumption
    JEL: N14 N34 D12 D52
    Date: 2015–05–05
  23. By: Levan Sabauri (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University); Elena Kharabadze (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University)
    Abstract: Reform of accounting secures its refinement according to the universally recognized guidelines, assumptions and regulations set out in the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). According to this concept direct application of the IFRS or creation of the national system of accounting and reporting make the relevant information even more reliable. In addition to the financial accounting the application of IAS 41: “Agriculture” supports the agricultural enterprises in management accounting, their development strategies and scientifically substantiated economic decisions. IAS 41: “Agriculture” came into effect in 2003 emphasizing the specifics of agriculture and the methods how the information on farming and biological assets has to be reflected in financial reporting. IAS 41 also establishes Biological assets at their fair value that is noteworthy in terms of practicability. However, IAS application requires the national legislation to be drafted for accounting the livestock and plants and relevant changes made to the standard acts. Assessment of the biological assets and agricultural products is the biggest emerging challenge in the introduction of IAS 41. As yet, the normative documents in Georgia do not say anything as to the calculation of fair value of biological assets and agricultural products. As said above, the fair value at the active market cannot always be determined. Hence, we suggest to apply the databank we have developed. According to this method an enterprise may employ the databank in order to evaluate its own food products, perennial plants, live weight gain and brood (a calf, piglet, lamb, and stallion). In the absence of the active market, the suggested databank and methods of definition of biological assets and agricultural products make accurate and transparent assessment and accounting possible. However, it is noteworthy that whatever way the value may be defined in (depending on the availability or absence of the active market), the value determination method is to be reflected in the accounting policy developed in line with the IFRS.Assessment of the biological assets and agricultural products at their fair value is subject to adjustments, though the suggested method makes for more accurate evaluation of the performance results, transparency of information in the financial statement and efficiency of a company.
    Keywords: Accounting, Fair value, Exchange, Initial Price, Biological Assets, Analysis of reliability, Active Market, Agricultural enterprises, discount rate, average growth
    JEL: M41 J43
  24. By: Minten, Bart; Dereje, Mekdim; Engeda, Ermias; Tamru, Seneshaw
    Abstract: Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) are rapidly increasing in global value chains. While consumers, mostly in developed countries, are willing to pay significant premiums for such standards, it is not well understood how effectively these incentives are transmitted to producing countries.
    Keywords: Sustainability, coffee, exports, Commodities, Quality, value chains, high value agricultural products,
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Fani Samara (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly); Stergios Tampekis (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly); Stavros Sakellariou (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly); Olga Christopoulou (Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly); Athanasios Sfougaris (University of Thessaly)
    Abstract: It is known that island forests constitute rare and, at the same time, vulnerable ecosystems that express the complexity and the ecologic interactions of our planet. Ecosystems of island regions change at great speed and, in most cases, they are environmentally degraded. The right management of the natural assets of island forest regions and, at the same time, the socio-economic growth of human resources constitutes the only solution for the achievement of sustainable development. Sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network based on spatial planning. The aim of this paper is to present the progress of the existing forest road network at the Island of Skiathos for the last decades. With the contribution of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and orthophotomaps, spatial planning of the forest road network can be evaluated for all these years and Road Density can also be calculated. Thematic maps of the forest roads, for each year separately, will also be presented. The current study explores the application of spatial planning in forest roads in order to achieve sustainable development with respect to nature assets and the landscape, in combination with viable forest exploitation.
    Keywords: Island, Forest Roads, GIS, Road Density
    JEL: Q01
  26. By: Barbara Coello; Gbemisola Oseni; Tanya Savrimootoo; Eli Weiss
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Food and Beverage Industry Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Rural Development - Regional Rural Development
    Date: 2014–09
  27. By: Ingrid Mollard; Emily Brearley; Marialena Vyzaki; Sanna-Liisa Taivalmaa
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Gender - Gender and Development Gender - Gender and Health Housing Human Habitats Rural Development Knowledge Information Systems Agriculture Rural Development Communities and Human Settlements
    Date: 2015–04
  28. By: Carlos Arce; Edgar Uribe
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Science and Technology Development - Science of Climate Change Urban Development - Hazard Risk Management Environment - Global Environment Facility Environment - Climate Change Impacts
    Date: 2015–02
  29. By: Popp, József; Jámbor, Attila
    Abstract: The latest reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has recently been accepted, identifying important challenges for EU agriculture, but proposing only limited changes to the previous CAP. Now it is time for the implementation of the new measures. However, from a theoretical point of view, it seems that the CAP can hardly meet the challenges it faces due to the inconsistencies between the predefined challenges and the measures proposed to meet them. The aim of the paper is to systematically analyse the consistency between the challenges of European agriculture and the policy measures aimed at meeting them. It seems that not all measures are consistent with the challenges.
    JEL: Q18
    Date: 2015
  30. By: Lutter, Randall (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: In 2009 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimated that its shell egg rule would reduce illness from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) by about 79,000 cases annually (37%), with a range from about 30,000 to 191,000 cases avoided. I assess the effectiveness of this rule, which requires farmers who sell eggs to adopt SE control measures, by comparing illness from SE with illness from other Salmonella serotypes, using a differences-in-differences approach. The data reject the hypothesis that the rule reduced illnesses by FDA’s best 2009 estimate, but do not reject a hypothesis of no effect. The percentage of young broilers that test positive for SE has a modest effect on the incidence of human cases of salmonellosis caused by SE. Recent literature offers two other reasons to adjust FDA’s prospective 2009 calculations. One adjustment would follow the Centers for Disease Control’s use of a lower multiplier to infer the total number of (unobserved) cases of illness from those confirmed by positive lab tests. A second adjustment would lower the average cost of Salmonella cases, by recognizing lower risk of severe sequelae. These adjustments and the new retrospective assessment of the effectiveness of the rule together suggest that the benefits of FDA’s egg rule may be a small fraction of the prospective estimate of benefits, and less than the prospective estimate of costs. I conclude with some policy recommendations to make food safety regulations more effective.
    Keywords: food safety, salmonella, retrospective, effects of regulation
    Date: 2015–06–12
  31. By: Melanie Morten (Stanford University); Corina Mommaerts (Yale University); Ahmed Mobarak (Yale University); Costas Meghir (Yale University)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between seasonal migration and informal risk sharing in rural Bangladesh. We use data from a randomized controlled trial which provided incentives for households to migrate (Bryan et al., 2014). Using this experimental variation, we first provide evidence of the effect of decreasing migration costs on endogenous risk sharing in the village. We then investigate the mechanisms of this effect. We undertake a semi-parametric analysis of the source of income shocks, source of insurance and measurement error. Next, we characterize a dynamic model of migration and endogenous risk sharing, incorporating investment in learning about migration possibilities. Estimation of the model is in progress; we plan to analyze the welfare effect of alternative policies to encourage migration, such as access to credit and further reductions in the cost of migrating.
    Date: 2015
  32. By: Teixeira, Aurora A. C.; Castro e Silva, Manuela
    Abstract: The way the fields are delineated has been the Achilles' heel of studies analyzing the status and evolution of given scientific areas. Based on van den Besselaar and Leydesdorff's (Mapping change in scientific specialities; a scientometric reconstruction of the development of artificial intelligence, 1996) contribution, the authors propose a systematic and objective method for delineating the field of ecological economics assuming that aggregated journal-journal citation relations is an appropriate indicator for the disciplinary organization of the sciences. They found that the relational scientific backbone of ecological economics comprises 7 main journals: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Ecological Economics, Environment and Development Economics, Environmental and Resources Economics, Land Economics, Land Use Policy, and Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. From the 3727 articles published between 2005 and 2010 in the ecological economics field, and the corresponding 142 thousand citations two main outcomes emerged: 1) the intellectual frame of reference is overwhelmed by economists and environmental and resources economists with (renowned) ecological economists relatively underrepresented; 2) the building of an integrative knowledge domain is not apparent: on the one hand, ecological economics is seen to be an 'unbound' heterodox and multidisciplinary field, but on the other hand, and somewhat awkwardly, it is (still) heavily 'bound' by quantitative mainstream/ orthodox methodologies.
    Keywords: ecological economics,philosophy of science,bibliometrics
    JEL: C18 C8 Y10 Q57
    Date: 2015
  33. By: Ozcan Saritas (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Liliana Proskuryakova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); S Sivaev
    Abstract: The research presented in this paper focuses on the sustainable use of water resources in Russia based on a Foresight study with a 20-year time horizon. The study uses a scenario-planning method to develop four trajectories: economic depression, economic stagnation, visionary future, and national priority. These four trajectories offer significantly different yet plausible alternative futures. The current paper draws upon the earlier horizon scanning activity, which identified a set of trends, weak signals and wild cards, along with their implications for water resources in Russia. Based on this work, it identifies key factors and indicators, which may characterize future developments in the following domains: (i) the sustainability of water systems; (ii) water use by households and industry; and (iii) new water products and services. The evolution of variables and indicators will then be considered under the scenarios termed ‘Nearly perfect future’ (economic growth), ‘Problem conservation’ (economic stagnation), ‘Losses and accidents’ (economic depression), and ‘National priority’ trajectories. The paper concludes with a brief description of further research directions, including a discussion on the probability of the scenarios being implemented. Russian policy makers and water companies may use the scenarios to adapt (i.e. plan for timely responses), avert certain undesirable future developments, or approximate the visionary future of the sector
    Keywords: water resources, sustainable water systems, water use, water goods and services, scenarios, Foresight, Russia.
    JEL: H4 H5 H87 I30 M11 R20 R52 Q01 Q02 Q15 Q18 Q22 Q25 Q26 Q27 Q53 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2015
  34. By: Headey, Derek D.
    Abstract: Research does not always provide the results that we expect. At the recent conference on improving nutrition in Ethiopia, Together for Nutrition 2015, we learnt about the rapid progress in Ethiopia in child nutritional outcomes that are linked to improved birth size and, hence, improved maternal health. However, most of the improvement in maternal health seems related to better sanitation, rather than to diet, care, or health factors.
    Keywords: nutrition, malnutrition, children, diet, health, undernutrition, undernourishment, Maternal and child health,
    Date: 2015
  35. By: Headey, Derek D.
    Abstract: This study uses two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) to statistically analyze patterns and trends in undernutrition (child growth) in Ethiopia over the period 2000 to 2011. In 2000, over half of Ethiopian preschool children were stunted and almost a third were severely stunted. However, progress against child undernutrition over the study period was solid, with stunting prevalence reduced by 1.4 percentage points per year, although progress has slowed since to 1.0 points per year between 2011 and 2014.
    Keywords: Children, Nutrition, malnutrition, Demography, Health, Stunting, undernourishment,
    Date: 2015
  36. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Ecosystems and Natural Habitats Water Resources - Coastal and Marine Resources Environment - Coastal and Marine Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Environmental Economics Policies Agriculture
    Date: 2015–04
  37. By: Raghuram, G.; Simy Sunny
    Abstract: This paper captures the policy processes leading to the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement (RFCTLARR) Ordinance, 2014. It maps the role and the influence of the three primary stakeholders - Government, industry and landowners - at various stages of the evolution of the land acquisition law in India. Land acquisition has remained a controversial issue in India resulting in conflicts between social, economic and political structures. The RFCTLARR Act 2013 was an attempt by the earlier Government to provide a fair deal to the landowners who had suffered due to the weak framework of the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. The Government also had one year until December 31, 2014 to decide on whether 13 Special Acts which had land acquisition privileges should come under this Act or be exempted. However, the Act soon faced resistance from the industry due to the impact of clauses like social impact assessment, rehabilitation and resettlement, and consent requirements on projects done in public interest. After constant pressure from the industry and consultations from the State Governments, the new Government finally brought in amendments to the 2013 Act. Given the one year deadline and the washout of the winter session of Parliament, it brought in the amendment through an ordinance.

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.