nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
28 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Participation of Women Farmers in Rice Farming and Food Security Of Farmers Household in Swamp Land-Indonesia By Yulian Junaidi
  2. A cross-region study: climate change adaptation in Malawi's agro-based systems By Assa, Maganga Mulagha; Gebremariam, Gebrelibanos G.; Mapemba, Lawrence D.
  3. Production Practices and Systems in Sustainable Agriculture By Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos
  4. The Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Panel Data of Bangladesh By Kazi Iqbal; Abu Siddique
  5. International Rice Outlook, Baseline Projections 2014-2024 By Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C.
  6. Equitable and Sustainable Development of Foreign Land Acquisitions: Lessons, Policies and Implications By Simplice Asongu; Christian Nguena
  7. Agricultural technology adoption and rice varietal diversity: A Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) Approach for rural Benin By Bonou, Alice; Diagne, Aliou; Biaou, Gauthier
  8. Agricultural Risk and the Spread of Religious Communities By Philipp Ager; Antonio Ciccone
  9. Evaluating the use of marginal abatement cost curves applied to greenhouse gas abatement in agriculture By Eory, Vera
  11. An agriculture-focused, regionally disaggregated SAM for Mexico 2008 By Luis Carlos Jemio; Lykke E. Andersen; Clemens Breisinger; Manfred Wiebelt
  12. Assessing conventional and organic citrus farming systems eco-efficiency: a metafrontier directional distance function approach using Life Cycle Analysis. By Mercedes Beltrán Esteve; Ernest Reig Martínez; Vicent Estruch Guitart
  13. Regional development, income distribution and gender in Bolivia: Insights from a 2012 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and Multiplier Analysis By Luis Carlos Jemio; Lykke E. Andersen; Clemens Breisinger; Manfred Wiebelt
  14. Can a Monitoring Agency efficiently regulate the EU milk market? By Weber, Sascha A.; Hansen, Heiko
  15. The Impact of Nutrition Literacy and Source Credibility on Responses to Healthy Eating Campaigns By Lara Spiteri Cornish
  16. Regional trade agreements and agriculture By OECD
  17. Marine ecosystem considerations and second-best management By Nicolas Quérou; Agnès Tomini
  18. U.S. Food and Nutrition Programs By Hilary W. Hoynes; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
  19. Optimal carbon abatement in a stochastic equilibrium model with climate change By Hambel, Christoph; Kraft, Holger; Schwartz, Eduardo S.
  20.  Spatial heterogeneity and transboundary pollution: a contingent valuation study on the Xijiang River drainage basin in south China  By Jie He; Anping Huang;  Luodan Xu
  21. Crop Insurance in Iowa By Plastina, Alejandro; Hart, Chad E.
  22. Promises and pitfalls in environmentally extended input-output analysis for China: a survey of the literature By Hawkins, Jacob; Ma, Chunbo; Schilizzi, Steven; Zhang, Fan
  23. Re-examining empirical evidence on contingent valuation – Importance of incentive compatibility By Ewa Zawojska; Mikołaj Czajkowski
  24. Entry of Painters in the Amsterdam Market of the Golden Age By Federico Etro; Elena Stepanova
  25. Drivers of green supply chain management practices and their impact on firms’ performance in a developing country By Kamran Rashid; M.M. Haris Aslam; Asad ur Rahman Wahla
  26. Electrification and Educational Outcomes in Rural Peru By Dasso, Rosamaría; Fernandez, Fernando; Nopo, Hugo
  27. A categorisation and evaluation of rhino management policies By Douglas J. Crookes and James N. Blignaut
  28. Air pollution, foetal mortality, and long-term health: Evidence from the Great London Smog By Ball, Alastair

  1. By: Yulian Junaidi (Sriwijaya University)
    Abstract: Swamp land have great potential to be a strategic choice for the development of agricultural production area to the front of the face of increasingly complex challenges, especially to compensate for shrinkage of arable land and an increase in production demand, including food security. During this time, swamp land have been used for agricultural production areas, such as used for rice farming. Rice farming is the main livelihood for the people living in the swamp lands to earn income for their household. With the increased income earned through farming activities outside the farm and household food needs are met daily, so as to improve household food security. Associated with household income and resilience can not be separated from the contribution and participation of women. Women have employment opportunities that can generate additional income for their household, which in turn can improve household food security. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the level of participation of women farmers in rice farming in swamp land, (2) assess the condition of the level of household food security of women farmers in the rice swamp land seen from Share of Food Expenditure (PPP) and (3) analyze relationship with the level of participation wanitatani household level food security of women farmers in the rice swamp land. This research was conducted in Ogan Ilir, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The results showed that the level of participation of women farmers in rice usatani in the high category. The level of household food security of women farmers in the rice swamp land, which is 69 percent food secure and 31 percent food vulnerable. From the results of the research can be seen also that there is a positive relationship between the participation of women farmers in rice farming with the level of their household food security.
    Keywords: participation, women farmers, food security, rice, swamp
    Date: 2014–10
  2. By: Assa, Maganga Mulagha; Gebremariam, Gebrelibanos G.; Mapemba, Lawrence D.
    Abstract: Agriculture in Malawi is vulnerable to the impacts of changing climate. Adaptation is identified as one of the options to abate the negative impacts of the changing climate. This study analyzed the factors influencing different climate change adaptation choices by smallholder farmers in Malawi. We sampled 900 farmers from all three regions of Malawi, using the multistage sampling procedure, study piloted in 2012. We analyzed smallholder farmers’ climate change adaptation choices with Multinomial logit regression. Factors that enhance or hinder choice of climate adaptation options include age, gender, household size, land ownership, credit access, climate change training and extension visit. Policy thrust should focus on linking farmers to credit institutions, advocating for labour saving farm technologies and intensification of climate change trainings among smallholder farmers.
    Keywords: Climate change, adaptation, multinomial logit, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–09
  3. By: Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos
    Abstract: Interest in sustainable agriculture probably had its roots in the concept of sustainable development. There exist no agricultural production technologies or farming systems that are environmentally benign. The question thus becomes "what is sustainable and what is not?" The two underlying themes that appear in most definitions of sustainability and sustainable farming systems deal with (1) the economic profitability of the farming system over a long period of time; and (2) long-term benefits to the environment. To the extent that the proposed (sustainable) farming system provides greater off-site benefits than the farming system currently in place, federal, state and even local governments may have an interest in assuring that the alternative is implemented. Any regulations placed on U.S. farmers in an effort to achieve environmental goals cannot be so onerous such that U.S. farmers will no longer be able to produce commodities profitably at world market prices.
    Keywords: sustainability, production agriculture, agricultural production, agricultural production systems, environment and agriculture, Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics, Q56, Q57, Q50, Q28, Q24,
    Date: 2015–03–24
  4. By: Kazi Iqbal (Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies); Abu Siddique (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity in Bangladesh for the period 1975-2008 for 23 regions. First, the study relies on descriptive statistics and maps to explore the long term changes at both country and local level in climatic variables such as temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine. Second, it uses regression models to estimate the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity. Unlike the existing literature, this study exploits within-region time series variations (regional fixed effect) to estimate the impact of long term changes in climatic variables on agricultural productivity in order to control for regional differences, both observed and unobserved. The results show that long term changes in means and standard deviations of the climatic variables have differential impacts on the productivity of rice and thus the overall impact of climate change on agriculture is not unambiguous.
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C.
    Abstract: This outlook contains updated baseline rice projections from the Arkansas Global Rice Economics Program (AGREP) for the U.S. and international rice economies. The purpose of this document is to present the current state and the expected directions of the rice economies in the world by assessing their potential supply and demand paths over the next decade. This set of projections serves as a baseline for evaluating and comparing alternative macroeconomic, policy, weather, and technological scenarios. The estimates are intended for use by government agencies and officials, farmers, consumers, agribusinesses and other stakeholders who conduct medium- and long-term planning. The AGREP baseline projections are grounded in a series of assumptions about the general economy, agricultural policies, weather, and technological change. It is generally assumed that current agricultural policies will continue in the United States and other countries reported in this study. The projections included in this outlook are based on information available as of January 2015. In light of the volatility of the global rice economy, a stochastic analysis is included in this report to provide a better understanding of the probable distribution of future outcomes. The stochastic estimates establish likely upper and lower bounds for selected variables.
    Keywords: Rice, International, Outlook, Baseline, Projections, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade, C02, F01, F14, Q17, Q18, R11,
    Date: 2015–03–12
  6. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Christian Nguena (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: Large-scale agricultural land acquisitions have been covered substantially in recent literature. Despite the wealth of theoretical and empirical studies on this subject, there is no study that has reviewed existing literature in light of concerns over sustainable and equitable management. This chapter fills the gap by analyzing and synthesizing available literature to put some structure on existing knowledge. The paper has a threefold contribution to the literature. First, it takes stock of what we know so far about the determinants of land grab. Second, it presents a picture of sustainable and equitable development of the foreign land acquisitions. Third, policy syndromes are examined and policy implications discussed. Based on the accounts, the issues are not about whether agricultural investments are needed, but on how they can be sustainably and equitably managed to make positive contributions to food security and domestic development.
    Keywords: Governance; Equity; Sustainable Development; Land Grab
    JEL: F21 O13 O55 Q15 Q34
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Bonou, Alice; Diagne, Aliou; Biaou, Gauthier
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of adoption of new high-yielding varieties (NERICA) of rice on its varietal diversity in Benin. The database was from Impact Assessment unit of AfricaRice and concerns 304 producers of rice. Overall the study covered twenty-four villages over three districts: Dassa-Zounmè, Glazoué and Savalou. Data analysis was carried out using the econometric approach based on the Local Average Effect of Treatment (LATE) framework. Overall, estimation of impact showed that at village level the indexes of in-situ (on farm) conservation of varietal diversity of rice are the same in NERICA and Non-NERICA villages. Moreover, at farmer level, the average impact of NERICA adoption on number of modern rice varieties of the sub-population of NERICA potential adopters is 0.8. NERICA’s rice varieties had positively impacted the in situ conservation of varietal diversity. Our findings indicated that it is worth extending diffusion of NERICA varieties in Benin.
    Keywords: Adoption, LATE, NERICA, varietal diversity, rice, Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–09
  8. By: Philipp Ager (University of Southern Denmark); Antonio Ciccone (Mannheim University and Barcelona GSE)
    Abstract: Building on the idea that members of religious communities insure each other against some idiosyncratic risks, we argue that religious communities should be more widespread where populations face greater common risk. Our empirical analysis exploits rainfall risk as a source of common agricultural risk in the nineteenth-century United States. We show that a greater share of the population was organized into religious communities in counties with greater rainfall risk. The link between rainfall risk and membership in religious communities is stronger among more agricultural counties and counties exposed to greater rainfall risk during the growing season.
    Keywords: Religious community membership, agricultural risk, informal insurance
    JEL: Z12 O13 N31
    Date: 2015–03
  9. By: Eory, Vera
    Abstract: Agriculture plays an important role in the transformation towards a ‘low-carbon’ society. The sector is highly vulnerable to climate variability, and is a significant source of emissions, while at the same time, it has a potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Developing policies to support GHG mitigation emissions requires information on the effectiveness and costs of potential mitigation opportunities. Such information is frequently depicted in marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which help to visualise the hierarchy of mitigation measures and their cumulative level of abatement. Like other tools, MACCs have certain limitations. Furthermore, different derivations of MACCs are appropriate to answer different questions. In order to draw both informative and reliable conclusions for policy decisions, the characteristics of the MACCs and the resulting limitations have to be presented clearly. This paper discusses the main limitations of agricultural MACCs (e.g. wider effects, transaction costs, uncertainty, heterogeneity, non-monetary barriers), reviewing recent methodological developments. Furthermore, it provides guidelines for researchers and policy makers about the choice of methods and the communication of the results in order to improve the use of MACCs in the policy process.
    Keywords: marginal abatement cost curves, agriculture, greenhouse gas emissions, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2015–03–12
  10. By: Andreas Totu (Universiti Malaysia Sabah); Halina Sendera Mohd Yakin (Universiti Malaysia Sabah)
    Abstract: This study examines the relationships between television (TV) advertising and patterns of food choice among children. This relationship is crucial in understanding the intricate interplay among several interrelated variables such as TV viewing, preference for certain foods and the problem of obesity. Specifically, the study investigates the degree of recognition of adverts and patterns of food choice among lean, overweight and obese children. This study uses an experimental test, but the assessment of the effects of advertisements was undertaken through questionnaires. There were 50 participants involved in the experiment. The outcomes of the study indicate that TV advertisements make a substantial contribution to what food a child chooses. Although there were some variations in terms of responses between age groups and gender, generally, children seemed likely to choose fast foods after treatment. Further analyses were performed which revealed that media, particularly TV advertising, appear to contribute significantly in terms of influencing children to choose fast food, followed by taste. The study also seems to suggest that there is a strong correlation between the weight of a child and food choice. In short, children who were inclined to choose fast foods tended to be overweight or obese.
    Keywords: TV advertising, food choice, obesity, children, Malaysia
    JEL: M37 L66
    Date: 2014–05
  11. By: Luis Carlos Jemio (Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)); Lykke E. Andersen (Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)); Clemens Breisinger (International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.); Manfred Wiebelt (Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Kiel, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper describes the construction of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the Mexican economy for year 2008. It presents the methodology and data sources used, assumptions made, criteria adopted to disaggregate the SAM’s accounts and the main results obtained. The Mexico SAM was built as the main data base for the calibration of a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model, used to investigate the quantitative effects of climate change on the Mexican economy, with emphasis on analyzing its distributional impacts. Since the effects of climate change are mainly transmitted to the economy through the agricultural sector and since impacts on agriculture differ across regions, the Mexico SAM presents a significant disaggregation in the accounts referred to the agricultural activities and to income distribution, redistribution and income spending across households and regions. The final disaggregated SAM is quite large and is included in the accompanying spreadsheet file.
    Keywords: Social Accounting Matrix, Mexico
    Date: 2015–02
  12. By: Mercedes Beltrán Esteve (Department of Applied Economics II, Universitat de València); Ernest Reig Martínez (Department of Applied Economics II, Universitat de València); Vicent Estruch Guitart (Universitat Politècnica de València)
    Abstract: In this paper, the eco‐efficiency of citrus farms operating under two different conventional and organic technological systems is analyzed. The methodology combines Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the production process, and Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) to estimate the position of each holding in relation to a frontier formed by the best farming practices. The use of the directional distance function concept allows us to calculate farms’eco‐efficiency scoring with respect to specific environmental impacts, and not only for the whole of them. The metafrontier concept is also used in order to compare the relative eco‐efficiency of each of the two cultivation technologies used. Our results show a wide superiority of the organic farming system in relation to the conventional. An eco‐efficient('green') organic technology represents, in relation to an eco‐efficient use of conventional citrus cultivation techniques, a potential reduction of environmental impacts by 80% without worsening economic performance. In contrast, when the performance of organic and conventional citrus farms is only analyzed in relation to best practices within each system, average eco-efficiency scores are similar for both types of farms.
    Keywords: TFP, business cycle 1501
    JEL: C61 Q12 Q51 Q57
    Date: 2015–01
  13. By: Luis Carlos Jemio (Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)); Lykke E. Andersen (Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)); Clemens Breisinger (International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.); Manfred Wiebelt (Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Kiel, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper describes the construction of the most detailed, openly accessible Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Bolivia to date. In addition to allowing for “standard” socio-economic analysis common for SAMs - like assessing the linkages between production, factor income distribution and households’ incomes and expenditures – the SAM presented in this paper makes detailed economic assessments at the subnational level, by gender and at detailed agricultural subsector levels, possible. Sections 1-4 present the methodology and data sources used, explain assumptions and criteria adopted for SAM disaggregation, and discuss key findings with a focus on distributional features. Section 5 presents results from a simple SAM multiplier model and section 6 concludes. It is the authors’ hope that this SAM database can make a contribution to evidence-based policy making that helps to further reduce poverty and food insecurity in Bolivia.
    Keywords: Social Accounting Matrix, Bolivia
    Date: 2015–01
  14. By: Weber, Sascha A.; Hansen, Heiko
    Abstract: [Synopsis] In light of the expiry of the EU milk quota in April 2015, the German Federal Association of Dairy Farmers (Bundesverband Deutscher Milchviehhalter e. V. (BDM)) and the European Milk Board (EMB) have put forward a proposal for the future management of the dairy market. The central element of this proposal is a Monitoring Agency which will not only monitor the milk market on a permanent basis and analyse developments but also implement a Market Responsibility Programme in the event of a crisis. Both the number and amount of market adjustments should be carried out in a flexible manner, depending on the market situation. Based on the calculated milk production costs, a target price range is defined in which the average European milk producer price should move. This system requires the introduction of both a basic volume and supply rights. Depending on the market situation, supply rights amounting to 3-5 percent of the existing (basic) supply rights will be granted to or withdrawn from dairy farmers. As an additional intervention measure, a remunerated scheme for the voluntary suspension of production in the tendering or bidding process should be implemented, together with strategic storage. The costs of the instruments are to be covered from a market regulation fund Furthermore, in order for this system to function, the existing regulation on protection at the EU’s external borders on the basis of the Uruguay Round must be maintained (Fink-Keßler A 2013). [...]
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Lara Spiteri Cornish (Coventry Business School)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of flawed or limited nutrition knowledge on the perception of healthy eating, healthy foods and subsequent dietary behavior. Nutrition can be seen as the end result of many pushes and pulls, and a response to multiple forces that create an overall nutrition environment (Blaylock et al. 1999). One such pull is the rise of healthy-eating communications and social marketing campaigns devised by policy makers, who seek to encourage healthier dietary habits among consumers. Indeed, the dramatic rise in obesity in recent years (Finkelstein et al 2012; Stevens et al 2012) has prompted academic discourse to assist the development of interventional public policies (Andreasen 2012), along with a number of healthy-eating campaigns (e.g. "Eat4Life" and “5-a-day Campaign†in the UK). This pull, in turn, has resulted in a push response by the food industry in the form of creating brand new foods marketed as healthier or healthy (Wansink 2007; Menrad 2003; Kleinschmidt 2003; Diplock et al. 1999; Lahteenmaki 2003), to convey a better fit with the new healthier eating paradigm without necessarily being healthier than their alternatives. Such push has also meant new ideas and concepts about healthy eating and healthy foods (Nestle 2007; Pollan 2009; Block et al. 2011).This push-pull dynamics has caused increased consumer awareness of the importance of eating healthily (Zaninotto et al. 2009; COI/Department of Health 2009). However, it has also created much scope for consumer confusion. In fact, despite increased consumer awareness of the need to eat healthily, dietary patterns have not improved (Produce for Better Health Foundation 2009; European Food Information Council 2012). Concerns about unhealthy dietary patterns have led to a growing literature in consumer behavior relating to the impact of food communication on food consumption (Verbeke 2008; Hornik 2007; Fitzgibbon et al. 2007; Randolph and Viswanath 2004; Jebb et al. 2003; Snyder 2007). A number of negative psychological consequences of healthy-eating communications which might lead to resistance to comply with desirable nutrition behavior were identified (e.g. denial, excess fear), and recommendations were made with regard to how campaigns can be modified to result in increased uptake of the desired behavior (e.g. Peattie and Peattie 2009; Evan and Hastings 2009). The implicit assumption in this literature is that the high level of consumer awareness regarding healthy-eating communications, combined with the lack of positive change in healthy eating, means that these messages are failing to persuade consumers to implement the compliant dietary behavior (Guttman and Salmon 2004; Hornik 2002; Evan and Hastings 2009; Girandola 2000). This paper moves away from this assumption and seeks to answer the following question: is consumer confusion regarding nutrition information affecting nutrition knowledge and literacy, and what are the impacts of poor nutrition literacy on consumer perceptions of healthy eating, healthy foods, and consequent dietary behaviors? In order to address this research question, the paper draws on consumer confusion theory (Mitchell et al. 2005; Mitchell and Papavassiliou 1999), and argues, as do Block et al. (2011), that having nutrition knowledge is not sufficient to change consumers’ food consumption. Consumers need appropriate nutrition literacy and it goes beyond having healthy-eating knowledge; it encompasses having the ‘right information’ (i.e. legitimate knowledge), the ability to understand such information (i.e. nutrition self-efficacy), as well as the opportunity and motivation to use such nutrition knowledge in order to make healthy food choices that lead to overall healthier diets (Block et al. 2011). This research presents an alternative explanation as to why consumers are failing to implement healthy dietary behaviors. The authors discuss how often consumers do respond to healthy-eating communications, but they do so from their level of nutrition understanding. Many consumers are confused due to limited or flawed nutrition knowledge, resulting in poor nutrition literacy and the implementation of dietary changes that contravene the intentions of health messages. This paper offers a new perspective on the impact of healthy-eating communications and food consumption, and leads to relevant implications for nutrition researchers, policy makers, and marketing managers, at a time when healthy eating is high on the policy-making agenda (Scammon et al. 2011).
    Keywords: Nutrition literacy; nutrition knowledge; source credibility; confusion
    Date: 2014–07
  16. By: OECD
    Abstract: Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) are key instruments to governing international trade, and reflect a balance between political and economic objectives. The level of liberalisation in the agriculture sector can differ substantially across negotiated agreements, and even across products within the same agreement. This paper synthesises the results of the analyses found in previous OECD studies on the agricultural component of some 53 RTAs. It identifies those components that can be trade constraining and explores ways in which future RTAs can facilitate trade. It finds that market access could be improved under an RTA by removing limitations on tariff concessions, harmonising rules of origin, limiting the use of special safeguards to those allowed by the WTO-AoA, prohibiting export subsidies and other export restrictions except as permitted by Article XI of WTO_GATT, and implementing core SPS principles.
    Keywords: agriculture, tariff elimination, SPS measures, regional trade agreements, safeguards
    JEL: F1 F13 Q10 Q23
    Date: 2015–03
  17. By: Nicolas Quérou; Agnès Tomini
    Abstract: Since existing regulatory schemes are often suboptimal, we compare the performance of several second-best control rules implemented on multi-species fisheries in terms of their effect on biodiversity and on effort transfer. We show how these effects depend on the economic returns and on the type of ecological interaction considered. We highlight speciffically that fishing effort is not necessarily reallocated from regulated to unregulated sectors, and that the shape of second-best effcient instruments (tax versus subsidy) may differ drastically depending on the nature of the interaction.
    Date: 2015–03
  18. By: Hilary W. Hoynes; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
    Abstract: This chapter provides an overview of the patchwork of U.S. food and nutrition programs, with detailed discussions of SNAP (formerly the Food Stamp Program), WIC, and the school breakfast and lunch programs. Building on Currie’s (2003) review, we document the history and goals of the programs, and describe the current program rules. We also provide program statistics and how participation and costs have changed over time. The programs vary along how “in-kind” the benefits are, and we describe economic frameworks through which each can be analyzed. We then review the recent research on each program, focusing on studies that employ techniques that can isolate causal impacts. We conclude by highlighting gaps in current knowledge and promising areas for future research.
    JEL: H53 I3
    Date: 2015–03
  19. By: Hambel, Christoph; Kraft, Holger; Schwartz, Eduardo S.
    Abstract: This paper studies a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model involving climate change. Our model allows for damages on economic growth resulting from global warming. In the calibration, we capture effects from climate change and feedback effects on the temperature dynamics. We solve for the optimal state-dependent abatement policy. In our simulations, the costs of this policy measured in terms of lost GDP growth are moderate. On the other hand, postponing abatement action could reduce the probability that the climate can be stabilized. For instance, waiting for 10 years reduces this probability from 60% to 30%. Waiting for another 10 years leads to a probability that is less than 10%. Finally, doing nothing opens the risk that temperatures might explode and economic growth decreases significantly.
    Keywords: Climate change economics,Carbon abatement,GDP growth
    JEL: D81 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Jie He (Departement d'economique, Faculte d'administration, Universite de Sherbrooke); Anping Huang (Lingnan (University College), University of Sun Yat-sen, China);  Luodan Xu (Lingnan (University College), University of Sun Yat-sen, China)
    Abstract:  This article examines whether and how transboundary river water pollution spillover may affect resident’s Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a river water quality improvement project. Based on a CVM survey conducted in 20 cities located in the Xijiang river basin located in south China, our study demonstrates that the downstream city respondents report lower WTP when the water quality in the immediate upstream city is more polluted. This negative externality decreases with distance and relative bargaining power of downstream city. The simulated potential gain in social benefit if an integrated river basin management (IRBM) were installed, which is supposed to remove respondents’ concerns about negative externality of transboundary river pollution is found to be significant. We can consider this social benefit as upper bound for the transfer from downstream to upstream regions to ensure the reduction of transboundary river pollution spillovers in the Ecological Service Payment (ESP) regime, a hotly debated market-based environmental policy which is under polit project in some regions in China.
    Keywords:  transboundary water pollution, river, negative externality, spatial, contingent valuation, river water management, ecological service payment, China
    Date: 2015–03
  21. By: Plastina, Alejandro; Hart, Chad E.
    Date: 2014–12–10
  22. By: Hawkins, Jacob; Ma, Chunbo; Schilizzi, Steven; Zhang, Fan
    Abstract: As the largest developing economy, China plays a key role in global climate change. Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EE-IOA) is an important and insightful tool seeing widespread use in studying large-scale environmental impacts in China: calculating and analyzing greenhouse gas emissions, carbon and water footprints, pollution, and embedded energy. Chinese EE-IOA are hindered, however, by unreliable data and limited resolution. This paper reviews the body of literature regarding EE-IOA for China in peer-reviewed journals and provides an overview of the articles, examining their methodologies, environmental issues addressed, and data utilized. This paper further identifies the shortcomings in using input-output analyses to gauge environmental impacts in China. Potentially fruitful areas of expansion in Chinese EE-IOA research are denoted, including under-researched environmental issues, underutilized methodologies, and techniques to disaggregate data to move beyond the limitations inherent in official Chinese input-output data.
    Keywords: China, input-output, disaggregation, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C67, D57, F18, O53, Q4, Q5,
    Date: 2015–03–22
  23. By: Ewa Zawojska (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The contingent valuation (CV) method uses respondents’ stated choices made in hypothetical situations to infer their preferences for environmental public goods. It enables the general public’s preferences to be stated in monetary terms and hence to estimate the economic value of a change in the quantity or quality of the goods. However, a key question remains regarding CV’s validity: do the value estimates obtained from a CV study reflect respondents’ true preferences and their maximum willingness to pay? Numerous empirical investigations have tested CV’s validity, but overall conclusions are mixed. We critically re-evaluate this evidence considering the issue of incentive compatibility in contingent valuation settings for which the necessary conditions were recently proposed by Carson and Groves (2007). Our analysis shows that once incentive compatibility conditions are considered, the available studies consistently show that the CV method is valid. As a result, we argue that contingent scenarios and elicitation formats must be made incentive compatible in order to observe consumers’ true preferences.
    Keywords: contingent valuation, stated preference, validity, incentive compatibility
    JEL: Q51 H4 D6
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Federico Etro (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Elena Stepanova (Department of Economics, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa)
    Abstract: We analyze the evolution of the price of paintings in the XVII century Amsterdam art market to test a hypothesis of endogenous entry: higher probability should attract more entry of painters, which in turn should lead to artistic innovations and more intense competition. We build a price index for the representative painting inventoried in Dutch houses through hedonic regressions controlling for characteristics of the paintings (size, genre, placement in the house), the owners (job, religion, value of the collection, size of the house) and the painters. After a peak at the beginning of the century, the real price of paintings decreases until the end of the century: we provide anecdotal evidence for which high initial prices attracted entry of innovators, and econometric evidence on the causal relation between price movements and entry of painters. The time series analysis supports the idea for which increasing prices attracted entry of innovative painters.
    Keywords: Art market, Endogenous entry, Dutch Golden Age, Hedonic prices, VAR analysis
    JEL: Z11 N0 D4
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Kamran Rashid (University of Management & Technology); M.M. Haris Aslam (University of Management & Technology); Asad ur Rahman Wahla (University of Management & Technology)
    Abstract: Environmental sustainability of supply chains has become increasingly important in the recent years. The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices among manufacturing firms of a developing country, and to examine the impact of GSCM practices on firms’ economic and environmental performance. A structural equation model is developed to study the hypothesized relationships between three drivers and GSCM practices, and between GSCM practices and firm’s economic and environmental performance. A sample of manufacturing firms is drawn from the companies listed in the local stock exchange. Cross-sectional data of 80 responses from these manufacturing firms is collected. The developed model is tested through Partial Least Square (PLS) technique of structural equation modeling using Smart PLS version 2.0 M3. Structural equation estimates indicate that customer’s pressure and firm’s internal drive (enviropreneurship) positively influence the adaptation of GSCM practices. However governmental legislation is not significantly driving the adaptation of GSCM practices. In view of these findings, effectiveness of governmental environmental legislation and issues related to implementation of these regulations are discussed. Further, it was found that GSCM practices positively impact the supply chain buying firm’s economic and environmental performance. The paper discusses the implications of these findings in the context of managing supply chains in a developing country.
    Keywords: Green supply chain management (GSCM), supply chains, environmental performance, structural equation modeling, Partial Least Square (PLS)
    Date: 2014–06
  26. By: Dasso, Rosamaría (IFPRI, International Food Policy Research Institute); Fernandez, Fernando (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Nopo, Hugo (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: We study the effects of electrification on educational outcomes in Peru by taking advantage of a program that rapidly increased electricity coverage in rural areas. Using household survey panel data from 2007-2010, we document that: i) girls living in treated districts are more likely to be enrolled in school, and this effect is larger among younger girls; ii) this positive effect on female enrollment does not translate into higher attendance rates; iii) households in treated areas spend more money on younger girls' education. In addition, we use school-level panel data from 2007-2012 on Math and Reading test scores to show that treatment is associated with a reduction in learning. But, among treated schools, longer treatment exposure increases scores in Reading for boys and girls; and improves performance in Math, only among boys. Finally, our estimates are robust to controlling for other confounding interventions.
    Keywords: education, rural electrification, Peru
    JEL: I25 O13 O15
    Date: 2015–03
  27. By: Douglas J. Crookes and James N. Blignaut
    Abstract: Rhino populations are at a critical level and new approaches are needed to ensure their survival. This study conducts a review and categorisation of policies for the management of rhinos. Twenty seven policies are identified and classified into in situ (reserve based) and ex situ (market based) policies. The policies are then evaluated based on four target areas: poachers/hunters; consumers; intermediaries and the game reserves themselves. The study finds that protected areas management policies seem most beneficial in the short run, in particular the enforcement of private property rights over resource utilisation, as well as the establishment of wildlife sanctuaries that act as sustainable breeding grounds for rhino populations.
    Keywords: rhino, Economics, Property rights, tragedy of the commons
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Ball, Alastair
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on the consequences of foetal exposure to high levels of pollution for the risk of stillbirth, and for the long-term health and labour market outcomes of those that survive. Variation in in utero exposure comes from a persistent weather system that affected London for five days in December 1952, preventing the dispersion of atmospheric pollution. This increased levels of total suspended particulate matter by around 300%. Unaffected counties in England and Wales are used in a differences-in-differences design to identify the short and long-term effects. Historical registrar data for the nine months following the smog show a 2% increase in reported stillbirths in London relative to national trends. As foetal deaths often go unreported, the exercise is then repeated for registered births. The data show around 1600 fewer live births then expected in London, or a reduction of 3% against national trends. Survivors are then identified by district and quarter of birth, and their health and labour market outcomes observed at fifty and sixty years old. Differences-in-differences estimates show that survivors are in general less healthy, less likely to have a formal qualification, and less likely to be employed than those unaffected by the smog.
    Keywords: Atmospheric pollution; Great London Smog; Fetal exposure; Health; Education; Employment
    JEL: I10 I18 Q53
    Date: 2014–11–01

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