nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
eighteen papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Global water in a global world a long term study on agricultural virtual water flows in the world By Rosa Duarte; Vicente Pinilla; Ana Serrano
  2. Comparative Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency among Various Production Scale Operators in Cassava-Based Mixed Cropping Systems of Ogun and Oyo States of South west, Nigeria By Obayelu, A. E.; Afolami, C. A.; Agbonlahor, M.U.
  3. An Anaatyical study of the Farmers towards Organic Farming In Qassim Area kSaudi Arabia By ABDULLAH A. ALZAIDI
  5. Food Waste in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Need for Extension Education Programs to Increase Public Awareness By KHODRAN AL-ZAHRANI; MIRZA BAIG
  6. Management in agriculture; specialities of development By Csaba Berde
  7. The Effects of Managers’ Characteristics and Perspectives on the Financial Performance of Thai Agricultural Cooperatives By Suwanna Thuvachote; Nuttiporn Phetphong
  8. The Role of a Warehouse Receipt System in an Agricultural Commodity Exchange. A Case Study of the Malawian Agricultural Commodity Exchange By Vyver, A. van der; Nordier, A.
  9. Alternative Track of Energy in Egypt By yasmine Gharieb; Zeinab Ibrahim
  10. Does commercialization of smallholder horticulture reduce rural poverty? Evidence based on household panel data from Kenya By Muriithi, Beatrice W.
  12. Political Risk Investing in Emerging Markets versus Economic Reality By Larisa Belinskaja; Ugne Kisielyte
  14. Analysing and Managing Urban Sprawl and Land Take By BENCARDINO, Massimiliano; IOVINO, Giorgia
  15. Land competition and monopsonistic monopoly: the role of the narco-insurgency in the colombian cocaine market By Omar Fdo., Arias-R.; Alfonso, Aza-Jacome
  16. Institutional Innovation in Agriculture and Industry Sectors: A Case of Indonesia By Ahmad Erani Yustika; Rukavina Baksh Abdullah; Dita Nurul Aini
  17. Assesing The Impact of Microcredit in Bolivia Evidence from Crédito Productivo Individual – Banco de Desarrollo Productivo By Werner L. Hernani-Limarino; Paul Villarroel
  18. Consumers´ Information Search Behavior on Wholesome Nutrition and their Attitudes towards Health Products; A Field Study from Eskisehir, Turkey By Nurcan Turan; Nuri Calik

  1. By: Rosa Duarte (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza); Vicente Pinilla (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza); Ana Serrano (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Girona)
    Abstract: : Agricultural and food products have been increasingly exchanged during the last half century. With them, water has been virtually transferred among countries. Thus, this paper studies the evolution of virtual water flows on the long term, analyzing the main factors driving them by means of a Decomposition Analysis. In particular, our study points at a gradual increase in virtual water consumption as a result of agricultural and food products trade in the world from 1965 to 2010. At the global level, the increase in the volume of trade has been the main factor driving water consumption increase.
    Keywords: : Virtual water trade, Decomposition Analysis, Global environmental change
    JEL: F18 N50 N70 Q25 Q27
    Date: 2015–03
  2. By: Obayelu, A. E.; Afolami, C. A.; Agbonlahor, M.U.
    Abstract: The efficiency with which farmers use available resources is very important in agricultural production. This study examines the resource use efficiency of cassava-based mixed crop farmers in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. Cross-sectional data were collected from 265 cassava-based farmers (150 in Ogun State and 115 in Oyo State) using a multistage sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, production elasticity from Cobb-Douglas production function and marginal analysis of resource utilization were some of the analytical tools used in the study. The mean farm size cultivated in Ogun State was 2.24ha while in Oyo State, it was 1.59ha. There was under-utilization fertilizer in Ogun State and land cultivated in Oyo State. Producers in the two states are inefficient in their use of resources but there exist enough potential to increase cassava output in the areas. This can be actualized by cropping larger hectares of land, regulated usage of higher quantities of fertilizers and the provision of labour saving devices which would help reduce labour requirements and enhance efficiency.
    Keywords: Cassava-based, efficiency, mixed crop, Nigeria and resource-use, Crop Production/Industries, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013–09
    Abstract: This study aimed to identify the degree of trends to organic farming in agriculture. The study explains the nature of the correlation between the independent variables and the degree of trends of respondents about organic farming as the dependent variable. This study was conducted on 149 farmers representing all farmers practicing organic farming in the Qassim region. The preliminary data were collected by using the questionnaire against personal interviews. The results and analysis of the data are presented in the form of: percentages, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and the simple correlation coefficient of Pearson, and regression (stepwise). The most important findings of the study indicate that about three -quarters of the farmers of respondents (73.4%) had attitudes between negative and neutral towards organic farming. However, a positive correlation (at the level of 01) was observed between the degrees of respondents’ attitudes towards organic farming (dependent variable) for the variables like: the basic profession, satisfaction with agricultural work, the total annual income. Also, a negative relationship at the same level with probability for the factors like: land tenure. Similarly a positive correlation was observed (at the level of 5) with the factors like: agricultural sources of information, and training. However, a negative relationship (at the same alpha level) was observed for the number of family members working in agriculture. However no cooperation was found for the factors like: age, educational level, family members the as agricultural worker, work full time for income from organic farming, the number of family members, activities and extension services. While practicing organic farming, the main obstacles faced by the respondents include: lack of organic fertilizers and organic farming inputs (moderate response 2.56 degrees), followed by availability of fake organic products in the markets affect consumer confidence in organic products (moderately response 2.53 degrees), yield reduction due to the lack of organic practices (2.50 degrees). The farmers of area feel that the knowledge and skills of agricultural extension workers were inadequate and they lack experience moderately in organic agriculture (2.05 degrees).
    Keywords: Attitudes Of farmer,Organic Farming
    JEL: A14 A14 A14
    Date: 2014–06
  4. By: Fatih MANGIR (Selçuk University)
    Abstract: The Common Agricultural Policy has taken a large part of the EU’s budget despite a steady decline of its share. This makes the member countries financially responsible for supporting and sustaining the CAP. The budget debate has played an important role in both the enlargement and the discussions on future reforms of the CAP. The CAP, one of the oldest and most controversial EU policies has been affected deeply by the political and economic integration of Europe. Upon possible accession to the EU, Turkey would need to transform its agricultural sector according to EU standards under the terms and conditions provided for in the Accession Treaty as determined by the outcome of the negotiations on Chapter 3 of the accession talks.EU enlargement and budgetary constraints will lead to some challenges for Turkey in the process of adapting its agricultural structure and policies in to the CAP. In this essay, we will assess and focus on the evolution of common agricultural policy within EU and its impacts of EU integration on Turkish Agriculture Sector
    Keywords: European Union, Common Agricultural Policy, CAP Reform, Turkey-EU Relations
    JEL: F15 A10
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: Food waste has been recognized all over the world and in Saudi Arabia too as one the prime factors limiting food security. The food is wasted through the entire food chain: by farmers, food industries, retailers, caterers and by consumers. The factors responsible and reasons causing such losses include: lack of awareness, lack of shopping planning, left-overs, and losses in households, restaurants, parties and occasions. Roughly about 40-50 % of all food ready for harvest never reaches to the consumers. According to the US environmental protection agency, food leftovers are the single-largest component of the waste stream. Food waste includes uneaten food and food preparation leftovers from residences or households, restaurants, schools, cafeterias etc. By 2075, the United Nation's mid-range projection for global population growth predicts that human numbers will peak at about 9.5 billion people. This means that there could be an extra three billion mouths to feed by the end of the century. The situation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is more crucial and difficult for several reasons; firstly the country imports almost all of its food needs. Secondly since 1990, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been among the countries suffering from severe water shortage. Despite the country is facing an acute scarcity of water resources and witnesses over growing population yet has successfully managed to achieve the self-sufficiency levels in several food commodities. The kingdom spends a significant portion of its budget on importing huge volumes of food commodities and makes them available to its citizens at the highly subsidized rates. Above all, the Saudis as a nation are very hospitable and food lovers. Also the culture in the KSA is based on festivals and huge quantities of food are being served. All these factors lead to a lot of food waste. At the moment, the wastefulness has reached to a level where food is thought to be the number one contributor to the waste in landfills. There is a great need to reduce the food waste in the KSA by adopting different ways, means and strategies. Although complete prevention seems difficult yet food waste can be reduced significantly by increasing public awareness on the food and water situation in the Kingdom through a national comprehensive campaign and vibrant extension education programs.
    Keywords: food waste, imports, subsidies, dietary behaviors, awareness, extension education,
    JEL: A13 A00 A13
    Date: 2014–06
  6. By: Csaba Berde (University of Debrecen Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development)
    Abstract: Agricultural engineer education at University of Debrecen has more than 140 years’ history. Seven departments were established for the higher agricultural education, launching in 1867. One of them was the Department of Practice. The education of Management and Organization became connected to this Department. It absolutely coincides with the general relationship of managerial thinking, and its development, meaning that management and organization form parts the practice. In the essay we introduce this development process of the 140 years’ old education and research of management. We try to identify similarities with general history of development of managerial science. We emphasize that change of managerial education in Debrecen is identical with development process of former socialist countries of Central-Europe. Practical education and approach turned into applied farm management by the middle of XX. century. In 1950 name of department changed into „Applied Farm Business Departmentâ€. In 1970 the department was called „Labor Organization and Managementâ€, later in 1975 it changed again for „Management and Labor Organizationâ€. It illustrates the change in way of thinking, since primarily labor organization was main stream of education, while later the dominant role of management was identified and acknowledged. This change was also experienced in the field of research beside education. After the change of regime we established Department of Management and Labor Sciences in the beginning of 2000, which later was transformed into a larger Institute. We also introduce that private research conception, which serves as base for a private managerial science program of our Doctoral School, operating in the field of management and organization
    Keywords: management, change, development
    Date: 2014–10
  7. By: Suwanna Thuvachote (Department of Cooperatives, Faculty of Economics, Kasetsart University); Nuttiporn Phetphong (Kasetsart University)
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, cooperatives in Thailand have become larger, more complicated and market oriented. As a result, demand for high-quality managers in cooperatives increases. A manager who understands his or her duties and functions and with good personality, responsibility, relationship with others is a great asset of a cooperative. This paper, empirically tests the hypothesis that the characteristics and perspectives of managers affect the performance of cooperative specifically, the financial performance. Two sets of data are used. The first data set is 2011 annual cooperative financial information from Cooperative Auditing Department. The second data set is from a survey of the managers of agricultural cooperatives using mailed questionnaire. A total of 421 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the managers of all large agricultural cooperatives in Thailand (those with more than 1,000 members). Of the 421 managers, 258 responded, and 255 were usable. Regression analysis is applied to test the hypothesis. The study results show that overall, the managers’ characteristic and perception variables used in the model have limited explanatory strength on financial performance of the cooperatives, both in terms of return on assets and return on equity. Despite the limitation, the experiences as cooperative managers, his or her participation in financial training program and perception on cooperative principles could positively increase the return on assets of the society although the magnitude is quite small.
    Keywords: managers, financial performance, agricultural cooperatives
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: Vyver, A. van der; Nordier, A.
    Abstract: In many Western countries and elsewhere, agriculture commodity exchanges have been in existence for centuries. However, Africa did not follow the same route for various reasons. It was only in the mid-1990’s that farmers and stakeholders again started to ask, how should we go about to market our products, what are the alternatives? Western models, with commodity exchanges as a possible solution, were revisited. Malawi, had a history of government controlled marketing followed by (partial) deregulation in 2006. The Agricultural Commodity Exchange for Africa (ACE) was established in 2005, survived with the help of donor funds and continued to grow slowly. It has now reached a point where it is on the verge of commercially implementing and rolling out a Warehouse Receipt System (WRS). This has brought forward questions such as what, is exactly is meant by a WRS, why is it important, what are the components of a successful WRS, and how does a WRS fit into the bigger picture of a commodity exchange? The study concludes that through the WRS, ACE will now be able to guarantee its trades since the product is already deposited in a warehouse and backed by an ACE WR. This will greatly enhance its image. The components that make up a WRS are discussed. ACE would struggle to grow and function properly without a successful WRS. If ACE could succeed, it will serve as a case study for other countries and exchanges in the region to learn from.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–09
  9. By: yasmine Gharieb (Faculty of Economics and Political sciences- Cairo University); Zeinab Ibrahim (Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences- Cairo University)
    Abstract: Bioenergy is considered an important source of energy in modern era that ensures the preservation of environment and achieves sustainable development. Moreover, it preserves the triple bottom line which cares about all aspects of environmental and social as well as economic aspects of development. Bioenergy is considered a wide field of generating energy from different treated material using different types of technology, while Egypt is now going for a National Program to sustain energy through the treatment of animal, agriculture and even human waste. This is initiated through the Bioenergy for Sustainable Rural Development Project which works on several levels, the first level includes household units which depend on the anaerobic fermentation from the waste of animal, in which methane gas is produced to replace butane gas; used in homes. The second level includes the production of gas from poultry farm units aiming to solve the diesel crisis in which both large poultry farms and those small ones, relaying on the cylinders, need the diesel. And finally, the third level which includes generation of electricity from rice straw. So, the goal of the study is to present an analysis of the Egyptian experience in the production of Bioenergy in addition to achieving sustainable development and ways for overcoming the obstacles that hindered the application of this experience previously.
    Keywords: Egypt- Renewables- biomass- biogas- Sustainable Rural Development- Bioenergy Technology(BET)
    JEL: Q16 Q42 Q50
    Date: 2014–05
  10. By: Muriithi, Beatrice W.
    Abstract: This study utilize two-wave household level panel data spanning 5 years on smallholder vegetable producers in Central and Eastern Kenya to assess the effects of commercialization of horticulture on two major poverty outcomes: household income and asset holdings. Methods that exploit panel nature of data to account for observed and unobserved heterogeneity in the sample are used, thus improving upon methods that make no such considerations or rely on cross-sectional data methods. Standards fixed effect, two-step fixed effects approach borrowed from Heckman (1976)’s framework and fixed effect instrumental variable approach find positive effects of commercialization of vegetables through export market pathway on per adult equivalent income. Controlling for heterogeneity and selection bias provides smaller effects of this market pathway compared to the naïve pooled OLS. Similarly, the naïve model overestimates the effect of commercialization through the domestic market pathway on per adult equivalent income. Fixed effect models reveal limited potential of income generated from export market pathway to raise household assets but find positive effect of income from domestic market pathway to improvement of household asset capacity. Results suggest the argument of commercialization of smallholder horticultural farming as “pro-poor” development strategy should look beyond household income to other household welfare aspects such as assets. Further, measuring effects of commercialization of agriculture can be improved by using panel data and addressing both heterogeneity and selection bias, to avoid overestimation of effects of agriculture on poverty. Further research should focus on intra-household distribution and utilization of income generated from the vegetable enterprises.
    Keywords: Horticulture, commercialization, smallholders, poverty, assets, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–09
  11. By: M Yamin (Sriwijaya University)
    Abstract: Flood on wet rice fields led household income of rice farmer susceptible. This condition shifted main income sources, from on farm to non farm. Therefore, an income strategy was required in order to deal with household income susceptibility in flood condition by integrating the concept of sustainability livelihood, through which sustainability of farmer’s income in flood condition was expected. This research aimed to identify rice farmer’s household strategy using sustainability livelihood concept in order to face the ecological disaster. The research was carried out in three Indonesian regions, namely Central Java, East Borneo and South Sumatera Provinces. Survey method was used in which data were collected from both primary and secondary ones. The data of household strategies, using sustainability livelihood concept, to deal with the income sources susceptibility on flood condition, were analyzed qualitatively. The results should give recommendation strategies needed for facing various pressure and succeptibilities on income source as effects fo the ecological disaster that repeatedly took place on wet rice fields. The results showed that farmers did not posses strategies for the flood condition. They sook only unpermanently other jobs to fulfill the household needs, such as building workers and laborers, both inside and outside of their living areas. To start growing the rice again after the flood, they got seed and fertilizer from government. At the same time, they sold their harvest or lent money to their relatives. In addition, they had strategies to diversify their income sources, including animal husbandries and fisheries. They repaired irrigation and drainage facilities on wet rice fields through community self-help to prevent flood. On perspective of sustainabilty livelihood strategies, they strengthened financial, physical and social capitals
    Keywords: ecological disaster, flood, wet rice field, sustainability livelihood strategy
    JEL: A14
    Date: 2014–10
  12. By: Larisa Belinskaja (Vilnius University, Faculty of Economics); Ugne Kisielyte (Vilnius University, Faculty of Economics)
    Abstract: Investment risk†is always accompanied with “returnâ€, it is one of the most important aspects to evaluate when doing business by private firms or making new decision on overseas investments by governments. According to the report “World Investment and political Risk†provided by the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, investors keep ranking political risk as a prime obstacle for investments into developing markets (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, 2014). The term “emerging markets†originally brought into fashion in the 1980’s by the World Bank economist Antoine van Agtmael. Emerging markets are the world’s fastest growing economies, contributing to a great deal of the world’s explosive growth of trade. By 2020, the five biggest emerging markets’ share of world output will double to 16.1 percent from 7.8 percent in 1992 (Marr & Reynard, 2010). Since the year 2000 share of emerging economies in global GDP (in Purchasing Power Parity) has increased from 37 percent to 50 percent in 2013 (Boumphrey & Bevis, 2013). They are critical participants in the world’s major political, economic, and social affairs and are seeking a larger voice in international politics and a bigger slice of the global economic pie. Recently some events such as Arab Spring, a conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and protests in Brazil against corn upt spending when organizing the World Football championship have increased political risk in those markets. As a result, the issues of political risk analyzed in this article are currently relevant. The aim of the article is to research political risk and its influence on business investments in emerging markets as well as the methods to evaluate such risk precisely as much as possible. This article begins with the introduction to theories relevant for the analysis of the topic. It also presents the political risk and its influences on operations in a emerging market. Then the case study is presented with food industry is chosen for analysis and with application to Russian-Lithuanian situation after Russia has put the sanctions on import of food products (vegetables, meat, fish, milk and dairy products) from the EU member states, Australia, the US, Canada and Norway for a year.
    Keywords: political risk, emerging markets, investment decisions, food industry
    JEL: E22 F14 F59
    Date: 2014–12
  13. By: Nurilla Elysa Putri (Sriwijaya University)
    Abstract: Planning is a beginning process of an activity, therefore Development plan is the begin of a development activities that oriented on the sustainable environment are required, and tgis environmemt plan can be get by the integration of Ecological Footprint intoregional development –planning, especially Spatial Planning (RTRW). This research aims to Identify whether the region Spatial Planning (RTRW)) in South Sumatra has integrated ecological footprint in it and identify potential flood-prone areas in South Sumatra. The long term goal of this research is the development planning that integrates Ecological Footprint, therefore development can be implemented to maintain the environmental balance and sustainability to prevention of recurrent flooding due to global climate changes. The research method used was a survey method through primary and secondary data collection. Data analysis was performed qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of this study indicate that the designation of space is still weak in account the ability of the land to provide for the consumption needs of the population in South Sumatra and not taking into account the allocation of space for consumption waste disposal of the population of this area. Moreover the designation of protected areas and environmental sustainability of aquaculture as a buffer as a place of life is still very low. When viewed from the geography of this flood-prone area is the area which is traversed by a river or watershed. That can be known the first cause of flood disasters is rising sea levels which impact on the rising water level of the river therefore if rain occurs this river will overflow to the mainland, and cause the flood ecological disaster.
    Keywords: Ecological Footprint, Spatial Planning, Climate Change, flood ecological disaster
    Date: 2014–10
  14. By: BENCARDINO, Massimiliano (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy); IOVINO, Giorgia (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy)
    Abstract: In this paper «land take» and its drivers within the urbanization process is studied with a focus on recent developments in Italy. Several sources of information, recently made available by national and European agencies, are used to highlight the main characteristics of land take, its determinants, its spatial pattern and its evolutionary trends. Finally, after a short review of initiatives, actions and policies designed and implemented at different institutional levels (local, national, European) to tackle the question of urban sprawl and land take, we focus on some critical issues such as: reliability of measurement, scale of spatial planning, policy coordination and re-distributional aspects arising from the regulation of land property and rent.
    Keywords: Land take; Urban sprawl; Spatial planning; Italy
    JEL: Q01 Q24 Q28
    Date: 2014–12–30
  15. By: Omar Fdo., Arias-R.; Alfonso, Aza-Jacome
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to model the role of the narco-insurgency in the structure and functioning of the colombian cocaine market. The narco-insurgency gets important profits from this market by controlling the land for producing coca-leaf, and the production of inputs for trading cocaine. These inputs could be paste or base of cocaine, or even cocaine before trading it to the final consumers. Those profits allow the narco-insurgency to configure and sustain such a market structure that guarantees it to obtain them permanently. We proceed by four steps. First, we model the land conflict between the narco-insurgency and the government. The output of this process is a valuation of the land for producing coca-leaf. The second stage concerns the farmers. By using violence, the narco-insurgency obligates the farmers to participate in the cocaine market as producers of coca-leaf. It charges them a tax for the coca-leaf production, and also it fixes them the coca-leaf price through its monopsonistic power. In the third stage, the narco-insurgency produces those inputs for trading cocaine and sell them monopolistically to cocaine traffickers, which compete each one in an oligopolistic market. The gap between the coca-leaf price and the price of inputs for trading cocaine explains the profits that narco-insurgency obtains from this illegal market.
    Keywords: narco-insurgency, land-competition, monopsonistic monopoly, coca-leaf, cocaine, oligopoly.
    JEL: D43 J42 K42
    Date: 2015–03–21
  16. By: Ahmad Erani Yustika (Supervisory Board of Bank Indonesia); Rukavina Baksh Abdullah (Lecturer at the Faculty of Agriculture – University of Tadulako); Dita Nurul Aini (Researcher at the ECORIST (The Economic Reform Institute))
    Abstract: The experts believe that the institutions factor is the successful key of the country (Robinson and Acemoglu, 2012). In the economic development point of view, institutional change as same as important with institutional design itself. Institutional change is the permanent process that will always happen. In the institutional change process, institutional innovation is one of the important thing. Institutional innovation is very important because it will accelerate the economic activities and contribute the economic value-added. The institutional innovation process is begun from build-up institutional environment, networking development, institutional arrangement, institutional change, and institutional innovation as the last process. In Indonesia, recently, the economic sector need to be developed institutional innovation are agriculture and industry sectors because both sectors absorb many labour, create value-added, and increasing income (middle-low level of income); therefore the poverty problem, unemployment, and income inequality can be solved. Institutional innovation that is needed in agriculture sector are the development of market information system, the transformation of agriculture to agro-industry, the method of collective plant, the programme of land reform, and the market preparing. While, the institutional innovation in industry sector are strengthening value-added economy, bureaucracy reform, development of new industrial cluster, expansion of export market, and deepening of production process and technology.
    Keywords: institutions, institutional innovation, agriculture sector, industry sector
    JEL: E02
    Date: 2014–10
  17. By: Werner L. Hernani-Limarino (Fundación ARU); Paul Villarroel (Fundación ARU)
    Abstract: This paper presents the impact evaluation of Crédito Productivo Individual from Banco de Desarrollo Productivo S.A.M – government second-tier bank which channels resources toward productive activities in Bolivia. This financial product is specifically directed to micro and small enterprises in the productive sector, concentrating mostly in the agriculture and manufacturing. Taking into account differences in treatment received by beneficiaries, we use multiple control groups – assuming unconfoundedness, to estimate impact on family and production outcomes. The results show us that the main effects of credit are observed in manufacturing sector. In this sector we find an impact between 23% and 28% on machinery investment levels, which could be the explanation for an observed impact higher than 20% on production value. On the other hand, we only find effects in reducing input costs, suggesting that the greatest impact in the agricultural sector could be the opening of financial products to this group of producers.
    Keywords: impact evaluation, microcredits, microfinance
    JEL: C21 G2 I3
    Date: 2015–03
  18. By: Nurcan Turan (Anadolu University); Nuri Calik (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: This survey intends to find out the attitudes of the consumers towards health products such as organic food, healthy foodstuffs and their information seeking behavior on wholesome nutrition. A survey is applied to 480 respondents selected via stratified sampling from EskiÅŸehir, a city of Turkey with 700.000 inhabitants where 470 of the responses are found eligible... The respondents are required to answer 50 questions of which five are related to demographic characteristics of these respondents. The rest 45 are statements which are designed to reflect the behavior of these people. The study consists of five parts. The first part is an introduction where the scope and the purpose of the study are concisely stated. The second part relates to the theoretical background of the subject matter and the prior researches carried out so far. The third part deals with research methodology, basic premises and hypotheses attached to these premises. Research model and analyses take place in this section. Theoretical framework is built and a variable name is assigned to each of the question asked or proposition forwarded to the respondents of this survey. 42 statements or propositions given to the respondents are placed on a five-point Likert scale. Three questions are on an ordinal scale reflecting the most-used information sources of the respondents. The remaining five questions about demographic traits as age, gender, occupation, educational level and monthly income are placed either on a nominal or ratio scale with respect to the nature of the trait. Ten research hypotheses are formulated in this section. The fourth part mainly deals with the results of the hypothesis tests and a factor analysis is applied to the data on hand. Here exploratory factor analysis reduces 42 variables to eight basic components as: " Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels and health claims; care for health products; consumer positive and negative attitudes toward organic foods; fast-food involvement; prior product knowledge; e-health information search; information search behavior; and system beaters". In addition non-parametric bivariate analysis in terms of Chi-Square is applied to test the hypotheses formulated in this respect. The fifth part is the conclusion where findings of this survey is listed.
    Keywords: Nutritional knowledge, health claims, health products, organic foods, fast-food involvement, prior product knowledge, e-health and health related information , information search behavior,
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2014–10

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