nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒03‒13
forty-two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Mechanization outsourcing clusters and division of labor in Chinese agriculture: By Zhang, Xiaobo; Yang, Jin; Reardon, Thomas Anthony
  2. Market and Trade Impacts of Food Loss and Waste Reduction By Koki Okawa
  3. Conceptualizing drivers of policy change in agriculture, nutrition, and food security: The kaleidoscope model: By Resnick, Danielle; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Haggblade, Steven; Hendriks, Sheryl; Mather, David
  4. Modelling Indian Wheat and Rice Sector Policies By Kozicka, Marta; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Saini, Shweta; Brockhaus, Jan
  5. Food crop diversification as a risk mitigating strategy during conflict : evidence from Cote d'Ivoire By Paul, Saumik; Shonchoy, Abu S.; Dabalen, Andrew
  6. Time allocation to energy resource collection in rural Ethiopia: Gender-disaggregated household responses to changes in firewood availability: By Scheurlen, Elena
  7. Strategies for Sustainable and Inclusive Agriculture Development in Jharkhand By Singh, Vivek
  8. Does a Speculative Trade in Food Commodities Influence Food Price Inflation in India? By Soundararajan, Pushparaj; Suresh, Vidya
  9. Information networks among women and men and the demand for an agricultural technology in India: By Magnan, Nicholas; Spielman, David J.; Gulati, Kajal; Lybbert, Travis J.
  10. The effect of incomplete land tenure contracts on agricultural investment and productivity in Cameroon By Niee Foning, Maxime; Kane, Gilles Quentin; Ambagna, Jean Joël; Fondo, Sikod; Abayomi Oyekale, Samuel
  11. Value chains and nutrition: A framework to support the identification, design, and evaluation of interventions: By Gelli, Aulo; Hawkes, Corinna; Donovan, Jason; Harris, Jody; Allen, Summer L.; de Brauw, Alan; Henson, Spencer; Johnson, Nancy L.; Garrett, James; Ryckembusch, David
  12. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Growing Certified Organic Coffee in Colombia By Ibanez, Marcela; Blackman, Allen
  13. The impact of food price volatility on consumer welfare in Cameroon By Kane, Gilles Quentin; Tene, Gwladys Laure Mabah; Ambagna, Jean Joel; Piot-lepetit, Isabelle; Sikod, Fondo
  14. Firm heterogeneity in food safety provision: Evidence from aflatoxin tests in Kenya: By Moser, Christine; Hoffmann, Vivian
  15. Understanding the policy landscape for climate change adaptation: A cross-country comparison using the Net-map method: By Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Birner, Regina; Haglund, Eric; Ngigi, Marther; Ali, Snigdha; Okoba, Barrack; Koné, Daouda; Alemu, Takei
  16. Eliciting Consumer WTP for Food Characteristics in a Developing Context: Comparison of four methods in a field experiment By Alphonce, Roselyne; Alfnes, Frode
  17. Is more inclusive more effective? The “new-style†public distribution system in India: By Kishore, Avinash; Chakrabarti, Suman
  18. Agriculture, nutrition, and the Green Revolution in Bangladesh: By Headey, Derek D.; Hoddinott, John F.
  19. Rural finance and agricultural technology adoption in Ethiopia: Does institutional design matter?: By Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Rashid, Shahidur; Borzaga, Carlos; Getnet, Kindie
  20. Preventing Food Waste: Case Studies of Japan and the United Kingdom By Andrew Parry; Paul Bleazard; Koki Okawa
  21. Eliciting farmers’ valuation for abiotic stress-tolerant rice in India: By Arora, Anchal; Bansal, Sangeeta; Ward, Patrick S.
  22. Divergence in Stakeholders’ Preferences: Evidence from a Choice Experiment on Forest Landscapes Preferences in Sweden By Nordén, Anna; Coria, Jessica; Jönsson, Anna Maria; Lagergren, Fredrik; Lehsten, Veiko
  23. The effect of supplementation with locally available foods on stunting: A review of theory and evidence By Nseluke Hambayi M.; Groot W.N.J.; Tirivayi N.
  24. Climate, change adaptation assets and group-based approaches: Gendered perceptions from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, and Kenya: By Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Ali, Snigdha; Behrman, Julia A.; Bryan, Elizabeth; Davis, Peter; Donnelly, Aliveen; Gathaara, Violet; Koné, Daouda; Nganga, Teresiah; Ngugi, Jane; Okoba, Barrack; Roncoli, Carla
  25. Measurement of agricultural productivity in Africa south of Sahara: A spatial typology application: By Yu, Bingxin; Guo, Zhe
  26. Fair farming: Preferences for fair labor certification using four elicitation methods By Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Lusk, Jayson; Nayga, Rodolfo M.
  27. Communities’ perceptions and knowledge of ecosystem services: Evidence from rural communities in Nigeria: By Zhang, Wei; Kato, Edward; Bhandary, Prapti; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Ibrahim, Hassan Ishaq; Agbonlahor, Mure Uhunamure; Ibrahim, Hussaini Yusu
  28. Rainwater harvesting and groundwater conservation : when endogenous heterogeneity matters By Raphael Soubeyran; Mabel Tidball; Agnes Tomini; Katrin Erdlenbruch
  29. Supermarket Interventions and Diet in areas of Limited Retail Access: Policy Suggestions from the Seacroft Intervention Study By Rudkin, Simon
  30. Targeting Investments To Cost Effectively Restore and Protect Wetland Ecosystems: Some Economic Insights By Hansen, LeRoy; Hellerstein, Daniel; Ribaudo, Marc; Williamson, James; Nulph, David; Loesch, Charles; Crumpton, William
  31. Dynamic convergence of commodity futures: Not all types of commodities are alike By Ahmet Sensoy; Erk Hacihasanoglu; Duc Khuong Nguyen
  32. A typology of impact pathways generated by a public agricultural research organization By Matt, M.; Colinet, L.; Gaunand, A.; Joly, P.B.
  33. Rural household income mobility in transitional China: Evidence from China Household Income Project By Yang, Sui
  34. ASIRPA: a comprehensive theory-based approach to assessing the societal impacts of a research organization By Joly, P.B.; Gaunand, A.; Colinet, L.; Larédo, P.; Lemarié, S.; Matt, M.
  35. Is the income elasticity of the willingness to pay for pollution control constant? By Edward S. Barbier; Mikołaj Czajkowski; Nick Hanley
  36. The Danish Agricultural Revolution in an Energy Perspective: A Case of Development with Few Domestic Energy Sources By Henriques, Sofia Teives; Sharp, Paul
  37. What Can We Learn About the Effects of Food Stamps on Obesity in the Presence of Misreporting? By Lorenzo Almada; Ian M. McCarthy; Rusty Tchernis
  38. Sustainability indicators and the shadow price of natural capital By Sato, Masayuki; Phim, Runsinarith; Managi, Shunsuke
  39. Explicitly integrating institutions into bioeconomic modeling: By Swallow, Kimberly A.; Swallow, Brent M.
  40. Quantifying the changes in landscape configuration using open source GIS. Case study: Bistrita subcarpathian valley By Chelaru, Dan-Adrian; Oiste, Ana-Maria; Mihai, Florin-Constantin
  41. Risk preference or financial literacy? Behavioural experiment on index insurance demand By Awel Y.; Azomahou T.T.
  42. Expecting the Unexpected: Emissions Uncertainty and Environmental Market Design By Severin Borenstein; James Bushnell; Frank A. Wolak; Matthew Zaragoza-Watkins

  1. By: Zhang, Xiaobo; Yang, Jin; Reardon, Thomas Anthony
    Abstract: Most of the poor in the developing countries are smallholder farmers. Improving their productivity is essential for reducing poverty. Despite small landholdings, a high degree of land fragmentation, and rising labor costs, agricultural production in China has steadily increased. If one treats the farm household as the unit of analysis, it would be difficult to explain the conundrum. When seeing agricultural production from the lens of division of labor, the puzzle can be easily solved. In response to rising labor costs, farmers outsource some power-intensive stages of production, such as harvesting, to specialized mechanization service providers, which are often clustered in a few counties and travel throughout the country to harvest crops at very competitive service charges. Through such an arrangement, smallholder farmers can stay viable in agricultural production.
    Keywords: Agriculture, mechanization, microeconomics, Wages, Economic development, lewis turning point, outsource,
  2. By: Koki Okawa
    Abstract: This report provides a forward looking analysis of the market and trade impacts of food loss and waste reduction, based on the latest projections for world and national agricultural markets provided by the Aglink-Cosimo model for the ten-year period 2014-23. The study applies FAO estimates of producer loss and consumer waste, which are reduced by 20% over ten years, on the assumption that those reductions can be achieved without cost. In global terms, greater impacts on international markets come from contractions in demand via reduced waste than from the stimulus to supply from lower losses. Savings to consumers total more than USD 2.5 trillion over ten years. Reduced crop losses in developing countries lead to higher crop supply in these countries, with reduced prices from efficiency gains benefiting both developing and developed countries.
    Keywords: food waste, Aglink-Cosimo model, agricultural commodity market
    JEL: Q10 Q11 Q17
    Date: 2015–03–05
  3. By: Resnick, Danielle; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Haggblade, Steven; Hendriks, Sheryl; Mather, David
    Abstract: The current emphasis in the development community on demonstrating policy impact requires a better understanding of national policymaking processes to recognize opportunities for, and limits to, generating policy change. Consequently, this paper introduces an applied framework, named the kaleidoscope model, to analyze drivers of change in the food security arena, with a specific emphasis on agriculture and nutrition policies. Focusing on five key elements of the policy cycle—agenda setting, design, adoption, implementation, and evaluation and reform—the model identifies key variables that define the necessary and sufficient conditions for policy change to occur. These variables were inductively derived through an extensive review of the secondary literature on episodes of policy change in developing countries across a broad range of policy domains related to food security, including agriculture, education, healthcare, nutrition, and social protection.
    Keywords: food security, Agricultural policies, Nutrition policies, Nutrition security, political economy, policy process, kaleidoscope model,
  4. By: Kozicka, Marta; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Saini, Shweta; Brockhaus, Jan
    Abstract: This paper serves to disentangle the complex system of Indian food policies related to wheat and rice procurement, storage, distribution and trade. Using nationally aggregated time series data, these policies are econometrically analysed. Based on the estimation results, their market implications are assessed. Eventually, different scenarios, including the implementation of the National Food Security Act, are simulated with respect to fiscal costs and public stocks.
    Keywords: India, stocks, fiscal costs, food grain policies, NFSA, wheat, rice, Agricultural and Food Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q02, Q18, Q13, I38, H42, O13,
    Date: 2015–03
  5. By: Paul, Saumik; Shonchoy, Abu S.; Dabalen, Andrew
    Abstract: This study examines the significance of food crop diversification as a household risk mitigating strategy to achieve "self-sufficiency" to ensure food security during the civil conflict in Cote d’Ivoire. The main motivation for seeking self-sufficiency stems from the fact that during the period of heightened tension due to conflict, the north–south divide set by the UN peacekeeping line disrupted the agricultural supply chain from the food surplus zone, Savane in the north. While we theoretically predict a positive effect on crop diversification because of interrupted food supply chain, we also consider a negative effect due to the covariate shocks. We find robust and statistically significant empirical outcomes supporting such claims. The baseline outcomes withstand a series of robustness checks. The net effect of conflict on crop diversification is positive but not statistically significant. In addition, we find that increasing vulnerability to poverty and food insecurity during conflict seems to be the underlying factors that motivate farm households to adopt such coping strategies.
    Keywords: Cote D'Ivoire, Agricultural economics, Agricultural products, Internal conflicts, Household, Conflict, Uncertainty, Agricultural production, Developing countries
    JEL: D13 D74 Q1
    Date: 2015–03
  6. By: Scheurlen, Elena
    Abstract: This paper presents evidence on rural Ethiopian households’ time allocation to different activities, especially fuel collection work, and examines the effect of changes in the availability of firewood resources on households’ time allocation to fuel collection and on- and off-farm income generation. Based on firsthand insights from focus group discussions conducted with farmers in three rural villages of Ethiopia and data from an IFPRI-CIMMYT (International Food Policy Research Institute/International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) household survey implemented by the Association of Ethiopian Microfinance Institutions, the results show that women are involved in more time-consuming and simultaneous work activities than men and hold the primary responsibility for fuel collection
    Keywords: Gender, Women, Energy, rural areas, Poverty, Agricultural production, productivity, households, Household behavior, firewood collection, firewood availability,
  7. By: Singh, Vivek
    Abstract: Despite having rich mineral and biotic resources with some of India’s most industrialized cities, Jharkhand is amongst the third poorest state in India. The rural economy is dominated by smallholder rain-fed farming and use of extensive common property resources. In this paper, an attempt is made to identify the constraints of the farming system and suggest the technical, economic and institutional strategies for sustainable and inclusive development. Such an analysis will help in taking policy decisions for the objectives of achieving higher level of regional food production, maximisation of production and income to the farmers.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, smallholder rainfed farming system, regional food production
    JEL: Q20 Q32
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Soundararajan, Pushparaj; Suresh, Vidya
    Abstract: Inflation, especially the food inflation has become a major economic challenge for the public policy in the contemporary India. Inflation pressure on food products is caused by interplay of multiple factors. The literature has identified various sources of food price inflation that included institutional factors, market conditions and institutional arrangements. The effect of institutional arrangements like speculative trade in commodity on the inflation is studied in many studies. Yet similar studies have not been attempted in the Indian context though the speculative trade is permitted in commodities from 2003 onwards. This paper analyses the relationship between wholesale food price index and trading on agricultural commodities in Multi-Commodity Exchange of India (MCX) using the monthly data between 2004 and 2014 from CSO and MCX respectively. The researchers have used time series analysis to draw conclusions from the study which indicates that there is no influence of trading on food commodity futures on wholesale price indices. However, the trading in MCX is influenced by fluctuations in wholesale price indices which may have implications for the future of food commodities prices in India.
    Keywords: food inflation, speculative trade, india, commodity trade
    JEL: G13 G18 Q18
    Date: 2014–12
  9. By: Magnan, Nicholas; Spielman, David J.; Gulati, Kajal; Lybbert, Travis J.
    Abstract: Although there is ample evidence of differences in how and where men and women acquire information, most research on learning and household decisionmaking only considers access to information for a single, typically male, household head. This assumption may be problematic in developing-country agriculture, where women play a fundamental role in farming. Using gender-disaggregated social network data from Uttar Pradesh, India, we analyze agricultural information networks among men and women. We test for gender-specific network effects on demand for laser land leveling—a resource-conserving technology—using data from a field experiment that combines a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak (BDM) auction with a lottery.
    Keywords: Agricultural technologies, Gender, Women, information, technology adoption, Developing countries, Social network analysis, peer effects, learning externalities, laser land leveling, gender disagredated data,
  10. By: Niee Foning, Maxime; Kane, Gilles Quentin; Ambagna, Jean Joël; Fondo, Sikod; Abayomi Oyekale, Samuel
    Abstract: The aim of this paper was to analyse the effects of secure land tenure contracts on agricultural productivity. These effects will be highlighted through investment. Data from the third Cameroonian household survey (ECAM III) was used to estimate a binary choice model and productivity equation by instrumental variables. Firstly, the results suggest that there is a moral hazard in the investment behaviour of sharecroppers.This result could support the hypothesis of a holdup problem, which would reduce the incentives for agricultural households to make optimal investments. Secondly, the insecurity of land tenure contract would reduce the probability of purchasing modern equipment by about 0.44 and reduce the probability ofusing fertilizer by about 0.21. However, these investments determine the differences in term of productivity among agricultural household. Thus, the sharecroppers are less productive because they invest less than landlords. Therefore, it seems necessary to implement institutional mechanisms that can help to release the constraints on land access and to ensure the respect for rights and obligations between all the actors involved in agriculturalleases.
    Keywords: Security of land tenure contracts, moral hazard, sharecroppers, holdup.
    JEL: O55 Q12 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2013–11–13
  11. By: Gelli, Aulo; Hawkes, Corinna; Donovan, Jason; Harris, Jody; Allen, Summer L.; de Brauw, Alan; Henson, Spencer; Johnson, Nancy L.; Garrett, James; Ryckembusch, David
    Abstract: In this paper we explore how a value chain framework can inform the design of interventions for achieving improved nutrition. Conceptually, there are three main channels for value chains to improve nutrition: (1) through increased consumption of nutritious foods (a demand side pathway); or (2) through increased incomes from value chain transactions (a supply side pathway) or (3) through increased nutrition value-addition in the chain transactions. These three pathways are interlinked and involve complex dynamics that are not straightforward to understand.
    Keywords: Nutrition, Health, Agriculture, Agricultural development, Economic development, economic growth, Diet, food consumption, income, value chains,
  12. By: Ibanez, Marcela; Blackman, Allen (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: According to advocates, eco-certification can improve developing country farmers’ environmental and economic performance. However, these notional benefits can be undercut by self-selection: the tendency of relatively wealthy farmers already meeting eco-certification standards to disproportionately participate. Empirical evidence on this matter is scarce. Using original farm-level survey data along with matching and difference-in-differences matching models, we analyze the producer-level effects of organic coffee certification in southeast Colombia. We find that certification improves coffee growers’ environmental performance. It significantly reduces sewage disposal in the fields and increases the adoption of organic fertilizer. However, we are not able to discern economic benefits. The return on certified production is not significantly different from that on conventional production.
    Keywords: organic certification, coffee, Colombia, difference-in-differences matching
    JEL: Q13 Q20 O13 Q56
    Date: 2015–02–05
  13. By: Kane, Gilles Quentin; Tene, Gwladys Laure Mabah; Ambagna, Jean Joel; Piot-lepetit, Isabelle; Sikod, Fondo
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the welfare effects of food price volatility on Cameroonian consumers. Using data from the third Cameroonian Household Consumption Surveys, the price elasticities are obtained from a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand
    Keywords: price volatility, consumer welfare, Cameroon
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Moser, Christine; Hoffmann, Vivian
    Abstract: The lack of a reliably safe food supply in developing countries imposes major costs on both public health and market performance. This paper addresses the question of whether and why food processing firms voluntarily invest in food safety in the absence of effective regulatory enforcement. Using data from more than 900 maize flour samples representing 23 distinct brands in eastern and central Kenya, we explore the relationship between price, brand, and aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin is a toxin common in maize, groundnuts, and other crops around the world; and although it is unobservable to the consumer, it may be correlated with other quality characteristics. We find a strong negative correlation between price and contamination rates, which is consistent with certain brands investing more in quality to avoid loss of reputational capital.
    Keywords: Food safety, aflatoxins, Mycotoxins, Developing countries, Health, regulation, Policies, firm strategy, voluntary compliance, brand capital,
  15. By: Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Birner, Regina; Haglund, Eric; Ngigi, Marther; Ali, Snigdha; Okoba, Barrack; Koné, Daouda; Alemu, Takei
    Abstract: In the context of increasing vulnerability to climate change for people dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods, the International Food Policy Research Institute and partner organizations in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, and Bangladesh undertook a project broadly aiming to create knowledge that will help policymakers and development agencies to strengthen the capacity of male and female smallholder farmers and livestock keepers to manage climate-related risks. This study—one component of the project—examines the networks and power dynamics of stakeholders in the four target countries so as to (1) identify potential partners in the research process, (2) find out which organizations could make use of the research findings in their activities, and (3) inform the communication and outreach strategy of the research project. This paper describes the network structures for climate change policy, the actors in the networks with high centrality and influence scores, and the implications of these results for outreach and dissemination.
    Keywords: Climate change, Policies, Social networks, stakeholders, Smallholders, Gender, Women, Livestock, Agricultural research, Agricultural policies, stakeholder mapping, social network analysis, policy impact, climate adaptation,
  16. By: Alphonce, Roselyne (School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Alfnes, Frode (School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper aims at answering two objectives;1) assess consumer preference and willingness to pay for organic and food safety inspected tomatoes in a traditional African food market; 2) compare willingness to pay for the tomato attributes in four different elicitation techniques. We elicit willingness to pay for conventional, organic and/or food-safetyinspected tomatoes using methods that can be conducted with one respondent at a time: the Becker–DeGroot–Marschak mechanism, multiple price lists, multiple price lists with stated quantities, and real-choice experiments. All methods show that consumers are willing to pay a premium for organic and food-safety-inspected tomatoes. However, the size of the premium is significantly larger when consumers choose between alternatives than when they indicate their reservation price. Throughout the paper, we discuss method implementation issues for this context and make method recommendations for future research.
    Keywords: elicitation methods; framed field experiments; organic; food-safety inspected; Tanzania; WTP
    JEL: C93 D12 Q10 Q13
    Date: 2015–03–05
  17. By: Kishore, Avinash; Chakrabarti, Suman
    Abstract: This paper tries to account for the changes in household consumption patterns associated with the change in PDS policy in these states using data from household consumption surveys by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). These data show improvement in the coverage of TPDS and average offtake of grains from fair-price shops between 2004/2005 and 2009/2010 across all states of India. However, the increase in coverage and offtake was significantly higher in four out of these five states than in the rest of India. An average household in these states purchased 3 kg more rice per month from fair-price shops than its counterpart in nontreated states as a result of more generous TPDS policies backed by administrative reforms. The increase in consumption of PDS rice was the highest in Chhattisgarh, the poster state of public distribution system reforms. Households in Chhattisgarh used money saved on rice to spend more on pulses, edible oil, vegetables, sugar, and nonfood items. We also find evidence that making TPDS more inclusive and more generous is not enough unless it is supported by administrative reforms to improve grain delivery and control diversion to open markets.
    Keywords: Governance, food security, Agricultural policies, Nutrition policies, Diet, Diet quality, social protection, social safety nets, public distribution system,
  18. By: Headey, Derek D.; Hoddinott, John F.
    Abstract: This paper therefore analyzes agriculture and nutrition linkages in Bangladesh, a country that achieved rapid growth in rice productivity at a relatively late stage in Asia’s Green Revolution, as well as unheralded progress against undernutrition. To do so the authors create a synthetic panel that aggregates nutritional data from five rounds of the Demographic Health Surveys (1997 to 2011) with district-level estimates of rice yields. Using various panel estimators, they find rice yields significantly explain weight gain in young children but not linear growth. The authors further show that rice yields have large and positive effects on the timely introduction of complementary foods for young children but not on dietary diversity indicators and that this complementary feeding indicator is positively associated with child weight gain but not with linear growth.
    Keywords: Nutrition, Undernutrition, malnutrition, Diet, Nutrition policies, Agricultural policies, Green revolution, rice, productivity, Micronutrients, Children, resilience,
  19. By: Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Rashid, Shahidur; Borzaga, Carlos; Getnet, Kindie
    Abstract: Financial cooperatives and microfinance institutions (MFIs) are the two major sources of rural finance in Ethiopia. Whereas MFIs are relatively new, financial cooperatives have existed for centuries in various forms. The coexistence of two different institutions serving the same group of people, and delivering the same financial services, raises several policy questions. Those questions have become particularly relevant, as the government has embarked on developing a new strategy for improving rural financial services delivery. This study is expected to serve as an input to that policy discussion. Using a unique household survey dataset and the propensity-score-matching technique, we examine the impacts of the two financial service providers on agricultural technology adoption. The results suggest that access to institutional finance has significant positive impacts on both the adoption and extent of technology use.
    Keywords: Finance, Agricultural technologies, technology adoption, Rural finance, Microfinance, rural areas, propensity score matching, impact analysis,
  20. By: Andrew Parry; Paul Bleazard; Koki Okawa
    Abstract: This report contains case studies of food loss and waste policy practices in Japan and the United Kingdom. The Japanese case study examines the goals, measurements, achievements and future challenges of the country’s food loss and waste policies. The Japanese government has implemented policies to suppress and recycle food loss and waste since 2000 under its Food Recycling Law. The control of food waste generation is based on a specific target for each industry group, in order to address differences in the scope for loss and waste reduction across sectors. While food waste in the food industry has been reduced, the waste at consumer stage has shown no change in recent years, highlighting outstanding challenges at the consumer stage.<P> Preventing food waste has been a priority for Governments in the United Kingdom for over a decade, and a range of mechanisms have been put in place to deliver this within households, hospitality and food service, food manufacture, retail and wholesale sectors. The UK case study outlines the policy context within which food waste prevention sits, explains how food waste is defined in the United Kingdom, provides detail on the level and types of food waste across different sectors, and describes the interventions adopted and their impacts. Between 2007 and 2012 household food waste reduced by 15%, despite a 4% increase in household numbers, and food waste at manufacture and retail fell by 10% between 2009 and 2012. There is significant potential to reduce food waste further, however it is likely that this will become increasingly challenging.
    Keywords: Japan, Courtauld Commitment, food waste, United Kingdom, Love Food Hate Waste
    JEL: Q10 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2015–03–05
  21. By: Arora, Anchal; Bansal, Sangeeta; Ward, Patrick S.
    Abstract: Abiotic stresses such as droughts and floods significantly constrain rice production in India. New stress-tolerant technologies have the potential to reduce yield variability and help insulate farmers from the risks posed by these hazards. This study aims to explore the potential adoption of these risk-reducing technologies. Using discrete choice experiments conducted in rural Odisha, we estimate farmers’ valuation for drought-tolerant and submergence-tolerant traits embodied in paddy cultivars. We find that farmers value both yield-increasing traits and variability-reducing traits. Interestingly, we find exceptionally high willingness to pay for short-duration varieties. We also attempt to capture heterogeneity in preferences. Our results show that farmers in both drought-prone and flood-prone regions value the reduction in yield variability offered by cultivars.
    Keywords: Droughts, abiotic stress, Flooding, Rice, yields, Risk, Seeds, Varieties, Tolerance, Drought tolerance, Flooding tolerance, submergence tolerance, discrete choice experiment, Willingness to pay, Odisha,
  22. By: Nordén, Anna (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Coria, Jessica (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Jönsson, Anna Maria (Lund University); Lagergren, Fredrik (Lund University); Lehsten, Veiko (Lund University)
    Abstract: A great deal of biodiversity can be found in private forests, and protecting it requires taking into consideration the preferences of key stakeholders. In this study, we examine and compare the valuation of forest attributes across the general public, private non-industrial forest owners and forest officials in Sweden by conducting a choice experiment. Our results indicate that citizens have a positive valuation of biodiversity protection. Moreover, their valuation is statistically higher than those of forest owners, implying that there is room for compensation. Interestingly, our results suggest that both forest owners and forest officials have a strong orientation towards production, with higher valuation than the general public of the common management practice of similar age and clear felling. Even though the Swedish Forestry Act regards production and environmental goals as equally important, we find that forest officials prefer management practices that promote production rather than biodiversity protection.
    Keywords: biodiversity; choice experiment; forest; preference divergence
    JEL: D61 Q23 Q51 Q58
    Date: 2015–03
  23. By: Nseluke Hambayi M.; Groot W.N.J.; Tirivayi N. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: There is vigorous debate and mixed evidence concerning what diets or how many food groups can be used to prevent stunting in resource poor settings. Inherently, recommendations focus on food supply, availability and access other than household functions, behaviours and child care practices. We review the evidence on the effects of supplementation using locally available diverse and non-diverse foods on stunting among children below the age of five years. We review evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa, where 22 of the 34 countries that contribute to ninety percent of the global burden of stunting are. We searched the empirical literature that captured anthropometry outcomes for children of age 0-5 years. Studies assessing the effects of fortified foods, or food used for treatment rather than prevention were excluded. Four studies are reviewed. Only one study provided food supplements comprising seven locally available food items, while the others provided fewer food items. The studies show that supplementing with diverse local foods has neither superior nor inferior linear growth benefits than supplementing with non-diverse local foods. We however find positive and consistent significant effects especially of milk and maternal factors on preventing wasting and underweight. Our review demonstrates that supplementing with locally available foods is feasible in resource poor settings. Our findings partially substantiate the challenges of prescribing the quality or a threshold of food groups for the prevention of stunting. Due to limited evidence, further research on local diverse and non-diverse supplementation is required.
    Keywords: Health: General; Health Production;
    JEL: I10 I12
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Ali, Snigdha; Behrman, Julia A.; Bryan, Elizabeth; Davis, Peter; Donnelly, Aliveen; Gathaara, Violet; Koné, Daouda; Nganga, Teresiah; Ngugi, Jane; Okoba, Barrack; Roncoli, Carla
    Abstract: Using a participatory rural appraisal approach, a series of qualitative studies were conducted in four countries facing negative impacts of climate change—Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya and Mali—in order to determine men’s and women’s perceptions of climate change, adaptive approaches, and the degree to which assets and group participation play a role in adaptation strategies. Similarities were found across countries in terms of perceptions of climate change, impacts, and strategies for adaptation. Farmers and pastoralists, groups heavily dependent on natural resources, are starkly aware of and impacted by subtle climatic changes, and those with a stronger asset base were better able to adapt to changes and shocks.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, Climate change, assets, rural areas, Smallholders, Risk, climate adaptation, environmental shocks,
  25. By: Yu, Bingxin; Guo, Zhe
    Abstract: The great diversity of agricultural activities and practices across the African continent has significant implications for technology transfer and productivity growth. This paper compiles diverse spatial data on biophysical conditions, farming systems, demographics, and infrastructure to spatially disaggregate country targets into subsystem units, namely agricultural production zones. The resulting typologies highlight the limitations of simple national aggregates and reveal remarkable heterogeneity in the subsystems within the country. The typologies provide a natural linkage between national-level analysis and localized production information and can help policymakers in refining national agricultural strategies through location- and subsystem-oriented policies based on local comparative advantages and constraints. The classification is useful in identifying commonalities beyond a country’s borders and hence encourages cross learning and joint efforts in scaling up policies.
    Keywords: productivity, Agricultural policies, Markets, Market access, Economic development, Population density, Typology, farming systems, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI),
  26. By: Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Lusk, Jayson; Nayga, Rodolfo M.
    Abstract: High profile cases of exploitative labor practices have increased concerns over agricultural working conditions. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent the public is willing to trade-off fair working conditions for higher prices and food imports. We implement a large-scale survey to uncover Greek consumer preferences for a food labeling system that certifies fair working conditions for the workers employed at all production stages of agricultural production. Empirical findings from several disciplines suggest that results from contingent valuation surveys can be susceptible to hypothetical bias, social desirability bias, and lack of consequentiality. To test these issues, we use the 'cheap talk' method (Kling et al., 2012), Lusk and Norwood's (2009) Inferred Valuation (IV) method and the consequentiality scripts employed in Vossler and Evans (2009) and Vossler and Watson (2013). We also test predictions of reference dependent theory by testing whether framing the valuation question as an 'Equivalent Loss' (EL) differs from classical 'Willingness-to-pay elicitation' (WTP). We collected responses from more than 3,800 consumers in the cities of Athens and Ioannina in Greece. Our results show that neither the cheap talk nor the consequentiality script had any effect on elicited valuations. In contrast, the IV method appears to mitigate social desirability bias. We also find that values elicited under WTP are larger than values elicited under EL, which rejects neoclassical preferences. When social desirability is taken out of our estimates, we find that consumers are willing to pay an average premium of 72 cents/Kg for strawberries with fair labor certification, which is equivalent to 49% of current market prices.
    Keywords: fair labor label; willingness to pay; equivalent loss; contingent valuation; inferred valuation; consequentiality; cheap talk; uncertainty scale
    JEL: C83 C93 D12 Q13
    Date: 2015–03–03
  27. By: Zhang, Wei; Kato, Edward; Bhandary, Prapti; Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Ibrahim, Hassan Ishaq; Agbonlahor, Mure Uhunamure; Ibrahim, Hussaini Yusu
    Abstract: This research has been undertaken to improve our understanding of stakeholders’ knowledge and perception about ecosystem services (ES), which provides a valuable means of gaining insight into the opportunities and constraints that face ES management in a multiuser landscape. Land use preferences are influenced by a variety of motives, attitudes, and values intrinsic to every individual’s decisionmaking. Knowledge can affect attitudes and behavioral intentions, and a positive attitude toward the environment has been found to predict conservation practices.
    Keywords: Ecosystem services, rural areas, Communities, Land use, Forest, awareness, perception, knowledge,
  28. By: Raphael Soubeyran (Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, INRA); Mabel Tidball (Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, INRA); Agnes Tomini (AMSE. Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Katrin Erdlenbruch (UMR G-EAU, Institut National de Recherche en Sciences et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture)
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on resource conservation in a model of decentralized management of groundwater and rainwater. We show that a conservation policy may have opposite effects on the level of the resource, depending on the outcome of the decentralized management. More precisely, we consider identical farmers who can use two water resources (groundwater and/or rainwater) and we study the symmetric and asymmetric feedback stationary Nash equilibria of the dynamic game. We show that a subsidy on the use of rainwater may increase the level of the aquifer at the symmetric equilibrium, whereas it decreases the level of the aquifer at the asymmetric equilibrium. This suggests that the usual focus on (interior) symmetric equilibria in dynamic games may provide misleading policy implications.
    Keywords: asymmetric equilibrium, differential game, groundwater, rainwater, théorie des jeux, modèle dynamique, exploitation des ressourceseau pluvialeeau souterrainetaxe, gestion des ressources naturelles, économie de l'eau
    JEL: C72 Q25 Q15
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Rudkin, Simon
    Abstract: Globally supermarkets have been seen as a remedy to the problems of poor diets in deprived neighbourhoods where access to healthy foodstuffs has been limited. This study seeks to quantify the consequences of one such United Kingdom intervention, in Seacroft, Leeds. Where previous work often focused on fruit and vegetables, this paper presents evidence on all food and drink consumed before, and after, the new opening. It is shown that utilising large format retailers can also bring significant negative consequences for already unhealthy diets, exactly the opposite of what policy makers set out to achieve. Suggestion is therefore made that policymakers consider using price, or education, interventions rather than promoting large shops, which, while stocking cheap healthy food also offer shoppers the unhealthy produce they like at low prices.
    Keywords: Food desert intervention, diet, healthy eating, supermarkets
    JEL: I14 I18
    Date: 2015–03–01
  30. By: Hansen, LeRoy; Hellerstein, Daniel; Ribaudo, Marc; Williamson, James; Nulph, David; Loesch, Charles; Crumpton, William
    Abstract: USDA has spent more than $4.2 billion on wetland restoration and protection over the last two decades. One challenge in allocating these funds is the lack of information on variations in wetland benefits and costs across the Nation. This report discusses the biophysical impacts of new wetlands for eight benefit categories: duck hunting, carbon sequestration, flood protection, nitrogen removal, species protection, open space, sediment removal, and groundwater recharge, as well as the value of these impacts for some categories. In addition, it presents county-level estimates of the costs of restoring and preserving wetlands for some parts of the United States. Although the estimates range in precision and are not comprehensive, they call attention to some areas where the benefits of new wetlands are likely to exceed costs or perhaps may be insignificant. For example, the benefits of restoring and preserving wetlands near the Missouri River in central North and South Dakota are likely to exceed costs. Findings underscore the need for additional information that may increase the number, accuracy, and spatial resolution of wetland benefit estimates.
    Keywords: Wetland conservation, ecosystem benefits, environmental economics, environmental targeting, nonmarket benefits, values of wetland ecosystems, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–02
  31. By: Ahmet Sensoy; Erk Hacihasanoglu; Duc Khuong Nguyen
    Abstract: We analyze the dynamic comovement of commodity futures returns within each category (energy, precious metals, industrial metals, and agriculture) from 1997 to 2013 under the eects of the nancialization of commodity markets. Our findings from the dynamic equicorrelation GARCH model of ? show evidence of convergence for precious and industrial metal commodity futures since mid-2000s. On the other hand, there is no sign of convergence across the agricultural commodity futures, with most of them moving in a unrelated manner. Finally, a relatively high level of convergence is found for energy commodity futures, except for natural gas futures which expectedly behave significantly different from the other energy commodity futures. As a whole, our results suggest some potential for diversification benefits within commodity-specific categories, but at the same time the predominance of physical supply/demand balance as the main driving force of the commodity futures price dynamics rather than global financi l conditions.
    Keywords: commodity futures, dynamic convergence, dynamic equicorrelation
    JEL: C58 G11 L61 Q02 Q14 Q40
    Date: 2015–03
  32. By: Matt, M.; Colinet, L.; Gaunand, A.; Joly, P.B.
    Abstract: This paper builds a typology of impact pathways generated by an agricultural public research organization, namely INRA (National Institute for Agronomic Research). The typology is built by codifying 32 standardized case studies providing rich qualitative information about the impact pathway and a quantitative assessment of a vector of impacts. We identify five classes of typical impact pathways characterized by specific mechanisms related to the positioning and role of actors in various networks of translation. One Class is characterized by long-term partnerships, generating high impacts. INRA coordinates complex research projects and structures the diffusion process to facilitate market access. In a second Class INRA conducts long term risky collaborative projects thanks to accumulated knowledge and infrastructures. Impacts are high. Market for technologies cases are pooled in Class 3 and correspond to classical IP commercialization. Impacts are lower. Cases in Class 4 are technological options allowing new possible uses that encounter diffusion obstacles. Class 5 encompasses all cases with political impacts as main dimension.
    JEL: H43 A13 C39
    Date: 2015
  33. By: Yang, Sui
    Abstract: Based on China Household Income Project rural data, this paper aims to study the changes of rural household income mobility in transitional China. The results show that with the economic reform and development, income mobility between 2007 and 2009 was mu
    Keywords: income mobility, inequality, rural China
    Date: 2015
  34. By: Joly, P.B.; Gaunand, A.; Colinet, L.; Larédo, P.; Lemarié, S.; Matt, M.
    Abstract: ASIRPA is an original and comprehensive approach for assessing the socio-economic impact of PROs through case studies. The cases are theory-based, selected to characterize the diversity of the broader impacts, and standardized so as to allow the scaling-up of the analysis of impact to the level of the organization. ASIRPA is founded on well-tried tools and the added-value of the approach lies in the adaptation and combination of these tools to design a comprehensive approach, which has been tested in a real situation and proven to be robust, credible, and implementable.
    JEL: H43 A13
    Date: 2015
  35. By: Edward S. Barbier (Department of Economics & Finance, University of Wyoming); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Nick Hanley (University of St Andrews, School of Geography and Sustainable Development)
    Abstract: This paper explores both theoretically and empirically whether or not the willingness to pay (WTP) for pollution control varies with income. Our model indicates that the income elasticity of the marginal WTP for pollution reduction is only constant under very restrictive conditions, which are not necessary for an environmental Kuznets curve relationship between pollution and income. Our empirical analysis tests the null hypothesis that the elasticity of the WTP for pollution control with respect to income is constant, employing a multi-country contingent valuation study of eutrophication reduction in the Baltic Sea. Our findings reject this hypothesis, and estimate an income elasticity of the WTP for eutrophication control of 0.1 - 0.2 for low-income respondents and 0.6 - 0.7 for high-income respondents. Thus, our empirical results suggest that the elasticity is not constant and always less than one.
    Keywords: Baltic Sea, benefit transfer, environmental Kuznets curve, eutrophication, income elasticity of willingness to pay, non-market valuation
    JEL: Q51 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2015
  36. By: Henriques, Sofia Teives (University of Southern Denmark); Sharp, Paul (University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: We examine the case of Denmark - a country which historically had next to no domestic energy resources - for which we present new historical energy accounts for the years 1800-1913. We demonstrate that Denmark’s take off at the end of the nineteenth century was relatively energy dependent. We relate this to her well-known agricultural transformation and development through the dairy industry, and thus complement the literature which argues that expensive energy hindered industrialization, by arguing that similar obstacles would have precluded other countries from a more agriculture-based growth. The Danish cooperative creameries, which spread throughout the country over the last two decades of the nineteenth century, were dependent on coal. Although Denmark had next to no domestic coal deposits, we demonstrate that her geography allowed cheap availability throughout the country through imports. On top of this we emphasize that another important source of energy was imported feed for the cows.
    Keywords: Coal, Denmark, energy transition, agriculture
    Date: 2015
  37. By: Lorenzo Almada; Ian M. McCarthy; Rusty Tchernis
    Abstract: The increasing rate of obesity in the U.S., particularly among low-income households, necessitates a thorough understanding of the relationship between obesity and in-kind federal benefits such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly the Food Stamp Program. However, when examining this relationship, the existing literature often ignores evidence that respondents frequently misreport their participation in SNAP. This paper studies the impact of such misreporting on the estimated average treatment effect (ATE) of SNAP participation on adult obesity. Our analysis also synthesizes the current empirical techniques available for estimating ATEs in light of misreported treatment participation, adopting a range of parametric analyses as well as nonparametric bounds. The results highlight the inherent bias of common point estimates when ignoring misreporting, with treatment effects from instrumental variable methods exceeding the nonparametric bounds by over 200% in some cases. Accounting for misreporting, the estimated effects of SNAP participation on obesity are largely inconclusive. We find a slight negative effect of SNAP participation on the probability of being overweight, but the results specific to gender remain inconclusive due to the high rates of misreporting, particularly among men.
    Date: 2015–02
  38. By: Sato, Masayuki; Phim, Runsinarith; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of shadow price regarding weak sustainability indicators based on the genuine savings indicator. We analyse the forest resources considering positive externalities of natural capital, as the approximation from market rent alone would under-estimate the true shadow price. On the basis of previous valuation results of forest resources, we estimate the non-market value and shadow price of forest, which are further used in deriving sustainability indicators measurement. The results show the importance of shadow pricing of natural capital to reflect weak sustainability indicators. Re-calculations of the sustainability indicator provide evidences suggesting that existing weak sustainability indicators tend to over-estimate sustainability, especially among countries with a higher dependence on forest-resource exploitation.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development; Inclusive Wealth Index; Natural Capital; Shadow Price
    JEL: Q23 Q51 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2015–02–16
  39. By: Swallow, Kimberly A.; Swallow, Brent M.
    Abstract: Bioeconomic models can provide powerful insights into the interactions between people and the natural ecosystems on which they depend. For example, bioeconomic models of fisheries have long been used to provide early warnings about the sustainability of harvest levels or the impacts of new technologies. Less progress has been made in explicitly incorporating inter-agent interactions and institutions in bioeconomic models. This paper offers guidance to future bioeconomic modelling efforts through a review of the ways that institutions are or could be explicitly integrated into bioeconomic models.
    Keywords: Governance, Developing countries, Mathematical models, intensification, systematic reviews, institutional change, social-ecological systems, sustainable intensification,
  40. By: Chelaru, Dan-Adrian; Oiste, Ana-Maria; Mihai, Florin-Constantin
    Abstract: Gradually, the study of the landscape became a core topic of environmental studies, due to its interdisciplinary research methods, integrating both natural and socio-economic data. The goal of the study is to quantify the structural evolution of Bistrita subcarpathian valley landscape, by using several GIS applications, having an important role in highlighting its functionality. The applications were realized for the extended area limit of Bistrita subcarpathian valley, which presents a complex landscape morphology, with features ranging from forested mountains to densely populated lowlands. The analysis was based on the two land cover maps resulted from the extraction of the spatial layers from the 1986 cadastral plans, 1:10.000 scale, respectively the 2005/2006 ortophotomaps, 1:5.000 scale. For completing the study, were calculated for the two periods a series of specific indicators, called landscape metrics, which contain quantitative information about the structure and features of the landscape. The results of the analysis proved the utility of these indicators in quantifying the structural evolution of the landscape, and also highlighted the capabilities of using Open Source software for complex spatial analysis. This type of analysis has a great importance for the authorities and other decision making factors regarding the territorial planning processes.
    Keywords: landscape metrics, Open Source GIS, Bistrita subcarpathian valley
    JEL: O21 Q10 Q15 Q18 Q56 Q57 R00 R52 R58
    Date: 2014
  41. By: Awel Y.; Azomahou T.T. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: We use unique cross-sectional household data from Ethiopia to investigate the effect of risk preference, financial literacy and other socio-economic characteristics on demand for index insurance. We measure risk preference based on survey experiments using lottery choice game with real monetary prizes. First, we find no evidence of risk aversion on demand for index insurance. Second, we find positive impact of financial literacy on purchasing insurance. Third, relaxing liquidity constraint enhance the take-up of insurance. Finally, demographic and village characteristics have little role in the decision to uptake insurance. These findings have implications on product design and marketing strategies. The product design should focus on ways that better account for liquidity constraint of the household. Interventions that strengthen efforts in provision of financial literacy programmes are worthy. Our results are robust to changes in specification and estimation method.
    Date: 2015
  42. By: Severin Borenstein; James Bushnell; Frank A. Wolak; Matthew Zaragoza-Watkins
    Abstract: We analyze the demand for emissions allowances and the supply of allowances and abatement opportunities in California's 2013-2020 cap and trade market for greenhouse gases (GHG). We estimate a cointegrated vector autoregression for the main drivers of greenhouse gas emissions using annual data from 1990 to 2011. We use these estimates to forecast businss-as-usual (BAU) emissions during California's program and the impact of the state's other GHG reduction programs. We then consider additional price-responsive and price-inelastic activities that will affect the supply/demand balance in the allowance market. We show that there is significant uncertainty in the BAU emissions levels due to uncertainty in economic growth and other factors. Our analysis also suggests that most of the planned abatement will not be very sensitive to the price of allowances, creating a steep abatement supply curve. The combination of BAU emissions uncertainty and inelastic abatement supply implies a high probability that the price of allowances in California will either be at the price floor, or high enough to trigger a safety valve mechanism called the Allowance Price Containment Reserve (APCR). We estimate a low probability that the price would end up in an intermediate range between the price floor and the APCR. The analysis suggests that cap-and-trade markets, as they have been established in California, the EU and elsewhere may be more likely to experience price volatility and extreme low or high prices than is generally recognized.
    JEL: Q5 Q52 Q54
    Date: 2015–03

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