nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒02‒11
58 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Impact of domestic support and border measures for developing countries’ food security By M. Huchet Bourdon; C. Laroche Dupraz
  2. Destination or Distraction? Querying the Linkage between Off-farm Income and Farm Investments in Kenya By Smale, Melinda; Kusunose, Yoko; Mathenge, Mary K.; Alia, Didier
  3. Study on growth / conservation economic efficiency of production plant growth arrangements regarding environmental performance By Ursu, Ana
  4. Determinants of Worldwide Diffusion of GlobalGAP Certification By Masood, Amjad; Brümmer, Bernhard
  5. Food Demand Elasticities for Australia By Mehmet Ulubasoglu; Debdulal Mallick; Mokhtarul Wadud; Phillip Hone; Henry Haszler
  6. Changing patterns of food consumption in Sri Lanka: 1985–2009 By Gaminiratne Wijesekere
  7. Technical-economic analysis of a family farm. Case study – Gheraseni Parish, Buzau county By Turek Rahoveanu, Petruta
  8. Long-Term Drivers of Food and Nutrition Security By David Laborde; Simla Tokgoz; Maximo Torero
  9. Computer system for farms (SITEFA) - an opportunity for performant agricultural management By Cofas, Elena
  10. Innovative model of cooperation for small agricultural producers By Lapusan, Alexandru
  11. Studies on the present situation of agricultural heritage the Archdiocese of Bucharest By Ungureanu, Florin; Niculae, Alecu Ioan
  12. Urbanization and Agricultural Structural Adjustments: Some Lessons from European Cities By Walid Oueslati; Julien Salanié; JunJie Wu
  13. Tradeoffs and Complementarities in the Adoption of Improved Seeds, Fertilizer, and Natural Resource Management Technologies in Kenya By Wainaina, Priscilla; Tongruksawattana, Songporne; Qaim, Matin
  14. Does food aid disrupt local food market? Evidence from rural Ethiopia By Nathalie Ferrière; Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann
  15. Conceptual framework on price volatility and its impact on food and nutrition security in the short term By Matthias Kalkuhl; Lukas Kornher; Marta Kozicka; Pierre Boulanger; Maximo Torero
  16. Agricultural marketing cooperatives with direct selling : A cooperative non cooperative game By Maxime Agbo; Damien Rousselière; Julien Salanié
  17. Dynamic Food Demand in Urban China By Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua; Herzfeld, Thomas
  18. Assessment of public good energy environment - Soy By Vlad, Mihaela Cristina; Berevoianu, Rozi Liliana
  19. The importance of traceability in certification the quality of animal products By Iurchevici, Lidia; Chetroiu, Rodica
  20. Organic farming, a viable and feasible component of the Romanian agriculture By Angelescu, Anda Irina; Niculae, Ioan Alecu; Badea, Adriana
  21. Social networks and farmer exposure to improved crop varieties in Tanzania By Muange, Elijah N.; Schwarze, Stefan; Qaim, Matin
  22. Environmental and economic impacts of growing certified organic coffee in Colombia By Ibanez, Marcela; Blackmann, Allen
  23. Price Transmissions During Financialization and Turmoil: New Evidence from North American and European Agricultural Futures By Philipp Adämmer; Martin T. Bohl; Ernst-Oliver Ledebur
  24. Uncertain emission reductions from forest conservation: REDD in the Bale mountains, Ethiopia By Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; E. J. Milner-Gulland
  25. Use planning analysis on agricultural holdings according to their physical size. Case studies By Vlad, Mihaela Cristina
  26. The right of foreigners to purchase agricultural lands in Romania. Cross-border conflict mediation By Niculae, Alecu Ioan; Ciocan, Felix Dimitrie; Badea, Adriana; Gyongy, Gabriela
  27. Study on the importance of credit as financial leverage in agricultural development By Stan, Darius
  28. Land Reform, Latifundia and Social Development at Local Level in Colombia, 1961-2010 By Jean-Paul Faguet; Fabio Sánchez; Marta-Juanita Villaveces
  29. Can Willingness-To-Pay Values be Manipulated? Evidences from an Experiment on Organic Food in China By Xiaohua, Yu; Binjian, Yan; Zhifeng, Gao
  30. The EU Cohesion policy in context: regional growth and the influence of agricultural and rural development policies By Riccardo Crescenzi; Mara Giua
  31. The economic efficiency of beef cattle in extensive system By Iurchevici, Lidia; Chetroiu, Rodica
  32. Securing Unlimited Water Supply in Adelaide over the Next Century Balancing Desalinated and Murray-Darling Basin Water By Michael G. Porter; Zohid Askarov; Sarah Hilborn
  33. Economic Growth, Safe Drinking Water and Ground Water Storage: Examining Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in Indian Context By Hauff, Michael von; Mistri, Avijit
  34. Economic Growth, Safe Drinking Water and Ground Water Storage: Examining Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in Indian Context By von Hauff, Michael; Mistri, Avijit
  35. Amicable settlement of conflicts between agri-food producers and consumers By Niculae, Ioan Alecu; Ciocan, Felix Dimitrie; Mihut, Gabriela Gyongy
  36. Forecasting a moving target: The roles of quality and timing for determining northern U.S. wheat basis By Anton Bekkerman
  37. Socio-Economics and Water Management: Revisiting the Contribution of Economics in the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Greece and Cyprus By Phoebe Koundouri; Vassilis Skianis
  39. Coherence, efficiency, and independence of the EU environmental policy system: results of complementary statistical and econometric analyses By F. Zagonari
  40. Access to Modern Energy: a Review of Impact Evaluations By Jacopo Bonan; Stefano Pareglio; Massimo Tavoni
  41. Capitalising on the Irish Land Question:Land Reform and State Banking in Ireland, 1891-1938 By Nathan Foley-Fisher; Eoin McLaughlin
  42. Sustainable develoment of Ostrov area, Constanta county through rural and wine tourism By Iova, Radu Andrei; Lascar, Elena
  43. Vulnerability to malnutrition in the West African Sahel By Alfani, Federica; Dabalen, Andrew; Fisker, Peter; Molini, Vasco
  44. Catastrophic Risk, Precautionary Abatement, and Adaptation Transfers By Francesco Bosello; Enrica De Cian; Licia Ferranna
  45. Spatial Interactions in Tropical Deforestation: An application to the Brazilian Amazon By Eric Nazindigouba KERE; Philippe DELACOTE; Saraly ANDRADE DE SA
  46. Beekeeping development opportunity for Serbian Danube” By Mijajlovic, Nada; Arsic, Slavica
  47. Tariffs and non-tariff frictions in the world wine trade By Dal Bianco, Andrea; Boatto, Vasco; Caracciolo, Francesco; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
  48. Environmental management in Natura 2000 Sites Case study: Braila county By Roşu, Elisabeta
  49. The system of indicators of estimation the economic efficiency in the production of goat milk By Chetroiu, Rodica; Calin, Ion
  50. The maize crop technology characterized by its main indicators at the country level and in Călăraşi county By Crudu, Giorgiana; Dhary Yusif El-Jubouri, Mohamed; Necula, Raluca
  51. Economy of Moldavian wine complex in context of European Union integration By Gaina, Boris; Gobirman, Galina; Pascari, Xenia
  52. Taxation and Economic Incentives on Health-Related Commodities: Alcohol, Tobacco and Food By Alemanno , Alberto; Sassi , Franco
  53. Impact of the National Economy restructuring on the Rural Development By Costin, Lenuța
  54. The political economy of inclusive rural growth By Michael Carter; John Morrow
  55. The Sequential Equal Surplus Division for Rooted Forest Games and an Application to Sharing a River with Bifurcations By Sylvain Béal; Amandine Ghintran; Eric Rémila; Philippe Solal
  56. Adaptation to climate change and economic growth in developing countries By Antony Millner; Simon Dietz
  57. Climate Sensitivity Uncertainty: When is Good News Bad? By Mark C. Freeman; Gernot Wagner; Richard J. Zeckhauser
  58. The Tide That Does Not Raise All Boats: An Assesment of EU Preferential Trade Policies By Maria Cipollina; David Laborde; Luca Salvatici

  1. By: M. Huchet Bourdon; C. Laroche Dupraz
    Abstract: Food security is a major concern, especially for developing countries where a large percentage of population lives in rural areas and where agricultural sector represents an important weight in their economy. Agricultural and food imports play a particular key role in terms of food security in low income countries. Indeed, dependency on imports for food may raise a problem for food security in particular in the case of sudden price increase which put up national food bill. The national state of food availability combining food imports and domestic food production thus constitutes some crucial information. Following Diaz-Bonilla et al. (2000), this contribution aims to shed light on the determinants of food security at national level. We first build a theoretical framework linking explicitly food security measured by the Bonilla index and national intervention policy intervention in agriculture. Second, the empirical methodology aims at assessing the impact of national policy responses to 2008 price surge in terms of food security using the national rate assistance index on importable food products for 42 countries over the period 1995-2010. Our results suggest that most developing countries have largely used their possibility to play with the NRA level in order to moderate BI during the 2008 food price surge.
    JEL: Q18 O24
  2. By: Smale, Melinda; Kusunose, Yoko; Mathenge, Mary K.; Alia, Didier
    Abstract: Off-farm earnings account for a substantial and growing share of household income among smallholder farmers in most of Sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence concerning the effects of these earnings on investment in food production remains sparse. Conceptually, some factors may push farm families to send members in search of cash to relieve expenditure constraints or serve to meet consumption needs under duress; other factors pull members of rural households toward the promise of steady, dependable income. Previously published research suggests that the search for off-farm income has a negative impact on farm investments.
    Keywords: Kenya, Off-farm earnings, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–12
  3. By: Ursu, Ana
    Abstract: The study aimed to identify growth prospects / preservation of economic efficiency in terms of interventions to increase performance and in shaping the directions in which this objective can be. For the study started from two methodological premises: vegetable production systems design adapted plains, different shapes and sizes, which were performed simulating economic efficiency indicators for 2011-2014; second methodological premise was to identify needs for intervention and funding by increasing economic efficiency. After analyzing the efficiency and SWOT analysis concluded that modules are designed viable farm, while the yields observed scheduled and have the ability to invest in modern agricultural techniques to increase environmental performance. Under RDP 2014-2020, have been identified four priority areas of intervention: competitiveness of agricultural holdings, organization of food chains, agri-climate.
    Keywords: economic efficiency, environmental performance, holdings
    JEL: D24 O44 P47 P52 Q12
    Date: 2014–11–20
  4. By: Masood, Amjad; Brümmer, Bernhard
    Abstract: GlobalGAP is an important private standard in food sector. However, geographic diffusion of GlobalGAP is uneven across the world. We use a panel from 2008 to 2012 for 170 FAO member countries to analyze GlobalGAP diffusion in the agricultural sector as a whole as well as in the crops subsector. So far, studies on standards have been mostly dealing with farm level data and very few consider the case of macroeconomic determinants of diffusion only in case of public standards. We, on the other hand, consider the case of a private standard, namely GlobalGAP and estimate the macroeconomic determinants of GlobalGAP diffusion. For estimation, a Heckman two-stage model is applied using number of GlobalGAP certified producers as well as hectares of area harvested under GlobalGAP as dependent variables. We analyze the impact of network ties and historical relations among countries, and various macroeconomic conditions prevailing in courtiers on diffusion of certification. The study finds that diffusion is positively related common language, presence of auditing facility domestically and better infrastructure. We also find that countries with higher relative size of fruits and vegetables in the agriculture sector, and with more exports of fruits and vegetables to the EU states have higher coverage of GlobalGAP.
    Keywords: Standards, Food quality, Diffusion, Organizational innovation, GlobalGAP, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization, International Relations/Trade, Marketing, Q17, Q18, Q13, O19,
    Date: 2014–10
  5. By: Mehmet Ulubasoglu; Debdulal Mallick; Mokhtarul Wadud; Phillip Hone; Henry Haszler
    Abstract: There is renewed interest in robust estimates of food demand elasticities at a disaggregated level not only to analyse the impact of changing food preferences on the agricultural sector, but also to establish the likely impact of pricing incentives on households. Using data drawn from two national Household Expenditure Surveys covering the periods 1998/99 and 2003/04, and adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach that addresses the zero observations problem, this paper estimates a food demand system for 15 food categories for Australia. The categories cover the standard food items that Australian households demand routinely. Own-price, crossprice and expenditure elasticity estimates of the Marshallian and Hicksian types have been derived for all categories. The parameter estimates obtained in this study represent the first integrated set of food demand elasticities based on a highly disaggregated food demand system for Australia, and all accord with economic intuition.
    Keywords: Food demand, AIDS model, Australia
    Date: 2014–12–01
  6. By: Gaminiratne Wijesekere
    Abstract: This paper examines the patterns of food consumption in Sri Lanka from 1985 to 2009 using the food disappearance data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Trends in per capita daily calorie, protein and fat supply have been examined. The study finds that grain food products are the main source of calories and protein, while fat-calories were mainly sourced from non-grain vegetable products and animal food products. Calories derived from protein were less than the recommended intake for Sri Lankans. During the period studied, there has been a shift away from roots and tubers, fruits and cereals, towards sugars, pulses, oils and animal products. The contributions from animal products were relatively low, being less than 8 per cent.
    Keywords: Calorie supply, dietary diversity, food balance sheets, food consumption, Sri Lanka
    JEL: D69 Q18
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Turek Rahoveanu, Petruta
    Abstract: In Romania, family farms strenghten agriculture stability wise through structural changes in multifunctional development, merchandising of vegetable products, making investments and depositing products. The family farms production structure was formed under factors like: natural environment, market, financial capital, the risk and uncertainty related to selling products, consumption. At the same time it’s considered to be the central element of the agricultural structures and it’s regarded in independence with the elements that contribute in obtaining agricultural products.
    Keywords: production structure, agricultural production, work productivity
    JEL: Q10 Q12 R11
    Date: 2014–11–20
  8. By: David Laborde; Simla Tokgoz; Maximo Torero
    Abstract: Abstract: This paper proposes an analytical framework to list and study the role of key long term drivers of food and nutrition security (FNS). We start by identifying what are the key variables affecting food and nutrition security at the household and the country level, and then define what are the main exogenous or endogenous drivers impacting these variables. We discuss the key drivers of both aggregated food supply and demand, and therefore the consequences on prices. Specifically for aggregated food demand we discuss demographic increase, income growth, changes in preferences, aggregated domestic distortions and overall quality of the food system. With respect to the drivers of aggregated food supply we discuss the land available for food products and drivers behind land availability, the share of waste/losses generated by the food system, and the normalized average yield. We define yield as the amount of nutrients produced by unit of land. It depends both on the physical yield of the crop or the livestock, and also on the quality of the food and it can be affected by the changes in production patterns linked to the different dietary patterns of the consumers and by climate change. We emphasize the fact that in many cases, key drivers may have ambiguous effects on the food and nutrition security situation of different agents. For instance, more liberal trade policies will affect real income, terms of trade, demand and supply, returns of factors, foreign direct investments and food prices, thus may lead to the improvement of global level FNS, i.e. the FNS of a majority of people on Earth. However, at the same time, more liberal trade policies may bring food insecurity to some households. Therefore, careful quantitative assessment is needed for each policy option. Finally, we also propose a typology of variables that will help modelers adapt their models to study the different drivers, through both direct and indirect effects.
    JEL: Q13 Q18 I14
  9. By: Cofas, Elena
    Abstract: Any modern agricultural unit, regardless of profile, size, ownership and socio-economic space in which they operate, requires a management style based on flexibility, dynamism and foresight, which is inconceivable without a complex, operative and quality information, to underpin decision making. Therefore, any farmer needs objective, relevant, reliable, timely, useful, concerning: market demand, new products and technologies, the position of competitors, suppliers and customers, their performance, etc., so that their analysis to directly influence and as the competitiveness of the farm in a particular market or market segment. Based on the theme of the "Determination of economic indicators of crop production technologies and animal applied in order to increase environmental performance (costs, productivity, profitability, gross margin)" from the Sector Plan ADER 2020 was developed computer system SITEFA- a product developed and designed program-technical-economic analysis of the performances of farm economic and efficient use of production factors in classical operating conditions.
    Keywords: agriculture, computer system, farm, management, analysis
    JEL: C88 D24 M11 P52 Q12
    Date: 2014–11–20
  10. By: Lapusan, Alexandru
    Abstract: The present study has the objective to elaborate an innovative model of cooperation that can represent a general structural solution, beneficial to small agricultural producers, being one of the very few real solutions that can connect them to the agricultural market and to development resources. In the first part of the paper, it is presented a retrospective of the agricultural cooperation route in Romania. The prospects of agricultural cooperation are oriented toward directions and domains of agriculture, for that the innovative cooperation model proposed can represent the functional and advantageous solution for the small agricultural producer. By the interpretation of the RGA data, 2002,2010, regarding agricultural holdings, corroborated with theoretical and legislative aspects, it was pursued to realize an analysis of the agriculture particularities from our country, highlighting the necesity to develop a cooperation structures (1-st degree cooperative) in agriculture. The perspective analysis of small farmers to join, can be interpreted starting from the questions (Who are the small producers?, Why must find a solution for them? What is their direction of evolution? Why do not associate?) relevant found in SWOT analysis of small individual farms. In the last part of the paper it is defined the legal framework for cooperation of small individual producers, in this context developing the innovative cooperation model, operating principles and conditions for this model to be viable.
    Keywords: innovative model of cooperation, agricultural cooperation, individual agricultural holdings, small agricultural producer
    JEL: P13 Q12 Q13 R00
    Date: 2014–11–20
  11. By: Ungureanu, Florin; Niculae, Alecu Ioan
    Abstract: The Romanian Orthodox Church, founded as Patriarchy in 1925, performs alongside the pastoral and missionary works specific to the orthodox cult and administrative works. The cult units of the Archiepiscopate of Bucharest, as part of the Metropolitanate of Muntenia and Dobrogea, own agricultural, horticulture and forestry land. The agricultural and horticultural lands are cultivated under own regime or under a lease. For the areas with forest vegetation the cult units have forest service contracts with private or state Forest Districts, specialized inspectors of the Archiepiscopate of Bucharest participating in the sustainable forest management. Vineyards are subject to the reconversion program (by APIA programs) with noble varieties of vineyards and for producing wine it was built a section of vinification , by accessing European funds, with modern technology. The cult units participate in improving the quality of life in rural areas by implementing programs for accessing European funds (job creation, efficient exploitation of land, economic development, strong correlation between the creditworthiness of agricultural land and infrastructure).
    Keywords: Archdiocese of Bucharest, agricultural patrimony, horticulture, forestry
    JEL: D02 Q19 Q29
    Date: 2014–11–20
  12. By: Walid Oueslati (Agrocampus-Ouest, Department of Economics, Management and Society, France); Julien Salanié (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France); JunJie Wu (Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA)
    Abstract: Urbanization presents both opportunities and challenges to agriculture. This paper analyzes the effect of urbanization on the structure and profitability of agriculture at the rural-urban fringe. We develop a theoretical model accounting for changes in the amount of urban development, the level of fragmentation, and population density associated with urbanization. We show that urbanization not only affects the land allocation between traditional and highvalue crops, but also changes relative input and output prices for the two types of crops. We conduct an empirical analysis to estimate the effect of increasing population density and urban fragmentation on farm returns for a set of European metropolises using a Bayesian averaged model that deals with model uncertainty. Our results show that increasing population density increases farm returns while increasing land fragmentation may have a detrimental effect in the beginning but a positive effect for high levels of fragmentation.
    Keywords: Farmland, urban sprawl, farm profitability, urban development patterns
    JEL: O18 R14
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Wainaina, Priscilla; Tongruksawattana, Songporne; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: There is widespread consensus that agricultural technology has an important role to play for poverty reduction and sustainable development. There is less consensus, however, about the types of technologies that are best suited for smallholder farmers in Africa. While some consider natural resource management (NRM) technologies as most appropriate, others propagate input intensification with a stronger role of the private sector. In the public debate, the two strategies are often perceived as incompatible. Most existing adoption studies focus on individual technologies, so that comparisons across technologies in the same context are not easily possible. We use representative data from maize-producing households in Kenya and a multivariate probit model to analyze the adoption of different types of technologies simultaneously. Results indicate that NRM technologies and strategies that build on external inputs are not incompatible. Interesting complementarities exist, which are not yet sufficiently exploited, because many organizations promote either one type of technology or the other, but rarely a combination of both.
    Keywords: Technology adoption, maize, small farms, sustainable agriculture, Africa, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O13, O33, Q12, Q16,
    Date: 2014–11
  14. By: Nathalie Ferrière; Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann
    Abstract: Abstract:This paper analyses empirically the impact of food aid on wheat production,sales and purchases in rural Ethiopia between 1994 and 2009. We distinguish between the impact at the intensive margin(on quantities)and at the extensive margin(on the very decision to produce or go to the market to buy or sell).The panel dimension allows us to deal with food aid selection. We find that the impact of food aid goes through the extensive margin while pure quantity effects,once controlled for market participationand production choice,are not significant. Foodaid reduces the probability of being a producer albeit the size of the effect is small. It also increases the probability of being a seller and decreases the probability of being a buyer after 2004,the year when the rules of food aid allocation changed in Ethiopia. Other factors such as storage capacity,distance to the nearest market,and the frequency the market is held also matter in the decision to sell or buy.
    JEL: O12 O13 Q18
  15. By: Matthias Kalkuhl; Lukas Kornher; Marta Kozicka; Pierre Boulanger; Maximo Torero
    Abstract: This paper establishes a conceptual framework that links short-term price changes with food and nutrition security. We first provide an overview on the causes of commodity price volatility and approaches to measure volatility. Next, different concepts to measure food security impacts are elaborated and discussed. In contrast to consumption, utility or perception based indicators, anthropometric indicators provide the most direct measure of nutritional impacts. An extensive literature review emphasizes that anthropometric indicators can respond significantly within few months to shocks like droughts, seasonality or economic crises. As there is few research on the impact of price shocks to nutritional status, the developed conceptual framework elaborates different channels how price changes and price risks affect households and food security. The paper concludes with implications for further research to analyze the impact of price volatility on food security empirically.
    JEL: C6 Q11
  16. By: Maxime Agbo (African School of Economics, Abomey-Calavi, Benin); Damien Rousselière (AGROCAMPUS OUEST, Departement of Economics, Management and Society, Angers, France, UMR GRANEM, Angers, France); Julien Salanié (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France)
    Abstract: We build a theoretical model to study a market structure of a marketing cooperative with direct selling, in which many farmers are members of an agricultural marketing cooperative. They can sell their production either to the cooperative or on an oligopolistic local market. We show that the decision to sell to the cooperative induces an anti-competitive effect on the direct selling market. The cooperative facilitates collusion on the local market by making farmers softer competitors on that market. Conversely, direct selling may create a "healthy emulation" among farmers, leading to more production benefiting the cooperative.
    Keywords: marketing cooperative, direct selling, local market, competition
    JEL: D43 L11 Q13
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua; Herzfeld, Thomas
    Abstract: PURPOSE – The purpose of this paper is to investigate dynamic food demand in urban China, with use of a complete dynamic demand system - DLES-LA/DAIDS, which pushes forward the techniques of demand analysis. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – We employ a transitionary demand process and develop a new approach of complete demand system with a two-stage dynamic budgeting: an additively separable dynamic linear expenditure system (DLES) in the first stage and a linear approximate dynamic almost ideal demand system (LA/DAIDS). Employing provincial aggregate data (1995-2010) from the China urban household surveys (UHS), we estimated the demand elasticities for primary food products in urban China. FINDINGS – Our results indicate that most primary food products are necessities and price-inelastic for urban households in China. We also found that the dynamic model tends to yield relatively smaller expenditure elasticities in magnitude than the static models do due to dynamic adjusting costs, such as habit formation, switching costs, and learning process. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS – The research contributes to the demand analysis methodologically, and can be used for better projections in policy simulation models. ORIGINALITY/VALUE – This paper methodologically releases the restrictive assumption of instant adjustment in static models and allows consumers to make a dynamic decision in food consumption. Empirically, we introduce a new complete dynamic demand model and carry out a case study with the use of urban household data in China.
    Keywords: two-stage budgeting, food, demand model, DLES-LA/DAIDS, China, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, D21,
    Date: 2014–05
  18. By: Vlad, Mihaela Cristina; Berevoianu, Rozi Liliana
    Abstract: There are sectors of agriculture, manufacturing processes where conventional power is indispensable, although it may be more savings and better managed. Agricultural production consumes large amounts of conventional energy, especially oil to the normal process flow results more or less efficient in terms of yield per hectare. Renewable energy sources must be considered in the context of climatic resources of a country, bioconversion processes, the phenomenon of photosynthesis in the plant world, which have sometimes unimaginable opportunities for agriculture to provide various forms of energy available. Agro energy new field of study and research is closely linked to climate resources, primarily those from the sun, as totally free.
    Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystems, agricultural production, energy balance
    JEL: Q10 Q49 Q57
    Date: 2014–11–20
  19. By: Iurchevici, Lidia; Chetroiu, Rodica
    Abstract: Traceability in Productis system is an innovative approach to verify the origin of food, which will have a significant impact both on final consumers, legislators and producers from the food industry, involving large cost savings. With a food traceability system according to HACCP/ISO 22000, it can intervene and recall from market at any time, precise on lot and batch, entirely and from every point of sale, the product that of a reason or other requests this thing. The traceability is seen as a way of ensuring the control, quality and efficiency.
    Keywords: traceability, food safety, consumers
    JEL: L15 P49 Q18
    Date: 2014–11–20
  20. By: Angelescu, Anda Irina; Niculae, Ioan Alecu; Badea, Adriana
    Abstract: Taking into account the fact that organic farming is not a miracle, but a tangible reality of our days, a trend with more and more followers within the producers and consumers, this paper is included within those trying to demonstrate once more that for Romania also, the organic farming is a viable alternative to the traditional farming that leads in time to the degradation of soil and water resources, to air pollution, degradation of population heath etc. By using as working method the direct observation without intervention and consulting specialized reference sources, we have tried to select the most important definitions for the Romanian organic farming. We have also specified the objectives and principles of the organic farming and we have made a selection of the most important legal regulations on which the environment-friendly production is based, both at Community level and at national level. The analysis of the organic farming in Romania also showed that a process of institutional strengthening and development is currently undergoing for the organic farming, as in all the other countries, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, by its actions, puts the organic farming in the centre of the development of the Romanian agriculture. As such, the evolution of this sector from one year to another was dynamic, with a steady pace growth of the eco-cultivated areas and of the number of animals resulted from organic livestock breeding. The analysis performed entitles us to consider that the organic farming is an inadequately capitalized opportunity for Romania that could place the country as a front-runner on the European market.
    Keywords: organic farming, conventional farming, resources, regulations, conversion
    JEL: P48 Q18 Q20 Q57
    Date: 2014–11–20
  21. By: Muange, Elijah N.; Schwarze, Stefan; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: In Sub-Sahara Africa, adoption rates of improved crop varieties remain relatively low, which is partly due to farmers’ limited access to information. In smallholder settings, information often spreads through informal networks. Better understanding of such networks could potentially help to spur innovation and farmers’ exposure to new technologies. This study uses survey data from Tanzania to analyze social networks and their role for the spread of information about improved varieties of maize and sorghum. Regression models show that network links for the exchange of agricultural information are more likely between farmers who have similar educational but different wealth levels. Moreover, network links are more likely when farmers have direct contacts to extension officers, suggesting that information flows through informal channels can support but not replace formal channels. Social networks play a significant role for the spread of information about open-pollinated varieties. This is not the case for maize hybrids, which are sold by private seed companies.
    Keywords: social networks, exposure, improved varieties, sorghum, maize, gender, Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O12, O13, O31, Q12, Q16,
    Date: 2014–09
  22. By: Ibanez, Marcela; Blackmann, Allen
    Abstract: According to advocates, eco-certification can improve developing country farmers’ environmental and economic performance. However, these notional benefits can be undercut by self-selection: the tendency of relatively wealthy farmers already meeting eco-certification standards to disproportionately participate. Empirical evidence on this matter is scarce. Using original farm-level survey data along with matching and difference-in-differences matching models, we analyze the producer-level effects of organic coffee certification in southeast Colombia. We find that certification improves coffee growers’ environmental performance. It significantly reduces sewage disposal in the fields and increases the adoption of organic fertilizer. However, we are not able to discern economic benefits.
    Keywords: organic certification, coffee, Colombia, difference-in-differences matching, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty, Q13, Q20, O13, Q56,
    Date: 2015–01
  23. By: Philipp Adämmer; Martin T. Bohl; Ernst-Oliver Ledebur
    Abstract: Empirical studies on price transmissions between North American and European agricultural futures neglect the period of financialization in the US commodity market, the increase of futures trading in Europe and the recent price turmoils. We fill this gap by analyzing the price dynamics of canola, wheat and corn futures between 2000 and 2013. Our empirical results show that US and European prices have become strongly intertwined in recent years and that the US market leads in terms of price transmissions. The latter results are especially apparent between 2007 and 2013, the period where prices and financialization in the US reached their peak.
    Keywords: Price Transmission, Volatility Spillovers, VECM, VAR, GARCH, Dynamic Conditional Correlations
    JEL: G10 Q11 G10
    Date: 2015–01
  24. By: Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; E. J. Milner-Gulland
    Abstract: The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exemplify the implications of primary and secondary forest carbon stock estimates on predicted REDD project emission reductions and revenues. Primary data estimate area-weighted mean forest carbon stock of 195 tC/ha ± 81, and biomeaveraged data reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underestimate forest carbon stock in the Bale Mountains by as much as 63% in moist forest and 58% in dry forest. Combining forest carbon stock estimates and uncertainty in voluntary carbon market prices demonstrates the financial impact of uncertainty: potential revenues over the 20-year project ranged between US$9 million and US$185 million. Estimated revenues will influence decisions to implement a project or not and may have profound implications for the level of benefit sharing that can be supported. Strong financial incentives exist to improve forest carbon stock estimates in tropical forests, as well as the environmental integrity of REDD projects.
    Keywords: deforestation; emission reductions accounting; Ethiopia; forest carbon stocks; REDD; uncertainty
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2013–09
  25. By: Vlad, Mihaela Cristina
    Abstract: The processes of planning of the production activity of agricultural holdings are, in fact, a number of activities to study the alternatives and choose the optimal Variant. It is conducted on the basis of the theory of planning by the manager/administrator and seeks to provide for a high efficiency of work, to develop and refine the tools, techniques and levers for the conduct of competition on the market, to reduce the uncertainty, to ensure management and control instruments in crisis situations, etc.
    Keywords: the production plan, marketing plan, business plan
    JEL: Q10 Q12 R11 R14
    Date: 2014–11–20
  26. By: Niculae, Alecu Ioan; Ciocan, Felix Dimitrie; Badea, Adriana; Gyongy, Gabriela
    Abstract: Ever since becoming a member state of the European Union, Romania had to adapt its internal laws so that the citizens of other EU member states, or those of other entities for which this right is acknowledged by Law 17/2014, stateless persons residing in these states and legal persons established in accordance with the internal laws of these states can benefit from a regulatory framework in virtue of which they can acquire the right of private property over Romanian agricultural fields, under the same conditions as Romanian citizens, stateless persons based in Romania or Romanian legal persons. Outsourcing the civil circuit over the Romanian agricultural fields raises a serious question over the reaction of the society, which is still vibrant to anything that concerns the preservation of property over the ancestral land.
    Keywords: foreigners, mediation, conflict, land, alienation
    JEL: D74 K49 Q24
    Date: 2014–11–20
  27. By: Stan, Darius
    Abstract: Romanian agriculture is closely related to Romanian village life and is defined as the creatures and the whole of eternity. To think that there is little work to invest in land fertility, agricultural durability invest without having in mind that in Romania the whole eternity of mankind was born in the country. I forget a fundamental truth, proven time and space. Under state law defining Roman in all investments are taken into account the principle of Corpus en Animo where body is the earth that is more stable investment. The study examined a mistake exercised due modernism and of which we Romans have come to praise and idolism mess. It is said that we Romans did not have the capacity, nor the call to use and to modernize agricultural structures. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Thomas More was a descriptive statement of England considering it as "country where sheep outnumber people." Somewhere in England in 1901 when industrial explosion occur only 9% of the farming population has chosen to respond to migration of rural population to urban areas. It is true that later happened industrial expansion and depopulation of villages in England, but the agricultural sector did not happen to be neglected and fall in disuse time. Structural changes in the agricultural sector have been made with specific consequences, but the same sector at a time proved to be a key ally of England leading the way to becoming the most powerful industrial countries. Romanian agriculture required to adapt perpetual metamorphoses upgrades, misuse, dismantling disuse and writing his own history as the volume and whole chapters.
    Keywords: Romanian agriculture, investments, Roman law, principle
    JEL: D01 K0 K00 Q19 R19
    Date: 2014–11–20
  28. By: Jean-Paul Faguet; Fabio Sánchez; Marta-Juanita Villaveces
    Abstract: Abstract The paper analyzes the effects of land reform on social development –poverty and land distribution- at the local level. Land reform in Colombia, understood as the allocation of public land to peasant, has granted 23 million hectares which comprises around 20% of Colombian territory and about 50% of usable productive land. Theoretically, the net impact of land reform on development is the combination of a poverty effect and a land distribution effect. Our findings suggest that land reform from 1961 onwards has slightly reduced poverty and mildly improved land distribution. Nonetheless, municipalities with strong presence of latifundia prior to 1961 have experienced both a slower drop in poverty and a weaker improvement of land distribution. This paper finds that prevalence of latifundia partially offset the positive effect of land reform in promoting social development.
    Keywords: Land reform, land distribution, latifundia, poverty, local economic development, Colombia
    JEL: Q15 N16 H27
    Date: 2015–02–04
  29. By: Xiaohua, Yu; Binjian, Yan; Zhifeng, Gao
    Abstract: Human behaviours are driven by two different types of motives: implicit and explicit motives. Psychologists have developed two main tools, namely time pressure and cognitive load, to disentangle the two motives. It implies that the values of willingness to pay (WTP) are sensitive to time pressure and cognitive load levels in practice. An experiment with 233 students is conducted in China to study the willingness to pay for organic food with consideration of different time pressures and cognitive load levels. Results show that (1) increasing cognitive load could significantly reduce consumers’ WTP for organic food; and (2) time pressure does not have significant impact on WTP values. Such results remind us of being particularly cautious about the cognitive load situations of respondents during a WTP survey. Otherwise, the WTP results are unstable and inconvincible.
    Keywords: Motives, Time Pressure, Cognitive Load, WTP, Organic Food, Experiments, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Marketing, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C91, Q13,
    Date: 2014–05
  30. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Mara Giua
    Abstract: This paper looks at the Cohesion Policy of the European Union (EU) and investigates how the EU agricultural and rural development policies shape its influence on regional growth. The analysis of the drivers of regional growth shows that the EU Regional Policy has a positive and significant influence on economic growth in all regions. However, its impact is stronger in the most socio-economically advanced areas and is maximised when its expenditure is complemented by Rural Development and Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) funds. The top-down funding of the CAP seems to be able to concentrate some benefits in the most deprived areas. Conversely only the most dynamics rural areas are capable of leveraging on the bottom-up measures of the EU Rural Development Policy. This suggests that EU policy makers in all fields should constantly look for the best mix of bottom-up and top-down measures in order to tackle structural disadvantage.
    Keywords: regional policy, European Union, regional growth, rural development, Common Agricultural Policy
    JEL: O18 R11 R58
    Date: 2014–12
  31. By: Iurchevici, Lidia; Chetroiu, Rodica
    Abstract: In Romania there are large areas of unused pasture, which are well suited for the meat breeds and the geoclimatic conditions are favorable for beef. The beef breeds are more profitable than the milk ones. They have a yield of 65-70% cut, the meat quality is very good and the animals are not at all pretentious for food, they consume all plant debris. One advantage is that the growth rate of animals is faster, a calf, for example, can reach in 15-20 months at a weight of 550-650 kg.
    Keywords: cattle, meat, meadow, efficiency
    JEL: O13 O49 P49 Q12
    Date: 2014–11–20
  32. By: Michael G. Porter; Zohid Askarov; Sarah Hilborn
    Abstract: This paper assesses the two major water supply options for a growing but relatively dry metropolitan Adelaide – desalination and expanded trading of water from the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB). What we present in this paper is a portfolio approach suggesting a mixed strategy of desalination and water trading to meet growing demand over the hundred year period from 2014. Crucially, the scope for expanding water trading keeps average costs down, for as long as the political agreements work and drought does not prevent the use of allocations. However, our modelling shows that in the long run water trade in combination with modular augmentation of desalination capacity can achieve a mix of security and cost that avoids spikes in market prices of MDB allocations during drought. The strategy also avoids the real business and household costs, loss of garden value and inconvenience of water restrictions.
    Keywords: water portfolio, water costs, desalination, augmentation costs, entitlement, allocations
    Date: 2015–01–28
  33. By: Hauff, Michael von; Mistri, Avijit
    Abstract: The trade-off between economic growth and environmental sustainability is very tough to a faster growing developing country like India. The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis proposes, environmental degradation increases with income growth first, and then it declines with income rise. The present study is an endeavor to find out the EKC relation in the arena of access to safe drinking water, ground water development and utilisation, and waterborne diseases during 2001-2012 in 32 Indian States/Union Territories (UTs). The panel analysis results reveal that no EKC relationship is found in the Indian context and income growth has no significant effect on all of the indicators. Income growth in lower income States/UTs immensely helps to improve the access to safe drinking water compared to the higher income States/UTs. Rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture and obsoleted regulation related to the abstraction overexploit the ground water. Moreover, lack of proper technological investment or abatement measures and its implication in Indian industry deteriorate the indicators of environmental quality. The contribution of technological input and its progress infer the poor design of environmental policies and its implementation in India. Apart from these, climatic and geomorphological heterogeneity widely influence the distribution and utilisation of water resources. The huge population pressure also exerts a negative effect on the environment.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), Environmental Sustainability, Safe Drinking water, Ground Water, Waterborne diseases, Economic Growth.
    JEL: C12 Q53 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2015–01–27
  34. By: von Hauff, Michael; Mistri, Avijit
    Abstract: The trade-off between economic growth and environmental sustainability is very tough to a faster growing developing country like India. The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis proposes, environmental degradation increases with income growth first, and then it declines with income rise. The present study is an endeavor to find out the EKC relation in the arena of access to safe drinking water, ground water development and utilisation, and waterborne diseases during 2001-2012 in 32 Indian States/Union Territories (UTs). The panel analysis results reveal that no EKC relationship is found in the Indian context and income growth has no significant effect on all of the indicators. Income growth in lower income States/UTs immensely helps to improve the access to safe drinking water compared to the higher income States/UTs. Rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture and obsoleted regulation related to the abstraction overexploit the ground water. Moreover, lack of proper technological investment or abatement measures and its implication in Indian industry deteriorate the indicators of environmental quality. The contribution of technological input and its progress infer the poor design of environmental policies and its implementation in India. Apart from these, climatic and geomorphological heterogeneity widely influence the distribution and utilisation of water resources. The huge population pressure also exerts a negative effect on the environment.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), Environmental Sustainability, Safe Drinking water, Ground Water, Waterborne diseases, Economic Growth
    JEL: C12 Q53 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2015–01–28
  35. By: Niculae, Ioan Alecu; Ciocan, Felix Dimitrie; Mihut, Gabriela Gyongy
    Abstract: Similarly to how not knowing the laws and obligations resting upon a person will not exempt that person from liability, consumers not knowing their rights and not using them might place them into a position of inferiority when it comes to the relationships with the producers or distributors of agri-food products. Although, theoretically, such relationships mean that the parties are equal from a legal point of view, having correlative rights and obligations, in fact, given the nature of the products making up the object of the relationship between the producer and consumer, the consumer is place apriori in a position where he has to award maximum diligence, since we are talking about actions that might have consequences upon his health and even life. Returning to the previous state, fixing contingent damages and regaining the mutual respect and trust inherent to a healthy commercial demeanor, in case of conflict, determines the studying of alternative settlement procedures for conflicts, a stand out being the procedure of mediation, a procedure that is an alternative to the court of law. The institution of mediation can be understood through an exhaustive presentation of the framework law in the field, of the related laws, these being different from the European law in the field, the latter being included ope legis into the national framework law, through the ratification process or through undertaking the community acquis.
    Keywords: mediation, consumer, agri-food, producer, conflict
    JEL: K4 Q0 Q18
    Date: 2014–11–20
  36. By: Anton Bekkerman (Montana State University)
    Abstract: While nearly instantaneous commodity futures price information provides price forecasts for national markets, many market participants are interested in forecasting local cash prices. Expected basis estimates are often used to convert futures prices into local price forecasts. This study considers basis patterns in the northern U.S. hard red spring and hard red winter wheat markets. Using data on basis values across 215 grain handling facilities, we empirically test the forecasting capabilities of numerous basis models. Contrary to basis models developed for other U.S. regions, recent futures prices, protein content, and harvest information are more important for accurate basis forecasts than historical basis averages.
    Keywords: basis, forecast, protein, spring wheat, winter wheat
    JEL: Q13 Q11 L11
    Date: 2014–09–11
  37. By: Phoebe Koundouri; Vassilis Skianis
    Abstract: This chapter sets out the socio-economic principles that should govern water resources management for the achievement of a sustainable allocation of the resource over time and across space, in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. The resulting allocation should be economically efficient, social equitable and acceptable, and environmentally sustainable. The main background concept guiding the identification of such an allocation is that of the 'Total Economic Value (TEV)' of water resources, which derives from the ecosystem goods and services that water resources provide the economy and society. In this chapter we present the state-of-the-art with regards to estimating TEV of water resources and explain how these estimations can facilitate the design and implementation of the different European policies in relation to mitigation of different forms of water stress.
    Keywords: Water Framework Directive, Total Economic Value, Water Valuation, Non-market Valuation
    Date: 2015–02–05
  38. By: Denise Penello
    Abstract: Newly collected data in UNCTAD’s Trade Analysis and Information System (TRAINS) database on non-tariff measures (NTMs) offers the possibility to assess its impact on trade. The approach chosen is using a frequency count, which is the number of NTM on a single product. This novel method can be relevant if one can assume that NTM do have a cost for exporters, even if that cost is unknown. The key concept is the average cost of any NTM. This analysis checks whether more measures imposed on a single product, will increase difficulty for exporters to comply with all requisites and still being able to export competitively. European imports of agrifood products (at 4 digit level) is analysed, and data suggests that higher frequency of SPS measures may be significant to influence European imports from all countries, and it impacts LDC in special, particularly those in Africa. Exports could be reduced by around 3 per cent for all countries, and almost 5 per cent for LDC countries for each additional SPS requirement in the importing country. Countries in Asia do not seem to be affected, but this is probably because of trade patterns, since European Union is not a major market for agri-food exports coming from those countries. Other middle income countries are affected in a lesser way. This fact gives strength to the idea that the higher income in a country, the more resources are available to the companies operating in their territory to overcome obstacles posed by NTM in partner markets and continue exporting. Even in the evidence that NTM may negatively affect trade, negotiation for reduction, harmonization or elimination is not automatic or even desirable. Some policy implications are discussed based on the conclusions.
    Date: 2014
  39. By: F. Zagonari
    Abstract: This paper presents the first empirical test of coherence (i.e., consistency of policies within a framework), efficiency (i.e., ability of policies to meet their objectives), and independence (i.e., logical priority of objectives over policies) of the overall EU environmental policy system. To do so, I applied statistical (cross-sectional and time series) and econometric (dynamic tri-probit) analyses to an original panel dataset, based on addressed issues rather than on implemented policies. In contrast with previous studies of single EU environmental policies, characteristics of the EU environmental policy, or EU environmental objectives, I found that the overall EU environmental policy system is coherent, efficient, and independent. Moreover, the evidence suggests that many issues are correlated: trans-boundary issues became more relevant in 2012, pollution production was more significant than resource use, and flow issues were more important than stock issues from 1995 to 2010. Finally, I show that few objectives overlapped: a “safe environment” objective (1987 to 1997) was preferred to a “greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction” objective (2003 to 2012, but pursued with a 2-year lag), although the latter has recently become preferred to the former. In addition, a “GHG reduction” objective was preferred to “a sustainable development” objective (1998 to 2002).
    JEL: Q28 Q38 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2015–02
  40. By: Jacopo Bonan (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Laboratorio Expo); Stefano Pareglio (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Laboratorio Expo); Massimo Tavoni (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM), Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici and Politecnico di Milano)
    Abstract: Universal access to modern energy services, in terms of access to electricity and to modern cooking facilities, has been recognized as fundamental challenge for development and is likely to be included in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Despite a strong praise for action and several programs at both national and international level, very few impact evaluation studies try to shed light on the causal relationship between access to energy and development, by also allowing decision makers to rigorously assess cost-effectiveness and efficiency of policies and programs. This work attempts to review the literature on existing impact evaluation of access to electricity and modern cooking facilities. For access to electricity we consider as outcomes labour markets, time allocation, household welfare (consumption, income, schooling and health) and business. For access to improved cookstoves, we assess impacts on household welfare. The reviewed literature highlights a significant causal impact of electricity access on important metrics of wellbeing, but more mixed evidence regarding clean cookstove. Finally, we also review the barriers and drivers of access to modern energy services identified by most recent impact evaluation studies.
    Keywords: Impact Evaluation, Energy Poverty, Energy Access, Rural Electrification, Modern Cookstoves, Literature Review
    JEL: O1 O13 Q4 Q48
    Date: 2014–11
  41. By: Nathan Foley-Fisher (Research and Statistics Division, Federal Reserve Board, Washington, D.C., USA); Eoin McLaughlin (Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews)
    Abstract: Land reform and its financial arrangements are central elements of modern Irish history. Yet to date, the financial mechanisms underpinning Irish land reform have been overlooked. The paper outlines the mechanisms of land reform in Ireland and the importance of land bonds to the process. The paper introduces a new database on Irish land bonds listed on the Dublin Stock Exchange from 1891 to 1938. It illustrates the nature of these b onds and presents data on their size, liquidity and market returns. The paper finds a high level of state banking in Ireland: large issues of land bonds were held by state owned savings banks.
    Keywords: Irish financial history, land reform, land bonds, Dublin Stock Exchange.
    JEL: N24 N53 N54 G15 Q15
    Date: 2015–01
  42. By: Iova, Radu Andrei; Lascar, Elena
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the conceptual and solid dimension of the sustainable development of Ostrov area, Constanta county, regarding the rural and wine tourism and wine, and their correlation and determination of the relationship between them. The research is both a theoretical one, which exposes the ideas on this aspect, but also a practical one, which can show the efficiency and sustainability of applying a development plan. The ultimate purpose is to provide a theoretical and methodological, but also an applicative background for the development of Ostrov area. The suggested aspects have a relevant importance for development, because it determines the areas that are attractive and repulsive, managing to highlight proposals for the development strategy of the area. This approach is based on the use of some qualitative data, analyzing and forecasting the dynamics of the commune and area, and the tourism potential generating image, and finally ideas to improve and promote the existing situation through an integrative management. The main theme of this paper is to highlight and capitalize the importance of Ostrov area, for which, through the rural and wine tourism, the sustainable development becomes a certainty.
    Keywords: development potential, sustainable tourism, rural tourism, wine tourism, wine tasting tourism
    JEL: P49 Q01 R11
    Date: 2014–11–20
  43. By: Alfani, Federica; Dabalen, Andrew; Fisker, Peter; Molini, Vasco
    Abstract: This study estimates marginal increase in malnutrition for children ages 1-3 years from exposure to an extreme shock in the West African Sahel. The study uses knowledge of a child's birth and high resolution spatial and temporal distribution of shocks, calculated from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and satellite-based measures of rainfall and temperature to link a child to the shock experienced in-utero. The study finds that while around 20 percent of the children in the sample are stunted or underweight, more than 30 percent of the children in the sample are highly vulnerable to either form of malnutrition.
    Keywords: Science of Climate Change,Population Policies,Rural Poverty Reduction,Regional Economic Development,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases
    Date: 2015–01–01
  44. By: Francesco Bosello (University of Milan, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC)); Enrica De Cian (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC)); Licia Ferranna (Cà Foscari University of Venice and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM))
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the normative literature on mitigation and adaptation by framing the question of their optimal policy balance in the context of catastrophic climate risk. The analysis uses the WITCH integrated assessment model with a module that models the endogenous risk of experiencing an economic catastrophe if temperature increases above a certain threshold. We find that the risk of a catastrophic outcome would encourage countries to reduce emissions even in the absence of a coordinated global agreement on climate change and to realign the policy balance from adaptation toward more mitigation. Our analysis also shows that adaptation transfers from and strategic unilateral commitments to adaptation in developed countries appear to provide weak incentives for reducing emissions in developing countries. Thus our first conclusion is that precautionary considerations, rather than the ability to reduce smooth damage increases, justify mitigation as a fundamental policy option. Accordingly, adaptation is needed to cope with the non-catastrophic damages that countries would fail to address with mitigation Our second conclusion is that supporting adaptation in developing countries should be considered primarily as a mean for ensuring equity or improving development, and very marginally as a mitigation incentive.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation, Adaptation, Climate Risk, Integrated Assessment
    JEL: C61 D58 Q5
    Date: 2015–01
  45. By: Eric Nazindigouba KERE; Philippe DELACOTE (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)); Saraly ANDRADE DE SA
    Abstract: This paper investigates the mechanisms determining spatial interactions in deforestation, and its transmission channels, using data from Brazil. Our preliminary results confirm the hypothesis that deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is characterized by complementarity, meaning that deforestation in a particular municipality tends to increase deforestation in its neighbors. We further show that cattle density, tend to be the most important factors determining the nature of spatial interactions between neighboring areas.
    Keywords: deforestation, Brazilian Amazon, Spatial and Dynamic interactions
    JEL: Q33 O13 C21
    Date: 2015–02
  46. By: Mijajlovic, Nada; Arsic, Slavica
    Abstract: Beekeeping in the Serbian economy is one of the underdeveloped sector. Modern agriculture today can not be imagined without a developed and modern beekeeping as a part of agriculture and the national economy that is subject to economic laws that operate in the market and is inextricably linked to all the developments in the domestic and global economics. The importance of this activity is potentiated in this paper. The paper analyzed the production of honey, the total number of hives and honey production per hive in Central Serbia, Vojvodina and Serbian Danube region. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of beekeeping as an economic sector that has significant potential for sustainable development within the Serbian Danube region. The presented data related to beekeeping in statistical databases and literature data related to beekeeping.
    Keywords: beekeeping, honey production, sustainable development, Danube
    JEL: O57 Q01 R19
    Date: 2014–11–20
  47. By: Dal Bianco, Andrea; Boatto, Vasco; Caracciolo, Francesco; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
    Abstract: This article empirically investigates the impact of trade barriers on the world wine trade, focusing on trade costs impeding exports, including transport, tariffs, technical barriers and sanitary and phytosanitarystandards. A gravity model is estimated using data from the main importing and exporting countries for the years 1997 to 2010. The Poison Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimator accounts for heteroskedasticity and the presence of zero trade flows. Our results identify which regulations can adversely affect trade, providing useful information to policy-makers involved in negotiations on trade frictions. While sanitary and phytosanitary measures do not seem to obstruct exports, technical barriers have a varying impact on trade. A decreasing trend for tariffs has largely been compensated by more stringent technical barriers. The overall result is that frictions in the world wine trade have not changed during the past fifteen years.
    Keywords: tariffs, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary regulations, gravity model, PPML
    JEL: F13 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2014–09–01
  48. By: Roşu, Elisabeta
    Abstract: Biodiversity is a huge variety of ecosystems, species and genes, which represent the natural capital. The biodiversity values make up the natural heritage that must be used by the present generations without jeopardizing the chance of the next generations to enjoy the same living conditions. The protected natural areas represent the most important method to preserve biodiversity and to provide development patterns in harmony with nature, in the context of the fast economic development in the last decades. Natura 2000 represents a protected areas network, designated at from European level. Its aim is the preservation of the wild habitats and of endangered vegetal and animal species, as the proper management of these areas.
    Keywords: biodiversity, Natura 2000 sites, management
    JEL: O13 P48 Q57
    Date: 2014–11–20
  49. By: Chetroiu, Rodica; Calin, Ion
    Abstract: The analysis of economic efficiency is the main method of economic systems analysis. This concept is the most important qualitative indicator of the economic development, essential factor in accelerating the economic growth and is also one of the criteria for scientific substantiation of decisions. Applied in the milk production domain, represents the obtaining of maximum quantity of milk per animal, with minimal expenditure of manpower and materials. Regarding determining the economic efficiency of goat milk production, the most used indicators are: total physical production, average production, value of total production (total revenue), production costs, material costs, cost per unit, profit, rate of return, breakeven point etc. The paper presents the calculation method of indicators and their average values for 2014.
    Keywords: economic efficiency, indicators, milk, goat, rate of return
    JEL: B49 M11 P59 Q12
    Date: 2014–11–20
  50. By: Crudu, Giorgiana; Dhary Yusif El-Jubouri, Mohamed; Necula, Raluca
    Abstract: The aim of this paper was to analyze the maize crop at the country and the Călăraşi county level and in the two companies submitted to the case study. This analysis highlighted the importance of the maize crop, crop that is being cultivated on large areas of the country and county, and that also occupies a larger area of the total area of the two companies. The maize crop is very popular in our country because it finds good environmental factors conducive to a proper development, yields per hectare are very good if the technology requirements are complied The indicators used have emphasized the evolution of this culture during the analyzed periods and its capitalization in the companies studied.
    Keywords: average production, gross margin, maize, revenues, selling price
    JEL: D24 Q12 R11 R15
    Date: 2014–11–20
  51. By: Gaina, Boris; Gobirman, Galina; Pascari, Xenia
    Abstract: To realize the Moldavian political vector of European Union integration, a paramount importance has the increase of effectiveness of wine complex and the national economy in a whole. During the accession process,current and future development of vine culture and wine making is assessed, which will allow European experts to make decisions towards futures vineyard areas, the volume and biological category of grafted plant products, the overall volume of the grape harvest and wine production on the domestic market and the EU markets. Increasing the efficiency of this branch of the economy is closely related to the current policy of the state related to subsidize various activities in the nursery wine, using of plantations, integral protection of the grape harvest, creating plantations - parent of clone of a high quality EU countries such as France, Italy and Germany.
    Keywords: national economy, wine complex, competition, quality, export
    JEL: O1 Q10 Q18
    Date: 2014–11–20
  52. By: Alemanno , Alberto; Sassi , Franco
    Abstract: This chapter provides a detailed analysis of the economic, legal and public policy rationales for the application of taxes and other fiscal measures on health-related commodities. The motivation for such taxes has been more often linked to the fiscal revenues generated than to their potential public health benefits. However, especially in more recent times, an increased emphasis has been placed on the latter by many governments, as evidence emerged of the adverse public health, social and economic consequences of the consumption of certain commodities. An increasing number of governments are seeking to expand their use of fiscal measures to promote healthier behaviours, not only by increasing tax rates on commodities such as tobacco products and alcoholic beverages, but also by exploring the scope for taxing selected foods and non-alcoholic beverages as a way to make people’s diets healthier. A number of countries apply different tax rates to certain food categories, and some have specific taxes on foods high in salt, sugar or fat, and on sugary drinks. Only in the past two years, countries such as Denmark, Hungary, Finland and France introduced taxes on various foods and non-alcoholic beverages, and many more have been debating the possible use of similar measures. The key public health rationale for the use of taxes on health-related commodities lies in their ability to change people’s consumption behaviours. Additional health benefits may derive from the role possibly played by taxes as incentives to product reformulation. For instance, in 2012, many beer producers in the United Kingdom decreased the alcohol content of their brands sold in the United Kingdom by 0.2% to avoid an increase in duties. As with other attempts to use taxes to prevent some adverse outcome (e.g. environmental taxes), a key issue becomes the proximity of the tax point to the behaviour being targeted. The closer is the tax point to the behaviour, then (other things being equal) the more likely is the tax to have a beneficial impact. Excises introduced for public health purposes illustrate the dilemma clearly. Although for administrative reasons the tax may be levied earlier in the supply chain, the tax point is generally the purchase of the product by a consumer. Tobacco is always harmful, in whatever way and quantity it is consumed (although the harm will be even greater in an environment which results in secondary smoking). The relationship is less strong with alcohol, because the quantity consumed and the manner in which it is consumed (e.g. regular vs. binge drinking) determines the harm which may be caused. This relationship is even looser with diet-related taxes. This does not mean that taxation is an inappropriate instrument, but rather that, in addition to the harms discouraged by the tax, the welfare of a broader group of consumers will be affected.
    Keywords: Taxation; Public Health; Fat Tax; Risk Regulation; Lifestyle Risk; Non Communicable diseases; EU Law; WTO law; Paternalism; Nudge
    JEL: I18 K23 K32 K33 K34 K42 L51 L66
    Date: 2014–02–25
  53. By: Costin, Lenuța
    Abstract: The study is intended as a brief foray into the issue of economic restructuring effect of the matrix on rural development and failed to show that it is favorable to human primary role in human resource of entrepreneurial role assumed, being the main driver of competitive advantage of Romania. In Romania the labor force employed in agriculture is steadily decreasing, there is a danger of abandonment areas, unless urgent action is taken and powerful multifunctional development of agriculture, creating an integrated economic activity, entrepreneurial culture. But we must look at this in terms of resources focusing on the long-term impact, which will result in small rural training centers including in the context of developing infrastructure links and economic interdependence.
    Keywords: the restructuring, rural development, human factor, entrepreneurship
    JEL: Q0 Q19
    Date: 2014–11–20
  54. By: Michael Carter; John Morrow
    Abstract: Abstract Commentators on the `East Asian Miracle' of inclusive growth have often pointed toward shared rural growth policies. But why were these policies not chosen elsewhere? This paper models voters who invest in either subsistence or a complex technology in which public goods complement private capital. Investment and technology choices vary with wealth and the level of public goods enforced by political lobbies. Outcomes depend on the strength of the incipient middle class who bolster political incentives through contributions. Economies with a stronger middle class due to lower inequality or lower risk may thereby sustain higher productivity through public good provision.
    Keywords: Poverty traps; political economy; inequality; lobby formation
    JEL: D2 H4 O1 Q1
    Date: 2014–02
  55. By: Sylvain Béal (Université de Franche-Comté, CRESE, 30 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25009 Besançon, France); Amandine Ghintran (Université Lille 3, EQUIPPE, France); Eric Rémila (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France); Philippe Solal (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France)
    Abstract: We introduce a new allocation rule, called the sequential equal surplus division for rooted forest TU-games. We provide two axiomatic characterizations for this allocation rule. The first one uses the classical property of component efficiency plus an edge deletion property. The second characterization uses standardness, an edge deletion property applied to specific rooted trees, a consistency property, and an amalgamation property. We also provide an extension of the sequential equal surplus division applied to the problem of sharing a river with bifurcations.
    Keywords: Amalgamation, Consistency, Fairness, Rooted forest, Sequential equal surplus division, Water allocation
    JEL: C71
    Date: 2014
  56. By: Antony Millner; Simon Dietz
    Abstract: Developing countries are vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, yet there is disagreement about what they should do to protect themselves from antic- ipated damages. In particular, it is unclear what the optimal balance is between investments in traditional productive capital (which increases output but is vulner- able to climate change), and investments in adaptive capital (which is unproductive in the absence of climate change, but ‘climate-proofs’ vulnerable capital). We show that, while it is unlikely that the optimal strategy involves no investment in adapta- tion, the scale and composition of optimal investments depends on empirical context. Our application to sub-Saharan Africa suggests, however, that in most contingencies it will be optimal to grow the adaptive sector more rapidly than the vulnerable sector over the coming decades, although it never exceeds 1% of the economy. Our sensi- tivity analysis goes well beyond the existing literature in evaluating the robustness of this finding.
    Keywords: economic growth; climate change; adaptation; development
    JEL: D61 O11 O40 Q54
    Date: 2014
  57. By: Mark C. Freeman; Gernot Wagner; Richard J. Zeckhauser
    Abstract: Climate change is real and dangerous. Exactly how bad it will get, however, is uncertain. Uncertainty is particularly relevant for estimates of one of the key parameters: equilibrium climate sensitivity—how eventual temperatures will react as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations double. Despite significant advances in climate science and increased confidence in the accuracy of the range itself, the “likely” range has been 1.5-4.5°C for over three decades. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) narrowed it to 2-4.5°C, only to reverse its decision in 2013, reinstating the prior range. In addition, the 2013 IPCC report removed prior mention of 3°C as the “best estimate.” We interpret the implications of the 2013 IPCC decision to lower the bottom of the range and excise a best estimate. Intuitively, it might seem that a lower bottom would be good news. Here we ask: When might apparently good news about climate sensitivity in fact be bad news? The lowered bottom value also implies higher uncertainty about the temperature increase, a definite bad. Under reasonable assumptions, both the lowering of the lower bound and the removal of the “best estimate” may well be bad news.
    JEL: D81 Q54
    Date: 2015–01
  58. By: Maria Cipollina; David Laborde; Luca Salvatici
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to assess the impact of the European Union's trade preferences on global trade, focusing on several methodological issues that are relevant to these preferences' trade-creating impact. Using highly disaggregated eight-digit data in a theoretically grounded gravity model framework, we define an explicit measure of preferential tariff margins computed on alternative definitions based on a comparison between bilateral applied tariffs and two different reference levels: the Most Favoured Nation duty and a Constant Elasticity of Substitution price aggregator. From a methodological point of view, we show that the assessment of these policies' impacts can be very sensitive to the definition of the preferential tariff margin. From a policy perspective, such preferential schemes have an actual impact on trade volumes, although with significant differences across sectors.
    JEL: F1 O24 Q18

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